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"Bonde, Robert K."

Bonde, Robert K.: SEE ALSO Ackerman et al., 1995; Beck et al.; Buergelt et al.; Deutsch et al., 1998, 2003; Eros et al., 2000; Forrester et al., 1979; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Medway, Dodds et al., 1982; Mignucci-G. et al., 2000; Mou Sue et al., 1990; O'Shea, Beck et al., 1985; O'Shea et al., 1991; Rathbun et al., 1982, 1995; Reid et al., 1995; Watson & Bonde, 1986; Williams et al., 2003; Wright et al., 1995. (detail)
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Forrester, Donald J.; Black, D. J.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1979
Parasites of manatees. [Abstr.]
Abstrs. 10th Ann. Conf. & Workshop, Internatl. Assoc. Aquat. Animal Medicine (St. Augustine, Fla., Apr. 22-26, 1979): 5.
–Reports Opisthotrema cochleotrema, Chiorchis fabaceus, Plicatolabia hagenbecki, and Microphallidae spp. from 48 Florida manatees stranded between Oct. 1974 and Feb. 1979.
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1981
Manatee mortality in Florida during 1978. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 76-85. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–Tabulates county, date, body length, sex, cause of death, and other data on 78 carcasses necropsied. 39.7% of the deaths were attributed to human activity.
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1982
Analyses of propeller wounds on manatees in Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 46(2): 531-535. 3 figs. Apr. 1982.
–Concludes from the sizes of propeller wounds that most manatee mortality attributed to propeller strikes is caused by large (>7.3 m) boats with inboard engines and propellers >38 cm in diameter.
x
 
Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1982
Do manatees have a chance?
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 16(1): 3-5. 6 figs. Spring 1982.
–Pop. acc. of the Florida carcass salvage program, causes of accidental manatee mortality, and efforts to control it. See also P. Warhol (1982).
x
 
Medway, William; Dodds, W. Jean; Moynihan, Ann C.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1982
Blood coagulation of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Cornell Veter. 72(2): 120-127. 4 tabs. Apr. 1982.
–Blood samples from 10 Florida manatees showed the presence of clotting factor XII; intrinsic system activities were much higher and extrinsic activities lower than those of the dog; and factor X activity was about the same as in the dog.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Clay, Deborah (detail)
   
1982
The status of the West Indian manatee on the Atlantic coast north of Florida. In: R. R. Odom & J. W. Guthrie (eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Nongame and Endangered Wildlife.
Georgia Dept. Nat. Resources, Game & Fish Div., Tech. Bull. WL5 (179 pp.): 152-165. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Lists and analyzes 160 historical and recent records of T. manatus north of Florida, showing that they decrease sharply in frequency northward and that more northern records are restricted to fewer months of the year. The northernmost record is from Washington, D.C. Manatees do not winter north of Florida, but do use warm-water effluents in Georgia during the spring. Sources of mortality in the northern part of the range include starvation, cold, and commercial shrimp netting.
x
 
Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1983
Manual of procedures for the salvage and necropsy of carcasses of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Gainesville (Florida), U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Denver Wildl. Res. Center (NTIS Document No. PB 83-255273): v + 175. 3 tabs. 23 figs. Sept. 1983.
–Spanish transl. by Angélica I. García-Rodríguez & Diana Antochiw-Alonzo, 2006; updated French version by Lucy Keith & Coralie Nourisson, 2010 (available from coralie.nourisson@gmail.com). PDFs of all 3 versions are available at http://sirenian.org/. Gives complete instructions for salvage and necropsy procedures, including sample forms for data recording, current list of anatomical materials requested by researchers, and glossary.
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1983
Toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis in a West Indian manatee.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 183(11): 1294-1296. 3 figs.
–Histologic description of a case from Florida, said to be the first documentation of disease-caused natural death in a manatee. Drinking from sewer effluents is suggested as the possible cause of the disease.
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1984
Pathologic findings in manatees in Florida.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 185(11): 1331-1334. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Describes and discusses necropsy findings in representative cases of boat kills (both impact and propeller wounds), ingestion of monofilament line, drowning, cold exposure, malnutrition, cachexia, and hematogenous bacterial meningoencephalitis and periventriculitis. Mentions the 1982 manatee dieoff caused by red tide near Ft. Myers, Florida.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Kochman, Howard I.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1985
An analysis of manatee mortality patterns in Florida, 1976-81.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 49(1): 1-11. 5 tabs. 1 fig.
–Summarizes and statistically analyzes the causes of death of 406 manatees, with regard to season, location, size, and other variables. Winter mortality is considered to be largely attributable to hypothermia and cachexia in newly independent and inexperienced subadults who fail to find warm-water refugia. Sources of human-related mortality and possible means of mitigating them are discussed, and the importance of habitat protection to long-term manatee survival is stressed.
x
 
Watson, Alastair G.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1986
Congenital malformations of the flipper in three West Indian manatees, Trichechus manatus, and a proposed mechanism for development of ectrodactyly and cleft hand in mammals.
Clinical Orthopaedics 202: 294-301. 6 figs. Jan. 1986.
–Describes 3 cases of complete or partial absence of digits found among 784 manatee carcasses salvaged in the southeastern USA.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1990
How the Florida manatees fare today.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 24(1): 8-9. Cover photo + 4 figs. Spring 1990.
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1990
Myxomatous transformation of heart valves in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Med. 21(2): 220-227. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–Thickened atrioventricular valves, found in 8 of 26 manatee hearts, were studied histologically and appeared to be incidental rather than pathological.
 
