Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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A

 
 
Abbassi, Nasrollah; Domning, Daryl Paul; Navidi Izad, Navid; Shakeri, Safoora (detail)
   
2016
Sirenia fossils from Qom Formation (Burdigalian) of the Kabudar Ahang area, northwest Iran.
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 122(1): 13-24. 1 tab. 6 figs. Mar. 1, 2016.
 
 
Abbeville, Claude D' (detail)
   
1614
Histoire de la mission des Peres Capuchins en l'isle de Maragnan et terres circonvoisines ou est traicte des singularitez admirables & des meurs mervieulleuses des indiens habitans de ce pais. Avec les missives et advis qui ont este envoyez de nouveau.
Paris, François Ruby: vii + 394.
–Portuguese transl.: São Paulo, 1945 (296 pp.).
Abdulali, Humayun: SEE ALSO Santapau & Abdulali, 1961. (detail)
x
 
Abdulali, Humayun (detail)
   
1978
The birds of Great and Car Nicobars with some notes on wildlife conservation in the islands.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75(3): 744-772. 4 pls. Dec. 1978.
–P. 749: {"On the first trip a dugong skull was obtained on Great Nicobar; this presumably extends the recorded range of this animal."}
x
 
Abdullah, Mikaail Kavanagh (detail)
   
1999
Dugongs in dire straits.
Duniaku, Apr. 1999: 8. 1 fig.
–Letter (originally addressed to the Star newspaper, Mar. 15, 1999) by the Executive Director of World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, defending the decision to release a young orphaned dugong in Johor which was subsequently found dead.
 
D
Abe, Tamio; Sugiyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hiraoka, Toshio; Hirota, Kiyoharu (''Ichinotani Research Group'') (detail)
   
1982
New occurrence of Desmostylus from the Miocene Fujina Formation, Shimane Prefecture.
Chikyu Kagaku 36(4): 224-228. 1 tab. 3 figs. July 1982.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1902a
Die Ursache der Asymmetrie des Zahnwalschädels.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 111(1): 510-526. 1 pl.
–Abstr.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 8(3): 128?
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1902b
Les dauphins longirostres du Boldérien (Miocène supérieur) des environs d'Anvers. II.
Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 2(2): 99-190. 3 figs. Pls. 11-18.
x
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1902c
Zwei neue Menschenaffen aus den Leithakalkbildungen des Wiener Beckens.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-natw. Classe 111(1): 1171-1207. 2 figs. 1 pl.
–Abstr.: Nature (London) 69: 36, 1903. Briefly mentions {"Schädeltheile, Rippen und Wirbel nebst losen Zähnen von Metaxytherium spec."} found in sand beds below the Leithakalk (1176).
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1903
Die fossilen Sirenen des Wiener Beckens. [Abstr.]
Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1903: 72. [79?]
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1904a
Die Sirenen der mediterranen Tertiärbildungen Österreichs.
Abh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 19(2): vi + 223. 26 figs. 7 pls. June 1904.
–Abstrs.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 10(3): 184?; Geol. Mag. (5)2: 329-330, 1905?; Nature (London) 71: 351, 1905? Characterizes in detail Halitherium, Metaxytherium, and Felsinotherium, and gives extensive synonymies of the species of Metaxytherium, including M. Petersi, n.sp., and M. Meyeri, n.sp. Describes cranial and postcranial material of H. Christoli, M. Krahuletzi, and M. Petersi, comparing them with other fossil and living sirs. Concludes that the genus Metaxytherium had a polyphyletic origin from Halitherium Schinzi.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1904b
Über das Aussterben der Arten.
Verh. Internatl. Geol.-Kongr. [= C.R. Congr. Geol. Internatl.] (Vienna) 9: 739-748.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1905a
Über Halitherium bellunense, eine Übergangs-form zur Gattung Metaxytherium.
Jahrb. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 55(2): 393-398. 1 fig.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 13: 583?
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1905b
Die phylogenetische Entwicklung des Cetaceen-gebisses und die systematische Stellung der Physeteriden.
Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges. 15: 84-96.
–Abstr.: Nature (London) 73: 516, 1906?
x
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1906
Die Milchmolaren der Sirenen.
Neues Jarhb. Min. Geol. Pal., Abh. 1906(2): 50-60. 1 fig. Aug. 4, 1906.
–Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 14: 54?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 12(3): 167?; Sci. Prog. 1: 455? Discusses tooth replacement in various fossil forms and Halicore; corrects erroneous statements in Abel (1904a); proposes the name Mesosiren for Protosiren Dolloi (52), proposes a complicated tooth-cusp terminology for it, and discusses the contrast between its milk and permanent teeth; and names Paraliosiren Suessi, n.gen.n.sp. (59), on the basis of teeth from the Upper Eocene of Italy.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1907a
Die Stammesgeschichte der Meeressäugethiere.
Meereskunde 1(4): 1-36. 27 figs.
–Engl. transl.: Abel (1908a). Abstrs.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 13(3): 173-175?
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2226F846-8D68-4471-9C51-6AE406E6448E
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1907b
Über die Bedeutung der neuen Fossilfunde im Alttertiär Ägyptens für die Geschichte der Säugethiere.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 57: 78-82.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1907c
Die Anfänge des Säugetierstammes.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 57: 249-250.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1908a
The genealogical history of the marine mammals.
Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inst. 1907 (Publ. No. 1843): 473-496. 27 figs.
–Translation of Abel (1907a).
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1908b
Die Morphologie der Hüftbeinrudimente der Cetaceen.
Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-natw. Kl. 81: 139-195. 56 figs. Read June 6, 1907.
–Abstrs.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 13(3): 126-127?; Sci. Prog. 2: 512?; Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 44: 249-250, 1907?
x
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1908c
Die Anpassungsformen der Wirbeltiere an das Meeresleben.
Schrift. Verein zur Verbreit. natw. Kenntn., Wien 48: 395-422. 6 figs. Read Feb. 19, 1908.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 15: 602? P. 403: {"Manatus latirostris Harlan. Der Lamantin besitzt eine horizontale Schwanzflosse wie die Wale. Als Steuer- und Balancierorgane dienen die vorderen Gliedmassen wie bei den Walen; die hinteren Gliedmassen sind verkümmert und liegen in den Weichteilen wie bei den Walen."}
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1909a
Konvergenz und Deszendenz.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 59: 221-230.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1909b
Was verstehen wir unter monophyletischer und polyphyletischer Abstammung?
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 59: 243-249, 253-255.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1910
Diskussion über Riesenwuchs.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 60: 185-187.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1912
Grundzüge der Palaeobiologie der Wirbeltiere.
Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart: xvi + 708. 470 figs.
–Revs.: Science (2)35: 341-342?; Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 16: 175-196, 1913?; Naturwiss. (Berlin) 2: 424-425?; Morph. Jahrb. 48: 673-680, 1914? Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 20: 582-585?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 18(3): 15?
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1913a
Die eocänen Sirenen der Mittelmeerregion. Erster Teil: Der Schädel von Eotherium aegyptiacum.
Palaeontographica 59: 289-360. 5 figs. Pls. 30-34.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 19: 525? Title page bears date "1912". Describes in detail the cranial anatomy of the Egyptian Middle Eocene species now called Eotheroides aegyptiacum. Abel also planned a study of its postcranial osteology, but this task was eventually carried out instead by Sickenberg (1934b).
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1913b
Säugetiere. Paläontologie. In: Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: Vol. 8: 695-759. Figs. 1-122.
–Ed. 2: Abel (1933).
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1914
Die vorzeitlichen Säugetiere.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: vii + 309. 2 tabs. 250 figs.
–Abstrs.: Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 17: 693-694?; Science (n.s.) 40: 787-788?
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1919
Die Stämme der Wirbelthiere.
Berlin & Leipzig, W. de Gruyter & Co.: xviii + 914. 669 figs.
–Revs.: Centralbl. Min. Geol. Pal. 1921: 637-638?; Geol. Mag. 58: 45-46, 1921? Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 27: 183?; Nature (London) 106: 274?
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1920
Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: xvi + 500. 700 figs.
–Rev.: Centralbl. Min. Geol. Pal. 1921: 638-640? Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 27: 26-27? Ed. 2, 1924.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1921
Die Methoden der paläobiologischen Forschung. In: E. Abderhalden (ed.), Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden.
Berlin & Vienna, Emil Abderhalden (1921-1930): Abt. 10, Lief. 35: 129-312. Figs. 20-120.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 28: 29?
 
D
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1922
Desmostylus: ein mariner Multituberculate aus dem Miozän der nordpazifischen Küstenregion.
Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 3: 361-394. 5 figs. 3 pls.
–Abstr.: Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 59: 117-119. See also O.P. Hay (1922b).
 
D
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1923
Über einen Multituberkulaten aus dem Miozän der nordpazifischen Küstenregion.
Pal. Zs. 5: 213-225. 5 figs.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1924
Die Eroberungszüge der Wirbelthiere in die Meere der Vorzeit.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: vii + 121. 52 figs. 1 pl.
x
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1925
Geschichte und Methode der Rekonstruktion vorzeitlicher Wirbeltiere.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: viii + 327. 255 figs.
–The name "Halitherium Uytterhoeveni Lefébre", a nomen nudum, was apparently first published here in the caption of a photo of a skeleton from the Rupelien (Oligocene) of Belgium (39). Most H. schinzi skeletons in German museums are said to be composite (48).
 
D
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1926
Neue Untersuchungen über Desmostylus, einen Monotremen aus dem Tertiär der pazifischen Küstenregion.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 74/75: 134-138.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1928
Vorgeschichte der Sirenia. In: M. Weber, Die Säugetiere: Einfuehrung in die Anatomie und Systematik der recenten und fossilen Mammalia. ... Zweite Auflage [Ed. 2]. Band II. Systematischer Teil.
Jena, Gustav Fischer (2 vols.): 496-504. Figs. 325-332.
 
 
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1929
Paläobiologie und Stammesgeschichte.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: x + 423. 224 figs.
 
D
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1933
Säugetiere (Paläontologie). In: P. Dittler, G. Joos, E. Korschelt, G. Linck, F. Oltmanns, & K. Schaum (eds.), Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften. Ed. 2.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: Vol. 8: 859-944. 132 figs.
 
D
Abel, Othenio (detail)
   
1944
Studien über vergrösserte Einzelzähne des Vordergebisses der Wirbeltiere und deren Funktion.
Palaeobiologica 8(1-2): 1-112. 40 figs.
x
 
Abellera, Bonnie J. (detail)
   
1999
Manatees sojourn in Florida waters.
Florida Wildlife 53(4): 32. 1 fig. July/Aug. 1999.
–Brief pop. acc. of Florida manatee anatomy (teeth, lungs), plus safety tips for boaters and divers who encounter manatees.
 
 
Abraham, H. C. (detail)
   
1924
A note on the occurrence of the duyong in Singapore waters.
Singapore Naturalist 1(3): 87.
–Repr. in Sigurdsson & Yang (1990: 29).
x
 
Abrahamson, David (detail)
   
1980
The sirens of Crystal River.
Pan Am Clipper 20(7): 92-94, 96, 98-99, 104. 5 figs. July 1980.
–Pop. acc. of manatees at Crystal River, Florida, with underwater photos.
Ackerman, Bruce B.: SEE ALSO Garrott et al., 1994, 1995; Lefebvre et al., 1995; Miller et al., 1999; O'Shea & Ackerman, 1995; O'Shea et al., 1992, 1995; Wright et al., 1995, 2002. (detail)
 
 
Ackerman, Bruce B. (detail)
   
1995
Aerial surveys of manatees: a summary and progress report. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 13-33. 4 tabs. 7 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 14-15).
 
 
Ackerman, Bruce B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2001
Can manatee numbers continue to grow in a fast-developing state? In: D. S. Maehr, R. F. Noss, & J. L. Larkin (eds.), Large mammal restoration: ecological and sociological challenges in the 21st century.
Covelo (Calif.), Island Press (375 pp.): 313-320.
–From the Symposium on Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Considerations, held at The Wildlife Society national conference, Austin, Texas, Sept. 7-11, 1999.
x
 
Ackerman, Bruce B.; Wright, Scott D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Banowetz, Donna J. (detail)
   
1995
Trends and patterns in mortality of manatees in Florida, 1974-1992. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 223-258. 23 tabs. 10 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 22). Statistical analysis of data from over 2,000 recovered carcasses shows a 5.9%/yr. increase in number of carcasses, 9.3%/yr. increase in deaths from watercraft collisions, 11.9%/yr. increase in perinatal deaths, and no significant change in other human-related causes of death. Geographical and seasonal patterns in mortality are also documented, as are catastrophic die-offs. Threats to manatees and their habitat are expected to increase.
 
 
Ackman, R. G.; Lamothe, F. (detail)
   
1989
Marine mammals. In: R. G. Ackman (ed.), Marine biogenic lipids, fats and oils. Vol. 2.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (viii + 495): 179-381. Illus.
 
 
Acosta, Joseph de (detail)
   
1590
Historia natvral y moral delas Indias, en qve se tratan las cosas notables del cielo, y elementos, metales, plantas, y animales dellas: y los ritos y ceremonias, leyes, y gouierno, y guerras de los Indios.... Dirigida ala serenissima Infanta Doña Isabella Clara Eugenia de Austria.
Seville, Iuan de Leon: 535 + 18.
–Allen 24. Later eds. in Italian (1596), French (1598; Allen 29), Latin (1602; Allen 36), English (1604; Allen 38), etc. Manati, book 3, chap. "17" (i.e., 15), p. 158. Durand (1983: 68) reprints manatee material from "cap. xxx" of an unstated edition.
Acosta, Manuel Rodriguez de: SEE Rodriguez de Acosta, Manuel. (detail)
Acuña, Cristoval D': SEE ALSO Estacio da Silveira, S., 1874. (detail)
 
 
Acuña, Cristoval D' (detail)
   
1641
Nuevo descubrimiento del gran rio de las Amazonas.... Al qval fve, y se hizo por orden de Su Magestad, el año de 1639. Por la provincia de Qvito en los reynos del Perù....
Madrid, Impr. del Reyno: 46 numbered leaves.
 
 
Acuña, Cristoval D' [and others] (detail)
   
1698
Voyages and discoveries in South-America. The first up the River of Amazons to Quito in Peru, and back again to Brazil, perform'd at the command of the King of Spain. By Christopher d'Acvgna.... [pt. i.] A relation of the great river of Amazons in South-America. Containing all the particulars of Father Christopher d'Acugna's voyage, made at the command of the King of Spain. Taken from the Spanish original of the said Chr. d'Acugna, Jesuit.
London, Samuel Buckley: viii + 190 [= pt. i] + 79 + 68. 2 maps.
–Allen 143. Also an 1859 ed. (London, Hakluyt Soc.). See also Grillet & Bechamel (1698). Manatee, chap. 25, pp. 61-62. According to Allen (1882), "Consists almost exclusively of an account of the 'Pege Buey' [Manatus americanus], describing its appearance, how it is taken by the Indians, and extolling its flesh as an article of food. A note at the end refers to the trade in its flesh with the 'Antilles or Antego-Islands,' to which it is extensively exported."
 
 
Adam, Elena (detail)
   
1988
Lamantin: une sirène deguisée en vache.
Terre Sauvage No. 21: 60-69. 12 figs. + illus. on contents page. Sept. 1988.
x
 
Adams, Andrew Leith (detail)
   
1866
On the discovery of remains of Halitherium in the Miocene deposits of Malta.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 22: 595-596. 1 fig. Read June 20, 1866.
–Describes a tooth, earbone, and caudal vertebra of Halitherium from the Calcareous Sandstone of Malta.
 
 
Adams, Andrew Leith (detail)
   
1870
Notes of a naturalist in the Nile Valley and Malta, a narrative of exploration and research in connection with the natural history, geology, and archaeology of the lower Nile and Maltese Islands.
Edinburgh, Edmonston & Douglas: xvi + 295. 8 figs. 14 pls. 1 map.
–Sirs., 265.
x
 
Adams, Andrew Leith (detail)
   
1879
On remains of Mastodon and other Vertebrata of the Miocene beds of the Maltese Islands.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 35: 517-531. Pl. 25.
–Rev.: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)3: 236-237? Describes Halitherium ?schinzi specimens from the Miocene of Malta; upper and lower teeth illustrated (525-527, pl. 25).
x
 
Adams, Arthur (detail)
   
1870
Travels of a naturalist in Japan and Manchuria.
London, Hurst & Blackett: x + 334.
–P. 198: {"An imperfect skull of the Halicore, or dugong, was another grand addition to the number of my specimens."} This was collected on the shore of Aniwa Bay, Saghalien. Sowerby (1923: 136) believed this was actually a Hydrodamalis skull; he is probably wrong (see Domning, 1978b: 138).
 
 
Adams, James L., Jr. (detail)
   
2000
Politically incorrect and proud of it.
Woods 'n Water, Apr. 2000: 60.
–Column in a hunting and fishing magazine by a member of Florida's Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, questioning the need for increased protection of manatees and offering uninformed speculation that manatees in Florida might be recent immigrants from Central America.
 
 
Adams, M. P. Greenwood (detail)
   
1924
Australia's wild wonderland.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 45(3): 329-356. Illus. Mar. 1924.
–Describes a dugong hunt at Collier Bay, northern Western Australia.
 
 
Adanson, Michel (detail)
   
1757
Histoire naturelle du Sénégal. Coquillages. Avec la relation abrégée d'un voyage fait en ce pays, pendant les années 1749, 50, 51, 52 & 53.
Paris, C. J. B. Bauche: 190 + xcvi + 275. 19 pls. 1 map.
–Engl. transl.: London, 1759; repr. in J. Pinkerton (ed.), A general collection of ... voyages and travels ...., vol. 16: 598-674, 1814 (manatee, 656). Brief account of manatee exploitation in Senegal, 143.
 
 
Adanson, Michel (detail)
   
1845
Cours d'histoire naturelle, fait en 1772 par Michel Adanson.... Publié sous les auspices de M. Adanson, son neveu ....
Paris, Fortin, Masson & cie: 2 vols. 2 tabs.
–Senegalese manatee, 1: 135-137 (quoted in A. T. de Rochebrune, 1883).
Addicott, Warren O.: SEE ALSO Clark et al., 1979. (detail)
 
D
Addicott, Warren O. (detail)
   
1967
Age of the Skooner Gulch Formation, Mendocino County, California.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1254-C: iii + 11. 4 figs.
x
 
Addicott, Warren O.; Greene, H. Gary (detail)
   
1974
Zoogeographic significance of a Late Quaternary occurrence of the bivalve Astarte off the central California coast.
Veliger 16(3): 249-252. 1 tab. 17 figs. Jan. 1, 1974.
–Cites the Monterey Bay occurrence of Hydrodamalis gigas as evidence of a southward range extension of cold-water fauna during the Wisconsin glacial period (251-252).
x
 
Addison, William H. F. (detail)
   
1934
Unusual large nerve cells in the cerebellar cortex of several aquatic mammals.
Psychiatr. en Neurol. Bladen 1934(3/4): 587-595. 2 figs. May-Aug. 1934.
–Describes cells in Manatus americanus (587, 590) and four other marine mammals.
 
