Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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"Anonymous"

 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1507
Paesi nouamente retrouati. Et Nouo Mondo da Alberico Vesputio Florentino intitulato. (Montalboddo Fracanzani, ed.)
Vicenza: unpaged, 112 chaps. in 6 books.
–J. C. Rodrigues (Bibliotheca brasilense ..., pt. 1, Rio de Janeiro, Rodrigues & Co.: 440, 1907) reportedly gives a Portuguese transl. and lists 13 other eds. in Italian, Latin, German, and French. C. Malheiro Dias et al. (História da colonização portuguesa do Brasil ..., Porto, Litografia Nacional, 2: 112-117, 1923) published a facsimile of the Italian original with a Portuguese transl. W. B. Greenlee (pp. 53-94 in: The voyage of Pedro Alvarez Cabral to Brazil and India from contemporary documents and narratives, London, Hakluyt Soc., Series 2, No. 81: 1-228, 1938) also reproduces the Italian original with an Engl. transl.; the relevant passages of both are reprinted in Whitehead (1977: 169).
  Whitehead considers this work, which is the earliest one cited in this bibliography after that of Syllacio (1494?), to contain the first published description of the manatee (book 2, chap. 66, leaves 52 verso-53 recto; p. 60 in Greenlee's transl.). The locality was Bahia Cabrália, Brazil; the unknown author was a member of Cabral's expedition.
  A different version of the same account is said to have appeared in Latin in 1571; this was translated into English (in J. Osório da Fonseca, The history of the Portuguese ..., London, A. Millar, 1: 98, 1752) and into Portuguese (in J. Osório da Fonseca, Da vida e feitos de El-Rei D. Manuel ..., Porto, Liv. Civ., 1: 87-88, 1944); see Whitehead (1978: 498).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1765
Lamantin. In: Encycl., ou Dict. des Sci., des Arts et des Métiers.
Vol. 9: 225.
–Allen 294.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1829
The mermaid of the Shetland seas.
Edinb. New Philos. Jour. 6: 57-60. For Oct.-Dec. 1828.
–Report of capture and release by Shetland Islands fishermen of a three-foot-long manatee-like animal. See also J. Fleming (1828).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1868a
Jets over den Lamantijn (M. latirostris).
Jahrb. K. Zool. Genootsch. Amsterdam 1868: 185-188.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1868b
Til Dyrenes Udryddelses historie.
Tidskr. f. popul. Fremstilling. af Naturvidensk. (3)5.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1870
[Dugong oil.]
New Remedies (Australia?), July 1870.
–Notice: Pharm. Jour. & Trans., July 14, 1870: 63.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1872
Dugong oil.
Pharm. Jour. & Trans. (Australia), July 6, 1872: [pp.?]
–Describes a dugong exhibit at the International Exhibition (see Ramsay, 1883?), and discusses the dugong and the commercial prospects for its oil. This evoked a letter from J. McGrigor Croft (Pharm. Jour. & Trans., Aug. 3, 1872: 100) about his own efforts at marketing the oil.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1874a
The manatee at St. Augustine, Florida.
Forest & Stream 2: 276. June 11, 1874.
–Reports sightings of manatees near St. Augustine, and plans to capture one for exhibition.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1874b
Attacked by a menatee [sic].
Field & Stream 2(13): 446. Nov. 14, 1874.
–Brief description of Florida manatee and two accounts of frightened manatees colliding with boats.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1875
Manatee at the Zoological Gardens.
Nature (London) 12: 294-295. Aug. 12, 1875.
–Detailed pop. acc. of sirenian anatomy; comments on the first manatee brought alive (from British Guiana) to England, and on previous unsuccessful attempts.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1876
The walrus formerly in South Carolina.
Amer. Naturalist 10: 561.
–Sir. in Ashley phosphate beds near Charleston.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1878
[Acquisition by St. Petersburg Museum of nine skulls, plus other elements, of Rhytina borealis.]
Zool. Anz. 1: 321.
–P. 321: {"2. NOTIZ. - Die paläontologische Abtheilung des St. Petersburger Museums hat ausser dem so eminent wichtigen Elasmotheriumschädel kürzlich noch eine seltene Bereicherung erfahren. Sie erhielt nämlich neun Schädel nebst anderen Skeletresten der Rhytina borealis."}
x
 
Anonymous (''Redspinner''; pseudonym of William Senior) (detail)
   