 
Mou Sue, Luis L.; Chen, David H.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1990
Distribution and status of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Panama.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 6(3): 234-241. 1 tab. 1 fig. July 1990.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Buergelt, Claus D.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1991
An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(2): 165-179. 1 tab. 3 figs. Apr. 30, 1991.
–Deaths of 37 manatees near Ft. Myers, Florida, in early 1982 are attributed to neurotoxicity resulting from concentration of red tide organisms (Gymnodinium breve) by ascidians on which the manatees fed. Unusual circumstances of temperature and salinity also contributed to this catastrophic kill.
x
 
Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1993
Manatees in Florida: a personal perspective.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 27(1): 16-18. 4 figs. Spring/Summer 1993.
–Gen. acc. of manatee research and conservation efforts in Florida.
x
 
Ackerman, Bruce B.; Wright, Scott D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Banowetz, Donna J. (detail)
   
1995
Trends and patterns in mortality of manatees in Florida, 1974-1992. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 223-258. 23 tabs. 10 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 22). Statistical analysis of data from over 2,000 recovered carcasses shows a 5.9%/yr. increase in number of carcasses, 9.3%/yr. increase in deaths from watercraft collisions, 11.9%/yr. increase in perinatal deaths, and no significant change in other human-related causes of death. Geographical and seasonal patterns in mortality are also documented, as are catastrophic die-offs. Threats to manatees and their habitat are expected to increase.
 
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1995
Reproduction in free-ranging Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 135-156. 5 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 19-20).
 
 
Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1995
Reproduction and mortality of radio-tagged and recognizable manatees on the Atlantic coast of Florida. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 171-191. 9 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 20-21).
 
 
Wright, Scott D.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; Banowetz, Donna J. (detail)
   
1995
Analysis of watercraft-related mortality of manatees in Florida, 1979-1991. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 259-268. 2 tabs. 8 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 23).
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Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Reid, James P. (detail)
   
1998
Radio-tracking manatees from land and space: tag design, implementation, and lessons learned from long-term study.
Marine Technology Society Jour. 32(1): 18-29. 5 figs.
–Traces the development of the manatee radio-tag assembly, and describes how the technology has been implemented in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, including capture and tagging methods, strengths and weaknesses of the current tag design, relative merits of VHF and satellite-monitored PTT transmitters, contributions of radio-tagging to studies of manatee biology, and promising new developments in tag technology and analytical methods.
 
 
Garcia-Rodriguez, Angela I.; Bowen, B. W.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Mignucci Giannoni, Antonio A.; Marmontel, Miriam; Montoya Ospina, Ruby A.; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Rudin, M.; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
1998
Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?
Molecular Ecology 7(9): 1137-1149. 6 tabs. 2 figs. + cover photo. Sept. 1998.
 
 
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin (detail)
   
2000
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 64: v + 74. 2 tabs. 20 figs.
–"First Edition." For second ed., see Eros et al. (2007).
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Jiménez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2000
Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico.
Envir. Management 25(2): 189-198. Feb. 2000.
 
 
Gray, Brian A.; Zori, Robert T.; McGuire, Peter M.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2002
A first generation cytogenetic ideogram for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) based on multiple chromosome banding techniques.
Hereditas 137(3): 215-223. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Deutsch, Charles J.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, Howard I.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
2003
Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Wildlife Monographs No. 151: 1-77. Frontisp. 10 tabs. 19 figs. Jan. 2003.
 
 
Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Bonde, Robert K.; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Preen, Anthony R.; Cockcroft, Vic G. (detail)
   
2003
Echeneid-sirenian interactions, with information on sharksucker diet.
Jour. Fish Biology 63(5): 1176-1183. 1 fig.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2004
Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?
EcoHealth 1: 255-262. 2 figs.
 
 
Woodruff, R. A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Bonilla, J. A.; Romero, C. H. (detail)
   
2005
Molecular identification of a papilloma virus from cutaneous lesions of captive and free-ranging Florida manatees.
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 41(2): 437-441.
 
 
Bledsoe, Erin L.; Harr, Kendal E.; Cichra, Mary F.; Philips, Edward J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Lowe, Mark T. (detail)
   
2006
A comparison of biofouling communities associated with free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 22(4): 997-1003. 1 tab. Oct. 2006.
 
 
Harr, Kendal E.; Harvey, J. W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Murphy, David; Lowe, Mark T.; Menchaca, M.; Haubold, Elsa M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth (detail)
   
2006
Comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildl. Med. 37(2): 151-159.
 
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2006
The Florida manatee: biology and conservation.
Gainesville, Univ. Press of Florida: xviii + 190. Illus.
–Reviews: Lemnuel Aragones, Bull. Mar. Sci. 79(1): 240-241, July 2006; Daniel K. Odell, Florida Scientist 70(3): 303-304, Summer 2007; John E. Reynolds III, Aquatic Mammals 33(2): 251, 2007.
 Ed. 2: May 2021, 338 pp.
 
 
Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Estrada, Amara; Bonde, Robert K.; Wong, Arthur; Estrada, Daniel J.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2006
Electrocardiography in two subspecies of manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus).
Jour. Zoo & Wildl. Med. 37(4): 447-453. 2 tabs. 6 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were recorded in two subspecies of awake, apparently healthy, wild manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus) undergoing routine field examinations in Florida and Belize. Six unsedated juveniles (dependent and independent calves) and 6 adults were restrained in ventral recumbency for ECG measurements. Six lead ECGs were recorded for all manatees and the following parameters were determined: heart rate and rhythm; P, QRS, and T wave morphology, amplitude, and duration; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Statistical differences using a t-test for equality of means were determined. No statistical difference was seen based on sex or subspecies of manatees in the above measured criteria. Statistical differences existed in heart rate (P=0.047), P wave duration (P=0.019), PR interval (P=0.025), and MEA (P=0.021) between adult manatees and calves. Our findings revealed normal sinus rhythms, no detectable arrhythmias, prolonged PR and QT intervals, prolonged P wave duration, and small R wave amplitude as compared with Cetacea and other marine mammals. This paper documents the techniques for and baseline recordings of ECGs in juvenile and adult free-living manatees. It also demonstrates that continual assessment of cardiac electrical activity in the awake manatee can be completed and can be used to aid veterinarians and biologists in routine health assessment, during procedures, and in detecting the presence of cardiac disease or dysfunction.
 