 
Adelung, Johann Christoph (detail)
   
1768
Geschichte der Schiffahrten und Versuche welche zur Entdeckung des Nordöstlichen Weges nach Japan und China von verschiedenen Nationen unternommen worden. Zum Behufe der Erdbeschreibung und Naturgeschichte dieser Gegenden entworfen.
Halle, Johann Justinus Gebauer: 8 + 740. 19 pls.
–Allen 303. Translates into German Steller's (1751) description of Hydrodamalis (653-667).
 
 
Adimey, N. M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Auil Gomez, N.; da Silva, Vera M. F.; Alvite, Carolina Mattosinho de Carvalho; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; de Lima, Regis Pinto; Rosas, Fernando C. Weber (detail)
   
2012
Manatee rescue, rehabilitation, and release efforts as a tool for species conservation. Chap. 23 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 204-217. 1 tab. 7 figs.
 
 
Adimey, Nicole M.; Hudak, Christine A.; Powell, Jessica R.; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A.; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie (detail)
   
2014
Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, USA.
Marine Pollution Bull. 81(1): 103-115. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.02.008. Apr. 15, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997–2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (p < 0.05), manatees (p < 0.01), loggerheads (p < 0.05) and green sea turtles (p < 0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p < 0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted.
 
 
Adimey, Nicole M.; Ross, Monica; Hall, Madison; Reid, James P.; Barlas, Margaret E.; Keith Diagne, Lucy W.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2016
Twenty-six years of post-release monitoring of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): evaluation of a cooperative rehabilitation program.
Aquatic Mamms. 42(3): 376-391. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI 10.1578/AM.42.3.2016.376.
–ABSTRACT: The rescue, rehabilitation, and release of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) into the wild has occurred since 1974; however, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes of the releases has never been conducted. Herein, we examined data for 136 Florida manatees that were rehabilitated and released with telemetry tags between 1988 and 2013 to determine release outcome of each individual as either success (acclimation) or failure after at least 1 y. Ten predictor variables were statistically evaluated for potential relationships to release outcome. To assess the contribution of each predictor variable to release outcome, each variable was tested for significance in univariate analyses. Manatees born in captivity experienced poor success after release (14%), whereas the overall success of wild-born individuals was higher (72%). When compared with other variables in our dataset, number of days in captivity was the strongest predictor for determining success. Manatees rescued as calves and held in captivity for more than 5 y had a high likelihood of failure, while subadults and adults had a high likelihood of success, regardless of the amount of time spent in captivity. Ensuring the success of individual manatees after release is critical for evaluating the contribution of the manatee rehabilitation program to the growth of the wild population.
Adkins, Ronald M.: SEE Malia et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Adloff, Paul (detail)
   
1903
Zur Frage nach der Entstehung der heutigen Säugethierzahnformen.
Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 5: 357-382. 5 figs. Pl. 10.
 
 
Adloff, Paul (detail)
   
1910
Über den gegenwärtigen Stand der vergleichenden Morphologie des Zahnsystems der Säugethiere und des Menschen.
Ergebn. Ges. Zahnheilk. 1(1): 226-280. 8 figs.
 
 
Adulyanukosal, Kanjana; Chantrapornsyl, Supot (detail)
   
1994
Occurrence of dugong (Dugong dugon) in Thai waters and feeding biology of dugong in captivity.
Third ASEAN-Australia Symposium on Living Coastal Resources (Bangkok, Chulalongkorn Univ.), _ Proc. Vol. 2, Research Papers: 503-504.
 
 
Adulyanukosal, Kanjana; Chantrapornsyl, Supot; Poovachiranon, Sombat (detail)
   
1997
An aerial survey of dugong (Dugong dugon) in Andaman coast, Thailand.
Thai Fisheries Gazette 50(5): 359-374. Illus. Sept.-Oct. 1997.
 
 
Adulyanukosal, Kanjana; Poovachiranon, Sombat; Natakuathung, P. (detail)
   
2001
Analysis of stomach contents of dugongs (Dugong dugon) from Trang Province.
Fishery Gazette 54(2): 129-137.
–In Thai.
 
 
Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Boukaew, P. (detail)
   
2011
Morphology and organ weight of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Thai waters. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian Bio–logging Science (The 10th SEASTAR2000 workshop).
41-47.
 
 
Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Thongsukdee, Surasak; Hara, Takeshi; Arai, Nobuaki; Tsuchiya, Makoto (detail)
   
2007
Observations of dugong reproductive behavior in Trang Province, Thailand: further evidence of intraspecific variation in dugong behavior.
Mar. Biol. 151(5): 1887-1891. Publ. online Feb. 8, 2007.
Agassiz, Louis: SEE ALSO Warren, J. C., 1849. (detail)
x
 
Agassiz, Louis (detail)
   
1849
[On some points of resemblance between the skulls of manatee and mastodon.]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 3: 209. Dec. 19, 1849.
–The manatee is considered to be not a cetacean but "the true embryonic type of the Pachyderms."
 
 
Agassiz, Louis (detail)
   
1868
A journey in Brazil. Ed. 5.
Boston, Ticknor & Fields: xix + 540. Illus.
x
 
Agudo, A. Ignacio (detail)
   
1994
Primer catálogo general de sirenios recientes depositados en museos y colecciones biológicas venezolanas (Mammalia: Sirenia: Trichechidae).
Anartia (Zulia, Venezuela, Mus. Biol. Univ. del Zulia) No. 7: 1-8. 1 tab. Dec. 1994.
–Engl. summ. Catalogs 19 specimens of Trichechus manatus (16 from Venezuela, 3 from Florida) in 7 Venezuelan zoological collections.
Aguilar, Alex: SEE O'Shea & Aguilar, 2001. (detail)
 
 
Aguilera, Orangel A.; Rodrigues de Aguilera, Dione (detail)
   
2004
Giant-toothed white sharks and wide-toothed mako (Lamnidae) from the Venezuela Neogene: their role in the Caribbean, shallow-water fish assemblage.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 40(3): 368-382. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Illustrates shark bites on ribs of indeterminate dugongids (Mioc., Venezuela), and notes that sirs. were probable prey of large Neogene lamnid sharks (370, 376-378).
x
 
Aguilera, Orangel; De Aguilera, Dione Rodrigues (detail)
   
2004
Giant-toothed white sharks and wide-toothed mako (Lamnidae) from the Venezuela Neogene: their role in the Caribbean, shallow-water fish assemblage.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 40(3): 368–382. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–ABSTRACT: The role of Neogene giant-toothed lamnid sharks in the Caribbean neritic fish assemblage is discussed based on predator-prey relationships in three different tropical paleoenvironments from the Lower Miocene to Lower Pliocene. New records of extinct giant-toothed white sharks Carcharodon megalodon (Agassiz), Carcharodon subarticulatus (Agassiz), and wide-toothed mako Isurus xiphodon (Agassiz) from coastal shallow waters, coastal upwelling, swampy, coastal lagoon, and sandy littorals of the Venezuela Neogene, suggest these species were large transient piscivores that may have had enough behavioral flex-ibility to occupy different environments. Giant-tooth shark species, that probably fed mainly on fish, turtles, cetaceans and sirenids, did not exhibit large population sizes. The trophic role that large consumer sharks have carried out represents the higher trophic category, the type of selective pressure, and the control performed in the marine environment. The dynamics of these associations during Neogene is deeply different.
  [Illustrates scars of shark bites on indeterminate dugongid bones from the early Miocene Cantaure Formation, Venezuela, and diagrams their role in the marine paleocommunity (376-378).]
x
 
Aharoni, J. (detail)
   
1930
Die Säugtiere [sic] Palästinas.
Zs. Säugetierk. 5(6): 327-343. Dec. 22, 1930.
–Note on a supposed dugong captured at Tantura (between Haifa and Tel Aviv), having passed through the Suez Canal (330). However, as pointed out by Allen (1942), the fact that the animal was killed in a "shore cave" (Uferhöhle) suggests that it was actually a monk seal.
 
 
Aharoni, J. (detail)
   
1937
Ayala vetachash [Deer and tachash].
Tarbiz 8 (1936-37): 319-339. 3 figs.
–In Hebrew with extensive quotations in other languages. According to Dr. J. Shoshani, the title is ambiguous (perhaps intentionally so) and can also be transliterated "Ela vetachash", meaning "Goat (or sheep) and tachash." The article discusses the identification of the animal referred to in the Bible (q.v.) as tachash, including past interpretations of it as a deer, goat, dugong, etc. Aharoni suggests that it may have been a narwhal (Monodon monoceros) or a deer (Cervus capreolus). See also Furman (1940?).
 
 
Aichel, Otto (detail)
   
1918a
Über Kieferwachstum.
Anat. Anz. 51(19/20): 502-510. 3 figs. Dec. 30, 1918.
 
 
Aichel, Otto (detail)
   
1918b
Kausale Studien zum ontogenetischen und phylogenetischen Geschehen am Kiefer mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Elephas und Manatus.
Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1918(3): 1-109. 21 figs. 5 pls.
x
 
Aichel, Otto (detail)
   
1926
Über Zahndurchbruch und Kieferresorption, sowie über das Os sacculi dentis (Aichel).
Anat. Anz. 61(1/2): 42-43. Apr. 14, 1926.
–Defends the view that the entire tooth row in manatees and elephants does not really move forward horizontally as generally believed.
Aioi, Keiko: SEE Nakaoka & Aioi, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi; Jacobson, Susan K.; Flamm, Richard O. (detail)
   
2003
Conserving manatees: knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of boaters in Tampa Bay, Florida.
Conserv. Biol. 17(4): 1098-1105. Aug. 2003.
–Study of boaters' attitudes toward manatees in Florida.
Aizu Fossil Research Group: SEE ALSO Kobayashi & Aizu Fossil Res. Group, 1988; Miyazaki et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Aizu Fossil Research Group (detail)
   
1982
On a fossil Sirenia [sic] from the Shiotsubo Formation, Takasato, Yama, Fukushima Prefecture, Northeast Japan.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 36(5): 282-284. 1 tab. 2 figs. 1 pl.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Reports Dusisiren cf. jordani from the Late Miocene; a left scapula is illustrated.
Akamatsu, Morio: SEE ALSO Kimura et al., 1983; Kimura & Akamatsu, 1984. (detail)
 
D
Akamatsu, Morio (detail)
   
1984
Paleoenvironment of the Desmostylus-bearing formations in Hokkaido - with a special reference to the Hobetsu specimen.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 63-68. 1 tab. 2 figs. 1 pl. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. See also T. Kamei (1984).
 
 
Akani, Godfrey C.; Aifesehi, Pedro E. E.; Petrozzi, Fabio; Amadi, Nioking; Luiselli, Luca (detail)
   
2014b
Diversity of terrestrial vertebrates in Taylor Creek forest reserve, an area of high environmental value in the River Niger Delta (Bayelsa State, Nigeria).
Vie et Milieu - Life and Environment 64: 59-68. Dec. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Taylor Creek Forest reserve (Bayelsa State) is one of the most important protected areas of the River Niger Delta region, southern Nigeria. Unfortunately, however, no field studies are available on the diversity of the terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, mammals) in this protected territory. Here, we report the results of field surveys devoted to assess on a preliminary base the vertebrate diversity of Taylor Creek Forest reserve. Mammals and amphibians were assessed only qualitatively, whereas reptiles were assessed also quantitatively within 15 plots of 2 ha area. We detected about 70 vertebrate species (some genera may include multiple species that remained non-detected in our surveys). Several of the recorded species were of high conservation concern (e.g. manatee, dwarf crocodile, hinge-back tortoises, etc.). The presence of the endangered Nigerian chimpanzee was suspected for the Forest Reserve, and indeed few groups of this species do occur in the surroundings of the protected area. Analysis of the reptile diversity suggested that, however, species dominance was high and evenness was low, with very few lizard species dominating the samples. Thus, the reptile community diversity profile revealed altered ecological conditions in this forest area. The conservation implications of the observed patterns are also discussed.
 
 
Akani, Godfrey C.; Aifesehi, Pedro E. E.; Petrozzi, Fabio; Amadi, Nioking; Luiselli, Luca (detail)
   
2014a
Preliminary surveys of the terrestrial vertebrate fauna (mammals, reptiles, and amphibians) of the Edumanon Forest Reserve, Nigeria.
Tropical Zoology 27(3): 63-72. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1080/03946975.2014.944376. July 3, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Edumanon Forest Reserve is one of the least explored protected areas in the Niger Delta region of southern Nigeria, West Africa. In this article, we report the results of preliminary surveys, conducted between 2011 and 2014, for determining a checklist and a relative estimate of abundance for three groups of vertebrates, namely mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. Overall, we detected 69 vertebrate species (birds excluded), several of them being of high conservation concern. Among the most remarkable species from the conservation point of view, we can cite the chimpanzee, the manatee, and three species of sympatric crocodiles. Analysis of the reptile diversity suggested that species dominance was high and evenness was low, thus revealing altered ecological conditions in this forest area. Nonetheless, several forest specialists were still observed in this forest reserve. The conservation implications of the observed patterns, together with some ethnozoological data, are also discussed.
 
 
Aketa, Kana; Kawamura, Akito (detail)
   
2001
Digestive functions in sirenians (review).
Bull. Fac. Bioresources, Mie Univ. No. 27: 85-103. 7 tabs. 3 figs. Oct. 2001.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Aketa, Kana; Asano, Shiro; Wakai, Yoshihito; Kawamura, Akito (detail)
   
2001
Apparent digestibility of eelgrass in dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Honyurui Kagaku (Mammalian Science) 41(1): 23-34. 6 tabs. June 30, 2001.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Engl. version: Aketa et al., 2003.
 
 
Aketa, Kana; Asano, Shiro; Wakai, Yoshihito; Kawamura, Akito (detail)
   
2003
Apparent digestibility of eelgrass Zostera marina by captive dugongs Dugong dugon in relation to the nutritional content of eelgrass and dugong feeding parameters.
Mammal Study (Mammalogical Society of Japan) 28(1): 23-30. June, 2003.
Akiba, Chikara: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
Akiba, Fumio: SEE Takahashi et al., 1983. (detail)
Akiyama, Masahiko: SEE ALSO Inuzuka et al., 1977; Kimura, Akiyama, & Kumano, 1978; Yamaguchi et al., 1981. (detail)
 
D
Akiyama, Masahiko; Kumano, Sumio (detail)
   
1973
A new occurrence of Desmostylus teeth from Kamitokushibetsu, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 79(12): 781-786.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Akoi, Kouadio (detail)
   
1994
Une enquête sur les lamantins dans les eaux de la Reserve de la Conkouati au sud du Congo.
Canopé 4: 10.
 
 
Al-Abdulrazzak, D.; Pauly, D. (detail)
   
2017
Reconstructing historical baselines for the Persian/Arabian Gulf Dugong, Dugong dugon (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Zoology in the Middle East 63(2): 95-102.
 
 
Al-Khalili, A. D. (detail)
   
1990
New records and review of the mammalian fauna of the state of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf region. In: D. & B. Phillips (eds.), Wildlife in Bahrain - Fifth Biennial Report of the Bahrain Natural History Society.
Manama: 42-56.
 
 
Al-Tikriti, W. Y. (detail)
   
1985
The archaeological investigations of Ghanadha Island 1982-1984: furher evidence for the Coastal Umm an-Nar Culture.
Archaeology in the United Arab Emirates 4: 9-19.
 
 
Alava, Moonyeen Nida R.; Yaptinchay, Arnel Andrew S. P. (detail)
   
1997
Marine mammals. In: Wildlife Conservation Society of the Philippines. Philippine Red Data Book.
Makati City (Philippines), Bookmark, Inc. (xiii + 262): 169-246.
 
 
Albers, C. F. (detail)
   
1822
Icones ad illustrandam anatomen comparatum.
Leipzig.
–Fetus of manatee, fasc. 2: 7.
 
 
Albetrecht, R. (detail)
   
1974
Le squelette monté de Metaxytherium cuvieri au Museé de Paléontologie d'Angers.
Bull. Trimestral Soc. Études Scientifiques de l'Anjou (Angers) No. 29.
Albrecht, Helmut: SEE ALSO Eichler & Albrecht. (detail)
 
 
Albrecht, Helmut (detail)
   
1986
Meerminnen [Mermaids].
Dieren 2(6): 178-179. 2 figs.
–In Dutch.
 
 
Albrecht, P. (detail)
   
1883
Note sur la présence d'épiphyses terminales sur le corps des vertèbres d'un exemplaire de Manatus americanus Desm.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 2: 35-38. Pl. 2.
 
 
Albright, L. Barry III; Sanders , Albert E.; Weems , Robert E.; Cicimurri, David J.; Knight, James L. (detail)
   
2019
Cenozoic vertebrate biostratigraphy of South Carolina, U.S.A., and additions to the fauna.
Bull. Florida Museum of Natural History 57(2): 77-236. 9 tabs. 20 figs. 4 appendices. https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/bulletin/publications/ Oct. 31, 2019.
–Summarizes the fossil sirenians reported from South Carolina (190-193, 231).
Albuja V., Luis: SEE Timm et al., 1986, 1989. (detail)
 
 
Alcedo, Antonio de (detail)
   
1786-89
Diccionario geográfico-histórico de las Indias Occidentales ó América: es á saber: de los reynos del Perú, Nueva España, Tierra Firme, Chile, y Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
Madrid, B. Cano [etc.]: 5 vols.
–Only vol. 1 bears Cano's imprint; the other vols. bear those of M. Gonzalez (vols. 2, 4, 5) and B. Roman (vol. 3). Defines "peje buey", "peje judío" (a Honduran name for the manatee), and "manatí" (vol. 4; reprinted in Durand, 1983: 154-155).
 
 
Aldrovandi, Ulisse (detail)
   
1613
De piscibvs libri v. et de cetis lib. vnvs. Ioannes Cornelivs Vterverivs ... collegit ... Hieronymvs Tambvrinvs in lucem edidit....
Bononiae [= Bologna], [Ioannem Baptistam] Bellagambam: 732 + [26]. Illus.
–Several later eds. Manatee, 728; fig. (after Clusius) on 729.
Alencar Fernandes, Adaucto de: SEE Fernandes, Adaucto de Alencar. (detail)
 
 
Alfaro González, Anastasio (detail)
   
1897
Mamiferos de Costa Rica.
San José (Costa Rica), Tipografía Nacional.
 
 
Alfonso, Gaspar (detail)
   
1735
Relação da viagem e successo que teve a náo S. Francisco em que hia por Capitão Vasco da Fonseca na Armada, que foy para a India no anno de 1596. In: B. Gomes de Brito, Historia tragico-maritima, em que se escrevem chronologicamente os naufragios que tiverão as naos de Portugal, depois que se poz em exercicio a navegação da India. Vol. 2.
Lisboa Occidental (3 vols., 1735 [-37?]).
Alfred, J. R. B.: SEE Dhandapani & Alfred, 1998. (detail)
Allard, Marc W.: SEE Malia et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Allen, A. C., Beck, C .A., Sattelberger, D. C., Kiszka, J. J. (detail)
   
2022
Evidence of a dietary shift by the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Indian River Lagoon inferred from stomach content analyses.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2022.107788
 
 
Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Auil Gomez, Nicole (detail)
   
2017
Diet of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America.
Jour. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 98(7): 1831-1840. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 8 appendices. doi:/10.1017/S0025315417000182 Nov. 2018 (publ. online Apr. 3, 2017).
–ABSTRACT: Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, six digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon) and 124 faecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants and algae consumption was analysed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn, can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.
 