1881
Notes on the dugong.
Gentleman's Mag. 251(= n.s. 27): 738-747.
–Interesting account of the Queensland dugong industry, with details on hunting, use of various parts of the animal, and optimistic appraisals of its economic potential.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1882
Steller's manatee.
Amer. Naturalist 16: 406.
x
 
Anonymous (''K.'') (detail)
   
1883
Aus Kamtschatka.
Deutsche Geogr. Blätter 6(1): 92-93.
–P. 93: {"Herr St[ejneger]. wurde von der Smithsonian Institution in Washington zu naturwissenschaftlichen Sammlungen ausgesendet; nach den letzten Nachrichten ist es ihm gelungen, elf wohlerhaltene Schädel und viele Knochentheile der ausgestorbenen Seekuh (Rhytina Stelleri) zu erlangen. Dieser kostbare Fund ist bereits in Washington angelangt. D. Red."} (Notice of L. Stejneger's collection for the Smithsonian Institution of eleven skulls and other bones of Rhytina.)
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1886
Dados estatisticos e informações para os immigrantes....
Pará [= Belém, Brazil], Typ. do "Diario de Noticias": 1-200.
–P. 129: {"A quantidade de mixira de peixe-boi entrada [into Belém from the interior of the province of Pará] nos mesmos annos foi de 48,969 kilos, em 1884; de 23,843 kilos, em 1885; e de 34,351 kilos, em 1886."}
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1886?
Ausrottung der Seekuh.
Globus. Illus. Zs. f. Länder- u. Volkerkunde 54: 125.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1889
Notes from the Zoo. - The manatee.
Saturday Review 67(1749): 527-528. May 4, 1889.
–Reports on a young manatee from Demerara (British Guiana) in London; also mentions two previous specimens there (527). Includes pop. acc. of Sirenia.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1890?
Der zoologische Garten.
Leipzig, Weber.
–A collection of animal illustrations by various artists. The manatee illustration is reproduced by Matthies (1994).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1893
The 'mermaid' at the zoo.
Chambers's Journal 70: 799-800.
–Account of mother and baby manatee brought to London (799-800); popular discussion of sirenians and mermaid legend (800).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1893
SEE ALSO Chobee, O.K., 1893.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1896a
Morŏn dugong.
Vesmír (Prague) 25: 265-266. 1 fig.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1896b
La destruction des espèces. Les lamantins.
Le Cosmos 45(1): 14-15. 1 fig.
 
 
Anonymous (''E. K. [?]'') (detail)
   
1896c?
Ausrottung des Lamantins in Florida.
Prometheus 7: 747.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1897
Manatees.
Saturday Review 83: 36-37. Jan. 9, 1897.
–History of the Zoological Society of London's attempts to import manatees to England (36); suggests that the major cause of death is lack of immunity to local "microbes" rather than temperature (36); comments on sir. evolution (37).
x
 
Anonymous (''J.W.S.'') (detail)
   
1898
Notes from Seminole land.
Forest & Stream 50: 102. Feb. 5, 1898.
–Includes two short paragraphs on Florida manatees and their harpooning by Seminole Indians.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1901
Dugong hunting in the Torres Straits.
Sci. Amer. Suppl. 51(1325): 21238-21239. 3 figs. May 25, 1901.
–Interesting and detailed account of dugong hunting by New Guinea natives, describing techniques (nets and harpoons) and religious observances.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1902
[Manatee at Ft. Myers, Florida.]
Amer. Field 57(4): 78.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1905
Au musée de l'instruction publique. Collection de Bois. Lamantin.
Naturaliste Canad. 31: 121-123. 1 fig.
 
 
Anonymous (Ministerio Das Relações Exteriores, Brazil) (detail)
   
1907a
Memoria da Commissão Mixta Brasileiro-Peruana de reconhecimento do Rio Juruá e relatorio do Commissario Brasileiro 1904-1906.
Rio de Janeiro, Impr. Nacional: 1-212 + annexos A-I.
–P. 98: {"No curso inferior e no médio [do Rio Juruá] surgiam á tona d'agua, de instante a instante, os dous cetaceos: boto, porco do mar, pira-jaguara ou peixe-cao dos indigenas (delphinus) e a goaràba destes, vacca-fluvial ou peixe-boi dos brasileiros (manatus americanus), que é a sereia da fabula. O bôto na vasante faz espera aos peixes pequenos, que descem dos affluentes, para devoral-os."}
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1907b
Dujong? von Kamerun!
Sport im Bild No. 37: [pp.?] 1 fig.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1908a
A manatee in a net.
Forest & Stream 71(14): 532. Oct. 3, 1908.
–P. 532: {{"Fishermen at Ocean View, Va., brought a manatee ashore in their seine last week and it will probably be sent to some museum, as it is a large, healthy specimen of the manatee usually found in Florida waters."}} (See also J.F. Duncan, 1908.)
x
 
