Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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"Beck, Cathy A."

Beck, Cathy A.: SEE ALSO Bonde et al., 1983; Bonde & Beck, 1990; Buergelt et al., 1984, 1990; Eros et al., 2000; Forrester et al., 1979; Hurst & Beck, 1988; Langtimm et al., 1998; Marsh et al., 1998; Mignucci G. & Beck, 1998; Mignucci G., Beck et al., 1999; O'Shea, Beck et al., 1985; O'Shea et al., 2001; Wright et al., 1995. (detail)
Forrester, Donald J.; Black, D. J.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
Parasites of manatees. [Abstr.]
Abstrs. 10th Ann. Conf. & Workshop, Internatl. Assoc. Aquat. Animal Medicine (St. Augustine, Fla., Apr. 22-26, 1979): 5.
–Reports Opisthotrema cochleotrema, Chiorchis fabaceus, Plicatolabia hagenbecki, and Microphallidae spp. from 48 Florida manatees stranded between Oct. 1974 and Feb. 1979.
Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
Manatee mortality in Florida during 1978. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 76-85. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–Tabulates county, date, body length, sex, cause of death, and other data on 78 carcasses necropsied. 39.7% of the deaths were attributed to human activity.
Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
Analyses of propeller wounds on manatees in Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 46(2): 531-535. 3 figs. Apr. 1982.
–Concludes from the sizes of propeller wounds that most manatee mortality attributed to propeller strikes is caused by large (>7.3 m) boats with inboard engines and propellers >38 cm in diameter.
Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Manual of procedures for the salvage and necropsy of carcasses of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Gainesville (Florida), U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Denver Wildl. Res. Center (NTIS Document No. PB 83-255273): v + 175. 3 tabs. 23 figs. Sept. 1983.
–Spanish transl. by Angélica I. García-Rodríguez & Diana Antochiw-Alonzo, 2006; updated French version by Lucy Keith & Coralie Nourisson, 2010 (available from PDFs of all 3 versions are available at Gives complete instructions for salvage and necropsy procedures, including sample forms for data recording, current list of anatomical materials requested by researchers, and glossary.
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Pathologic findings in manatees in Florida.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 185(11): 1331-1334. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Describes and discusses necropsy findings in representative cases of boat kills (both impact and propeller wounds), ingestion of monofilament line, drowning, cold exposure, malnutrition, cachexia, and hematogenous bacterial meningoencephalitis and periventriculitis. Mentions the 1982 manatee dieoff caused by red tide near Ft. Myers, Florida.
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Kochman, Howard I.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
An analysis of manatee mortality patterns in Florida, 1976-81.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 49(1): 1-11. 5 tabs. 1 fig.
–Summarizes and statistically analyzes the causes of death of 406 manatees, with regard to season, location, size, and other variables. Winter mortality is considered to be largely attributable to hypothermia and cachexia in newly independent and inexperienced subadults who fail to find warm-water refugia. Sources of human-related mortality and possible means of mitigating them are discussed, and the importance of habitat protection to long-term manatee survival is stressed.
Beck, Cathy A.; Forrester, Donald J. (detail)
Helminths of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, with a discussion and summary of the parasites of sirenians.
Jour. Parasitol. 74(4): 628-637. Aug. 1988.
–Reports the geographic and anatomical distribution and intensity of infestation of parasites in carcasses of Florida manatees, lists all reported sir. parasites, and speculates on the intermediate hosts of the common manatee parasites.
Hurst, Lawrence A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida with techniques for the study of manatee food habits.
U.S. Fish & Wildl. Service Biol. Rept. 88(18): xii + 145. 6 tabs. 93 figs. Sept. 1988.
–Describes microhistological characters of 83 taxa of plants found in manatee habitat in Florida (but does not indicate which are known to be eaten by manatees); provides identification keys and sample data sheets; and details procedures for collecting, processing, and analyzing samples of manatee ingesta and for preparing and photographing reference slides of plants. Includes a glossary and an index.
Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
How the Florida manatees fare today.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 24(1): 8-9. Cover photo + 4 figs. Spring 1990.
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Myxomatous transformation of heart valves in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Med. 21(2): 220-227. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–Thickened atrioventricular valves, found in 8 of 26 manatee hearts, were studied histologically and appeared to be incidental rather than pathological.
Beck, Cathy A.; Barros, Nélio B. (detail)
The impact of debris on the Florida manatee.
Marine Pollution Bull. 22(10): 508-510. 1 fig. Oct. 1991.
–Summarizes carcass-salvage data (1974-86) showing debris ingestion or entanglement.
Beck, Cathy A.; Reid, James P. (detail)
An automated photo-identification catalog for studies of the life history of the Florida manatee. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 120-134. 3 tabs. 13 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 18-19).
Wright, Scott D.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; Banowetz, Donna J. (detail)
Analysis of watercraft-related mortality of manatees in Florida, 1979-1991. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 259-268. 2 tabs. 8 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 23).
Langtimm, Catherine A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Pradel, R.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Ecology 79(3): 981-997. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–Using a mark-recapture approach based on the manatee photo-identification database, adult survival probabilities were found to be high and constant at Crystal River and Blue Spring, but significantly lower and variable on the Atlantic coast. Survival did not differ between sexes, nor was evidence of senescence detected.
Marsh, Helene D.; Beck, Cathy A.; Vargo, Tim (detail)
Comparison of the capabilities of dugongs and West Indian manatees to masticate seagrasses.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(1): 250-255. 1 tab. 2 figs. "Jan. 1999" (mailed Dec. 3, 1998).