 
Allen, Aarin-Conrad,; Sattelberger, Danielle C.; Keith, Edward O. (detail)
   
2014
The People vs. the Florida manatee: A review of the laws protecting Florida's endangered marine mammal and need for application.
Ocean & Coastal Management 102, Part A: 40-46. 2 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.08.010. Dec. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are a tropical species endemic at their northernmost habitat range within the southeastern United States. Manatees face a thermoregulatory requirement during winter months and follow a seasonal migration to warm water sources. To avoid cold stress syndrome (CSS), manatees utilize the warmth from artificial sources such as power plant discharge canals or natural sources such as artesian springs. Already endangered, this species nonetheless continually faces an ever-growing threat from human impact within these important locations. This paper reviews the past and present laws protecting manatees in Florida, chronicles the impacts manatees are facing presently and in the future, and details the increasing need for the application of protection from a management standpoint. With the correct management plan in place, manatees and humans can cooperatively coexist together in a shared environment.
 
 
Allen, Aarin-Conrad; Keith, Edward O. (detail)
   
2015
Using the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) as a mechanism for invasive aquatic plant management in Florida.
Jour. Aquatic Plant Management 53: 95–104. 4 figures.
–ABSTRACT: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus L.) are opportunistic, herbivorous aquatic mammals that occupy the warm, shallow coastal waters throughout the southeastern United States. Manatees are known to feed on large quantities of diverse plant types. Presently within the state of Florida, manatees are an endangered species facing environmental and anthropogenic threats. Several different organizations work to rescue and rehabilitate these animals for an eventual return to the wild. Also within Florida, invasive aquatic plants are becoming increasingly problematic, creating both negative economic and environmental impacts. Each year, efforts are made to control these exotic plant species through several different methods. However, physical, mechanical, chemical and biological means to contain nonindigenous plants each have their drawbacks. There is a need for a natural, integrated approach to invasive aquatic plant management. The opportunity for manatees to control exotic plant species within the Florida ecosystem exists, but is improbable because of inadequate population densities. This study builds on this potential examining the use of manatees held in captivity as a tool for management by utilizing the physical collection of targeted nonindigenous plants to supplement the diet of rehabilitated manatees. Provisions are augmented with nutrients that manatees may not obtain from other sources typically found in captive diets. Early introduction of natural plants may allow for an easier transition to normal feeding patterns upon release and may condition animals to continue consumption of exotic plants in the wild. Each step has the potential to contribute to the reduction of invasive aquatic plants in Florida, and presents a cost-effective feeding alternative for manatee rehabilitation facilities. This method promotes a native Florida species as a natural solution to the problem.
x
 
Allen, Elizabeth; Carol, Lisa (detail)
   
2001
The cry of the manatee.
"the Word" Magazine (Kardinya, Western Australia) No. 1: 12-15. 3 figs. Mar./Apr./May 2001.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and the threats to their survival.
x
 
Allen, Glover M. (detail)
   
1923
Additional remains of the fossil dugong of Florida.
Jour. Mamm. 4(4): 231-239. 1 fig. Pl. 26. Nov. 1, 1923.
–Discusses fossil sirenians from the Atlantic coast of the U.S. (231-232), and refers new material from the Miocene or Pliocene of Florida to Metaxytherium floridanum (232-238, pl. 26).
x
 
Allen, Glover M. (detail)
   
1926
Fossil mammals from South Carolina.
Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. 67(14): 447-467. 5 pls. July 1926.
–Review and synonymy of South Carolina Miocene sirs. (455-459, pls. 2-3), recognizing two species: Halitherium antiquum (Leidy) Allen (new combination; 455) and Metaxytherium manigaulti (Cope) Allen (new combination, wrongly attributed to Kellogg; 458).
x
 
Allen, Glover M. (detail)
   
1935
The former occurrence of the dugong in Chinese waters.
China Jour. (Shanghai) 22(2): 79-81. Feb. 1935.
–Calls attention to, quotes, and translates the account of the sea cow in de Goyer & de Keyser (1665). Comment by Sowerby appended, 81-82 (see Sowerby, 1935).
 
 
Allen, Glover M. (detail)
   
1942
Extinct and vanishing mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the marine species of all the oceans.
Spec. Publ., Amer. Comm. Internatl. Wild Life Prot. 11: xv + 620. Frontisp., 24 figs.
–Sirs., 528-552.
 
 
Allen, Glover M.; Lawrence, Barbara (detail)
   
1936
Scientific results of an expedition to rain forest regions in eastern Africa. III. Mammals.
Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. 79: 31-125. 4 pls.
–Sirs., 125.
 
 
Allen, Joel Asaph (detail)
   
1871
On the mammals and winter birds of East Florida, with an examination of certain assumed specific characters in birds, and a sketch of the bird-fauna of Eastern North America.
Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. 2(3): 161-450. 5 pls.
x
 
Allen, Joel Asaph (detail)
   
1882
Preliminary list of works and papers relating to the mammalian orders Cete and Sirenia.
Bull. U.S. Geol. & Geogr. Surv. Terr. 6(3)(Art. 18): 399-562. Aug. 30, 1882.
–Repr.: Arno Press, New York, 1974. A facsimile edition of 500 copies with a 12-page author index (which the original lacked) was published in 1977 by A. D. Lilly, Hythe, Kent, England. That ed. erroneously gives the original date of publication as 1881; the correct date of Aug. 30, 1882 is found on the wrapper of vol. 6, no. 3 of the Bulletin, and the year and month are confirmed in the volume's Prefatory Note by F. V. Hayden (pp. iii-iv) and in the table of contents (p. v).
  This bibliography has been made available on-line as a part of the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS).
  This scholarly bibliography covers the years 1495-1840 and includes 1,014 items (two item numbers are duplicated and one is omitted), of which about 230 deal with sirenians. Though of course not "complete" for the period covered (as if any such bibliography ever is), Allen's list is an invaluable source for the very early literature, and his judicious critical annotations are a useful guide to the many editions of these early works as well as to the material they contain. Other attractive features are the detailed transcription of title pages and description of collations, which I have not attempted to reproduce or emulate in the present work.
  Allen's foreword, dated Sept. 1881, concludes (p. 401) with the statement that "The attempt has been made to bring the 'List' down to the end of the year 1880, but a few later titles have been added, and there are doubtless many deficiencies for the last year of the record." Hayden's Prefatory Note explains that the incompleteness of the published version was due to the author's sickess, and this is confirmed by a slip of paper inserted in some copies, which reads: "Owing to the illness of the author, which prevented his revision of the proofsheets, it was necessary to stop the printing of the 'List' at the end of the year 1840. The present instalment comprises only a little more than one-third of the article; the remainder will be published as soon as the author's health renders it practicable. J. A. ALLEN. Cambridge, Sept., 1882."
  Allen much later (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 24(18): 279-280, 1908) explained that the compilation of this bibliography was intended as a preliminary step toward "a work on the Cetacea and Sirenia of North America, to be published as a volume of the quarto Reports of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories [the Hayden Survey].... The preparation of the text of the monograph (on the same general plan as the author's previously published volume on the Pinnipedia) was well advanced, ... [but] was suddenly interrupted by the author's serious illness, resulting in a prolonged period of invalidism. During this interval the "Hayden Survey" ceased to exist, and the reorganized Geological Survey, made no provision for the completion of the unfinished zoölogical work begun under the Hayden Survey. Later other interests engaged the author's attention, and nothing further was done on the proposed monograph of the Cetacea and Sirenia."
  Although Allen lived until 1921, and did eventually publish part of his cetacean manuscript, no more of the sirenian material ever appeared (see Autobiographical notes and a bibliography of the scientific publications of Joel Asaph Allen, New York, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.: ix + 215, 1916). Dr. James G. Mead has diligently searched for the unpublished manuscript and proofsheets of the bibliography in various archives, without success; they may have been destroyed (see J. G. Mead & R. G. Dagit, 2002, "Plates for Joel Asaph Allen's unpublished monograph on the mammalian orders Cete and Sirenia and a record of the search for the manuscript", Smithson. Contr. Paleobiol. 93: 357-372).
x
 
Allen, Joel Asaph (detail)
   
1902
Zimmermann's 'Zoologiae Geographicae' and 'Geographische Geschichte' considered in their relation to mammalian nomenclature.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 16: 13-22. Jan. 1902.
–Notes that Manati gigas Zimmermann, 1780 [=Hydrodamalis gigas] is "at present recognized in nomenclature"; Manati Zimmermann, 1780 is said to be "of even date with Manatus Storr" (22).
x
 
Allen, Joel Asaph (detail)
   
1904
Report on mammals from the district of Santa Marta, Colombia, collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith, with field notes by Mr. Smith.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 407-468.
–Brief account by Smith of Trichechus manatus occurrences and seasonal hunting along the coast (423).
x
 
Allen, Joel Asaph (detail)
   
1910
Additional mammals from Nicaragua.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 28(9): 87-115. Apr. 30, 1910.
–P. 89: {"Tapirella, Trichechus, and Mazama have been recorded north to Mexico."}
  P. 94: {"Trichechus manatus Linnaeus. Well known to have been formerly abundant along the eastern coast [of Nicaragua]."}
Allen, John F.: SEE ALSO Budiarso et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Allen, John F.; Lépes, Marta M.; Budiarso, Iwan T.; Sumitro, Dr.; Hammond, D. (detail)
   
1976
Some observations on the biology of the dugong (Dugong dugong) from the waters of South Sulawesi.
Aquatic Mammals 4(2): 33-48. 3 figs. 4 pls. Sept. 1976.
–Detailed account of captive husbandry and postmortem examinations, including food analyses, parasites, body measurements, organ weights, hematology, etc., of dugongs kept at Jaya Ancol Oceanarium, Jakarta.
x
 
Allen, John H. (detail)
   
1846
Some facts respecting the geology of Tampa Bay, Florida.
Amer. Jour. Sci. (2)1(1)(4): 38-42.
–P. 41: {"There are other beds of marl, apparently of a much more recent origin, one of which extends along the shore at Fort Brooke; it is an earthy mass containing vast quantities of oysters and other shells, extends a few hundred feet back from the shore, and is several feet in thickness. I have seen dug out of it bones of the Manatus or sea cow, an animal that still exists in the southern part of the peninsula."} These bones were probably Pleistocene in age.
 
 
Allen, Simon; Marsh, Helene D.; Hodgson, Amanda J. (detail)
   
2004
Occurrence and conservation of the dugong (Sirenia: Dugongidae) in New South Wales.
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 125: 211-216.
 
 
Alliger, Marjorie E. (detail)
   
1979
Cousin to the elephant.
[Publisher?]: 1-12. 3 figs. Dec. 1979.
–Children's pamphlet on Florida manatees.
Allison, Edwin C.: SEE ALSO Durham & Allison, 1960. (detail)
 
D
Allison, Edwin C. (detail)
   
1964
Geology of areas bordering Gulf of California.
Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem. 3: 3-29. 2 figs. Sept. 1964.
x
 
Allsopp, W. Herbert L. (detail)
   
1960
The manatee: ecology and use for weed control.
Nature (London) 188(4752): 762. Nov. 26, 1960.
–Describes weed control experiments with T. manatus in British Guiana. Reprinted in W.A. Dill (1961: 3-4).
 
 
Allsopp, W. Herbert L. (detail)
   
1961
Putting manatees to work.
New Scientist 12(263): 548-549. 3 figs. Nov. 30, 1961.
–Weed-clearance in British Guiana.
 
 
Allsopp, W. Herbert L. (detail)
   
1962
Putting manatees to work.
Jour. Brit. Guiana Mus. Zoo No. 34: 33-35.
–Weed-clearance in British Guiana.
x
 
Allsopp, W. Herbert L. (detail)
   
1969
Aquatic weed control by manatees - its prospects and problems. In: L. E. Obeng (ed.), Man-made lakes.
Accra, Ghana Univ. Press (398 pp.): 344-351.
–Account of weed-control experiments in Guyana and elsewhere, including species of plants eaten and sizes of areas cleared.
 
 
Almaça, C. (detail)
   
1998
Baleias, focas e peixes-bois: na história natural Portuguesa.
Lisbon, Museu Bocage, Museu Nacional de História Natural: 1-105.
 
 
Almeida, António de (detail)
   
1960
Sereias de Além-Mar.
Mem. Acad. Ciênc. Lisboa, Classe de Ciênc. 8: 3-31. 2 figs. Read July 3, 1958.
x
 
Almeida, António de (detail)
   
1971
Novos aspectos da etnozoologia timorense.
Mem. Acad. Ciênc. Lisboa, Classe de Ciênc. 15: 205-221.
–Brief account of legends relating to dugongs and of use of dugong meat, hide, oil, teeth, and "tears" in Timor (209, 211-212, 220).
 
 
Almera, D. Jaime (detail)
   
1896
Sobre la serie de mamiferos fósiles descubiertos en Cataluña.
Mem. Acad. Cienc. Artes Barcelona (3)2: 251-257.
 
 
Almera, D. Jaime (detail)
   
1897
Reconocimiento de la presencia del primer piso mediterráneo en el Panadès.
Mem. Acad. Cienc. Artes Barcelona (3)1(20): 349-394. 1 chart. 6 figs. Read June 30, 1896.
 
 
Almera, D. Jaime (detail)
   
1898
Enumération des mammifères fossiles découverts en Catalogne.
C.R. IV Congr. Sci. Internatl. des Cathol. (Fribourg, Aug. 16-20, 1897): 1-5.
 
 
Almera, D. Jaime (detail)
   
1899a
Compte rendu de l'excursion du samedi 8 Oct. à Castellví de la Marca, au Vallon de San-Pau d'Ordal et à San Sadurní de Noya.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)26: 840-852.
 
 
Almera, D. Jaime (detail)
   
1899b
Compte rendu de l'excursion du vendredi 7 Octobre aux environs de Villanova et de Vilafranca.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)26: 812-822.
x
 
Almera, D. Jaime (detail)
   
1906
Descripción geológica y génesis de la Plana de Vich accompañada de su mapa topogr fico geológico à la escala de 1/30000.
Mem. Acad. Cienc. Artes Barcelona (3)5(20): 347-399. 1 map. Apr. 1906.
–Records "Halitherium sp." from Lutetian (Middle Eocene) deposits at Serras de Cánoves á Puiglagulla, Spain (379).
 
 
Alsina-Guerrero, Mayela (detail)
   
2011
Blood Values from Wild and Rehabilitating Antillean Manatees (Trichechus Manatus Manatus) from Puerto Rico
Western Illinois University 1-75. 13 tables. 13 figures. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are endangered aquatic mammals found in fragmented populations from eastern Mexico through Central America to northern and eastern South America, and the Greater Antilles. All manatees are subject to a variety of anthropogenic threats and are considered a vulnerable species throughout the world. Blood values are an important tool in evaluating the health of free-ranging and rescued manatees part of ongoing conservation efforts. The purpose of this study was to establish preliminary normal ranges of serum chemistry and hematology parameters in healthy Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. In addition, the research goal was to determine significant variations by age class and sex between free-ranging manatees and those undergoing rehabilitation. Values were obtained from 41 free-ranging, apparently healthy, manatees between 1992 and 2005 during captures for health assessment and from 7 rescued manatees in rehabilitation at the Puerto Rico Manatee Conservation Center. Values included a complete blood count (RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, platelets, WBC count, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophlils, basophils, and heterophils) and a blood chemistry panel (Liver associated enzymes [ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin], kidney, musclue and pancratic associates enzyme and products [CPK, LDH, BUN, creatinine, and BUN and creatinine ratio, uric acid, amylase], glucose and lipids [glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol], proteins [total protein, albumin, albumin and globulin ratio], and electrolytes [sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, CO sub(2), anion gap]. No significant differences in CPK, LDH, BUN, creatinine, uric acid, and amylase were found among calf, subadult, or adult age classes. Compared to free-ranging adult manatees, wild calves had significantly lower mean concentrations of chloride, sodium, potassium, anion gap, glucose, total protein, albumin, and ALT. Captive calves had significantly higher mean values of CO sub(2), phosphorus, cholesterol, and ALP than free-ranging manatees. Differences in the environments of these two groups, including diet, air and water temperature, water salinity, and stress, might account for some of these results. The lower CO sub(2) and higher anion gap concentrations in adult free-ranging manatees were probably due to greater exertion during capture. AST and ALP were higher in adult free-ranging females than in adult males. Hematological values presented herein will be useful for documenting the typical blood value ranges exhibited by the Puerto Rican population of Antillean manatees and provide a reference for evaluating the health of wild and rescued manatees.
x
 
Alston, Charles (detail)
   
1770
Lectures on the materia medica: containing the natural history of drugs, their virtues and doses: also directions for the study of the materia medica; and an appendix on the method of prescribing. Published from the manuscript of the late Dr. Charles Alston ... by John Hope.... In two volumes. Vol. II.
London, Edward & Charles Dilly ... and A. Kincaid and J. Bell, at Edinburgh. https://archive.org/details/lecmateri02alst
–pp. 537-538: {"LAPIS MANATI. SECT. I. Lapis Manati seu Os Manati essic. The Sea-Cow Stones. -- These are of the colour and consistence of ivory, of an irregular figure, of different sizes, and without taste or smell, formed in the head of the large amphibious animal called Manati essic. Dale 406. Manati Indorum, Ald. de Pisc. 728. Ions. Pisc. 157. Manati, Phocae genus, Clus. Exot. 133. Manati, Belgis. Vacca Marina, Charlet. Pisc. 49. Manati seu Vacca Marina, R. Syn. Quad. 193. Sloan, Hist. Jam. ii. 329. The Sea-Cow.
  "It is found in the American ocean, about Hispaniola, &c. has two feet like hands (whence called by the Spaniards Manati). N.B. "Hispani omnium quadrupedum anteriores pedes, manus appellant." Clus. Exot. p. 134: where are several wonderful things related concerning this biped. Some say it has two stones in its head; others say four; others, that these stones are the ossa petrosa. It has a head somewhat like a cow, and feeds a-shore on herbs. It is viviparous, the females suckling their two calves with their two dugs. "Hic piscis lutrae prope formam referens, 35 pedes longus, 12 crassus est, capite & cauda bovem referens, exiguis oculis, pelle dura & pilosa coloris Veneti, pedes duos elephantinis similes habet. Foeminae eius generis ut Vaccae catulos pariunt, eosque gemino ubere alunt; ut Hieron. Benzon scribit." Charl. l. c.
  [538] "SECT. II. They seem to be of the same nature with the unicorn; but are chiefly commended for the colic and gravel. They are prepatred by calcination and levigation, and given to ?j[?drams].
  "Lapis praeparatus sit ex calcinato, seu cremato. Vires. Summe commendatur ad calculos renum & vesicae comminuendos, dolores nephriticos ac colicos sanandos. Dosis ?j[?drams]. & ultra. N. Sunt qui ad ?j[?ounces].. ascendunt." Schrod. p. 851. Pomet & Lemery say they are emetic, and the last gives them only to gr. xij[grains?]. Alb. in MS. observes that they are reckoned antispasmodic. I can say nothing of them, as I never heard of their being used."}
 
 
Alston, Edward R. (detail)
   
1879-82
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Mammalia.
London, R. H. Porter: xx + 220. 22 pls.
–Manatee, vi, xi, xvii, 90-96, pl. 7. Viewable at: http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/bca/
 
 
Altichieri, L. (detail)
   
1980
Il giacimento de Monte Duello. In: G. Parisi et al. (eds.), I vertebrati fossili italiani: catalogo della mostra, Verona 1980.
Verona, Commune di Verona: 156-160.
Altman, Jennifer: SEE Teunissen & Altman, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Alvarado-Esquivel, C.; Sanchez-Okrucky, R.; Dubey, Jitender P. (detail)
   
2012
Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.
Veterinary Parasitology 184(2-4): 321-324. 1 tab. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.08.036. March 23, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico.
x
 
Alvarez, Ticul (detail)
   
1963
The Recent mammals of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 14(15): 363-473. 5 figs. May 20, 1963.
–Quotes Miller & Kellogg's (1955: 791) record of T. m. latirostris from the mouth of the Rio Grande; considers the species "probably extirpated in state" of Tamaulipas (465).
 