 
Vianna, Juliana A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Caballero, Susana; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Pinto de Lima, Régis; Clark, Annmarie; Marmontel, Miriam; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Souza, Maria José de; Parr, Leslee; Rodríguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Santos, Fabrício R. (detail)
   
2006
Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation.
Molec. Ecol. 15: 433-447. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, M.; Lemm, S.; Pears, R.; Bowater, R. (detail)
   
2007
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon), second edition.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 85: 1-98.
–First ed.: Eros et al. (2000).
 
 
Pardini, A. T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Elder, F. F. B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T. J. (detail)
   
2007
Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria.
Proc. Roy. Soc. B 274: 1333-1340. 3 figs. Publ. online Mar. 20, 2007.
 
 
Pause, Kimberly C.; Nourisson, Coralie; Clark, A.; Kellogg, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2007
Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Molec. Ecol. Notes 7: 1073-1076.
 
 
Stavros, H. W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Fair, P. A. (detail)
   
2008
Concentrations of trace elements in blood and skin of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56(6): 1221-1225.
 
 
Tripp, Kathleen M.; Verstegen, John P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Rodriguez, M.; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Schmitt, D. L.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2008
Validation of a serum immunoassay to measure progesterone and diagnose pregnancy in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Theriogenology 70(7): 1030-1040.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, Kendal E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, Michael T.; Nolan, E. C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Pate, M. G.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Edwards, Holly H.; Clapp, W. L. (detail)
   
2009
Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Veter. Clin. Pathol. 38(2): 183-193.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Broderick, Damien; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2009
Sexing sirenians: validation of visual and molecular sex determination in both wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mamms. 35(2): 187-192. 1 fig.
 
 
Alves-Stanley, C. D.; Worthy, Graham A. J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2010
Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 402: 255-267.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E. Kellogg; Auil Gomez, Nicole E.; Tucker, K. P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2010
Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee.
Animal Conservation 13: 592-602. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E. Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2010
Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.
Molecular Ecology Resources 10(2): 368-377. 4 tabs.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2010
Physiological response of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) to out-of-water sampling for health assessment.
Aquatic Mammals 36(1): 46-58. 2 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.36.1.2010.46. Jan. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a vulnerable marine mammal with large populations living in urban Queensland waters. A mark-recapture program for wild dugongs has been ongoing in southern Queensland since 2001. This program has involved capture and in-water sampling of more than 700 dugongs where animals have been held at the water surface for 5 min to be gene-tagged, measured, and biopsied. In 2008, this program expanded to examine more comprehensively body condition, reproductive status, and the health of wild dugongs in Moreton Bay. Using Sea World's research vessel, captured dugongs were lifted onto a boat and sampled out-of-water to obtain accurate body weights and morphometrics, collect blood and urine samples for baseline health parameters and hormone profiles, and ultrasound females for pregnancy status. In all, 30 dugongs, including two pregnant females, were sampled over 10 d and restrained on deck for up to 55 min each while biological data were collected. Each of the dugongs had their basic temperature-heart rate-respiration (THR) monitored throughout their period of handling, following protocols developed for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). This paper reports on the physiological response of captured dugongs during this out-of-water operation as indicated by their vital signs and the suitability of the manatee monitoring protocols to this related sirenian species. A recommendation is made that the range of vital signs of these wild dugongs be used as benchmark criteria of normal parameters for other studies that intend to sample dugongs out-of-water.
 
 
Tripp, Kathleen M.; Verstegen, John P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; De Wit, Martine; Manire, Charles A.; Gaspard, Joseph; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2010
Evaluation of adrenocortical function in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Zoo Biology 29: 1-15. 3 tabs.
–[Or: vol. 30(1): 17-31, 2011?]
 
 
Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred Bennett; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je (detail)
   
2011
Seroepidemiology of TmPV-1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 47(3): 673-684. 5 tabs. 2 figs. + cover photo. July 2011.
 
 
Harr, Kendal E., Rember, R., Ginn, P. E., Lightsey, Jessica D., Keller, M., Reid, James P., Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2011
Serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(4): 1026-1031. 1 tab. 1 fig.
 
 
Nourisson, Coralie; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth A.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Clark, AnnMarie; Olivera-Gómez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2011
Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation.
Genetica 139: 833-842. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI 10.1007/s10709-011-9583-z.
 
 
Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E., III; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E. (detail)
   
2011
Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status.
Endangered Species Research 14: 107-112. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.3354/esr00346. Publ. online June 22, 2011.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Hunter, Margaret E. (detail)
   
2012
A review of the key genetic tools to assist imperiled species conservation: analyzing West Indian manatee populations.
Jour. Marine Animals & Their Ecology 5(1): 8-19. 2 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Managers faced with decisions on threatened and endangered wildlife populations often are lacking detailed information about the species of concern. Integration of genetic applications will provide management teams with a better ability to assess and monitor recovery efforts on imperiled species. The field of molecular biology continues to progress rapidly and many tools are currently available. Presently, little guidance is available to assist researchers and managers with the appropriate selection of genetic tools to study the status of wild manatee populations. We discuss several genetic tools currently employed in the application of conservation genetics, and address the utility of using these tools to determine population status to aid in conservation efforts. As an example, special emphasis is focused on the endangered West Indian manatee (Order Sirenia). All four extant species of sirenians are imperiled throughout their range, predominately due to anthropogenic sources; therefore, the need for genetic information on their population status is direly needed.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2012
Sirenian pathology and mortality assessment. Chap. 17 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 148-156. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S. (detail)
   