Anonymous [C. H. Townsend?] (detail)
   
1908b
Miscellaneous notes. Manatee.
Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 2(29): 427. April 1908.
–Reports that the Florida manatee obtained Sept. 5, 1906, is still living on eelgrass and (in winter) lettuce leaf trimmings.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1909
The commercial possibilities of the dugong.
Sci. Amer. Suppl. 68(1753): 93. Aug. 7, 1909.
–Pop. acc. of Australian dugong, economic uses, and capture with nets.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1910
The Queensland dugong (Halicore sp.).
Zoologist (4)14: 31-33.
–Dugongs said to have once been abundant in northern Queensland; describes commercial dugong fishing at St. Helena after 1855.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1911
Schädel der Stellerschen Seekuh.
Korresblt. Naturf. Ver. Riga 54: 37. 1 fig.
–Photo of skull, published as supplement to C.A. Grevé (1905). The length of the skull is given as 72 cm.
x
 
Anonymous [C. H. Townsend?] (detail)
   
1915
Manatee from Porto Rico.
Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 18(2): 1216-1217. 1 fig. Mar. 1915.
–Brief notice and photograph of 7'7", 437-pound manatee which arrived at the New York Aquarium Aug. 31, 1914 and lived less than 3 weeks.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1916a
A manatee from the Amazon.
Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 19(6): 1419, 1421. 1 fig. Nov. 1916.
–Brief notice and photograph of a "Manatus inunguis" 5' long, brought to New York July 3, 1916; compares its behavior to that of Florida manatees previously at the Aquarium.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1916b
Manatus.
Verh. Natw. Ver. Hamburg (3)24(68).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1917
SEE ALSO Fairchild, D., 1917.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1917a
Real mermaid.
Home Prog. 6: 315-316. Mar. 1917.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1917b
Millions in manatee raising.
Illus. World 28(3): 454. 1 fig. Nov. 1917.
–Maintains that raising manatees for market would be simple and profitable. The photo of a manatee "captured off the Florida coast" is actually of a Puerto Rican specimen and is from Anon. (1915).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1919
Amazon manatee.
Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 22(2): 46. Mar. 1919.
–Reports the death on July 9 [1918?] of a M. inunguis which had lived at the Aquarium for two years. It was found to have "two distinct stomachs"; death was attributed to indigestion associated with this supposed anomaly!
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1923
Mr. Joseph and his manatee.
Lit. Digest 79: 75. Nov. 3, 1923.
–Animal collector Ellis S. Joseph's account of his unsuccessful attempt to bring a Niger River T. senegalensis back to civilization alive.
x
D
Anonymous (detail)
   
1926
Concerning Shark-tooth Hill.
Standard Oil Bull. 14(4): 12, 16. 2 figs. Aug. 1926.
–Illustration and mention of a "sea-cow" [Desmostylus] tooth from Sharktooth Hill in a letter from G. D. Hanna (12).
 
D
Anonymous (detail)
   
1928
An occurrence of Desmostylus in Saghalien.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Tokyo 35: 569-570.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1929?
[Title?]
Current Science (Columbus, Ohio?).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1930
Tritons and sirens.
Lit. Digest 106: 37-38. 1 fig. July 26, 1930.
–Pop. acc. of mermaid legend and sirs.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1932
A guide to Pujehun District.
Sierra Leone Studies 17: 43-64.
–Manatees in Malen River, Lake Kase (now Lake Mape), Sierra Leone.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1933
Un lamentin peché dans le Tchad.
Bull. Économique de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française 9(30): 35. 1 fig.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1934
A Canadian "monster": sea-cow, basking shark or "Cadborosaurus"?
Illus. London News 185(4991): 1011. 4 figs. Dec. 15, 1934.
–Reports a carcass found at Henry Island, British Columbia, thought by "officials of the Provincial Museum at Victoria" to be the last Rhytina. (It was clearly a basking shark.)
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1941
Indicador estatístico do Estado do Pará.
Belém (Brazil), Oficinas Gr ficas do Inst. Lauro Sodré: 1-82.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1945
A new record of the dugong on the Palestine coast.
Bull. Jerusalem Naturalists' Club 12: 1.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1949a
Des lamantins dans l'Uélé?
Zooleo (Leopoldville) (3)1(3): 36. Nov. 1949.
–Notice of F. Colmant (1949).
x
D
Anonymous (detail)
   