 
Alvarez-Aleman, A. (detail)
   
2021
Causes of mortality for endangered Antillean manatees in Cuba.
Frontiers in Marine Science DOI=10.3389/fmars.2021.646021
 
 
Alvarez-Alemán, A.; Angulo-Valdés, J.; Powell, James A.; García, E.; Taylor, C. K. (detail)
   
2016
Antillean manatee occurrence in a marine protected area, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba.
DOI: 10.1017/S0030605315001143.
 
 
Álvarez-Alemán, Anmari (detail)
   
2011
El manatí. Chap. 4.1 in: R. Borroto-Páez & C. A. Mancina (eds.), Mamíferos en Cuba.
Vasa (Finland), for Spartacus Foundation & Soc. Cubana de Zoología (1-271): 178-185, 263. 19 figs.
 
 
Alvarez-Alemán, Anmari; Alfonso, Eddy García; Forneiro Martin-Vianna, Yanet; Hernández Gonzalez, Zaimiuri; Domenech, Raisa Escalona; Hurtado, Andrés; Powell, James A.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Frazer, Thomas K. (detail)
   
2018a
Status and conservation of manatees in Cuba: historical observations and recent insights.
Bull. Marine Science 94(2): 313-327. https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2016.1132 April 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758) is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature because of reduced numbers and habitat loss. Existing information about this species in Cuba is limited, but it can be synthesized into useful guidance for strategies to protect and rehabilitate this population. Anthropogenic threats have been reported to have had detrimental effects on manatees since 1970, with a major factor being illegal hunting. Information obtained through interviews of fishers, and boat and aerial surveys has identified the Ensenada de la Broa and Hatiguanico River on the Zapata Peninsula as important areas for manatees. Historically, manatees frequented rivers and other freshwater habitats, but currently they are encountered primarily in estuarine and coastal waters, which makes availability of fresh water an important consideration. There is a pressing need to gather additional and more reliable data on the abundance, distribution, and health of Antillean manatees in Cuba as a basis for more effective and efficient initiatives to protect and rehabilitate this population.
 
 
Alvarez-Alemán, Anmari; Austin, James D.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Frazer, Thomas K. (detail)
   
2018b
Cuban connection: regional role for Florida's manatees.
Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 294. 1 fig. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00294. Aug. 21, 2018.
 
 
Álvarez-Alemán, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2010
First report of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba.
Aquatic Mammals 36(2): 148-153. 2 figs.
 
 
Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Hunter, Margaret E.; Frazer, Thomas K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Alfonso, Eddy; Austin, James D. (detail)
   
2022
The first assessment of the genetic diversity and structure of the endangered West Indian manatee in Cuba.
Genetica 150: 327-341. Oct. 22, 2022.
–ABSTRACT: The coastal waters of Cuba are home to a small, endangered population of West Indian manatee, which would benefit from a comprehensive characterization of the population's genetic variation. We conducted the first genetic assessment of Cuban manatees to determine the extent of the population's genetic structure and characterize the neutral genetic diversity among regions within the archipelago. We genotyped 49 manatees at 18 microsatellite loci, a subset of 27 samples on 1703 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and sequenced 59 manatees at the mitochondrial control region. The Cuba manatee population had low nuclear (microsatellites HE=0.44, and SNP HE=0.29) and mitochondrial genetic diversity (h=0.068 and pi=0.00025), and displayed moderate departures from random mating (microsatellite FIS=0.12, SNP FIS=0.10). Our results suggest that the western portion of the archipelago undergoes periodic exchange of alleles based on the evidence of shared ancestry and low but significant differentiation. The southeast Guantanamo Bay region and the western portion of the archipelago were more differentiated than southwest and northwest manatees. The genetic distinctiveness observed in the southeast supports its recognition as a demographically independent unit for natural resource management regardless of whether it is due to historical isolation or isolation by distance. Estimates of the regional effective population sizes, with the microsatellite and SNP datasets, were small (all Ne<60). Subsequent analyses using additional samples could better examine how the observed structure is masking simple isolation by distance patterns or whether ecological or biogeographic forces shape genetic patterns.
 
 
Alves, M. D.; Kinas, P. G.; Marmontel, Miriam; Borges, J. C. G.; Costa, A. F.; Schiel, N.; Araújo, M. E. ( (detail)
   
2016
First abundance estimate of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil by aerial survey.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 96(4): 955-966. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0025315415000855.
 
 
Alves, Maria Danise de Oliveira; Schwamborn, Ralf; Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Marmontel, Miriam; Costa, Alexandra Fernandes; Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; Araújo, Maria Elisabeth de (detail)
   
2013
Aerial survey of manatees, dolphins and sea turtles off northeastern Brazil: correlations with coastal features and human activities.
Biol. Conserv. 161: 91-100. 3 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Alves-Stanley, C. D.; Worthy, Graham A. J. (detail)
   
2009
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope turnover rates and diet-tissue discrimination in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Exper. Biol. 212(15): 2349-2355.
 
 
Alves-Stanley, C. D.; Worthy, Graham A. J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2010
Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 402: 255-267.
x
 
Alviano, Fidélis de (detail)
   
1945
Gramática, dicionário, verbos e frases e vocabulário prático da lingua dos índios Ticunas.
Rio de Janeiro, Impr. Nac.: 1-227.
–Reprinted from Rev. Inst. Hist. Geogr. Brasil. 183: 3-194, 1944. The Ticuna word for the manatee is given as ái-rué (127).
 
 
Alvinerie, J.; Anglada, R.; Caralp, M. (detail)
   
1977
Stratotype et parastratotype de l'Aquitanien.
Les Stratotypes Français (Paris, CNRS) 4: 1-105.
 
 
Amaral, Angelo Thomaz Do (detail)
   
1858
Falla dirigida á Assembléa Legislativa Provincial do Amazonas em o 1o. de Outubro de 1857 pelo Presidente da Provincia.... Reprinted in collected Relatorios da Presidencia do Amazonas, 1852-1858.
Rio de Janeiro, Typ. Universal de Laemmert: 576-665. Dec. 1905.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Lucci, Carolina M.; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Báo, Sônia N. (detail)
   
2010
Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae) spermatozoa.
Zoologia 27(6): 1014-1017. 11 figs. Dec. 2010.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando Cesar Weber; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga (detail)
   
2013
Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle in captive female Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
Animal Reproduction Science 142(1-2): 84-88. 1 tab. 1 fig. Nov. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia), a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin, is the only sirenian that lives exclusively in fresh water. Information about the reproductive endocrinology of the Amazonian manatee is scarce; therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor salivary progesterone and estradiol patterns during the ovarian cycle in T. inunguis. Salivary samples were collected daily during a 12-week period of two consecutive years from two captive adult females. The salivary estradiol and progesterone were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The results were analyzed in an iterative process of excluding values that were higher than the mean plus 2 standard deviations until the basal values were determined. The interval between two peaks of salivary estradiol followed by a rise of progesterone was considered as one complete cycle for the calculation of the cycle length. We observed only three complete cycles in all samples analyzed. The cycle length ranged from 42 to 48 days (mean of 44.67 days). We also observed two distinct salivary estradiol peaks during all cycles analyzed, with the first peak occurring before the rise in salivary progesterone and the second occurred followed by a return to basal progesterone levels. This is the first in-depth study of the ovarian cycle in Amazonian manatees. Our results demonstrate that salivary samples can be a useful tool in the endocrine monitoring of this species and suggest that T. inunguis shows a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle, a finding that may have physiological and ecological significance in the reproductive strategy of these animals.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Viau, Priscilla; D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga de (detail)
   
2009
Noninvasive monitoring of androgens in male Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis): biologic validation.
Jour. Zoo Wildlife Med. 40(3): 458-465. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Viau, Priscilla; Nichi, Marcilio; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga (detail)
   
2011
Monitoring salivary testosterone concentrations from captive Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis): Is there seasonal pattern?
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 23(1): 181-181. DOI:10.1071/RDv23n1Ab156. Dec. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Seasonality of reproduction in many nondomestic animal species appears to represent an accommodation to environmental variables, as food availability, in which influence reproductive success. Males can show a decrease of testicular size, sperm concentration, and serum concentration of testosterone because of food restriction. The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia: Sirenia) is a threatened aquatic mammal, endemic of the Amazon basin (South America), and is the only sirenian that occurs exclusively in fresh water. Although information is lacking about the reproductive endocrinology of free-ranging T. inunguis, they are considered seasonal breeders, with copulation and births occurring between December and July, coinciding with the increase in Amazon basin water levels and the period of most availability of food for the species (Best 1982 Biotropica 14, 76–78). Salivary steroid measurement is a noninvasive way to monitor steroid concentration, which is well correlated with the level of steroids in the serum. The aim of this study was to verify if testosterone concentrations of male T. inunguis kept in captivity, without variation of food availability, show a seasonal pattern. We used 4 adult male Amazonian manatees kept in captivity in the Laboratory of Aquatic Mammals of the National Institute of Amazonian Research–LMA/INPA, Brazil. They were fed all year with paragrass and vegetables, at not less than 8% of body weight per day. For sample collection, the pool was drained and saliva was collected from mouth mucosa using a metal spoon. Samples were collected weekly for 12 weeks in 2 periods (March–June and September–November). Salivary testosterone was measured by RIA for total testosterone using an adapted protocol previously validated for the species (Amaral et al. 2009 J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 40, 458–465) The data were analysed in a 3 × 2 factorial design, where the factors were month (each 4 weeks = 1 month) and period, using GLM test for repeated-measures. The means of salivary androgen levels were 28.80 ± 18.56 pg mL–1 and 30.77 ± 16.76 pg mL–1 for first and second periods, respectively. There were no significant main effects of month (P = 0.454), period (P = 0.607), or interaction between factors (P = 0.635). These results suggest that captive male Amazonian manatees apparently do not show reproductive seasonality. However, it is recommended to verify the existence of variation in testicular size and sperm concentration. This finding is important information for the future reproductive management of captive Amazonian manatee.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
   
2010
Body weight/length relationship and mass estimation using morphometric measurements in Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Marine Biodiversity Records 3: e105. 4 pp. 2 figs. doi:10.1017/S1755267210000886
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo S.; Rosas, Fernando C. W.; Graham, Laura H.; Silva, Vera M. F. da; Oliveira, Claudio A. (detail)
   
2014
First attempt to monitor luteinizing hormone and reproductive steroids in urine samples of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 45(4): 843-851. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2013-0122.1. Dec. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine samples of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia) and to monitor urinary LH and reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in this species. Urine samples were collected from two captive males following a hormonal challenge with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The urinary LH results from hormonal challenge were compared with urinary androgens for the purpose of EIA validation. Furthermore, urine samples were collected daily, over a 12-wk period, from two captive adult females, for 2 consecutive yr. The urinary LH pattern from females was compared with the patterns of urinary progestagens and estrogen conjugates throughout the ovarian cycle. An LH peak was observed in both male Amazonian manatees after the hormonal challenge, occurring prior to or together with peak androgen levels. In the females, the ovarian cycle ranged from 40 to 48 days (mean of 43.7 days). Two distinct peaks of estrogen conjugates were observed across all cycles analyzed, and the urinary LH peaks observed were accompanied by peaks of urinary estrogen conjugates. The EIA was validated as a method for the quantification of urinary LH from Amazonian manatees, as it was able to detect variations in the levels of LH in urine samples. These results suggest that T. inunguis exhibits a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle. Therefore, further studies are desirable and necessary to clarify the relationship between this hormonal pattern and morphological changes, as well as mating behavior, in Amazonian manatee.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo S.; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Silva, Vera M. F. da; Graham, Laura H.; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A. (detail)
   
2014
Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
Reproduction, Fertility & Development 27(7): 1065-1071. doi.org/10.1071/RD13334 Publ. online Apr. 2, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March–June and September–November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March–June than September–November) or an interaction between year and season (P < 0.05). These results strongly indicate the existence of reproductive seasonality in Amazonian manatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli.
 
 
Amaral, Rodrigo S.; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Neto, José Anselmo D'Affonsêca; Ribeiro, Daniella C.; Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
   
2017
Assessment of sexual maturity in captive Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 34(1): 190-199. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12439. Jan. 2018; publ. online Aug. 18, 2017.
 
 
Amarante, C. B.; Solano, F. A. R.; Lins, A. L. F. A.; Mueller, A. H.; Mueller, R. C. S. (detail)
   
2011
Physical, chemical, and nutritional characterization of Aninga fruit.
Planta Daninha 29(2): 295-303. 4 tabs. 6 figs. DOI:10.1590/S0100-83582011000200007. Apr.-June 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Montrichardia linifera, commonly known as aninga, belongs to the family Araceae and forms large populations on the banks of rivers and streams of the Amazon, especially in white water (muddy). Its fruit are part of the diet of fish, turtles and large herbivores, such as manatees and buffalo, thus they can be used in animal nutrition. However, despite its wide distribution in the Amazon landscape, there are no published data on the nutritional composition of this fruit. To assess its nutritional potential and to contribute to the knowledge of this species, this work aimed to carry out its physical, chemical, and nutritional characterization. Infructescence on average weighs 500 g with a set of about 80 fruits. Its nutritional value consists basically in its energy value (? 350 kcal), due mainly to the carbohydrate content (? 80%), presenting low protein value (< 0.5%). Manganese concentrations (? 1.800 mg kg-1) were considered toxic, far exceeding the maximum tolerable in nutrition of buffaloes (1.000 mg kg-1).
Ambrose, J. D.: SEE Krishna Pillai et al., 1989. (detail)
x
 
Ambrose, Philippa (detail)
   
1999
Dugong populations to be further protected.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 38(4): 235-236. Apr. 1999.
–Briefly notes the proposed addition of 6000 km of new areas to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia, which would provide increased protected habitat for dugongs.
x
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1883
Sobre una coleccion de mamíferos fósiles del piso mesopotámico de la formación patagónica, recogidos en las barrancas del Paraná por el profesor Pedro Scalabrini.
Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Córdoba 5(1): 101-116.
–Repr. in Ameghino's collected Obras, vol. 4: 87-97, 1915. Ribodon limbato [sic], n.gen.n.sp., is described on the basis of a single upper molar, thought to represent a perissodactyl of Lower Oligocene age (112-113; Obras, 94-95). Its age is now considered Mio-Pliocene.
x
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1885
Nuevos restos de mamíferos fósiles oligocenos recogidos por el profesor Pedro Scalabrini y pertenecientes al Museo Provincial de la Ciudad del Paraná.
Bol. Acad. Cienc. Córdoba 8: 5-207.
–Repr. in Ameghino's Obras, vol. 5: 7-146. Reports three new upper molars of Ribodon limbatus, which he still considers an Oligocene tapiroid (100-105). The spelling of the specific name is here corrected from "limbato".
x
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1886
Contribuciones al conocimiento de los mamíferos fósiles de los terrenos terciarios antiguos del Paraná.
Bol. Acad. Cienc. Córdoba 9: 1-228.
–Repr. in Ameghino's Obras, vol. 5: 179-325. Describes additional teeth of the supposed tapiroid Ribodon limbatus, contrasting it with Hyrachyus and Listriodon (147-151). Also describes as a tapiroid, and a close relative of Ribodon, the new genus and species Antaodon cinctus (151ff.), later thought by some to be a sir. but now considered a tayassuid.
 
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1889
Contribución al conocimiento de los mamíferos fósiles de la República Argentina: obra escrita bajo los auspicios de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de la República Argentina para presentarla a la Exposición Universal de Paris de 1889.
Actas Acad. Nac. Cienc. Córdoba 6: xxxiii + 1027. Atlas, pls. 1-98. May 20, 1889.
–Repr. in Ameghino's Obras, vols. 6-9. Also published separately.
 
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1891
Determinación de algunos jalones para la restauración de las antiguas conexiones del continente sud-americano.
Rev. Argent. Hist. Nat. 1: 282-288.
–?Repr.: Crónica Cienc. (Barcelona) 14: 399-405; also in Ameghino's Obras, vol. 10: 285-290, 1918. A letter to H. von Ihering, mentioning Ribodon.
 
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1893
Les mammifères fossiles de la Patagonie australe. [With footnotes by E. Trouessart.]
Rev. Sci. (Paris) (3)30(1): 13-17.
–Repr. in Ameghino's Obras, vol. 10: 503-521, 535-545 (with Engl. and Spanish transls.). Engl. transl.: Amer. Naturalist 27: 445-449?
 
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1904
Paleontologia Argentina.
Publ. Univ. de La Plata, Fac. Cienc. Fís.-mat. No. 2: 1-79. 72 figs.
–Repr. in Ameghino's Obras, vol. 15: 7-91.
 
 
Ameghino, Florentino (detail)
   
1906
Les formations sedimentaires du Crétacé supérieur et du Tertiaire de Patagonie.
An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires (3)8: 1-568. 358 figs. 3 pls.
–Repr. in Ameghino's Obras, vol. 16. Revs.: Nature (London) 77: 68?; Rev. Anthrop. 17: 354-357, 388-393, 1907, 18: 20-30, 1908?
x
 
Ames, Audra L.; Van Vleet, Edward S. (detail)
   
1996
Organochlorine residues in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32(4): 374-377. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Apr. 1996.
–Levels of chlorinated pesticides were found to be low and concentrated in the liver and kidney. Lindane residues in a perinatal manatee showed that the substance was transferred from the mother prior to birth.
x
 
Ames, Audra L.; Van Vleet, Edward S.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2002
Comparison of lipids in selected tissues of the Florida manatee (Order Sirenia) and bottlenose dolphin (Order Cetacea; Suborder Odontoceti).
Compar. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Molec. Biol. 132(3): 625-634. 2 tabs. 5 figs. July 2002.
–Reports that lipids from the zygomatic process of the squamosal bone and fat from the head region of the manatee do not contain isovaleric acid or wax esters, which are related to sound conduction in dolphins. Conduction through the porous zygomatic process is not ruled out, but if it occurs it must involve a different suite of lipids than in odontocetes. Manatee body fat does contain a significant amount of dodecanoic acid, which may possibly be useful for buoyancy or insulation.
 
 
Ames, Audra L.; Van Vleet, Edward S.; Sackett, William M. (detail)
   
1996
The use of stable carbon isotope analysis for determining the dietary habits of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(4): 555-563. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Oct. 1996 (mailed Sept. 26, 1996).
Amlaner, C. J.: SEE Rattenborg et al., 2000. (detail)
Amoroso, E. C.: SEE Ronald et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
Amprino, Rodolfo; Godina, Giovanni (detail)
   
1947
La struttura delle ossa nei vertebrati: ricerche comparative negli anfibi e negli amnioti.
Commentats. Pontif. Acad. Sci. 11(9): 329-464. 47 pls.
Amrine, Heather M.: SEE ALSO Springer et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Amrine, Heather M.; Springer, Mark S. (detail)
   
1999
Maximum-likelihood analysis of the tethythere hypothesis based on a multigene data set and a comparison of different models of sequence evolution.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 6(2): 161-176. 7 tabs. 1 fig. June 1999.
 
