Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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"Anderson, Paul K."

Anderson, Paul K.: SEE ALSO Brownell, Anderson et al., 1981; Heinsohn et al.; Marsh & Anderson, 1983; Masini et al., 2001; Packard, Rathbun et al., 1984; Prince et al., 1981. (detail)
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Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1976
Populations of dugongs (Mammalia: Sirenia): aerial survey over the inshore waters of tropical Australia.
Biol. Conserv. 9(1): 21-23. 1 tab. Jan. 1976.
–Results of surveys in the Townsville and Cape York areas, Sept.-Dec. 1974; several large aggregations seen.
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Anderson, Paul K.; Birtles, Alastair (detail)
   
1978
Behaviour and ecology of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia): Observations in Shoalwater and Cleveland Bays, Queensland.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 5(1): 1-23. 1 tab. 11 figs.
–Reports results of aerial surveys and observations on surfacing, diving, respiration, feeding, feeding tracks, aggregative and sexual behavior, response to observers, and movements in relation to the tidal cycle; comments on energy budget and vulnerability to human disturbance; and makes comparisons with manatees.
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Anderson, Paul K.; Heinsohn, George E. (detail)
   
1978
The status of the dugong, and dugong hunting in Australian waters: A survey of local perceptions.
Biol. Conserv. 13(1): 13-26. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Reports results of postal questionnaire surveys on dugong status, distribution, movements, ecology, and hunting patterns, with examples of questionnaires used.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979
Dugong behavior: on being a marine mammalian grazer.
Biologist 61(4): 113-144. 10 figs. Nov. 1979.
–Excellent review of dugong ethology with many thought-provoking ideas and speculations, including observations on anatomy, locomotion, respiration and diving, feeding, social interactions, reproduction, defense against predators, resting and calving sites, responses to humans, daily and seasonal movements, and critical aspects of dugong habitat.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979a
Australian dugong.
Oceans 12(3): 48-52. 5 figs. May 1979.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R.; Spain, Alister V.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979b
Aerial surveys of dugongs. In: Proceedings of workshop on aerial surveys of fauna populations, Canberra, Feb. 22-25, 1977.
Austral. Natl. Parks & Wildl. Serv., Spec. Publ. No. 1: 85-96. 4 figs.
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Brownell, Robert L., Jr.; Anderson, Paul K.; Owen, Robert P.; Ralls, Katherine S. (detail)
   
1981
The status of dugongs at Palau, an isolated island group. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 19-42. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Reviews historical data on dugongs at Palau, reports the results of two aerial surveys, discusses the natural history, habitat use, and poaching of Palauan dugongs, and recommends research and conservation measures. The population is estimated at no more than 50, with 13-24% calves and an abundant seagrass supply, but the high rate of poaching seems likely to exterminate the population.
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Prince, Robert I. T.; Anderson, Paul K.; Blackman, D. (detail)
   
1981
Status and distribution of dugongs in Western Australia. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 67-87. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports results of aerial surveys, describes environmental conditions in Shark Bay, and discusses prospects for dugong conservation in Western Australia, where dugongs are still abundant and relatively undisturbed. Shark Bay is considered to have unrivalled potential as a dugong study site.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1981a
The behavior of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in relation to conservation and management.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 31(3): 640-647. July 1981.
–Abstr.: Symp. Biol. Manage. Mangroves Trop. Shallow Water Communities 2: 15, 1980. Review of selected aspects of dugong behavior (patterns of habitat use, modes of foraging, diel activity cycles, surfacing and diving, net entanglement, responses to boats and divers, social behavior, and capture myopathy) with comments on the implications of each for conservation and management.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1981b
Dugong behaviour: observations, extrapolations and speculations. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 91-111. 2 figs.
–Reviews present knowledge of dugong behavior, mostly citing earlier reports, and contrasts it with comparable published data on manatees.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1982a
Studies of dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia. I. Analysis of population size, composition, dispersion and habitat use on the basis of aerial survey.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 9: 69-84. 6 tabs. 5 figs.
–Presents the results of aerial surveys in Shark Bay, principally on the east coast of Dirk Hartog Island. Estimates a population of at least 923 dugongs in the entire bay (including 10.3-12.6% calves); shows evidence of seasonal movements; and discusses dugong aggregations and their interactions with sharks.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1982b
Studies of dugongs at Shark Bay, Western Australia. II. Surface and subsurface observations.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 9: 85-99. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Describes in detail the responses of dugongs to the presence of boats, divers, and dolphins; feeding on Amphibolis; surfacing and diving, swimming, local movements, cow-calf relationships, and vocalizations and the lack thereof. Notes possible commensal feeding of cormorants with dugongs (94), and compares herding behavior of dugongs with that of plains ungulates (97-98).
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Marsh, Helene D.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1983
Probable susceptibility of dugongs to capture stress.
Biol. Conserv. 25(1): 1-3. Jan. 1983.
–Reports an elevated blood serum potassium level in a dugong chased by a speedboat and harpooned; recommends caution in research and management actions that may result in stress to dugongs.
 