1949b
Prehistoric sea cow skeleton is unearthed.
Sci. News Letter 56(20): 313. Nov. 12, 1949.
–Report of a Miocene skeleton found by R. H. Reinhart near Coalinga, Calif.; presumably desmostylian, but described as "the ancestor of the modern sea cow.'
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1952
This is a mermaid? Well that's what science says.
Life 33: 129-130. 4 figs. Sept. 15, 1952.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees, and of a captive specimen at South Daytona, Florida.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1954
Notre lamantin "Goliath".
Zoo (Antwerp) 19: 78. 2 figs.
–Brief notice of recently arrived T. senegalensis, with photos showing healing of wounds suffered in transit.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1955a
The original mermaid.
Time 66(33): 79. 1 fig. Dec. 5, 1955.
–Pop. acc. of Sirenia, South Pacific dugongs, and captive dugong "Eugenie"'s trip to the Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1955b
A pip of a stiff upper lip.
Life 39(24): 73-74. 4 figs. Dec. 12, 1955.
–Pop. acc. of "Eugenie", the dugong at Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1956a
Death of a mermaid.
Newsweek 47(2): 49. Jan. 9, 1956.
–Report of the death of "Eugenie" the dugong at Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, from infection and pneumonia.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1956b
Hear manatee sounds for first time.
Sci. News Letter 70(3): 39. July 21, 1956.
–Reports manatee recordings made in Puerto Rico by Dr. and Mrs. Charles J. Fish.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1958
[Dugongs caught alive off Malindi.]
Illus. London News 233: 693, 792. 3 figs. Oct. 25 and Nov. 8, 1958.
–Pictures of two dugongs captured in Kenya.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1959a
Die Blutkörperchen der Seekühe.
Natw. Rundschau 12(3): 105.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1959b
Shark ray and dugong.
Austral. Mus. Mag. 13(2): 49. June 15, 1959.
–Notice of an adult male dugong stranded at Port Hacking, New South Wales, on Feb. 12, 1959 (see also Marlow, B.J, 1962).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1959c
Sanctuary for mermaids?
Loris 8(4): 256. Dec. 1959.
–Reports the killing of dugongs with dynamite in the Gulf of Mannar, Ceylon.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1960a
The useful manatee.
Time 76(25): 58. 1 fig. Dec. 19, 1960.
–Account of W. H. L. Allsopp's weed-clearing experiments with manatees in British Guiana. The index page of the issue (p. 9) contains a short paragraph about the mermaid legend by Bernhard M. Auer, with a photo of a dugong.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1960b
Manatee for aquatic vegetation control?
Commercial Fish. Rev. 22(4): 5. April 1960.
–States that the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization and the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council were studying manatee vegetation control in Ceylon and Thailand (erroneous; see Anon., 1960c).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1960c
Manatee for aquatic vegetation control?
Commercial Fish. Rev. 22(9): 70. Sept. 1960.
–Correction of Anon. (1960b); FAO and IPFC not studying manatee use. See also U.N.F.A.O. (1961).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1960d
Manatee, the original mermaid. Chap. 27 in: Wild animals of North America.
Washington, D.C., Natl. Geogr. Soc.: 364-365. 1 fig.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1962a
Seekühe sollen den Karibasee frei machen.
Das Tier 2(7): 37.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1962b
Seekuh als Briefmarkentier.
Das Tier 2(12): 28.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1963
Kleine Seekuh erstmals in einem Zoo geboren.
Das Tier 3(8): [pp.?]
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1964a
Manatee for weed control.
Florida Wildlife 18(3): 29-30. 1 fig. Aug. 1964.
–Describes the weed-control study in progress under the direction of Dr. Peter Sguros of Florida Atlantic University. Recounts the netting of 5 manatees in the Intracoastal Waterway by the Miami Seaquarium, and gives their sexes, lengths, girths, and weights.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1964b
Were they Steller's sea cows?
Oryx 7(5): 218. Aug. 1964.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1964c
Is the sea-cow still alive?
Aquarist & Pondkeeper 29(6): 103.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1964d
Use of manatees to control aquatic weeds.
Commercial Fish. Rev. 26(10): 107-108. 2 figs. Oct. 1964.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1964e
Steller's sea-cow.
IUCN Bull. (n.s.) No. 11: 4-5. Apr.-June 1964.
x
D
Anonymous (detail)
   
1965a
14-million-year-old mammal being prepared.
Sci. News Letter 87(4): 49, 53. 2 figs. Jan. 23, 1965.
–Brief pop. acc. of C. A. Repenning's study of the Stanford Paleoparadoxia skeleton, with an artist's reconstruction of the animal in swimming pose.
 