 
Amsler, K. (detail)
   
1995
Lamantins. Le crepuscule des sirenes.
Oceanorama 24: 21-24. Illus. June 1995.
 
 
Amson, Eli; Argot, Christine; McDonald, H. Gregory; de Muizon, Christian (detail)
   
2015
Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Forelimb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada).
Journal of Mammalian Evolution 22 (2):169-242. 30 tables. 47 tables. DOI: 10.1007/s10914-014-9268-3. June 2015.
–Abstract: Thalassocnus is a genus of "ground sloths" known from Neogene deposits, for the great majority of specimens, of the Pisco Formation (Peru). Five species are recognized, their description being currently restricted, for the most part, to the skull, mandible, and dentition. The bones of the forelimb are here described, and compared among the species of Thalassocnus and to other pilosans. The main characteristics of the forelimb of Thalassocnus relative to other sloths are the shortness of the humerus and radius, and the specialized digits. Moreover, the late species of the genus are characterized by the development of the pronator ridge of the radius, stoutness of the ulna, widening of the proximal carpal row, and shortening of the metacarpals. Analogies with extant tetrapods are proposed in order to infer plausible aquatic functions of the forelimb of Thalassocnus. In addition to paddling, it is argued that the forelimb of Thalassocnus was involved in bottom-walking, a function similarly found in extant sirenians. However, the function of the forelimb of Thalassocnus differs drastically from that of the latter, since it was likely involved in an activity related to obtaining food such as uprooting seagrass rhizomes.
 
 
Amson, Eli; de Muizon, Christian; Laurin, Michel; Argot, Christine; de Buffrénil, Vivian (detail)
   
2014
Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic lifestyle in extinct sloths from Peru.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1782). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0192. March 12, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus, from the Neogene of the Pisco Formation, Peru. This genus is represented by five species occurring in successive vertebrate-bearing horizons of distinct ages. It yields the most detailed data about the gradual acquisition of aquatic adaptations among tetrapods, in displaying increasing osteosclerosis and pachyostosis through time. Such modifications, reflecting a shift in the habitat from terrestrial to aquatic, occurred over a short geological time span (ca 4 Myr). Otherwise, the bones of terrestrial pilosans (sloths and anteaters) are much more compact than the mean mammalian condition, which suggests that the osteosclerosis of Thalassocnus may represent an exaptation.
x
 
Amson, Eli; Muizon, Christian de; Domning, Daryl Paul; Argot, Christine; Buffrénil, Vivian de (detail)
   
2015
Bone histology as a clue for resolving the puzzle of a dugong rib in the Pisco Formation, Peru.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35(3): e922981 (4 pp.) 2 figs. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2014.922981 May 2015 (publ. online Apr. 22, 2015).
–A supposedly dugongine rib described by Muizon & Domning (1985) and Domning & Aguilera (2008a) is reidentified as an aquatic sloth (Thalassocnus sp.).
 
 
Anchieta, José de (detail)
   
1799
Josephi de Anchieta epistola, quamplurimarum rerum naturalium quae S. Vicentii (nunc S. Pauli) provinciam incolunt sistens descriptionem.
Lisbon, Typis Academiae: 2 + 49 + 1.
–Manatees in Espirito Santo, Brazil, mentioned in a letter dated at São Vicente, May 31, 1560; Portuguese transl.: Anchieta (1933).
x
 
Anchieta, José de (detail)
   
1900
Carta fazendo a descripção das innumeras coisas naturaes, que se encontram na provincia de S. Vicente hoje S. Paulo seguida de outras cartas ineditas escriptas da Bahia pelo veneravel Padre José de Anchieta e copiadas do Archivo da Companhia de Jesus. Traduzidas do Latim pelo Professor João Vieira de Almeida com um prefacio pelo Dr. Augusto Cesar de Miranda Azevedo.
São Paulo, Typ. da Casa Eclectica: 1-69.
–Brief account of the manatee that is said to occur at the city of "Espirito Sancto", Brazil, and elsewhere to the north (hence T. manatus), and its use for meat and oil (11-12). Mentions the vernacular names Boi marinha and Iguaraguá (11).
 
 
Anchieta, José de (detail)
   
1933
[Carta] Ao Padre Geral de São Vicente, ao ultimo de Maio de 1560. In: Cartas, informações, fragmentos historicos e sermões do Padre Joseph de Anchieta, S.J. (1554-1594).
Rio de Janeiro, Civilização Brasileira (567 pp.): 107-108.
–Portuguese transl. of the letter mentioned in Anchieta (1799). The first Portuguese transl. of this letter appeared in Ann. Bibliotheca Nac. (Rio de Janeiro) 1: 279, 1876. Engl. transl.: Whitehead (1977: 170).
Andersen, H. T.: SEE ALSO Kooyman & Andersen, 1969. (detail)
 
 
Andersen, H. T. (detail)
   
1966
Physiological adaptations in diving vertebrates.
Physiol. Rev. 46: 212.
Andersen, Michael: SEE Smith et al., 1995. (detail)
Anderson, Elaine: SEE ALSO Kurtén & Anderson, 1980. (detail)
 
 
Anderson, Elaine (detail)
   
1984
Who's who in the Pleistocene: a mammalian bestiary. In: P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein (eds.), Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution.
Tucson, Univ. Arizona Press (x + 892): 40-89. Illus.
–Gen. acc. of Hydrodamalis gigas (82-83) and Trichechus (83).
 
D
Anderson, F. M. (detail)
   
1911
The Neocene deposits of Kern River, Calif., and the Temblor basin.
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4)3: 73-148. Pls. 2-13.
 
 
Anderson, Gordon R. V. (detail)
   
1988
Perceptions of plenty: approaches to the management of migratory and non-migratory species subject to traditional subsistence hunting. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Workshop Ser. No. 8: 176-187.
Anderson, H. F.: SEE Patton et al., 1989. (detail)
x
 
Anderson, Ian (detail)
   
1994
Resort plans stuck in the mud.
New Scientist 144(1953): 7. 1 fig. Nov. 26, 1994.
–Describes the blocking of plans to build a resort at Oyster Point, Queensland, Australia, which would have damaged dugong habitat.
 
 
Anderson, Ian (detail)
   
1996
Aborigines spare the dugong.
New Scientist 151(2042): 5. 1 fig. Aug. 10, 1996.
 
 
Anderson, John R,; Gullett-Young, Cheryl; Elliott, W. Crawford (detail)
   
2010
Correlation of the Sandersville Limestone lithofacies to the Ocmulgee Formation, Georgia coastal.
Southeastern Geology 47(4): 191-206. Nov. 2010.
–Illustrates a vertebra and ribs of an Eocene (mid-Jacksonian) sir. held at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro.
 
 
Anderson, John; De Winton, W. E. (detail)
   
1902
Zoology of Egypt. Vol. II. Mammalia.
London, Hugh Rees, Ltd.: xvii + 374. 66 pls. 1 map.
–Dugong, 359-360.
 
 
Anderson, Laurie Halse (detail)
   
2007
Vet volunteers: manatee blues.
New York, Puffin Books (Penguin Group [USA] Inc.): 1-119.
–Children's novel about treating an injured manatee at a manatee rescue center.
Anderson, Paul K.: SEE ALSO Brownell, Anderson et al., 1981; Heinsohn et al.; Marsh & Anderson, 1983; Masini et al., 2001; Packard, Rathbun et al., 1984; Prince et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979
Dugong behavior: on being a marine mammalian grazer.
Biologist 61(4): 113-144. 10 figs. Nov. 1979.
–Excellent review of dugong ethology with many thought-provoking ideas and speculations, including observations on anatomy, locomotion, respiration and diving, feeding, social interactions, reproduction, defense against predators, resting and calving sites, responses to humans, daily and seasonal movements, and critical aspects of dugong habitat.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1981a
The behavior of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in relation to conservation and management.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 31(3): 640-647. July 1981.
–Abstr.: Symp. Biol. Manage. Mangroves Trop. Shallow Water Communities 2: 15, 1980. Review of selected aspects of dugong behavior (patterns of habitat use, modes of foraging, diel activity cycles, surfacing and diving, net entanglement, responses to boats and divers, social behavior, and capture myopathy) with comments on the implications of each for conservation and management.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1981b
Dugong behaviour: observations, extrapolations and speculations. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 91-111. 2 figs.
–Reviews present knowledge of dugong behavior, mostly citing earlier reports, and contrasts it with comparable published data on manatees.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1982a
Studies of dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia. I. Analysis of population size, composition, dispersion and habitat use on the basis of aerial survey.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 9: 69-84. 6 tabs. 5 figs.
–Presents the results of aerial surveys in Shark Bay, principally on the east coast of Dirk Hartog Island. Estimates a population of at least 923 dugongs in the entire bay (including 10.3-12.6% calves); shows evidence of seasonal movements; and discusses dugong aggregations and their interactions with sharks.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1982b
Studies of dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia. II. Surface and subsurface observations.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 9: 85-99. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Describes in detail the responses of dugongs to the presence of boats, divers, and dolphins; feeding on Amphibolis; surfacing and diving, swimming, local movements, cow-calf relationships, and vocalizations and the lack thereof. Notes possible commensal feeding of cormorants with dugongs (94), and compares herding behavior of dugongs with that of plains ungulates (97-98).
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1984a
Suckling in Dugong dugon.
Jour. Mamm. 65(3): 510-511. Aug. 24, 1984.
–Calves observed at Shark Bay, Australia, most often suckled in an inverted position, unlike manatees; and cows continued other activities during nursing.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1984b
Migration, dietary quality, and winter movements in a subtropical dugong population. [Abstr.]
Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 65(2): 158. June 1984.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1984c
Observations on the behavior and ecology of dugongs on the coast of Queensland.
Natl. Geogr. Soc. Res. Rept. 16: 37-42.
–A gen. acc., summarizing some of the results of Anderson & Birtles (1978).
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1985
What one scientist doesn't know about dugongs and would like to learn.
Sunrise (Kuwait Airways), July 1985: 17. 1 fig.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1986a
Dugongs of Shark Bay, Australia - seasonal migration, water temperature, and forage.
Natl. Geogr. Res. 2(4): 473-490. 3 tabs. 8 figs.
–Demonstrates that seasonal movements within the bay are controlled by temperature, and discusses the nutritional implications of the resultant shifting between a summer diet of Halodule and a less favorable winter diet of Amphibolis. Thermal tolerances of dugongs appeared similar to those of manatees.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1986b
Dugongs: mermaids of the Arabian seas.
Sheraton 2(6): 44-49. 9 figs.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1986c
Dugong behavior and ecology: a study in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Explorers Jour. 64(4): 162-167. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of Anderson's research and experiences with dugongs at Shark Bay, with observations on their responses to boats and other disturbances as tested by simple experiments, and other aspects of their natural history.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1988a
The Shark Bay dugong herd: status, biology and recommendations for research and management.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985): 1: 177-187. 2 figs. Oct. 1988.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1988b
Aerial survey for dugongs: a review and recommendations.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985): 1: 188-198. Oct. 1988.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1989
Deliberate foraging on macroinvertebrates by dugongs.
Natl. Geogr. Research 5(1): 4-6. 1 fig. Winter 1989.
–Records observations of dugongs at Shark Bay, Australia, believed to have been feeding on sea pens (Virgularia sp.) and mussels (Botula vagina).
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1994
Dugong distribution, the seagrass Halophila spinulosa, and thermal environment in winter in deeper waters of eastern Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Wildl. Res. 21(4): 381-388. 2 figs.
–Aerial surveys in winter 1992 confirmed that many Shark Bay dugongs use areas 9-15 m deep in northern Hopeless Reach, where water temperatures are within the range they prefer and where they feed on previously undiscovered beds of H. spinulosa (which they may prefer to Amphibolis antarctica).
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1995a
Competition, predation, and the evolution and extinction of Steller's sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 11(3): 391-394. July 31, 1995.
–Summ.: Papastavrou (1995). Discusses the kelp-sea urchin-sea otter relationship, concluding that it was decisive in the evolution of H. gigas and that human predation on sea otters may have hastened the sea cow's extinction.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1995b
Scarring and photoidentification of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Aquatic Mammals 21(3): 205-211. 2 figs.
–Photography of dugongs from a sailing catamaran documented variation in skin color, 9 types of scars (including some possibly due to sunburn, and parallel scars made by tusks of males), and repeated sightings of individuals in small coves over periods of 2-35 days. Irregularities in fluke shapes could also be observed in deeper water where dugongs dove more steeply.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1997
Shark Bay dugongs in summer. I: Lek mating.
Behaviour 134(5-6): 433-462. 6 figs. May 1997.
–Describes dugong behavior in a shallow, sparsely-vegetated cove of Shark Bay, Western Australia, where presumed males defended small zones of activity, performed displays, and evidently mated. This aggregation of males on display territories meets all the requirements of a classic lek, in contrast to the "mating herd" pattern of sirs. elsewhere.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1998
Shark Bay dugongs (Dugong dugon) in summer. II: Foragers in a Halodule-dominated community.
Mammalia 62(3): 409-425. 3 figs. Dec. 29, 1998.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
2002
Habitat, niche, and evolution of sirenian mating systems.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 9(1/2): 55-98. 3 tabs. 5 figs. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021383827946 June 2002.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K.; Barclay, Robert M. R. (detail)
   
1995
Acoustic signals of solitary dugongs: physical characteristics and behavioral correlates.
Jour. Mamm. 76(4): 1226-1237. 1 tab. 4 figs. Dec. 4, 1995.
–Describes vocalizations of at least nine presumably male Shark Bay dugongs, and associated behaviors: chirp-squeaks during rooting and patrolling (possibly for ranging or advertising occupancy of territory); barks and prebarks during ?territorial defense; and trills and pretrills during ?displays (possibly as intersexual signals).
x
 
Anderson, Paul K.; Birtles, Alastair (detail)
   
1978
Behaviour and ecology of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia): Observations in Shoalwater and Cleveland Bays, Queensland.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 5(1): 1-23. 1 tab. 11 figs.
–Reports results of aerial surveys and observations on surfacing, diving, respiration, feeding, feeding tracks, aggregative and sexual behavior, response to observers, and movements in relation to the tidal cycle; comments on energy budget and vulnerability to human disturbance; and makes comparisons with manatees.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K.; Heinsohn, George E. (detail)
   
1978
The status of the dugong, and dugong hunting in Australian waters: A survey of local perceptions.
Biol. Conserv. 13(1): 13-26. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Reports results of postal questionnaire surveys on dugong status, distribution, movements, ecology, and hunting patterns, with examples of questionnaires used.
x
 
Anderson, Paul K.; Prince, Robert I. T. (detail)
   
1985
Predation on dugongs: attacks by killer whales.
Jour. Mamm. 66(3): 554-556. Aug. 9, 1985.
–Eyewitness accounts of three Orcinus attacks on herds of dugongs in Shark Bay, Australia.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2002
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas). In: W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 1178-1181. 2 figs.
–Ed. 2 (2009): pp. 1103-1106. Ed. 3 (2018): pp. 935-938.
x
 
Anderson, Richard John (detail)
   
1898
Some notes on the manus of the dugong.
Jour. Anat. Physiol. 32(= n.s. 12)(4): 765-767. July 1898.
–Comparison of the dugong and manatee manus: ankylosis, epiphyses, constituent bones, etc.
 
 
Anderson, Richard John (detail)
   
1902
A note on the premaxilla in some mammals.
Verh. Internatl. Zool.-Kongr. (Berlin) 1901(5): 1118-1127. 40 figs.
x
 
Anderson, Richard John (detail)
   
1908
The thickness of the skull in Mammalia.
Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. (77th Meeting, Leicester, 1907): 546-547.
–P. 547: {"The parietal in part is translucent in both manatee and dugong."}
x
 
Anderson, Richard John (detail)
   
1909
The maxilla and palatine in the Mammalia.
Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. (78th Meeting, Dublin, 1908): 744-745.
–Length of intermaxillary suture given as "12" [cm?] in Manatus (745).
 
 
Ando-Mizobata, Noriko; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Arai, Nobuaki; Kato, Hidehiro (detail)
   
2014
Does boat noise affect dugong (Dugong dugon) vocalization?
Mammal Study 39(2): 121-127. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3106/041.039.0208. Mar. 23, 2014.
x
 
Andrada E Silva, José Bonifacio de (detail)
   
1790
Memória sobre a pesca das baleas e extração do seu azeite; com algumas reflexões a respeito das nossas pescarias.
Mem. Economicas Acad. Ciênc. Lisboa 2: 388-412.
–Mentions (389) "more than 20 shiploads per year" of manatees exported from Brazil, ca. 1658 (based on A. Vieira, 1735).
 
 
André, Jessica; Gyuris, Emma; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2005
Comparison of the diets of sympatric dugongs and green turtles on the Orman Reefs, Torres Strait, Australia.
Wildlife Research 32(1): 53-62.
 
 
André, Jessica; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2003
Near infrared spectroscopy as a rapid and inexpensive means of dietary analysis for a marine herbivore, dugong Dugong dugon.
Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 257: 259-266.
 
 
Andreae, Achilles; Keller, Gustav (detail)
   
1901
Thiere der Vorwelt. Reconstructionen vorweltlicher Thiere entworfen von Gustav Keller in München, mit Erläuterungen von Professor Dr. Andreae in Hildesheim.
Cassel: 1-34.
 
 
Andreev, F. V. (detail)
   
1986
[On the organs of sight of the manatee and other Sirenia.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 342-350.
–In Russian.
Andres, L.: SEE Blackburn & Andres, 1968. (detail)
 
 
Andres, L. A.; Bennett, F. D. (detail)
   
1975
Biological control of aquatic weeds.
Ann. Rev. Entom. 20: 31-46.
 
 
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1901
Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Part II).
Geol. Mag. (4)8(10): 436-444. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Nature (London) 64: 582, 1901?
x
 
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1902
Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Part III).
Geol. Mag. (4)9(7)(= n.s. No. 457): 291-295. 3 figs. July 1902.
–Notice: H.F. Osborn (1902b). Describes and illustrates Eosiren libyca, n.gen.n.sp., from the "Middle" (actually Late) Eocene of the Fayum, and briefly compares it with other Eocene and Oligocene sirs. (293-295).
 
 
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1906
A descriptive catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayûm, Egypt. Based on the collection of the Egyptian government in the Geological Museum, Cairo, and on the collection in the British Museum (Natural History), London.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: xxxvii + 324. Frontisp. 3 + 98 figs. 26 pls.
–Abstrs.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 12(3): 165-166?; Nature (London) 74: 175-178?; Sci. Prog. 1: 498?; Geol. Mag. (5)3: 266-269? Sirs., 197-218, pl. 20. Provides a further description of the skull (198-204), mandible (209-210), and postcranial elements (212-215) of Eosiren libyca from the Fayum. Also describes and illustrates (204-209) a skull of "Eotherium aegyptiacum (?)" from the Mokattam Hills which later became the holotype of Protosiren fraasi Abel, 1907, and a mandible thought to be associated with this latter specimen (210-212).
 