2012
Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 101: 139-144. 3 figs. doi: 10.3354/dao02526 Nov. 8, 2012.
–Available at: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v101/n2/p139-144/
 ABSTRACT: Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2012
Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups.
Conserv. Genet. 13(6): 1623-1635. 3 tabs. 4 figs. + online supplemental material. DOI 10.1007/s10592-012-0414-2 Dec. 2012 (publ. online Oct. 7, 2012).
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P < 0.001)) and mitochondrial (F ST = 0.66; Ф ST = 0.50 (P < 0.001)) DNA. Microsatellite Bayesian cluster analyses detected two populations (K = 2) and no admixture or recent migrants between Florida (q = 0.99) and Puerto Rico (q = 0.98). The microsatellite genetic diversity values in Puerto Rico (HE = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Ф ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.
 
 
Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L. N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E. (detail)
   
2012
Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in northeast Brazil.
Aquatic Conserv.: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 22(5): 665–672. 2 tabs. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2260 Publ. online July 4, 2012 in wileyonlinelibrary.com.
–ABSTRACT: 1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear.
 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.
 3. Since 1989 the calves have been rescued (N=67), rehabilitated, and released (N=25) to supplement the small wild manatee population. The rescued calves, and those born in captivity, are typically, not released to their rescue location, mainly for logistical reasons. Therefore, phylogeographic analyses can help to identify related populations and appropriate release sites.
 4. Here, mitochondrial DNA analyses identified low haplotype (h=0.08) and nucleotide (p=0.0026) genetic diversity in three closely related haplotypes. All three haplotypes (M01, M03, and a previously unidentified haplotype, M04) were found in the northern portion of the region, while only a single haplotype (M01) was represented in the south. This suggests the presence of two genetic groups with a central mixing zone. Release of rehabilitated calves to unrelated populations may result in genetic swamping of locally adapted alleles or genotypes, limiting the evolutionary potential of the population.
 5. The small population size coupled with low genetic diversity indicates that the Northeast Brazil manatee population is susceptible to inbreeding depression and possible local extinction. Further conservation measures incorporating genetic information could be beneficial to the critically endangered Brazilian manatee population.
 
 
Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Austin, James D.; Clark, Ann Marie; Beck, Cathy A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Oli, Madan K. (detail)
   
2012
Low genetic diversity and minimal population substructure in the endangered Florida manatee: implications for conservation.
Jour. Mammalogy 93(6): 1504-1511. 3 tabs. 1 fig. + online supporting information. DOI: 10.1644/12-MAMM-A-048.1 Dec. 17, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.
 
 
Stamper, M. Andrew; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2012
Health assessment of captive and wild-caught West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Chap. 16 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 139-147. 1 tab. 6 figs.
 
 
Sulzner, Kathryn; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Bonde, Robert K.; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso (detail)
   
2012
Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).
PLoS ONE 7(9): e44517. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044517. 11 pp. 4 tabs. 2 figs Sept. 12, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.
 
 
Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2012
Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field.
Aquatic Mammals 38(1): 1-16. 12 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.38.1.2012.1
–ABSTRACT: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p < 0.001). As monitoring time progressed, mean differences between the subspecies were no longer significant. High RR over monitoring time was associated with high lactate concentration. Antillean manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001). We recommend monitoring manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Garrett, Andrew; Belanger, Michael; Askin, Nesime; Tan, Luke; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
   
2013
Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River - providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this unique aquatic mammal.
Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 5(2): 17-28. 2 tabs. 7 figs. http://www.oers.ca/journal/volume5/issue2/techniques-vol5-iss2.pdf Nominal date 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Federal and state researchers have been involved in manatee (Trichechus manatus) biomedical health assessment programs for a couple of decades. These benchmark studies have provided a foundation for the development of consistent capture, handling, and processing techniques and protocols. Biologists have implemented training and encouraged multi-agency participation whenever possible to ensure reliable data acquisition, recording, sample collection, publication integrity, and meeting rigorous archival standards. Under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wildlife research permit granted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project, federal biologists and collaborators are allowed to conduct research studies on wild and captive manatees detailing various aspects of their biology. Therefore, researchers with the project have been collaborating on numerous studies over the last several years. One extensive study, initiated in 2006 has focused on health and fitness of the winter manatee population located in Crystal River, Florida. During those health assessments, capture, handling, and work-up training has been afforded to many of the participants. That study has successfully captured and handled 123 manatees. The data gathered have provided baseline information on manatee health, reproductive status, and nutritional condition. This research initiative addresses concerns and priorities outlined in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan. The assessment teams strive to continue this collaborative effort to help advance our understanding of health-related issues confronting manatees throughout their range and interlacing these findings with surrogate species concepts.
 
 
Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Harr, Kendal E.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Bonde, Robert K.; Heard, Darryl (detail)
   
2013
Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(2): 285-294. 6 tabs. DOI: 10.1638/2012-0093R.1. June 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P ? 0.05). Mean WB aluminum, calcium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, vanadium, and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower in BZ versus FL manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P ? 0.05). Females had significant and higher mean WB nickel and serum barium compared to males (P ? 0.05). Mean WB arsenic and zinc, and mean serum iron, magnesium, and zinc concentrations fell within toxic ranges reported for domestic species. Results reveal manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.
 
 
Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol V.; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2014
Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 87(3): 601-615. 5 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12248. Mar. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.
 