D
Anonymous (detail)
   
1965b
Stanford fossil - studied by U.S.G.S.
Calif. Div. Mines & Geol., Miner. Inform. Serv. 18(6): 124-125. 5 figs.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1966a
This is a mermaid.
Men Only (New York), June 1966: 46-49. 8 figs.
–Pop. acc. of netting and release of Kenyan dugongs for use in a film.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1966b
The Second Oxford Expedition to the Kiunga Archipelago 1961.
Oxford Univ. Exploration Club Bull. 13: [pp.?]
–Preliminary report of P. J. Jarman's (1966) survey of dugong status in Kenya (6).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1967
Manatees, living lawn mowers.
Sci. Digest 62(2): 33-35. 6 figs. Aug. 1967.
–Pop. acc. of manatee weed-control experiments in Florida.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1968a
The homeliest mermaid.
The Sciences (New York Acad. Sci.) 8(5): 3-6. 1 fig. May 1968.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, their use for weed control, and their refusal to breed in captivity.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1968b
[Amazon manatee at Steinhart Aquarium.]
The Casual Crier (Calif. Acad. Sci.) 2(1): 2-3. July 1, 1968.
–Synopsis of the acquisition and treatment for wounds of a specimen obtained Sept. 8, 1967. Notes that the treatment required injection of a total of half a quart of Terramycin, and that since arrival the manatee had eaten over 7,000 lbs. of lettuce (25 lbs./day).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1968c
Taming the timid sea cows.
Sci. Digest 64: 22-23. July 1968.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1968d
Project Big Appetite.
Sci. Horiz. No. 96: 20. 4 figs.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1969
Dugongs in Australia.
Oryx 10(2): 90. Sept. 1969.
–Notice of recent bans on dugong hunting, giving the species protection in all Australian waters.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1970a
Programme de conservation du dugong à Ceylon.
Biol. Conserv. 2: 305-306. 1 pl.
–Survey of the status of dugongs in the Indian Ocean region by Bertram & Bertram; dugong conservation in Ceylon.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1970b
Histoire d'une disparition.
Animaux Découvrir (Paris) 10: 1-22.
–Extinction of Steller's sea cow.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1971
Imagens de um massacre.
Realidade (issue on "Amazônia"): 157-168. Oct. 1971.
x
 
Anonymous (''G.M.'') (detail)
   
1972a
[Question about porpoises "playing" with a sea cow.]
Sea Secrets (4)16(4): 4. July-Aug. 1972.
–A reader reports observations of porpoises in the Loxahatchee River, Florida, throwing sea cows "halfway out of the water", and asks if this could be connected with the washing ashore of a dead manatee after one such incident. The answer notes that porpoises (i.e., bottlenosed dolphins) are playful enough to do this sort of thing, but suggests that the death might have had another cause.
 
 
Anonymous? (detail)
   