 
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1907
The recently discovered Tertiary Vertebrata of Egypt.
Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inst. Wash. 1906: 295-307.
–?Reprinted in Sci. Prog. 1: 668-682, Apr. 4, 1907?
 
 
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1909
The systematic position of Moeritherium.
Nature (London) 81: 305.
 
 
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1912
On the importance of Africa in vertebrate palaeontology.
Jour. E. Africa Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc. 2: 109-113.
–Abstr.: Geol. Mag. (5)9: 454-455.
x
D
Andrews, Charles William (detail)
   
1924
On some similarities in the evolution of the dentition in the Sirenia and Proboscidea.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)13(75): 304-309. Mar. 1924.
–Lists anatomical features shared by sirs. and proboscideans, and discusses resemblances in dental formula, tooth crown morphology, and mode of tooth replacement. Desmostylus is also compared with these, and regarded as a sirenian.
 
 
Andreyev, Aleksandr Ignat'evich (Ed.) (detail)
   
1944
Russkie otkrytiya v Tikhom Okeane i Severnoy Amerike v XVIII-XIX vekakh [Russian discoveries in the Pacific Ocean and in North America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.]
Moscow & Leningrad, Akad. Nauk SSSR, All-Union Geogr. Soc.
–Engl. transl.: Andreyev (1952).
 
 
Andreyev, Aleksandr Ignat'evich (Ed.) (detail)
   
1948
Russkie otkrytiya v Tikhom Okeane i Severnoy Amerike v XVIII veke [Russian discoveries in the Pacific Ocean and in North America in the eighteenth century.]
Moscow, Gosudarstvennoye izdatelstvo geograficheskoy literatury: 1-382.
x
 
Andreyev, Aleksandr Ignat'evich (Ed.) (detail)
   
1952
Russian discoveries in the Pacific and in North America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Ann Arbor, J. W. Edwards, for Amer. Council of Learned Socs.: ii + 214.
–Translation by Carl Ginsburg of Andreyev (1944). Mentions the hunting of "sea-cows" (presumably on Bering Island) by the Glotov-Ponomarev expedition, which wintered on Copper Island in 1758-9 (19-20).
 
 
Andrianavalona, Tsiory H.; Ramihangihajason, Tolotra N.; Rasoamiaramanana, Armand; Ward, David J.; Ali, Jason R.; Samonds, Karen E. (detail)
   
2015
Miocene shark and batoid fauna from Nosy Makamby (Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar).
PLOS ONE 10(6). 4 figs. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129444. June 15, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Madagascar is well known for producing exceptional fossils. However, the record for selachians remains relatively poorly known. Paleontological reconnaissance on the island of Nosy Makamby, off northwest Madagascar, has produced a previously undescribed assemblage of Miocene fossils. Based on isolated teeth, ten taxonomic groups are identified: Otodus, Carcharhinus, Galeocerdo, Rhizoprionodon, Sphyrna, Hemipristis, Squatina, Rostroraja, Himantura and Myliobatidae. Six are newly described from Madagascar for the Cenozoic (Galeocerdo, Rhizoprionodon, Sphyrna, Squatina, Rostroraja and Himantura. In association with these specimens, remains of both invertebrates (e.g., corals, gastropods, bivalves) and vertebrates (e.g., bony fish, turtles, crocodylians, and sirenian mammals) were also recovered. The sedimentary facies are highly suggestive of a near-shore/coastal plain depositional environment. This faunal association shares similarities to contemporaneous sites reported from North America and Europe and gives a glimpse into the paleoenvironment of Madagascar's Miocene, suggesting that this region was warm, tropical shallow-water marine.
 
 
Angelici, Francesco Maria; Grimod, Ivana; Politano, Edoardo (detail)
   
1999
Mammals of the Eastern Niger Delta (Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria): an environment affected by a gas-pipeline.
Folia Zoologica 48(4): 249-264.
 
 
Angelo, Gerardo C. (detail)
   
2018
Timor-Leste: from the sea to the mountains.
Lisbon, Futursílaba 1-440. Illus. May 1, 2018.
–In English and Portuguese. Catalogs more than 1,000 species of animals reported from Timor-Leste, including Dugong dugon.
Anghiera, Pietro Martire D': SEE Martyr, Peter. (detail)
Anglada, R.: SEE ALSO Alvinerie et al., 1977. (detail)
x
 
Anglada, R.; Arnaud, M.; Catzigras, F.; Colomb, E.; Delcourt, A.; Ferrandini, M. (detail)
   
1974
Étude stratigraphique et sédimentologique de l'Aquitanien de la Calanque du Petit Nid (Sausset, Bouches-du-Rhône, France). Découverte d'un squelette d'Halitherium Kaup.
Ann. Univ. Provence, Géol. Méditerr. 1(1): 1-7. 2 figs. 1 pl.
–Engl. summ. Reports skull fragments, vertebrae, and ribs of Halitherium sp. found in Aquitanian (Early Miocene) deposits (1-2).
Ankel-Simons, Friderun A.: SEE Domning et al., 1994. (detail)
x
 
Annandale, N. (detail)
   
1906
Notes on the species, external characters and habits of the dugong.
Jour. Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (n.s.) 1(9): 238-243. Pls. 7-9. "Nov. 1905" (publ. Jan. 10, 1906).
–Detailed account of the external anatomy of an Indian dugong, with comments on dugong behavior and hunting in India, Andaman Islands, and Australia. Halicore australis is synonymized with H. dugong. Stomach contents of one specimen were unbruised green algae.
  According to Pocock (1940: 331), a "final report" on dugong systematics by Annandale was withdrawn because of the publications by Dexler & Freund (1906a, b, c).
x
 
Annandale, N. (detail)
   
1907
The appendicular skeleton of the dugong (Halicore dugong).
Recs. Ind. Mus. Calcutta 1(1): 79-80. 4 figs. June 1907.
–Comments on the pelvis (79) and manus (79-80); the latter is shown to be extremely variable.
 
 
Anné, J. (detail)
   
2016
Chemistry of bone remodeling preserved in extant and fossil Sirenia.
Metallomics 8: 508-513.
–Compares histological sections of Trichechus and Metaxytherium ribs.
 
 
Annixter, P. (detail)
   
1927
Monarch of the lagoons.
Saturday Evening Post 200(25): 16-17, 38, 42, 44, 46, 49. Dec. 17, 1927.
 
 
Anthony, H. E. (detail)
   
1921
Mammals collected by Wm. Beebe at the British Guiana Tropical Research Station.
Zoologica 3(13): 286.
–Manatees at Kartabo, British Guiana.
 
 
Anthony, H. E. (detail)
   
1928
Field book of North American mammals.
New York, Putnam's Sons: xxv + 625.
 
 
Anthony, Raoul (detail)
   
1912
Contribution à l'étude morphologique générale des caractÈres d'adaptation à la vie arboricole chez les vertébrés.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (9)15: 101-342. 74 figs.
Antoine, P.-O.: SEE Welcomme et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Antoine, P.-O.; Abello, M. A.; Adnet, S.; Altamirano Sierra, A. J.; Baby, P.; Billet, G.; Boivin, M.; Calderón, Y.; Candela, A.; Chabain,J.; Corfu, F.; Croft, D. A.; Ganerød, M.; Jaramillo, C.; Klaus, S.; Marivaux, L.; Navarrete, R. E.; Orliac, M. J.; Parra, F.; Pérez, M. E.; Pujos, F.; Rage, J.-C.; Ravel, A.; Robinet, C.; Roddaz, M.; Tejada-Lara, J. V.; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Wesselingh, F. P.; Salas-Gismondi, R. (detail)
   
2016
A 60-million-year Cenozoic history of western Amazonian ecosystems in Contamana, eastern Peru.
Gondwana Research 31: 30-59.
–Early Mioc. record of Trichechinae in South America.
 
 
Antonelli, Giuseppi (Compiler?) (detail)
   
1853?
Storia naturale dei mammiferi. (Vol. I of Storia naturale illustrata del regno animale tratta dalle opere del più distinti e moderni naturalisti Italiani e stranieri.)
Venice, Presso Giuseppi Antonelli: [1]-573. 1100 figs.
Antoni, Brian: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Antrim, James E.: SEE Dierauf, L. A., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H., Jr. (detail)
   
2016
Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.
Science Advances (Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci.) 2(10): e1600936 (14 pp.). 1 tab. 5 figs. + suppl. material. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600936. Oct. 12, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotalrole in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based co-management programs and science-led conservation governance.
 -Estimates that between 92,658 and 138,583 Amazonian manatees were killed between 1904 and 1969.
Antunes, Miguel T.: SEE Telles-Antunes (detail)
Anwar, Mohammad: SEE Gingerich et al., 1993, 1997. (detail)
 
 
Anzolin, Daiane G.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Diaz, E.; Soares, D. G.; Lima Serrano, Ines de; Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Souto, A. S.; Taniguchi, S.; Montone, R. C.; Bainy, A. C. D.; Carvalho, Paulo S. M. de (detail)
   
2012
Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 64(7): 1402-1408. 4 tables. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.04.018 July 2012.
 
 
Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; Carvalho, Paulo S. M. de; Viana, Pitágoras C., Jr.; Normande, Iran C.; Souto, Antonio da Silva (detail)
   
2014
Stereotypical behaviour in captive West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc. United Kingdom 94(6): 1133-1137. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315412001944. Publ. online Feb. 21, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: There is great difficulty in maintaining aquatic mammals in captivity, since the attempt to replicate the environment they live in poses an enormous challenge. Poor captivity facilities without environmental enrichment can lead to different consequences for animal health, including the appearance of stereotypical movements. The aim of this study was to identify these behaviours in three groups of animals, one group of manatees inhabiting a reintroduction oceanarium in Pernambuco (PE) state, and two other groups confined in corrals constructed in natural areas (estuaries), one located in Paraiba state and the other in Alagoas state, all in north-eastern Brazil. Observations were conducted using the focal animal sampling method. It was found that the animals inhabiting the reintroduction oceanarium with no environmental enrichment showed stereotypical behaviour such as 'Back-and-forth' movements, 'Hitting head against the limiting structure' and 'Hitting the muzzle', while animals constrained within estuaries did not. The 'circle swimming' behaviour was present in a higher percentage of the animals captive in the reintroduction oceanarium, although no significant difference between the sites was found. The number and frequency of occurrence of stereotypical behaviours was significantly higher in animals kept in the reintroduction oceanarium in PE than in those of other locations. Based on these results we recommend the use of appropriate environmental enrichment and the reduction of time manatees stay confined in the reintroduction oceanarium.
 
 
Aoki, B. (detail)
   
1913
A hand-list of Japanese and Formosan mammals.
Annot. Zool. Jap. 8: 261-353.
 
 
Aoki, Bunichirô; Tateishi, Shinkichi; Tanaka, Ryô; Furuhata, Kitao (detail)
   
1938
Anatomical notes on the dugong.
Kagaku no Taiwan (Jour. Taiwan Museum Assoc.) 6(5): 491-518. 21 figs. + cover illustrations. Oct. 1938.
–In Japanese with some titles and captions in Engl. A copy of fig. 7, showing an embryo in utero, also appeared on the cover of the Oct. 1937 issue (vol. 5, no. 5).
 
D
Aoki, R. (detail)
   
1915
A contribution of the knowledge of the extinct sirenian Desmostylus hesperus Marsh.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Tokyo 22(266): 412-419.
Aoyama, Susumu: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Apaiwongs, C. (detail)
   
1959
Sea cow in the Gulf of Thailand.
Science (Tokyo?) 13(10): 21-29.
x
 
Appeltans, Ward; + 120 other authors including Domning, Daryl Paul; Self-Sullivan, Caryn (detail)
   
2012
The magnitude of global marine species diversity.
Current Biology 22(23): 2189-2202. 2 tabs. 3 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036 Dec. 4, 2012 (publ. online Nov. 15, 2012).
–Notice: Nature 491: 498, Nov. 22, 2012.
 Includes as Supplemental Information two tables and Supplemental Experimental Procedures (available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036).
 Sirenia mentioned on pp. 2195 and 2197, and in Supplemental Table S2.
 SUMMARY: Background: The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. Results: There are ~226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (~20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are ~170,000 synonyms, that 58,000–72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000–741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7–1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 ± 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. Conclusions: Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century.
x
D
Applegate, Shelton P. (detail)
   
1986
The El Cien Formation, strata of Oligocene and early Miocene age in Baja California Sur.
Rev. Inst. Geol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México 6(2): 145-162. 15 figs.
–Illustrates a partial tooth of Cornwallius sookensis (IGM 3688) from Punta San Carlos, Baja California Sur (157-158, figs. 12-13). The "three desmostylid skulls" said to be in a museum in Mexicali reportedly turned out to be cetaceans (L. G. Barnes, pers. comm.).
 
 
Aquino, M.T.R.; Albasin, B.T.; Alava, M.N.R.; Yaptinchay, A.A.S.; Cadigal, M.I.G.; Solis, E.D.; Lucero, R.; Salting, A.; Cruz, R. (detail)
   
2012
Dugong dugon. Pp. 144–150 in Alava, M.N.R.; Dolar, M.L.L.; Sabater, E.R.; Aquino, M.T.R.; & Santos, M.D. (eds.) Red list status of marine mammals in the Philippines.
Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources – National Fisheries Research and Development Institute: 1-194. http://mwwphilippines.org/2013/07/27/red-list-status-of-marine-mammals-in-the-philippines-book
x
 
Aragão, Amazonas de (detail)
   
1954
Pescarias fluviais no Brasil. Ed. 2.
São Paulo, Edições Melhoramentos: 1-158. Illus.
–First ed., 162 pp., 1947. Account of the harpooning of an Amazon "Manatus", with a figure of "Trichechus manatus" (54-56). Mentions the use of nostril plugs for killing manatees (56), and manatees' habit of submerging by "sliding backward" (55).
x
 
Aragón, Francisco de las Barras y de (detail)
   
1951
El dugong en Filipinas.
Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., Sect. Biol. 49: 265-268.
–Calls attention to a 1792 account of a dugong captured at Manila, and to its economic use in later times, including dugong-atlas bracelets.
 
 
Aragon-Martinez, Arianna; Olivera-Gomez, Leon David; Jimenez-Dominguez, Darwin (detail)
   
2014
Seasonal prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in Antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in Tabasco, Mexico.
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 50(3): 505-511. DOI: 10.7589/2013-05-102. July 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. At the southern Gulf of Mexico, Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal environment for manatees. We tested for changes in prevalence and titers of antibodies to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans, in manatees between dry and rainy seasons. We determined titers for L. interrogans through microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 10 manatees, six during the dry season (DS), and six during the rainy season (RS) in Laguna de las Ilusiones, a landlocked lake hosting a population of about 20 manatees. All individuals were antibody positive (titers >= 100) to at least one serovar. The serovars bataviae, bratislava, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae had overall prevalences >= 50% bataviae, bratislava, and canicola had prevalences during both seasons. Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes had prevalences >= 50% during DS and pomona, tarassovi, wolfii, and autumnalis during RS. Significant differences in prevalence between seasons were found for pomona, tarassovi, and autumnalis Titers of tarassovi, wolfii, autumnalis, and bataviae were significantly higher during RS. There was a high prevalence of L. interrogans during the RS independent of high availability of plant foods, coinciding with the epizootiology of the bacteria that are endemic to tropical regions. Another factor possibly influencing prevalence is high anthropogenic pressure at the lake, causing an increase in potential sources of infection. Because of possible cross-reaction in MAT, further research is needed on the molecular discrimination of serovars in animals in the lake.
 
 
Aragonés I Valls, Enric (detail)
   
1994
Descobriment i excavació del sireni fòssil de Vilafranca (holotip de Metaxytherium catalaunicum Pilleri).
Batalleria 4: 45-47. Nov. 1994.
–In Catalan; Spanish & Engl. summs. Cites three letters proving that the type specimen of Metaxytherium catalaunicum was collected by J. de Moulin in 1869.
Aragones, Lemnuel V.: SEE ALSO Leatherwood et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V. (detail)
   
1994
Observations on dugongs at Calauit Island, Busuanga, Palawan, Philippines.
Wildl. Res. 21(6): 709-717. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports results of shore-based surveys of dugong abundance and use of seagrass beds, and observations on timing of feeding, consumption rate, and creation of circular feeding scars.
x
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2000
Impact of dugong grazing and turtle cropping on tropical seagrass communities.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 5: 277-288. 3 tabs. 2 figs.
–Elaborate simulations of leaf-cropping and rhizome removal in 2 seagrass beds in Australia's Great Barrier Reef region, extending over 1-13 months, showed that "herbivory" improved the structure and dynamics of these communities from the viewpoint of megaherbivores, by altering biomass, detritus volume, productivity, and species composition. Recovery occurred after several months to a year.
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; LaCommare, Katherine S.; Kendall, Sarita; Castelblanco-Martinez, Delma Nataly; Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel (detail)
   
2012b
Boat- and land-based surveys for sirenians. Chap. 20 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 179-185. 3 tabs. 2 figs.
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Foley, W. J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2006
Dugong grazing and turtle cropping: grazing optimization in tropical seagrass systems?
Oecologia 149(4): 635-647.
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Hodgson, Amanda J. (detail)
   
2012a
The role of sirenians in aquatic ecosystems. Chap. 1 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 4-11. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 1 map.
–Includes a box essay by Domning (p. 6, "Rostral deflection in sirenians").
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Marmontel, Miriam; Kendall, Sarita (detail)
   
2012c
Working with communities for sirenian conservation. Chap. 24 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 221-227.
–Includes box essay by Kanjana Adulyanukosol (p. 224, "Thailand").
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Roque, M. A.; Flores, M. B.; Encomienda, R. P.; Laule, G. E.; Espinos, B. G. (detail)
   
2010
The Philippine marine mammal strandings from 1998 to 2009: animals in the Philippines in peril?
Aquatic Mamms. 36(3): 219-233.
 
D
Arai, Juzo (detail)
   
1953
New discovery of desmostylid (Cornwallius? sp.) in the Chichibu basin (preliminary report).
Bull. Chichibu Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 3: 65-86. 8 tabs. 5 figs. 1 pl.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
x
D
Aranda-Manteca, Francisco Javier (detail)
   
1990
Aspectos paleoceanográficos y paleoecológicos de los fósiles del Mioceno, La Mesa La Misión, Baja California, México.
Rev. Soc. Mex. Paleont. 3(1): 97-116. 7 figs. 3 pls. Nov. 1990.
–Engl. summ. Discusses the occurrence of Metaxytherium cf. M. calvertense and Desmostylus cf. D. hesperus in the La Misión fauna (100, 103-104, 108, 111, pl. 3).
x
D
Aranda-Manteca, Francisco Javier (detail)
   
1993
Coexistencia competitiva Sirenia-Desmostylia. [Abstr.]
Memoria del IV Congreso Nacional de Paleontologia, Resumenes (Sociedad Mexicana de Paleontologia): 17-18. Oct. 1993.
 
D
Aranda-Manteca, Francisco Javier; Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
1998
Jamilcotatus kumiaica, a new genus and species of middle Miocene desmostylian. [Abstr.]
Memoria del VI Congreso Nacional de Paleontologia, Resumenes (Sociedad Mexicana de Paleontologia) 6: 4-6. Feb. 1998.
–The new names here are nomina nuda.
 