 
Packard, Jane M.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Best, Robin Christopher; Anderson, Paul K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1984
Sea cows and manatees. In: D. W. Macdonald (ed.), The encyclopedia of mammals.
New York, Facts on File Publs.: 292-303. 15 figs.
–Repr. in: K. Banister & A. Campbell (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York, Facts on File Publs.: 340-349. 12 figs. Dec. 16, 1985.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1984a
Suckling in Dugong dugon.
Jour. Mamm. 65(3): 510-511. Aug. 24, 1984.
–Calves observed at Shark Bay, Australia, most often suckled in an inverted position, unlike manatees; and cows continued other activities during nursing.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1984b
Migration, dietary quality, and winter movements in a subtropical dugong population. [Abstr.]
Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 65(2): 158. June 1984.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1984c
Observations on the behavior and ecology of dugongs on the coast of Queensland.
Natl. Geogr. Soc. Res. Rept. 16: 37-42.
–A gen. acc., summarizing some of the results of Anderson & Birtles (1978).
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1985
What one scientist doesn't know about dugongs and would like to learn.
Sunrise (Kuwait Airways), July 1985: 17. 1 fig.
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Anderson, Paul K.; Prince, Robert I. T. (detail)
   
1985
Predation on dugongs: attacks by killer whales.
Jour. Mamm. 66(3): 554-556. Aug. 9, 1985.
–Eyewitness accounts of three Orcinus attacks on herds of dugongs in Shark Bay, Australia.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1986a
Dugongs of Shark Bay, Australia - seasonal migration, water temperature, and forage.
Natl. Geogr. Res. 2(4): 473-490. 3 tabs. 8 figs.
–Demonstrates that seasonal movements within the bay are controlled by temperature, and discusses the nutritional implications of the resultant shifting between a summer diet of Halodule and a less favorable winter diet of Amphibolis. Thermal tolerances of dugongs appeared similar to those of manatees.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1986b
Dugongs: mermaids of the Arabian seas.
Sheraton 2(6): 44-49. 9 figs.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1986c
Dugong behavior and ecology: a study in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Explorers Jour. 64(4): 162-167. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of Anderson's research and experiences with dugongs at Shark Bay, with observations on their responses to boats and other disturbances as tested by simple experiments, and other aspects of their natural history.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1988a
The Shark Bay dugong herd: status, biology and recommendations for research and management.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985): 1: 177-187. 2 figs. Oct. 1988.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1988b
Aerial survey for dugongs: a review and recommendations.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985): 1: 188-198. Oct. 1988.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1989
Deliberate foraging on macroinvertebrates by dugongs.
Natl. Geogr. Research 5(1): 4-6. 1 fig. Winter 1989.
–Records observations of dugongs at Shark Bay, Australia, believed to have been feeding on sea pens (Virgularia sp.) and mussels (Botula vagina).
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1994
Dugong distribution, the seagrass Halophila spinulosa, and thermal environment in winter in deeper waters of eastern Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Wildl. Res. 21(4): 381-388. 2 figs.
–Aerial surveys in winter 1992 confirmed that many Shark Bay dugongs use areas 9-15 m deep in northern Hopeless Reach, where water temperatures are within the range they prefer and where they feed on previously undiscovered beds of H. spinulosa (which they may prefer to Amphibolis antarctica).
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Anderson, Paul K.; Barclay, Robert M. R. (detail)
   
1995
Acoustic signals of solitary dugongs: physical characteristics and behavioral correlates.
Jour. Mamm. 76(4): 1226-1237. 1 tab. 4 figs. Dec. 4, 1995.
–Describes vocalizations of at least nine presumably male Shark Bay dugongs, and associated behaviors: chirp-squeaks during rooting and patrolling (possibly for ranging or advertising occupancy of territory); barks and prebarks during ?territorial defense; and trills and pretrills during ?displays (possibly as intersexual signals).
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1995a
Competition, predation, and the evolution and extinction of Steller's sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 11(3): 391-394. July 31, 1995.
–Summ.: Papastavrou (1995). Discusses the kelp-sea urchin-sea otter relationship, concluding that it was decisive in the evolution of H. gigas and that human predation on sea otters may have hastened the sea cow's extinction.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1995b
Scarring and photoidentification of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Aquatic Mammals 21(3): 205-211. 2 figs.
–Photography of dugongs from a sailing catamaran documented variation in skin color, 9 types of scars (including some possibly due to sunburn, and parallel scars made by tusks of males), and repeated sightings of individuals in small coves over periods of 2-35 days. Irregularities in fluke shapes could also be observed in deeper water where dugongs dove more steeply.
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Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1997
Shark Bay dugongs in summer. I: Lek mating.
Behaviour 134(5-6): 433-462. 6 figs. May 1997.
–Describes dugong behavior in a shallow, sparsely-vegetated cove of Shark Bay, Western Australia, where presumed males defended small zones of activity, performed displays, and evidently mated. This aggregation of males on display territories meets all the requirements of a classic lek, in contrast to the "mating herd" pattern of sirs. elsewhere.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1998
Shark Bay dugongs (Dugong dugon) in summer. II: Foragers in a Halodule-dominated community.
Mammalia 62(3): 409-425. 3 figs. Dec. 29, 1998.
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Masini, Raymond J.; Anderson, Paul K.; McComb, Arthur J. (detail)
   
2001
A Halodule-dominated community in a subtropical embayment: physical environment, productivity, biomass, and impact of dugong grazing.
Aquatic Botany 71: 179-197. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–Observations at Shark Bay, Australia, suggested that local dominance of a Halodule-Penicillus community is dependent on exclusion of competitots by freshwater and sediment inflows. High levels of UV radiation may set the latitudinal limit of H. uninervis distribution. Dugong rooting may redistribute nutrients and stimulate nitrogen fixation and productivity. Halodule rhizomes may provide dugongs with maximal energy return for foraging effort, and be more important to dugongs than Halodule leaves.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
2002
Habitat, niche, and evolution of sirenian mating systems.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 9(1/2): 55-98. 3 tabs. 5 figs. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021383827946 June 2002.
 
 
Anderson, Paul K.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2002
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas). In: W.F. Perrin, B. W├╝rsig, & J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 1178-1181. 2 figs.
–Ed. 2 (2009): pp. 1103-1106. Ed. 3 (2018): pp. 935-938.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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