1972b
[Title?]
Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources), Nov. 1972: [pp.?]
–Reports that manatees in the Titusville Yacht Basin are attracted to boats being washed and drink the freshwater runoff.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1973a
Workshop on Aquatic Weed Management and Utilisation: "Some prospects for aquatic weed management in Guyana." Georgetown, Guyana, Mar. 15-17 1973.
National Science Research Council of Guyana and National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.: viii + 30 + ix-xiii. 2 figs.
–Outlines prospects and recommendations for manatee use in weed control and for a manatee research center in Guyana (4-5, 17-19). See also Anonymous (1974c).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1973b
Early mammals in Britain.
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Palaeontology Leaflet No. 3: [1-5]. Illus.
–?Reprinted 1975. P. [3]: {"These animals [proboscideans] give no clear indication of the British climate at that time but the presence of a seacow, Felsinotherium, indicates that the waters around Britain were relatively warm and that near-shore marine vegetation was abundant." 1 fig.} The reference is to a 5-million-year-old fauna from East Anglia, doubtless that of the Red Crag, and to Miosiren canhami which is evidently reworked from older beds.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1974a
Another chance for manatees.
Sea Secrets (4)18(3): 10. 1 fig. May-June 1974.
–Reports establishment of a state manatee refuge at Blue Spring, St. Johns River, Florida.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1974b
Our environment. Manatees and dugongs faring poorly, despite protection.
Bull. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 45(11): 8-9.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1974c
An International Centre for Manatee Research. Report of a workshop held 7-13 February 1974 Georgetown, Guyana South America.
Georgetown (Guyana), National Science Research Council: iv + 34. 14 figs.
–Portuguese, Spanish, & French summs. Cosponsors of workshop: National Science Research Council (Guyana), National Academy of Sciences (USA), and International Development Research Centre (Canada).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1975a
Wanted: manatee sightings.
Sea Secrets (4)19(1): 12-13. Jan.-Feb. 1975.
–Describes activities of the new National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory established at Gainesville, Florida, to study manatees.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1975b
Manatee born in captivity.
Sea Secrets (4)19(3): 6-7. 1 fig. May-June 1975.
–Reports the birth on May 3, 1975 of a manatee conceived in captivity at the Miami Seaquarium.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1975c
[Question about "bloated" manatees.]
Sea Secrets (4)19(5): 5. Sept.-Oct. 1975.
–Reports several "abnormally bloated" manatees, including a female with calf, seen in Everglades National Park, and discusses possible causes of this. It is not clear, however, that the animals' shape was any more "bloated" than normal.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1975d
Here's a manatee story.
Ecolibrium (Shell Oil Co., Houston, Texas) 4(2): 20. 1 fig. Summer 1975.
–Informal account of a manatee sighted in the Norco Refinery outfall on Bayou Trepagnier, a tributary of Bayou La Branche, which runs into Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1975e
Workshop calls for manatee research center.
BioScience 25(6): 404-405. Illus. June 1975.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1975f?
Mermaids in danger.
Marine Pollution Bull. 5(5): 67.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1976a
Manatee in the Bahamas.
Sea Secrets (4)20(4): 8. July-Aug. 1976.
–Report of T. manatus observed at Grand Bahama Island in "late 1975".
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1976b
Our diminishing heritage: Dugong Dugong dugon.
S.W.A.N.S. (Perth, Western Australia, Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife, State Wildlife Authority News Service) 6(3): 62-63. 2 figs.
–Partly erroneous pop. acc. of sirs. and of dugong natural history and status in Australia.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1976c
[Manatee birth in Miami.]
Drum & Croaker 16(2): 24.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1976d
Manatee. [On reverse] The story of Juliet.
Instructor (Dansville, N.Y., The Instructor Publications, Inc.) 85(8), Endangered Species Poster #8: color photo on obverse; 2 pp. of text + 5 figs. on reverse. Apr. 1976.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1976e
Dugongs in Australien.
Natw. Rundschau (Stuttgart) 29(12): 437.
 
 
Anonymous (Vietmeyer, Noel D., staff study director) (detail)
   