 
Breaux, Breanna; Heard-Ganir, Ashley; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F. (detail)
   
2015
Understanding manatee immunogenetics and the implications for conservation (VET1P.1121).
Journal of Immunology 194. Suppl. 1.
–-ABSTRACT: The completion of the genome draft of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in 2012 made immunogenetic exploration of the Sirenia order more feasible. The endangered manatees are sentinel species for coastal ecosystems and their evolutionary origins are complex. It is believed that they evolved from a wading terrestrial mammal that became fully aquatic, which suggests distinctive adaptations for transitioning to a new environment. Discovering the genetic details of their immune system will help understand manatee evolution and allow species-specific diagnostic tools to be developed. Due to bottleneck signatures at other loci, the genetic diversity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is expected to be low. This could pose problems for conservation efforts because low diversity can increase the chance of extirpation. The primary focus of this project is to determine the immune robustness of manatees by looking at their antibody repertoire and MHC polymorphism. Two species will be compared: the West Indian manatee (T. manatus) and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis). Using next generation sequencing, we will robustly sample the IgH and IgL rearrangements contributing to the antibody repertoire, and identify dominant MHC alleles and estimate their frequencies. The allelic distribution between the species could reveal clues to their evolutionary relationship and aid conservation efforts to help this species become more stable in their environment.
 
 
Walsh, Catherine J.; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; De Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2015
Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
Aquatic Toxicology 161: 73-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.01.019
–ABSTRACT: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats off Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus overall health, in the Florida manatee.
 
 
Adimey, Nicole M.; Ross, Monica; Hall, Madison; Reid, James P.; Barlas, Margaret E.; Keith Diagne, Lucy W.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2016
Twenty-six years of post-release monitoring of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): evaluation of a cooperative rehabilitation program.
Aquatic Mamms. 42(3): 376-391. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI 10.1578/AM.42.3.2016.376.
–ABSTRACT: The rescue, rehabilitation, and release of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) into the wild has occurred since 1974; however, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes of the releases has never been conducted. Herein, we examined data for 136 Florida manatees that were rehabilitated and released with telemetry tags between 1988 and 2013 to determine release outcome of each individual as either success (acclimation) or failure after at least 1 y. Ten predictor variables were statistically evaluated for potential relationships to release outcome. To assess the contribution of each predictor variable to release outcome, each variable was tested for significance in univariate analyses. Manatees born in captivity experienced poor success after release (14%), whereas the overall success of wild-born individuals was higher (72%). When compared with other variables in our dataset, number of days in captivity was the strongest predictor for determining success. Manatees rescued as calves and held in captivity for more than 5 y had a high likelihood of failure, while subadults and adults had a high likelihood of success, regardless of the amount of time spent in captivity. Ensuring the success of individual manatees after release is critical for evaluating the contribution of the manatee rehabilitation program to the growth of the wild population.
 
 
Harshaw, Lauren T.; Larkin, Iskande V.; Bonde, Robert K.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Hill, Richard C. (detail)
   
2016
Morphometric body condition indices of wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquat. Mamms. 42(4): 428-439. doi:10.1578/AM.42.4.2016.428. Nov. 18, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: In many species, body weight (W) increases geometrically with body length (L), so W/L3 provides a body condition index (BCI) that can be used to evaluate nutritional status once a normal range has been established. No such index has been established for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). This study was designed to determine a normal range of BCIs of Florida manatees by comparing W in kg with straight total length (SL), curvilinear total length (CL), and umbilical girth (UG) in m for 146 wild manatees measured during winter health assessments at three Florida locations. Small calves to large adults of SL from 1.47 to 3.23 m and W from 77 to 751 kg were compared. BCIs were significantly greater in adult females than in adult males (p < 0.05). W scaled proportionally to L3 in females but not in males, which were slimmer than females. The logarithms of W and of each linear measurement were regressed to develop amended indices that allow for sex differences. The regression slope for log W against log SL was 2.915 in females and 2.578 in males; W/SL2.915 ranged from 18.9 to 29.6 (mean 23.2) in females, and W/SL2.578 ranged from 24.6 to 37.3 (mean 29.8) in males. Some BCIs were slightly (4%), but significantly (p <- 0.05), higher for females in Crystal River than in Tampa Bay or Indian River, but there was no evidence of geographic variation in condition among males. These normal ranges should help evaluate the nutritional status of both wild and rehabilitating captive manatees.
 
 
Takeuchi, Noel; Walsh, Michael T.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Barber, David S. (detail)
   
2016
Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize.
Aquatic Mammals 42(4): 440-453. 5 tabs. doi:10.1578/AM.42.4.2016.440. Dec. 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.
 
 
Tighe, Rachel L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Avery, Julie P. (detail)
   
2016
Seasonal response of ghrelin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in the free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 81(3): 247-254. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2016.02.006. May 2016 (publ. online Feb. 17, 2016).
–ABSTRACT: Seasonal changes in light, temperature, and food availability stimulate a physiological response in an animal. Seasonal adaptations are well studied in Arctic, Sub-Arctic, and hibernating mammals; however, limited studies have been conducted in sub-tropical species. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a sub-tropical marine mammal, forages less during colder temperatures and may rely on adipose stores for maintenance energy requirements. Metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and ghrelin influence growth rate, accretion of lean and adipose tissue. They have been shown to regulate seasonal changes in body composition. The objective of this research was to investigate manatee metabolic hormones in two seasons to determine if manatees exhibit seasonality and if these hormones are associated with seasonal changes in body composition. In addition, age related differences in these metabolic hormones were assessed in multiple age classes. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and ghrelin were quantified in adult manatee serum using heterologous radioimmunoassays. Samples were compared between short (winter) and long (summer) photoperiods (n = 22 male, 20 female) and by age class (adult, juvenile, and calf) in long photoperiods (n = 37). Short photoperiods tended to have reduced GH (p = 0.08), greater IGF-I (p = 0.01), and greater blubber depth (p = 0.03) compared with long photoperiods. No differences were observed in ghrelin (p = 0.66). Surprisingly, no age related differences were observed in IGF-I or ghrelin concentrations (p > 0.05). However, serum concentrations of GH tended (p = 0.07) to be greater in calves and juveniles compared with adults. Increased IGF-I, greater blubber thickness, and reduced GH during short photoperiod suggest a prioritization for adipose deposition. Whereas, increased GH, reduced blubber thickness, and decreased IGF-I in long photoperiod suggest prioritization of lean tissue accretion. Hormone profiles in conjunction with difference in body composition between photoperiods indicate seasonal adjustments in manatee nutrient partitioning priorities.
 