 
Aranda-Manteca, Francisco Javier; Domning, Daryl Paul; Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
1994
A new Middle Miocene sirenian of the genus Metaxytherium from Baja California and California: relationships and paleobiogeographic implications. In: A. Berta & T. A. Deméré (eds.), Contributions in marine mammal paleontology honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr.
Proc. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 29: 191-204. 3 tabs. 13 figs. May 1, 1994.
–Revs.: S. A. McLeod, Jour. Vert. Pal. 16(1): 183-185, Mar. 19, 1996; J. E. Heyning, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(2): 326-329, "Apr. 1996" (publ. Mar. 29, 1996). Spanish summ. Describes the new species Metaxytherium arctodites, and interprets it as structurally ancestral to the Hydrodamalinae. Also places Hesperosiren in the synonymy of Metaxytherium, and synonymizes M. calvertense with M. crataegense (new combination).
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9DED9347-0159-4EE2-9185-3C0C01C30EC4
x
 
Arata, Andrew A.; Jackson, Crawford G., Jr. (detail)
   
1965
Cenozoic vertebrates from the Gulf Coastal Plain - I.
Tulane Studies in Geology 3(3): 175-177. Pl. 1. May 25, 1965.
–Reports sir. rib and vertebra fragments from the Oligocene of Mississippi (175-177) and Eocene of Alabama (175-176).
Araújo, António: SEE Silva et al., 1999; Silva & Araújo, 2001. (detail)
 
 
Arbocco, Gianna (detail)
   
1969
Pinnipedi, cetacei e sirenii del Museo di Storia Naturale di Genova.
Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. "Giacomo Doria" 77: 658-670.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Ardisson, Pedro-Luis; May-Ku, Marco Antonio; Herrera-Dorantes, Maria Teresa; Arellano-Guillermo, Alfredo (detail)
   
2011
The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System - Mexico: considerations for its designation as a particularly sensitive sea area.
Hidrobiologica 21(3): 261-280. 10 tabs. 4 figs. Dec. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) extends over 1,000 km along the Caribbean Sea of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras. From 1997 onwards these four countries have considered an initiative to designate the MBRS as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The purpose of the initiative is to protect the MBRS against the negative effects of international shipping activities. Such designation would also constitute a mechanism to facilitate conservation and sustainable use of the region's resources. This paper provides a summary of the available information about ecological, socio-economic and shipping activities in the Mexican portion of the MBRS (State of Quintana Roo) that might contribute to the joint countries effort by identifying strengths and weaknesses in complying with the guidelines established by IMO to designate the area as a PSSA.
 
 
Arévalo-Sandi, Alexander Roldán; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly (detail)
   
2016
Interactions between calves of Amazonian manatees in Peru: a study case.
Acta Biol. Colombiana 21(2): 355-364. 2 tabs. 5 figs. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/abc.v21n2.48675 May-Aug. 2016.
–ABSTRACT: Trichechus inunguis is an endemic species of the Amazon, which inhabits mainly in lakes and calm rivers. The objective of this study case was to describe the social behaviour of two female-orphaned calves, of T. inunguis in captivity. They were kept in the same pool at the facilities of the Amazon Rescue Center (ARC, Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon). Between February and October 2011, the individuals were observed during day and night times, completing 352 hours of observation. Through ad libitum observation of the individuals, we developed a catalogue of social behaviors that includes descriptions of 93 behaviours, classifed in eight behavioural categories. The frequency of behaviours was assessed by instantaneous sampling (for states) and continuous recording (for events). Manatees displayed mainly social behaviours, and the most frequent interaction was the simultaneous starting of the same behaviour by both individuals. Most of social behaviours occurred during the day, but 'group resting' was recorded mostly at night. 'Synchronized breathing' and 'group feeding' did not have temporary variation between days or between daytimes. Regarding the use of the space, the majority of interactions occurred in shaded places. This study revealed strong interactions between con?ned calves, suggesting that social activity may play an important role in their learning process.
 RESUMEN: Trichechus inunguis es una especie endémica del Amazonas que vive principalmente en lagos y ríos de aguas tranquilas. El objetivo de este estudio de caso fue describir el comportamiento social de dos crías hembras huérfanas de T. inunguis en cautiverio, mantenidas en el mismo estanque en el Centro de Rescate Amazónico (CREA, Iquitos, Amazonía peruana). Entre febrero y octubre de 2011, las crías fueron observadas durante el día y la noche, para un total de 352 horas de observación. Mediante observación ad libitum de los individuos, desarrollamos un catálogo de comportamientos social que incluye descripciones de 93 comportamientos clasi?cados en ocho categorias comportamentales. La frecuencia de comportamientos fue evaluada por muestreo instantáneo (para estados) y registro continúo (para eventos). Los manatíes exhibieron principalmente comportamientos sociales, y la interacción más frecuente fue el inicio simultáneo del mismo comportamiento por ambos individuos. La mayoría de los comportamientos sociales ocurrieron durante el día, pero 'descanso grupal' fue registrado mayormente en la noche. 'Respiración sincronizada' y 'alimentación grupal' no tuvieron variación diaria entre días o entre horas del día. En lo que respecta al uso de espacio, la mayoría de interacciones ocurrió en lugares sombreados. Este estudio reveló fuertes interacciones entre crías en cautiverio, sugiriendo que la actividad social cumple un rol importante en los procesos de aprendizaje de los manatíes.
 
 
Arévvalo-Gonzalez, G. Katerin; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Sánchez-Palomino, P.; López-Arévalo, H. F.; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2014
Complementary methods to estimate population size of Antillean manatees (Sirenia: Trichechidae) at Ciénaga de Paredes, Santander, Colombia.
Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(6): 5830-5837. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI:10.11609/JoTT.o3156.5830-7. June 26, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Information on manatee population size in Colombia is limited. This study was aimed at determining manatee population size in the Cienaga de Paredes (Colombia) by three different methods: boat-based surveys, side-scan Sonar (SSS) surveys and local interviews. Manatees were counted during breathing events by direct observation during the dry season, with the number of sightings per hour (NSH) and maximum number of simultaneous sightings (MNSS) used as occurrence indices. In 2002, we obtained an average NSH of 27.62 (SD=12.34) and the MNSS was 18; in 2010 the values were 55.71 (SD=29.79) and four respectively. Using linear-transect SSS data we estimated a population size of 12 individuals (%CV=27.3). The local community claimed that no hunting or entanglements had taken place in the area for over 20 years. These methods have pros and cons in terms of investment, effort, efficiency and community involvement, and their efficiency may vary in different seasons. Applying them in a complementary way and at greater spatial and temporal scales could enhance the accuracy of results.
Ariëns Kappers, C. U.: SEE Kappers, C. U. Ariëns. (detail)
Arif, Muhammad: SEE Gingerich et al., 1993, 1995, 1997, 1998. (detail)
 
 
Arldt, Theodor (detail)
   
1907a
Die Entwicklung der Kontinente und ihrer Lebewelt: ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Erdgeschichte.
Leipzig, W. Engelmann: xvii + 729. 17 figs. 23 maps.
x
 
Arldt, Theodor (detail)
   
1907b
Zur Atlantisfrage.
Natw. Wochenschr. 22(= n.s. 6)(43): 673-679. 1 map. Oct. 27, 1907.
–Cites the presence of Manatus and the supposed presence of Prorastomus on both sides of the Atlantic as evidence of former transatlantic land connections (674).
 
 
Arldt, Theodor (detail)
   
1912
Die Fauna der alten Tierregionen des Festlandes.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. Pal., Beilage-Band 34: 633-782.
 
 
Armas, Juan Ignacio de (detail)
   
1888
La zoología de Colón y de los primeros exploradores de América.
Habana, Establecimiento Tipográfico: 1-185.
–Early accounts of manatee hunting, 60-62.
 
 
Armstrong, Este (detail)
   
1982
A look at relative brain size in mammals.
Neurosci. Lett. 34(2): 101-104.
Arnason, Uifur: SEE Irwin & Arnason, 1994. (detail)
Arnaud, M.: SEE Anglada et al., 1974. (detail)
x
 
Arnold, David W. (detail)
   
1996
Saving the manatee ... the State's approach to manatee recovery.
Mote News (Sarasota, Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory) 41(3): 6-7. 2 figs. Fall 1996.
–General overview of manatee conservation and research efforts by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. See also Appendix 1.
Arnold, P. W.: SEE Marsh et al., 1997. (detail)
Arnold, Ralph: SEE Clark & Arnold, 1923. (detail)
 
 
Arnosky, Jim (detail)
   
2008
Jim Arnosky's All about manatees.
New York, Scholastic Inc.: [1-32.] Illus. May 2008.
–Children's book.
 
 
Arnosky, Jim (detail)
   
2010
Slow down for manatees.
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons (Penguin Group [USA]): [1-16.] Illus.
–Book for young children.
 
 
Arraut, Eduardo Moraes; Arraut, J. L.; Marmontel, Miriam; Mantovani, J. E.; Novo, E. M. L. M. (detail)
   
2017
Bottlenecks in the migration routes of Amazonian manatees and the threat of hydroelectric dams.
Acta Amazonica 47(1): 7-18. 4 tabs. 7 figs. DOI: 10.1590/1809-4392201600862. Jan./Mar. 2017.
–ABSTRACT: In a particular region within western Amazonia, Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) live in a floodplain environment that becomes inhospitable for them during the annual low-water season. To flee from it, they undergo a dangerous migration to a refuge while water levels are dropping fast. Our aim was to better understand the role of depth variation in this migratory process. We analyzed the sole tracking data on wild manatees (n=10 males), 30 years of Landsat images, a 14-year hydrograph and a 3-D bathymetric model. Migratory routes contained shallower segments, here called 'migratory bottlenecks', which dried out at the end of most lowering-water seasons, blocking the passage to the refuge. Manatees began migrating just in time to traverse the bottlenecks furthest away, suggesting they fine-tuned their departure so as to maximize time within the foraging home range without compromising safety. They apparently achieved this by estimating depth at the bottlenecks. Moreover, a bottleneck was created in >15 years, illustrating the environment's dynamism and the challenge this imposes upon manatees. Our results are probably generalizable to most of the species' range. We contend manatees possess an updatable cognitive map of their environment and are behaviorally plastic. Current dam-building plans, if implemented, would create more bottlenecks and make flooding less predictable, increasing manatee mortality from unsuccessful migrations. It would also partition the species into small populations, each prone to short-term extinction. The natural outcome would be the second species-level collapse. Economic growth should not come at the expense of the extinction of the iconic manatee.
 RESUMO: Em uma região particular da Amazônia ocidental, peixes-boi amazônicos (Trichechus inunguis) vivem em um ambiente que se torna inóspito para eles durante a água-baixa anual. Para fugir dele, realizam uma migração perigosa para o refúgio enquanto o nível da água desce rapidamente. Nosso objetivo foi compreender melhor o papel da variação da profundidade neste processo migratório. Analisamos os únicos dados de rastreamento de peixes-boi selvagens (n=10 machos), 30 anos de imagens Landsat, 14 anos de hidrógrafa e um modelo batimétrico 3-D. As rotas migratórias possuíam trechos mais rasos, denominados gargalos migratórios, que secaram no final da maioria das vazantes, bloqueando o acesso ao refúgio. Os peixes-boi começaram a migração em tempo justo para atravessar os gargalos mais distantes, sugerindo que a sintonizaram para maximizar o período se alimentando sem comprometer a segurança. Para tal, parecem ter estimado a profundidade nos gargalos. Adicionalmente, um gargalo foi criado em <15 anos, ilustrando o dinamismo do ambiente e o desafio que isto impõe aos peixes-boi. Esses resultados provavelmente valem para boa parte da área de distribuição da espécie. Argumentamos que peixes-boi possuem um mapa cognitivo atualizável do ambiente e são comportamentalmente plásticos. Os planos de construção de barragens hidrelétricas, se concretizados, criariam mais gargalos e regimes de inundação menos previsíveis, dificultando a migração e consequentemente aumentando a mortalidade de peixes-boi. Também particionariam a espécie em populações pequenas, vulneráveis à extinção no curto-prazo. O desfecho seria o segundo colapso da espécie. O crescimento econômico não deve vir às custas da extinção do icônico peixe-boi.
 
 
Arraut, Eduardo Moraes; Marmontel, Miriam; Mantovani, J. E.; Novo, E. M. L. M.; Macdonald, D. W.; Kenward, R. E. (detail)
   
2010
The lesser of two evils: seasonal migrations of Amazonian manatees in the Western Amazon.
Jour. Zool. 280(3): 247-256. 3 tabs. 5 figs. Mar. 2010.
x
 
Arrom, José Juan (detail)
   
1972
Manatí: el testimonio de los cronistas y la cuestion de su etimologia.
Bol. Museo del Hombre Dominicano (Santo Domingo) 2: 33-38. Oct. 10, 1972.
–Concludes that the name "manatí" was derived from the Carib for "breast".
 
 
Arseniev, V. A. (detail)
   
1986
Atlas of marine mammals.
Neptune City (New Jersey), T.F.H. Publications: 1-269. Illus.
–Enlarged transl. of Atlas morskikh mlekopitayushchikh SSSR, 1980. Sirs., 258-261.
 
 
Arseniev, V. A.; Zemskij, V. A.; Studenetskaya, I. S. (detail)
   
1973
[Order Sirenia.] In: Morskie Mlekopitairischie [Marine Mammals].
Moscow, Pishchevaya Promyshlennost (232 pp.): 211-216.
 
 
Artedi, Petrus (detail)
   
1738
Ichthyologia sive opera omnia de piscibus scilicet: Bibliotheca ichthyologica. Philosophia ichthyologica. Generum piscium. Synonymia specierum. Descriptiones specierum. Omnia in hoc genera perfectiora, quam Anthea ulla. Posthuma vindicavit, recognovit, cooptavit & edidit Carolus Linnaeus, Med. Doct. & Ac. Imper. N. C. [Pars Tertia.] Genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae Pars III.
Lugduni Batavorum [= Leiden], Conrad Wishoff: 1-84.
–Allen 209. Here the name Trichechus was first coined for the manatee, and also applied to the dugong (79).
  Peter Artedi and Carl Linnaeus were fellow students and, later, collaborators in an ambitious project to classify the natural world. In The Linnean 17(1): 32, Jan. 2001, we find the following: "Sadly Artedi was drowned in an Amsterdam canal in the early hours of September 28th 1735, following a convivial evening, drinking with his employer Albertus Seba. Previously, Linnaeus and Artedi had made a pact - if one should die, then 'the other would regard it as a sacred duty to give to the world what observations might be left behind by him who was gone.' Accordingly, in 1738, Linnaeus published Artedi's posthumous work Icthyologia [sic]. In so doing, Linnaeus has shown us what an important part Artedi played in the birth of systematics and the methodology he himself used in the Systema [Naturae]."
 
 
Arvy, Lucie (detail)
   
1978
Une erreur historique: la confusion entre foetus sirenien de Ruysch (1638-1731) et foetus narvalien.
Acta Zool. Pathol. Antverpiensia 73: 37-42.
x
 
Arvy, Lucie (detail)
   
1980
L'ostéopétrose mandibulaire chez Physeter macrocephalus L.
Vie et Milieu 30(3-4): 309-314. 1 fig. Sept.-Dec. 1980.
–Engl. summ.Regards the high bone density of sirs. as a pathological condition, "osteopetrosis", possibly due to thyroid malfunction and perhaps even responsible for the ease of extermination of Hydrodamalis gigas, which is supposed by Arvy to have been nearly blind (309, 312)!
 
 
As-Saruri, Mustafa Latif; Whybrow, Peter J.; Collinson, Margaret E. (detail)
   
1998
Discovery of fruits, seeds and vertebrates in the Kaninah and Mayfa'ah Formations (Middle Eocene), Republic of Yemen.
Zs. Geol. Wiss. 26(5-6): 697-703. Illus. Dec. 1998.
x
 
As-Saruri, Mustafa Latif; Whybrow, Peter J.; Collinson, Margaret E. (detail)
   
1999
Geology, fruits, seeds, and vertebrates (?Sirenia) from the Kaninah Formation (Middle Eocene), Republic of Yemen. Chap. 31 in: P. J. Whybrow & A. P. Hill (eds.), Fossil vertebrates of Arabia ....
New Haven & London, Yale Univ. Press (xxv + 523 + 40 pp.): 443-453. 4 figs.
–Reports "a fragmented vertebra, ribs, and other indeterminate bones of a mammal .... The dense bone structure of some rib fragments is suggestive of either Cetacea or Sirenia ribs, probably the latter" (448).
Asano, Kiyoshi: SEE Hanzawa et al., 1961. (detail)
 
 
Asano, Nagao (detail)
   
1938
On the dugong of Palao.
Botany & Zool. Tokyo (Syokubutu Oyobi Dôbutu) 6(6): 1047-1051, 2 figs.; 6(7): 1219-1228, 2 tabs., 12 figs. June and July, 1938.
–In Japanese.
Asano, Shiro: SEE ALSO Aketa et al., 2001, 2003; Kataoka & Asano, 1980, 1981, 1990; Marshall et al., 2003; Nishimura et al., 1981; Wakai et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Asano, Shiro (Ed.) (detail)
   
1993
[Shizen Kinderbook Dugong.]
Shizen [Nature] (Tokyo, Froebel-kan Co., Ltd.) 22(8): 1-28. Illus. Nov. 1, 1993.
–In Japanese. Hard-bound book for kindergarten children, lavishly illustrated with color photos, mostly of the dugongs at the Toba Aquarium.
 
 
Asano, Shiro; Mori, Takuya; Shibata, T.; Kitamura, S.; Sekido, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
1978
Keeping a dugong, Dugong dugon, at Toba Aquarium.
Jour. Jap. Assoc. Zool. Gardens & Aquariums 20(4): 78-85. 3 tabs. 10 figs.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Ash, F. H. (detail)
   
1908
The evolution of the cetacean tail-fin.
Trans. N. Staffords. Field Club 43: 78-82.
 
 
Asher, Robert J.; Lehmann, Thomas (detail)
   
2008
Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals.
BMC Biology 6: 14-25. Mar. 18, 2008.
–Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/6/14
 
D
Asher, Robert J.; Novacek, Michael J.; Geisler, Jonathan H. (detail)
   
2003
Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 10(1/2): 131-194. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1025504124129 June 2003.
–ABSTRACT: Analyses of anatomical and DNA sequence data run on a parallel supercomputer that include fossil taxa support the inclusion of tenrecs and golden moles in the Afrotheria, an endemic African clade of placental mammals. According to weighting schemes of morphological and molecular data that maximize congruence, extinct members of the afrotherian crown group include embrithopods, Plesiorycteropus, desmostylians, and the "condylarths" Hyopsodus, Meniscotherium, and possibly Phenacodus. By influencing the optimization of anatomical characters, molecular data have a large influence on the relationships of several extinct taxa. The inclusion of fossils and morphological data increases support for an elephant-sea cow clade within Paenungulata and identifies ancient, northern elements of a clade whose living members in contrast suggest an historically Gondwanan distribution. In addition, maximally congruent topologies support the position of Afrotheria as well-nested, not basal, within Placentalia. This pattern does not accord with the recent hypothesis that the divergence of placental mammals co-occurred with the tectonic separation of Africa and South America.
 