1976f
Making aquatic weeds useful: some perspectives for developing countries. Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations.
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences: viii + 175. Illus.
–Spanish & French summs. Manatee, 34-40.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1976g
Manatees from KSC waters to be wired for sound.
Spaceport News (John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida) 15(6): 3. 2 figs. Mar. 18, 1976.
–Pop. acc. of capturing a manatee cow and calf and tagging them with sonar tracking devices.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1977a
Dugong steaks for sale.
Oryx 13(5): 439. Feb. 1977.
–P. 439: {{"There is still a dugong market in South India, at Kilakkarai in Tamil Nadu. A decade ago some fishermen fished for dugongs alone, but now few fish exclusively for this endangered species. Dugong meat sells at 4-5 rupees a kilogram."}}
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1977b
Our environment. Critical habitat for four endangered species.
Bull. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 48(1): 5-6.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1977c
Endangered species stamps.
Africana 6(7): 22.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1977d
Miami Seaquarium lucha por la preservación del manatí.
Industria Turistica 20(4): 16. Apr. 1977.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1977e
Sea cows.
Jour. [Bull.?] Emirates Nat. Hist. Group (Abu Dhabi) No. 1: 3-4. Mar. 1977.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1977f
Your excellent manatee.
The Economist, Mar. 19, 1977: 80. 1 fig.
–Brief pop. acc. extolling the potential of manatees for weed control.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1979a
Dugong surveys.
S.W.A.N.S. Western Australia (Perth, Western Australia, Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife, State Wildlife Authority News Service) 9(2): 42-43. 2 figs.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1979b
Commitment to manatee health, research: the laboratory's role.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(2): 18-19. 3 figs. Nov. 1979.
–See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1980a
Last chance for the manatee.
Time 115(12): 49. 2 figs. Mar. 24, 1980.
–Brief pop. acc. of manatee status in Florida.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1980b
Gentle siren in distress: saving the endangered manatee from man.
Life 3(5): 97-98, 100. 5 figs. May 1980.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and manatee conservation efforts, with underwater photos, an aerial view of an aggregation at the Riviera Beach power plant, and a photo of a salvaged carcass.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1980c
Emergency protection area for the manatee.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 5(1): 6-7. 2 figs. Jan. 1980.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1980d
Marine reserve needed for dugongs and turtles.
Oryx 15(4): 344.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1981
Dugongs.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 81/12: 15-17. 2 figs.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1982a
Peixe boi desperta curiosidade.
O Norte (João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil) 75(75): 3. 1 fig. Mar. 19, 1982.
–Reports a 1200-kg manatee drowned in a fishing net at Praia do Bessa, near João Pessoa.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1982b
[Manatee models used in school workshops; fossil sir. rib.]
Sea Secrets (4)26(4): 8-9, 11. 3 figs. July-Aug. 1982.
–Photos of model manatees (8) and a rib fragment dredged from the sea bottom off Clearwater, Florida (11).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1983a
Oil spill slaughters sea cows.
New Scientist 99(1367): 180. 1 fig. July 21, 1983.
–Brief notice of 50 dugong carcasses found after the Nowruz oil spill in the Persian Gulf; expresses the (fortunately unwarranted) fear that these animals constituted "the entire dugong population of the gulf".
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1983b
Helping the manatee.
Natl. Geogr. World No. 98: 10-15. 9 figs. Oct. 1983.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1984a
At home with the manatees.
Southern Living, Feb. 1984: 2va-3va. 3 figs.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1984b
Gulf dugongs resurrect.
BBC Wildlife 2(7): 362. July 1984.
–Suggests that the report (in the previous February's BBC Wildlife) of heavy dugong casualties in 1983 from oil spills in the Iran-Iraq War may have underestimated dugong numbers in the Arabian Gulf. Quotes Peter Dickinson that in Abu Dhabi, probably 40-70 dugongs per year were caught incidentally, and "even 30 years ago, most of the sandals on Abu Dhabi island were dugong leather."
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1985a
The permit system for traditional hunting of dugong: Hope Vale.
Reeflections (Townsville, Australia, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority) No. 15: 8-9. 3 figs. Mar. 1985.
x
 
Anonymous (''HM.'') (detail)
   