 
Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Auil Gomez, Nicole (detail)
   
2017
Diet of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America.
Jour. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 98(7): 1831-1840. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 8 appendices. doi:/10.1017/S0025315417000182 Nov. 2018 (publ. online Apr. 3, 2017).
–ABSTRACT: Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, six digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon) and 124 faecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants and algae consumption was analysed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn, can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Flint, Mark (detail)
   
2017
Human interactions: manatees and dugongs. Chap. 17 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 299-314. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: There are three extant sirenian species of the Trichechidae family and one living Dugongidae family member. Given their close ties to coastal and often urbanized habitats, sirenians are exposed to many types of anthropogenic activities that result in challenges to their well-being, poor health, and even death. In the wild, they are exposed to direct and indirect local pressures as well as subject to large-scale stressors such as global climate change acting on regions or entire genetic stocks. In captivity, they are subject to husbandry and management practices based on our collective knowledge, or in some cases lack thereof, of their needs and welfare. It is therefore reasonable to consider that their current imperiled status is very closely linked to our actions. In this chapter, we identify and define human interactions that may impact dugongs and manatees, including hunting, fisheries, boat interactions, negative interactions with man-made structures, disease and contaminants, and global climate change. We examine techniques used to investigate these impacts and the influence of sirenian biology and of changing human behaviors on potential outcomes. We examine how this differs for dugongs and manatees in the wild and for those held in captivity. Finally, we provide possible mitigation strategies and ways to assess the efforts we are making to improve the welfare of individuals and to conserve these species. This chapter identifies how the welfare of these species is intrinsically linked to the human interactions these animals experience, and how the nature of these interactions has changed with societal shifts. We proffer suggested ways to minimize negative impacts. Current knowledge should be used to minimize negative human interactions and impacts, to promote positive impacts, and to protect these animals for the future.
 
 
Breaux, Breanna; Deiss, Thaddeus C.; Chen, Patricia L.; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F. (detail)
   
2017
The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain reveals the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity.
Developmental & Comparative Immunology 72: 57-68. 7 figs. + supplementary material. doi:/10.1016/j.dci.2017.01.022. Publ. online July 25, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity.
 
 
Flint, Mark; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2017
Assessing welfare in the wild and in captivity. Chap. 21 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 381-393. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Assessing the welfare of wild populations of sirenians has required a "generalist" approach. The outcome has been a subjective decision as to whether what the observers are witnessing in an individual or group of animals is normal and whether that has positive or negative consequences. The understanding of sirenian welfare requirements, and a decision process for whether to support and maintain their natural habitats or to try to replicate it in a meaningful way in an artificial captive setting, is still in its early developmental stages and has dynamic qualities that are in need of urgent attention. In this chapter we use the knowledge and observations presented throughout the chapters on sirenians to outline a proposed standard approach for assessing welfare in individuals in wild populations, as well as guidelines for assessing captive groups of dugongs and manatees. In the wild, the suitability of the habitat and human impact on it, the limitations of carrying capacity, the dynamics of ecosystems, and the effects that the immediate environment will have on the known resident populations are examined. In captivity, we use the foundation of the Five Freedoms, based on experience derived from other captive species, and we combine this with experience from rehabilitating manatees in Europe and the United States and, more recently, dugongs in the Indo-Pacific, to identify requirements and to help us to assess the unique needs of these species when held in facilities. We present considerations and approaches to (1) holistically assess captive facilities and to assess the well-being of the individuals held in the facility, (2) derive a guideline for standard captive assessment, (3) determine if adequate welfare needs for the animals are being met, and (4) help to provide guidance on whether an animal is suitable for release after rehabilitation.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Rivera-Pérez, Carla I.; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L. (detail)
   
2017
Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 127(1): 65-69. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03181. Dec. 19, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Rivera-Perez, Carla I.; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L. (detail)
   
2017
Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees.
Diseases of Marine Organisms 127: 65-69. 2 figs. doi:10.335/dao03181. Dec. 19, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.
 
 
Breaux, Breanna; Hunter, Margaret E.; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F. (detail)
   
2018
The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) T cell receptor loci exhibit V subgroup synteny and chain-specific evolution.
Jour. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 85: 71-85.
 