 
Asher, Robert J.; Seiffert, Erik R. (detail)
   
2010
Systematics of endemic African mammals. Chap. 46 in: L. Werdelin & W.J. Sanders (eds.), Cenozoic mammals of Africa.
Berkeley, Univ. of California Press (xxi + 986): 903-920. 3 tabs. 4 figs.
x
 
Ashley, Gillian (detail)
   
2002
Florida's manatees take a hit.
OnEarth (New York, Natural Resources Defense Council) 24(4): 8. 1 fig. "Winter 2003" (mailed Dec. 2002).
–Brief pop. acc. of the regulatory controversy surrounding manatee deaths from boat collisions.
 
 
Askin, Nesime; Belanger, Michael; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
   
2014
A review of natural milk, commercial replacement formulas, and home-made substitutes used in the care of rescued manatee calves.
Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 7(1): 17-22. 3 figs. July-Aug. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: In marine animal rehabilitation, people with a wide range of education and experience must be knowledgeable on the nutritional requirements of numerous marine species and especially their young that may become abandoned. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) population has on average 10 calves per year requiring rehabilitation in that state alone. A review was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of natural manatee milk (NMM) versus the various milk replacers or 'home-made' formulas fed to rescued manatee calves with respect to maintaining growth and adequate weight gain. Various databases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Internet, etc) were searched (1979-2013) for any literature describing the composition and feeding of NMM and milk replacers to manatee calves. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) website was used to identify the number of rescued manatee calves per year (9.67 ± 3.39, mean ± SD) from 2008 through 2013. Of the 4 research articles describing manatee milk composition and the use of various commercial or 'home-made' formulas, only 2 articles compared growth patterns with the type of milk formulas used. This scant amount of published data alone reveals the need for further research into the use of milk replacers versus NMM when feeding rescued manatee calves. The lack of knowledge in the use of milk replacers or their efficacy in maintaining healthy manatee calves underlines the need for further scientific studies and published results to clarify the proper nutritional requirements to successfully rehabilitate rescued manatee calves and better insure their successful release back into their natural environment.
Asper, Edward D.: SEE ALSO Beusse et al.; Cornell et al.; Dierauf, L. A., 1990; Odell et al., 1981; O'Shea, Rathbun et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Asper, Edward D. (detail)
   
1979
Commitment to manatee health, research: Sea World's role.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(2): 14-17. 6 figs. Nov. 1979.
–See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Asper, Edward D.; Searles, Stan W. (detail)
   
1981
Husbandry of injured and orphaned manatees at Sea World of Florida. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 121-127. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Describes the care of three injured adults and one orphaned calf, emphasizing their diets (including artificial milk formula), food intake, and weight gain. See also Beusse et al. (1981b) regarding the three adults.
Assis Ribeiro, Gilberto de: SEE Best, Ribeiro et al., 1982; Colares et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Assis, M. F. L.; Best, Robin Christopher; Barros, R. M. S.; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y. (detail)
   
1988
Cytogenetic study of Trichechus inunguis (Amazonian manatee).
Rev. Brasil. Genet. 11(1): 41-50. 6 figs.
–Portuguese summ. Describes the chromosomes of 5 male and 4 female manatees and their banding patterns; reports that 2n = 56, FN = 82, and that the nucleolar organizing genes are on the secondary constriction of the short arm of pair 20. Suggests that Robertsonian rearrangements may be responsible for the karyotypic differences between T. inunguis and T. manatus.
 
 
Associação Commercial Do Amazonas (Brazil) (detail)
   
1903
Estatistica do movimento da praça de Manáos relativa ao anno de 1902....
Manaus, Livr. e Typogr. "Palais Royal": 34 unnumbered tables.
 
 
Associação Commercial Do Amazonas (Brazil) (detail)
   
1904?
Annuario estatistico da Associação Commercial do Amazonas. Anno de 1903.
Paris, Typ. Aillaud & Cia.: 1-111.
 
 
Associação Commercial Do Amazonas (Brazil) (detail)
   
1905?
Annuario estatistico da Associação Commercial do Amazonas. Anno de 1904.
Paris, Typ. Aillaud & Cia.: 1-123.
 
 
Astibia, Humberto; Bardet, Nathalie; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Payros, Aitor; Buffrénil, Vivian de; Elorza, Javier; Tosquella, Josep; Berreteaga, Ana; Badiola, Ainara (detail)
   
2010
New fossils of Sirenia from the Middle Eocene of Navarre (Western Pyrenees): the oldest West European sea cow record.
Geological Magazine 147(5): 665-673. 1 tab. 4 figs. DOI:10.1017/S0016756810000130 Sept. 2010.
 
 
Astibia, Humberto; Murelaga, X.; Payros, Aitor; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Tosquella, Josep (detail)
   
1999
Fossil turtles and sirenians from the marine Eocene of Navarre and Jaca Basin.
Geogaceta 25: 15-18. Illus. June 1999.
–In Spanish?
 
 
Astibia, Humberto; Payros, Aitor; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Elorza, Javier; Berreteaga, Ana; Etxebarria, Nestor; Badiola, Ainara; Tosquella, Josep (detail)
   
2005
Sedimentology and taphonomy of sirenian remains from the Middle Eocene of the Pamplona Basin (Navarre, western Pyrenees).
Facies 50(3-4): 463-475. 2 tabs. 7 figs.
 
 
Astibia, Humberto; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Bardet, Nathalie; Payros, Aitor; Berreteaga, Ana; Badiola, Ainara (detail)
   
2006
Nuevos fósiles de sirenios en el Eoceno medio de la Cuenca de Pamplona (Navarra).
Revista Española de Paleontologia 21(1): 79-91. 2 tabs. 7 figs. May 2006.
–Engl. summ. Describes vertebrae and ribs of indeterminate dugongids.
 
 
Astre, Gaston (detail)
   
1954
Gisements les plus orientaux d'Halitherium dans le stampien marin du Bordelais.
Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 89(3-4): 225-227.
x
 
Athanassiou, Athanassios (detail)
   
2004
On a Deinotherium (Proboscidea) finding in the Neogene of Crete.
Carnets de Géologie / Notebooks on Geology (Brest), Letter 2004/2005: 1-7. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–French summ. P. 2: {"Cranial and postcranial remains of a Miocene sirenian, Metaxytherium cuvieri, were found at the village of Achládia, WNW of Maroniá (Markopoulou-Diacantoni & Logos, 2004)."} The locality is in the Seteía District of eastern Crete. The citation is to an abstract in the proceedings of the 10th Congress of the Geological Society of Greece, Thessaloniki, 2004, pp. 152-153.
 
 
Atkins, John (detail)
   
1735
A voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West-Indies; in His Majesty's Ships, the Swallow and Weymouth. Describing the several islands and settlements, viz- Madeira, the Canaries, Cape de Verde, Sierraleon, Sesthos, Cape Apollonia, Cabo Corso, and others on the Guinea Coast; Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c. in the West Indies. The colour, diet, languages, habits, manners, customs, and religions of the respective natives and inhabitants. With remarks on the gold, ivory, and slave-trade; and on winds, tides, and currents of the several coasts.
London, Caesar Ward & Richard Chandler: xxv + 265.
–Allen 202. The 1737 "edition" is identical, having merely a new title page. Describes the external characters of the "Manatea" and the mode of its capture in the Sierraleon River (42-43). See also Prévost (1747).
 
 
Atkinson, Geoffroy (detail)
   
1922
The extraordinary voyage in French literature from 1700 to 1720.
Paris, Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion.
–Discusses the possible sources of Leguat's (1708) sir. material.
 
 
Attademo, F.L.N, Luna, F.O., Oliveira, R.E.M., Lima, S.A., Freire, A.C.B., Silva, F.J.L. (detail)
   
2021
O estado do Rio Grande do Norte como área estratégia para conservação de peixe-boi-marinho (Trichechus manatus) no Brasil.
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente 9(1): 201-209.
 
 
Attademo, F.L.N.; Nascimento, J.L.X.; Sousa, G.P; Borges, J.C.G.; Vergara-Parente, J.E.; Alencar, A.E.B.; Foppel, E.F.; Freire, A.C.B.; Oliveira, R.E.M.; Lima, R.P.; Luna, F.O. (detail)
   
2020
Ocorrências de mamíferos aquáticos no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.
Arquivos Ciências do Mar (Fortaleza) 53(1): 33-51.
 
 
Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; da Bôaviagem Freire, Augusto Carlos; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Lunaa, Fábia de Oliveira (detail)
   
2015
Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).
Marine Pollution Bulletin 1 figure. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.040. Published online October 1, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil.
 
 
Attenborough, David (detail)
   
1957
Animal safari to British Guiana.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 111(6): 850-874. Illus. June 1957.
–Two photos of manatees (862); text (870-871, 873-874) describes capture of a "water mamma" near New Amsterdam for the London zoo.
 
 
Au, Whitlow W. L. (detail)
   
1997
Some hot topics in animal bioacoustics.
Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 101(5, Part 1): 2433-2441.
 
 
Aubert, Alain (detail)
   
1992
La rhytine de Steller, un grand sirenien du Pacifique nord maintenant disparu.
Boreales 50/53: 15-22. Figs.
Audubon, John James: SEE ALSO Proby, K. H., 1974. (detail)
 
 
Audubon, John James (detail)
   
1926
Delineations of American scenery and character. With an introduction by Francis Hobart Herrick.
New York, G. A. Baker & Co.: xlix + 349.
–Manatee, 182.
Auer, Bernhard M.: SEE Anonymous, 1960a. (detail)
 
 
Auil Gomez, Nicole E. (detail)
   
2011
The fate of manatees in Belize. In: M. L. D. Palomares & D. Pauly (eds.), Too precious to drill: The marine biodiversity of Belize.
Fisheries Centre Research Reports (Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada). 19-24. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Sirenians (manatees and dugongs) are the only fully aquatic, herbivorous marine mammals existing today and Belize boasts the largest number of Antillean manatees in the world. Yet, the country's manatee population is considered threatened and may be declining. Manatees have to contend with high-speed watercraft that account for over 20% of their mortality. Also, intentional habitat alteration and industrial practices fragment and destroy the ecosystem they depend upon. Land-based effluent has decimated subaquatic vegetation and has likely compromised individual manatee health in areas such as Placencia Lagoon. High levels of toxic trace elements, including lead, were also found in manatees captured there. With limited data on the threats of contaminants to manatees, a pilot study showed that organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs) in manatees from Chetumal Bay may currently present a threat to their immune function and reproduction. Marine currents may allow PCBs to be present at a regional level. Also, as radio-tracked manatees have been documented to travel between Belize and Chetumal Bay, they are further exposed to organic compounds through inadvertent consumption of sediment during grazing. Added petrochemicals would further contaminate and destroy manatee feeding areas as the toxic components of oil are thought to accumulate in seagrass leaves, making vegetation vulnerable to these stressors. After an oil spill, manatees, dolphins and turtles are exposed to volatile hydrocarbons while traveling and feeding, as shown from surveys following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico. While experiments on captive marine mammals indicate that manatees can withstand small amounts of exposure to, or ingestion of, oil, it is not certain if these animals can detect, avoid, or leave a contaminated area before experiencing significant harmful effects. With very limited data on the effect of oil-related stressors to sirenians, we know that the threats they face today, compounded with the incalculable environmental damage of an oil-related disaster, would certainly affect the chances for survival of the endangered manatees in Belize.
 
 
Auil, Nicole E. (detail)
   
1998
Belize manatee recovery plan. UNDP/GEF Coastal Zone Management Project BZE/92/G31.
Kingston (Jamaica), Belize/UNEP Caribbean Environment Program: 1-72.
x
 
Aung, Sithu Hla (detail)
   
1967
A brief note on dugongs Dugong dugon at Rangoon Zoo.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbook 7: 221.
–Brief account of two dugongs caught near Akyab, Burma, in 1965 and 1966, the latter still alive at writing. Alludes to food, salinity, accidental capture in a fishing net, and status in the Arakan Sea.
 
 
Aven, Allen M.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Powers, Sean P. (detail)
   
2015
Addition of passive acoustic telemetry mitigates lost data from satellite-tracked manatees.
Marine & Freshwater Research 66(4): 371-374. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1071/MF14178. Nov. 26, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Satellite-tracked manatees routinely lose satellite tags or tag functionality, resulting in the loss of valuable data on migration and habitat use patterns. Fortunately, some movement data from these animals remain salvageable because manatees typically retain a peduncle belt containing an acoustic transmitter that can be detected with a submersible hydrophone. We deployed an array of moored datalogging hydrophones at key locations in our study area to detect manatee belt-embedded acoustic transmitters, a technique not typically used to track manatees. Our array was successful in detecting five tagged manatees, and concurrently detected compatible acoustic tags of other estuarine fauna (e.g. Bull Sharks) tagged by local researchers. Moored datalogging hydrophones, therefore, provided a method to mitigate the loss of satellite tags from estuarine megafauna, and enhanced collaborative opportunities with researchers who tagged other species using compatible equipment.
x
 
Averianov, Alexander O.; Yarkov, Alexander A. (detail)
   
2006
Enigmatic bilophodont molariform tooth from the Eocene of Central Russia.
Russian Jour. of Theriology 5(2): 55-57. 1 fig.
–In Engl.; Russian summ. ABSTRACT: A partial upper molariform tooth from the Upper(?) Eocene of Srednyaya Akhtuba, Volgograd Province, is described. The tooth is characterized by an incipient bilophodont structure with paracone and metacone placed extremely labially and almost without the labial cingulum. The tooth is compared with the members of mammalian orders Rodentia, Perissodactyla, Embrithopoda, Proboscidea, and Sirenia having the bilophodont dentition. It is most similar with the teeth of extinct sea cows of the family Dugongidae and may belong to this group.
 
 
Averianov, Alexander O.; Zvonok, Evgeny (detail)
   
2021
First sirenian remains from the Palaeogene of Crimea.
Historical Biology DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2020.1852558 Publ. online Jan. 4, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Fragmentary remains, including two anterior premolars, axis fragment, a phalanx, and rib fragments from the Middle Eocene (late Bartonian) Ak-Kaya locality represent the first sirenian fossils from the Paleogene of Crimea. The lower p3 shows some similarity with p3 in the dugongid Eotheroides sp. from the Eocene of North America. The axis is similar in proportions to the axis of the stem sirenian Sobrarbesiren from the Middle Eocene of Spain. The manual(?) phalanx suggests a semiaquatic adaptation of the Crimean sirenian. These remains are identified as Sirenia indet. with possible affinities with the Dugongidae.
 
D
Avilla, Leonardo S.; Mothé, Dimila (detail)
   
2021
Out of Africa: A new Afrotheria lineage rises from extinct South American mammals.
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9(654302): 1-14. 4 figs. + online supplementary material. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2021.654302 July 5, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: The South American native ungulates (SANUs) are usually overlooked in Eutherian phylogenetic studies. In the rare studies where they were included, the diversity of SANUs was underrated, keeping their evolutionary history poorly known. Some authors recognized the SANUs as a monophyletic lineage and formally named it Meridiungulata. Here, we recognized and defined a new supraordinal lineage of Eutheria, the Sudamericungulata, after performing morphological phylogenetic analyses including all lineages of SANUs and Eutheria. The SANUs resulted as non-monophyletic; thus, Meridiungulata is not a natural group; Litopterna and "Didolodontidae" are Panameriungulata and closer to Laurasiatheria than to other "Meridiungulata" (Astrapotheria, Notoungulata, Pyrotheria, and Xenungulata). The other "Meridiungulata" is grouped in the Sudamericungulata, as a new monophyletic lineage of Afrotheria Paenungulata, and shared a common ancestor with Hyracoidea. The divergence between the African and South American lineages is estimated to Early Paleocene, and their interrelationships support the Atlantogea biogeographic model. Shortly afterward, the Sudamericungulata explosively diversified in its four lineages. Confronting the Sudamericungulata evolutionary patterns and the Cenozoic natural events (such as tectonics and climatic and environmental changes, among others) helps to unveil a new chapter in the evolution of Gondwanan Eutheria, as well as the natural history of South America during the Cenozoic.
  Includes Sirenia and Desmostylia, represented respectively by Protosiren fraasi and Eotheroides, and by Behemotops.
x
 
Axis-Arroyo, Javier; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Torruco-Gómez, Daniel; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia (detail)
   
1998
Variables asociadas con el uso de hábitat del manatí del Caribe (Trichechus manatus), en Quintana Roo, México (Mammalia).
Rev. Biol. Trop. 46(3): 791-803. 7 tabs. 2 figs. Sept. 1998.
–Engl. summ. Statistical analysis of meteorological and ecological variables showed that manatee distribution in Chetumal Bay was most influenced by wind intensity and food availability, less so by salinity, water depth, and group structure, and least by cloudiness and air and water temperature.
 
 
Ayres, E. C. (detail)
   
1994
Hour of the manatee.
–Murder mystery.
x
 
Ayres, José Márcio; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1980
Estratégias para a conservação da fauna amazônica.
Acta Amaz. 9(4), Supl.: 81-101. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
–Discusses conservation problems and recommendations concerning T. inunguis (83-85, 90-92); includes some data on prices of manatee meat in 1979.
 
 
Aznar, F. Javier; Badillo, F. Javier; Mateu, Paula; Raga, J. Antonio (detail)
   
2010
Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortiz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta Caretta, from Japan and the Western Mediterranean: amended description and geographical comparison.
Journal of Parasitology 96(2): 299-307. 1 tabs. 27 figs. DOI: 96 (2): 299-307. April 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The ectoparasitic harpacticoid copepod, Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortiz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) (syn. Balaenophilus umigamecolus Ogawa, Matsuzaki and Misaki, 1997), has been reported on 3 species of marine turtles from the Pacific and the Mediterranean and from the West Indian manatee off Cuba in the Caribbean. The 3 available descriptions of this species were made using light microscopy. In this paper, we provide an amended description of B. manatorum using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) for specimens in the collection from which B. umigamecolus was originally described. This material was collected from 1 loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, from Japan. The use of SEM allowed us to add several new microcharacters to the original description but, more importantly, allowed us to correct a number of the traits originally described. Some of the corrections could affect the interpretation of putative homology and variability of characters among populations of B. manatorum. A SEM comparison of specimens of B. manatorum from loggerheads from Japan and the western Mediterranean suggested the existence of morphological stasis between these populations. However, there were apparent meristic differences with a recently published description of this species from olive ridleys, Lepidochelys olivacea, in Mexico. Although B. manatorum is currently considered as a single, widespread taxon, the possibility that it actually represents a species complex deserves further attention.
Azuma, Yoichi: SEE Takeyama & Azuma, 1987, 1988. (detail)
Azzaroli, Augusto: SEE ALSO Canocchi, D., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Azzaroli, Augusto (detail)
   
1980
Mammiferi terrestri del Pliocene. In: G. Parisi et al. (eds.), I vertebrati fossili italiani: catalogo della mostra, Verona 1980.
Verona, Commune di Verona: 211-215.
x
 
Azzaroli, Augusto; De Giuli, Claudio; Ficcarelli, Giovanni; Torre, Danilo (detail)
   
1982
Table of the stratigraphic distribution of terrestrial mammalian faunas in Italy from the Pliocene to the early middle Pleistocene.
Geogr. Fis. Dinam. Quat. 5: 55-58. 1 tab.
–Considers "Felsinotherium gervaisi" from Val di Pugna to be Late Ruscinian in age because it is "more advanced" than F. serresi from Montpellier (56, 58).

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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