1985b
The plight of the manatee.
Southern Living 20(7): 16, 18. 1 fig. July 1985.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees. Appended to it is a notice of the Save the Manatee Committee's new Adopt-A-Manatee program.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1985c
Nota sobre el sirenid fossil de Montserrat.
Geos, Terra (Societat Geologica de Terrassa, Spain) 2.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1986a
Protegidos cetáceos, pinípedes e sirênios.
FBCN/Informativo (Rio de Janeiro, Fund. Bras. Conserv. Nat.) 10(2): 9? Apr.-June 1986.
–Gives the text of Portaria No. N-011 of Feb. 21, 1986, in which the fisheries agency SUDEPE declared T. inunguis and T. manatus to be protected from hunting in Brazil.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1986b
Short news item - Metaxytherium calvertense.
Ecphora 2(2): 2.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1986c
Dugongs return to Persian Gulf after fears of extinction.
New Scientist 109(1500): 25. 1 fig. Mar. 20, 1986.
–Reports the discovery of a herd of 500 dugongs near Bahrain, contrary to fears that the Nowruz oil spill had exterminated the species from the Gulf (cf. Anon., 1983a).
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1987a
Lamantins en détresse.
Le Guido (Abidjan) No. 213: 48-55. Cover illus. + 10 figs. For week of Jan. 28-Feb. 3, 1987.
–Pop. acc. of T. senegalensis and James A. Powell's project in Ivory Coast.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1987b
Another orphan saved.
Sea Frontiers 33(3): 225. 1 fig. May-June 1987.
–Brief pop. acc. of bottle-feeding a baby Florida manatee at Sea World, Orlando; mentions that ultrasound was used to diagnose an intestinal blockage.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1988a
Dugongs.
Reef Note (Townsville, Australia, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority): 1-4. 5 figs. June 1988.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1988b
The manatee: teddy bear of the deep.
Seabreeze (St. Simons Is., Georgia) 3(6): 38-39. 2 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1988.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1988c
[The manatee Trichechus manatus.]
Priroda (Sofia) 1988(2): 110.
–In Bulgarian.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1988d
Some past mammal reports.
The Pangolin: A Quarterly Bulletin on Singapore Vertebrate Fauna (Malayan Nature Soc., Singapore Branch) 1(1): 11-16.
–Reports the capture of a young dugong in Singapore. See also Ho (1988).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1989a
[Manatees drinking from a hose.]
Sea Frontiers 35(3): 187. 1 fig. May-June 1989.
–Report with a photo of two Florida manatees drinking fresh water from a hand-held hose at Cape Canaveral Marina.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1989b
A refuge for manatees.
Florida Naturalist 62(4): [1 p.] Illus.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1989c
Salvando o peixe-boi marinho.
Brasil Florestal (Brasília) 67: 21.
–Notes the reestablishment of a research project on T. m. manatus in Paraíba, Brazil.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1991a
West Indian manatee.
On the Edge (Wildlife Preservation Trust International) No. 43: 11. 1 fig. Spring 1991.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1991b
Threat to manatees.
Marine Pollution Bull. 22(5): 221. May 1991.
–Briefly notes conservation efforts by INPA (Manaus) on behalf of T. m. manatus and T. inunguis in Brazil.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1991c
The mind of a manatee.
Discover, May 1991: 8. 1 fig.
–Brief pop. acc. of Roger Reep's studies of manatee brains, showing that they have large bodies relative to their small but paradoxically complex brains.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1992a
Rumble in Manateeville.
People 37(19): 89. 2 figs. May 18, 1992.
–Brief account of the legal controversy between the Save the Manatee Club, chaired by singer Jimmy Buffett, and the Florida Audubon Society.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1993?
The last sirenians.
Aqua Geographia (Neu-Isenburg, Germany) 6: 60-72. 47 figs.
–Ambitious gen. acc. of the Recent sirs. by the magazine's editors, well illustrated with color photos but unfortunately (and inexplicably) marred by many gross errors of fact. Notable chiefly for the assertions (based on "extensive expeditions by the editors during the last decade") that T. senegalensis is extinct or nearly so, and T. inunguis and T. m. manatus not much better off.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1993a
Sea cows under threat.
Down to Earth, Apr. 30, 1993: 42. 1 fig.
–Very brief item (based on information from R. S. Lal Mohan) noting the threats to dugongs in Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar, India, from poaching and damage to seagrass beds.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1994
The Marine Observer's log. Manatees.
Marine Observer 64(325): 109. July 1994.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1996a
Manatees off.
Sea Frontiers 42(1): 11. Spring 1996.
–Brief update on 1995 mortality of Florida manatees (201 found dead, 55 attributable to human activity).
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1996b
Manatees and boats.
Mote News (Sarasota, Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory) 41(3): 5. 1 fig. Fall 1996.
–Brief report of a study of compliance with speed zone regulations by boaters in Sarasota County, Florida. See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1996c
Effects of red tide on manatee immune functions.
Mote News (Sarasota, Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory) 41(3): 11. Fall 1996.
–Brief pop. acc. of in-vitro study at Mote Marine Lab on the effects of red tide toxins on manatee lymphocytes. See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1996d
Deadly red tides [sic] hits manatees.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32(6): 456-457. June 1996.
–Brief discussion of 1996 manatee die-off in southwest Florida, attributing it at least in part to red tide.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1997a
Homes needed for manatees.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 34(7): 498. July 1997.
–Two-paragraph account of crowding in Florida manatee rehabilitation facilities and the growing need to resort to use of facilities outside Florida, which previously has not been done.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
1997b
Crack down on manatee zone violators.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 34(10): 756. Oct. 1997.
–One-paragraph account of the issuance of some 350 citations to boat operators caught speeding in manatee protection zones in Florida in July 1997.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
2000
Better protection for Australian dugong.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40(6): 467. June 2000.
–Brief announcement of inclusion of Australian dugong populations on Appendix I of CITES, and of increased protection for their habitat under Australia's new Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
2001a
Dugong sanctuaries appear to be working.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42: 336-337.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
2001b
Proyecto de conservación, recuperación y manejo del manatí Trichechus manatus en México.
Tlalpan, Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Serie Prep No. 11: 1-51. Illus. Dec. 2001.
x
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
2005
Dugong conservation in Tanzania.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 50(5): 492.
–Brief description of World Wide Fund for Nature's dugong conservation program at Mafia Island, Tanzania. Mentions 3 dugongs drowned in nets since 2004.
 
 
Anonymous? (detail)
   
2007
Siren song: dugong: lady of the sea.
Ocean Conservancy [vol.?]: 16-21. Winter 2008.
 
 
Anonymous (detail)
   
2009
Speed may not be the main factor in manatee collisions.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 58(1): 3-4. Jan. 2009.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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