–Compares fragment sizes of seagrasses (Halodule and Thalassia) in stomach contents of dugongs and of Florida and Puerto Rican manatees. The fragments from dugong stomachs were smaller despite the dugong's simpler teeth, indicating that other parts of the masticatory apparatus are also important in fragmentation of food.
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
The diet of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2): 394-397. 1 tab. Mar. 31, 1998.
–Stomach contents of 8 manatees included mainly Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme, with small amounts of mangroves, algae, hydroids, and ascidians.
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
Parasites and commensals of the West Indian manatee from Puerto Rico.
Jour. Helminth. Soc. Wash. 66(1): 67-69. Jan. 1999.
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin (detail)
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 64: v + 74. 2 tabs. 20 figs.
–"First Edition." For second ed., see Eros et al. (2007).
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Florida manatees: perspectives on populations, pain, and protection. In: L. A. Dierauf & F. M. D. Gulland (eds.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton, CRC Press: 31-43. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Calls attention to the pain suffered by manatees that survive boat strikes, provides "a simple primer on concepts and uncertainties in manatee population biology", and argues that these uncertainties are no excuse for failing to take management actions.
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms.
Ecological Applications 13(1): 257-268. 4 tabs. 6 figs.
Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Runge, Michael C. (detail)
Capture-recapture analysis for estimating manatee reproductive rates.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 424-437. 4 tabs. 2 figs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Edwards, Holly H.; Fick-Child, Kristin J.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Barton, Sheri L.; Hartley, Wayne C. (detail)
Survival estimates for Florida manatees from the photo-identification of individuals.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 438-463. 11 tabs. 2 figs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
Fertl, Dagmar; Schiro, A. J.; Regan, G. T.; Beck, Cathy A.; Adimey, Nicole M.; Price-May, L.; Amos, A.; Worthy, Graham A. J.; Crossland, R. (detail)
Manatee occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico, west of Florida.
Gulf & Caribbean Research 17: 69-94. 1 fig. 2 appendices.
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Krohn, M. D.; Reid, James P.; Stith, Bradley M.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement.
Estuaries & Coasts 29(6A): 1026-1032.
Clementz, Mark T.; Koch, Paul L.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Diet induced differences in carbon isotope fractionation between sirenians and terrestrial ungulates.
Marine Biology 151(5): 1773-1784. 2 tabs. 3 figs. + online supplementary material. DOI 10.1007/s00227-007-0616-1. Publ. online Feb. 8, 2007.
–ABSTRACT: Carbon isotope differences (?13C) between bioapatite and diet, collagen and diet, and bioapatite and collagen were calculated for four species of sirenians, Dugong dugon (Müller), Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus), Trichechus inunguis (Natterer), and the extinct Hydrodamalis gigas (Zimmerman). Bone and tooth samples were taken from archived materials collected from populations during the mid eighteenth century (H. gigas), between 1978 and 1984 (T. manatus, T. inunguis), and between 1997 and 1999 (D. dugon). Mean ?13C values were compared with those for terrestrial ungulates, carnivores, and six species of carnivorous marine mammals (cetaceans = 1; pinnipeds = 4; mustelids = 1). Significant differences in mean ?13C values among species for all tissue types were detected that separated species or populations foraging on freshwater plants or attached marine macroalgae (?13C values < ?6‰; ?13Cbioapatite–diet ?14‰) from those feeding on marine seagrasses (?13C values > ?4‰; ?13Cbioapatite–diet ?11‰). Likewise, ?13Cbioapatite–collagen values for freshwater and algal-foraging species (?7‰) were greater than those for seagrass-foraging species (?5‰). Variation in ?13C values calculated between tissues and between tissues and diet among species may relate to the nutritional composition of a species' diet and the extent and type of microbial fermentation that occurs during digestion of different types of plants. These results highlight the complications that can arise when making dietary interpretations without having first determined species-specific ?13Ctissue–diet values.
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, M.; Lemm, S.; Pears, R.; Bowater, R. (detail)
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon), second edition.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 85: 1-98.
–First ed.: Eros et al. (2000).
Álvarez-Alemán, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
First report of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba.
Aquatic Mammals 36(2): 148-153. 2 figs.
Beck, Cathy A.; Clark, Ann Marie (detail)
Individual identification of sirenians. Chap. 15 in: E. M. Hines et al., eds. Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 133–138. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Discusses scars, tags, freeze-branding, and genetic analysis.
Beck, Cathy A.; Clementz, Mark T. (detail)
Techniques for determining the food habits of sirenians. Chap. 14 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 126-132. 2 tabs.
–Includes techniques for stable isotope sampling and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Austin, James D.; Clark, Ann Marie; Beck, Cathy A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Oli, Madan K. (detail)
Low genetic diversity and minimal population substructure in the endangered Florida manatee: implications for conservation.
Jour. Mammalogy 93(6): 1504-1511. 3 tabs. 1 fig. + online supporting information. DOI: 10.1644/12-MAMM-A-048.1 Dec. 17, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.
Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Auil Gomez, Nicole (detail)
Diet of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America.
Jour. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 98(7): 1831-1840. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 8 appendices. doi:/10.1017/S0025315417000182 Nov. 2018 (publ. online Apr. 3, 2017).
–ABSTRACT: Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, six digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon) and 124 faecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants and algae consumption was analysed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn, can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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