 
Gomez-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Lesher-Gordillo, Julia Maria; Olivera-Gomez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert K.; Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Raymundo; Castañón-Nájera, Guillermo; Jimenez-Dominguez, Darwin; Romo-Lopez, Armando; Delgado-Estrella. Alberto (detail)
   
2018
Genetic diversity and structure from Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the southern Gulf of México: comparison between connected and isolated populations.
Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-10. doi:10.1177/1940082918795560. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Jan. 1, 2019; publ. online Aug. 31, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is listed as endangered species in the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aims of this research were to survey on the possible regional genetic structure in the southern Gulf of Mexico and to compare genetic status of a landlocked population in Laguna de las Ilusiones (IL) with individuals from localities with no barriers to displacement and breed (open population [OP]). We analyzed 45 manatee skin samples collected from different locations in Tabasco (n?=?38, including 19 from IL), Veracruz (n?=?3), Campeche (n?=?2), and Chiapas (n?=?2). The genomic DNA was isolated and PCR amplifications were performed for each sample using 28 microsatellite loci, previously designed for West Indian manatees and described as polymorphic for this species. Two clusters (k?=?2) were identified by STRUCTURE. The analysis of both a priori populations (IL and OP) indicate that the global values of FST and RST (FST=0.049, RST=0.077) were significant. The HE for IL was 0.38?±?0.03 and for OP was 0.49?±?0.01. The average number of alleles NA for IL was 2.21?±?0.09 and for OP was 2.32?±?0.09. The overall inbreeding coefficient was FIS=?0.013 for analyzed populations. Genetic diversity was low. The IL population had slightly lower genetic diversity compared with OP, which could be explained by isolation of that small group, so conservation plans for IL should be considered as priority.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, Kendal E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, Michael T.; de Wit, Martine; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2018
Serum proteins in healthy and diseased Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Comparative Clinical Pathology 27(6): 1707-1716. doi: 10.1007/s00580-018-2797-z. Nov. 2018; Publ. online Aug. 3, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: A major goal of this study was to determine whether serum protein fractions of healthy Florida manatees differ with age, sex, or living environments (wild versus housed). A second goal was to determine which serum protein fractions vary in diseased versus healthy manatees. Serum protein fractions were determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Healthy adults had slightly higher total serum protein and total globulin concentrations than younger animals. This largely resulted from an increase in gamma globulins with age. Total serum protein, albumin, alpha-1 globulin, beta globulin, and total globulin concentrations were slightly higher in housed manatees compared to wild manatees, but there was no significant difference in the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, suggesting a difference in hydration between these groups. No significant differences were attributable to sex or pregnancy. Serum albumin concentrations and A/G ratios were significantly lower for manatees with boat trauma, entanglements, emaciation, or cold stress compared to healthy manatees. Variable increases were seen in alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. These globulin fractions contain positive acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulins, and their increases may reflect acute or chronic active inflammation. Changes in serum protein fractions were not consistent enough to justify the use of serum protein electrophoresis as a routine diagnostic test for manatees. However, serum (or plasma) protein electrophoresis is required when accurate values for albumin and globulins are needed in manatees and in determining which protein fractions may account for a hyperproteinemia or hypoproteinemia reported in a clinical chemistry panel.
 
 
Meyer, Wynn K.; Jamison, Jerrica; Richter, Rebecca; Woods, Stacy E.; Partha, Raghavendran; Kowalczyk, Amanda; Kronk, Charles; Chikina, Maria; Bonde, Robert K.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaspard, Joseph; Lanyon, Janet M.; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E.; Clark, Nathan L. (detail)
   
2018
Ancient convergent losses of Paraoxonase 1 yield potential risks for modern marine mammals.
Science 361(6402): 591-592. doi:10.1126/science.aap7714. Aug. 10, 2018.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Chapman, Alycia; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Pérez, Carla I.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2018
Internal parasites of the two subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 130(2): 145-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03270. Publ. online Sept. 10, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is divided into 2 subspecies: the Antillean (T. m. manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. This study reports sample prevalence of manatee parasites from populations of these 2 subspecies in different geographical locations. Although necropsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for parasite infections, the need for antemortem diagnostic techniques is important. Fecal samples collected during necropsies of Antillean manatees (n = 3) in Puerto Rico and Florida manatees (n = 10) in Crystal River, Florida, as well as from live-captured Florida manatees (n = 11) were evaluated using centrifugal flotation with sucrose and ethyl acetate sedimentation to compare parasites from each of the populations. Although both fecal examination methods provided similar results, the centrifugal flotation method required less time for diagnosis. The most common parasite eggs found in both populations included the trematodes Pulmonicola cochleotrema and Nudacotyle undicola, oocysts of the coccidian Eimeria spp., and eggs of the ascarid Heterocheilus tunicatus. Eggs of the trematode Chiorchis groschafti were found in both populations of manatees; however, eggs of a related species, Chiorchis fabaceus, were abundant in the Florida samples, but not found in Puerto Rico populations. Trematode eggs of Moniligerum blairi were found in both populations, but were more common in the Florida manatee (42%) than the Antillean manatee (33%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of both Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa oocysts in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, Kendal E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, Michael T.; de Wit, Martine; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2019
Serum iron analytes in healthy and diseased Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comparative Pathology 173: 58-70. 8 figs. 4 tabs. doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2019.10.006. Publ. online Nov. 14, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Serum iron concentration is usually decreased in true iron deficiency and with inflammatory disease in man and domestic animals. Serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) may be increased in true iron deficiency and decreased with inflammatory disease. This prospective study was designed to measure serum iron analytes in healthy free-ranging and housed Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) of both sexes and various ages and to evaluate the effects of diseases common to manatees on these analytes. Blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 137 healthy free-ranging manatees, 90 healthy housed manatees and 74 free-ranging diseased manatees, and serum was prepared by centrifugation. Serum iron concentration and unsaturated iron binding capacity were measured colourimetrically, and TIBC and percent transferrin saturation with iron were calculated. Serum amyloid A (SAA) was measured to assist in the health assessment of manatees and provide evidence of inflammation in diseased manatees. Based on the serum iron analytes, iron availability was lower in immature manatees compared with adults, and it was lower in housed manatees compared with free-ranging manatees. In contrast to other mammals studied, serum iron concentration was elevated rather than depressed in late pregnancy. Serum iron concentrations and transferrin saturation with iron percentages were significantly lower, and SAA concentrations were significantly higher, in diseased (ill and injured) manatees compared with healthy manatees. Serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation with iron values were negatively correlated with SAA concentrations, and manatees with the highest SAA concentrations had lower serum TIBC values. These findings indicate that inflammation is the major factor responsible for alterations in iron analytes in diseased manatees. Consequently, hypoferraemia may be used as supportive evidence of inflammatory disease in manatees (unless haemorrhage is also present). A decision threshold of ?13.8 ?mol/l was determined for hypoferraemia using receiver operating curve analysis. Based on studies in man and domestic animals, iron therapy is unnecessary for manatees with hypoferraemia associated with inflammation and has the potential for causing tissue damage and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.
 
