Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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"Amaral, Rodrigo de S"

Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Viau, Priscilla; D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga de (detail)
Noninvasive monitoring of androgens in male Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis): biologic validation.
Jour. Zoo Wildlife Med. 40(3): 458-465. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Lucci, Carolina M.; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Báo, Sônia N. (detail)
Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae) spermatozoa.
Zoologia 27(6): 1014-1017. 11 figs. Dec. 2010.
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
Body weight/length relationship and mass estimation using morphometric measurements in Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Marine Biodiversity Records 3: e105. 4 pp. 2 figs. doi:10.1017/S1755267210000886
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Viau, Priscilla; Nichi, Marcilio; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga (detail)
Monitoring salivary testosterone concentrations from captive Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis): Is there seasonal pattern?
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 23(1): 181-181. DOI:10.1071/RDv23n1Ab156. Dec. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Seasonality of reproduction in many nondomestic animal species appears to represent an accommodation to environmental variables, as food availability, in which influence reproductive success. Males can show a decrease of testicular size, sperm concentration, and serum concentration of testosterone because of food restriction. The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia: Sirenia) is a threatened aquatic mammal, endemic of the Amazon basin (South America), and is the only sirenian that occurs exclusively in fresh water. Although information is lacking about the reproductive endocrinology of free-ranging T. inunguis, they are considered seasonal breeders, with copulation and births occurring between December and July, coinciding with the increase in Amazon basin water levels and the period of most availability of food for the species (Best 1982 Biotropica 14, 76–78). Salivary steroid measurement is a noninvasive way to monitor steroid concentration, which is well correlated with the level of steroids in the serum. The aim of this study was to verify if testosterone concentrations of male T. inunguis kept in captivity, without variation of food availability, show a seasonal pattern. We used 4 adult male Amazonian manatees kept in captivity in the Laboratory of Aquatic Mammals of the National Institute of Amazonian Research–LMA/INPA, Brazil. They were fed all year with paragrass and vegetables, at not less than 8% of body weight per day. For sample collection, the pool was drained and saliva was collected from mouth mucosa using a metal spoon. Samples were collected weekly for 12 weeks in 2 periods (March–June and September–November). Salivary testosterone was measured by RIA for total testosterone using an adapted protocol previously validated for the species (Amaral et al. 2009 J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 40, 458–465) The data were analysed in a 3 × 2 factorial design, where the factors were month (each 4 weeks = 1 month) and period, using GLM test for repeated-measures. The means of salivary androgen levels were 28.80 ± 18.56 pg mL–1 and 30.77 ± 16.76 pg mL–1 for first and second periods, respectively. There were no significant main effects of month (P = 0.454), period (P = 0.607), or interaction between factors (P = 0.635). These results suggest that captive male Amazonian manatees apparently do not show reproductive seasonality. However, it is recommended to verify the existence of variation in testicular size and sperm concentration. This finding is important information for the future reproductive management of captive Amazonian manatee.
Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando Cesar Weber; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga (detail)
Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle in captive female Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
Animal Reproduction Science 142(1-2): 84-88. 1 tab. 1 fig. Nov. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia), a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin, is the only sirenian that lives exclusively in fresh water. Information about the reproductive endocrinology of the Amazonian manatee is scarce; therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor salivary progesterone and estradiol patterns during the ovarian cycle in T. inunguis. Salivary samples were collected daily during a 12-week period of two consecutive years from two captive adult females. The salivary estradiol and progesterone were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The results were analyzed in an iterative process of excluding values that were higher than the mean plus 2 standard deviations until the basal values were determined. The interval between two peaks of salivary estradiol followed by a rise of progesterone was considered as one complete cycle for the calculation of the cycle length. We observed only three complete cycles in all samples analyzed. The cycle length ranged from 42 to 48 days (mean of 44.67 days). We also observed two distinct salivary estradiol peaks during all cycles analyzed, with the first peak occurring before the rise in salivary progesterone and the second occurred followed by a return to basal progesterone levels. This is the first in-depth study of the ovarian cycle in Amazonian manatees. Our results demonstrate that salivary samples can be a useful tool in the endocrine monitoring of this species and suggest that T. inunguis shows a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle, a finding that may have physiological and ecological significance in the reproductive strategy of these animals.
Carmo, Talita Laurie Lustosa do; Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando Cesar Weber; D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; Reisfeld, Laura; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da (detail)
Changes in the blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) after long-distance transportation.
Acta Scientiarum, Biological Sciences 35(4): 591-594. 1 tab. Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.20081 Oct.-Dec. 2013.
–Portuguese summ.
 ABSTRACT: In this study we report the hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters in a juvenile male Amazonian manatee measured before transport, immediately after transport, and during adaptation to a new facility. The animal was transported from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, to São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil, (2,733 km) within 6 hours. Among all blood parameters analyzed, we observed obvious neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and increases in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and serum glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, but these parameters subsequently returned to normal. These results suggest that transport and changes in the environment are temporary stressful events for Amazonian manatees. We, therefore, recommend monitoring the hematological and biochemical parameters before and after translocation to minimize the effects of handling stressors in this species.
Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Souza, Diogo Alexandre de; d'Affonseca, Anselmo; Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Romero, Ricardo (detail)
Mamíferos Aquáticos da Amazônia. Aquatic mammals of the Amazon.
Manaus, Editora INPA: 1-120. Illus.
–Text in both Portuguese and English. Richly illustrated history and description of the Aquatic Mammals Program at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus, Brazil. Preface by D. Domning, pp. 6-7. The Amazonian Manatee Project is covered mainly on pp. 32-41, but numerous other photographs of T. inunguis are scattered throughout.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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