 
Littles, Chanda J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Butler, Susan M.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Notestein, Skye K.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Frazer, Thomas K. (detail)
   
2019
Coastal habitat change and marine megafauna behavior: Florida manatees encountering reduced food provisions in a prominent winter refuge.
Endangered Species Research 38: 29-43. 3 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00933 Jan. 24, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: A decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) within Florida's spring-fed, thermal refuges raises questions about how these systems support winter foraging of Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris. We analyzed telemetry data for 12 manatees over 7 years to assess their use of Kings Bay, a winter refuge with diminished SAV. After accounting for the effect of water temperature, we hypothesized that the number of trips out of Kings Bay would increase and the time wintering manatees spent in Kings Bay would decrease. Trips out of and into Kings Bay also were compared to assess potential influences on exiting or entering. There were no detectable differences in the number of trips out of the bay or overall time manatees spent in Kings Bay across winters. The percentage of time water temperatures were below 20oC was the single best predictor of increased time spent in Kings Bay. Trips out of Kings Bay were more likely to occur after 12:00 h and during a high but ebbing tide, compared to trips into the bay. Nine manatees tracked for longer than 75 days in winter spent 7–57% of their time in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 of these manatees spent 7–65% of the winter >80 km from the mouth of Kings Bay. Results suggest the low amount of SAV in Kings Bay does not obviate its use by manatees, though there are likely tradeoffs for manatees regularly foraging elsewhere. Accounting for movements of Florida manatees through a network of habitats may improve management strategies and facilitate desirable conservation outcomes.
  Note correction on website: "February 22, 2019: Substantial changes were made throughout the article after publication: to the text, Tables 1 & 2, and Fig. 4 (see .pdf 'Original text with edits')."
 
 
Palmer, Kady; Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Boggs, Ashley S. P.; Bowden, John A. (detail)
   
2019
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in plasma of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 140: 610-615. 2 tabs. 1 fig. + online suppl. material. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.02.010 Publ. online Feb. 16, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, synthetic anthropogenic chemicals known to infiltrate and persist in biological systems as a result of their stability and bioaccumulation potential. This study investigated 15 PFAS, including short-chain carboxylic and sulfonic acids, and their presence in a threatened herbivore, the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Seven of the 15 PFAS examined were detected in manatee plasma. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (ranging from 0.13 to 166?ng/g ww) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (ranging from 0.038 to 3.52?ng/g ww) were detected in every manatee plasma sample examined (n?=?69), with differing medians across sampling sites in Florida, Crystal River (n?=?39), Brevard County (n?=?18), Everglades National Park (n?=?8), and four samples (n?=?4) from Puerto Rico. With an herbivorous diet and long life-span, the manatee provides a new perspective to monitoring PFAS contamination.
 
 
Wetzel, Dana L.; Reynolds, John E., III; Bonde, Robert K.; Schloesser, Ryan W.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Roudebush, William E. (detail)
   
2019
Enhancing reproductive assessments of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) by establishing optimal time period and inhibin B baseline concentrations.
Endangered Species Research 39: 283-292. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00972 Aug. 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) occupies coastal and riverine habitats that may influence endogenous biological rhythms, including reproductive potential. Inhibin b provides a biomarker of gonadal function and reproductive potential in humans and other eutherian mammals. This study examined the influence of size, sex, and time of year on inhibin B levels in manatees sampled among three habitats with varying degrees of environmental stress in Florida. Inhibin B levels in 38 males averaged (±SE) 4.90 ±0.23 pg/mL; the average level in 31 females was 5.63 ± 0.46 pg/mL. Elevated patterns in inhibin B were exhibited between mid-March and mid-August corresponding to increased mating activity and testicular function, with significant differences in inhibin B levels between male and female manatees (P=0.03) throughout the year. No significant differences in inhibin B were detected between low impacted and higher impacted sampling locations during winter, suggesting the potential influence of environmental stress on manatee reproduction may be best examined between mid-March and mid-August, the midpoint of the reproductively active, non-winter time period. Establishing temporal baselines for inhibin B values may be useful in assessing manatee reproductive status and potential conservation threats, shedding light on fertility potential and enabling future assessment of the effects of stressors on reproduction in Florida manatees.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, K. E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M. T.; de Wit, Martine; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2020
Serum iron analytes in healthy and diseased Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comparative Pathology 173: 58-70. 4 tabs. 8 figs. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2019.10.006 Publ. online Nov. 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Serum iron concentration is usually decreased in true iron deficiency and with inflammatory disease in man and domestic animals. Serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) may be increased in true iron deficiency and decreased with inflammatory disease. This prospective study was designed to measure serum iron analytes in healthy free-ranging and housed Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) of both sexes and various ages and to evaluate the effects of diseases common to manatees on these analytes. Blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 137 healthy free-ranging manatees, 90 healthy housed manatees and 74 free-ranging diseased manatees, and serum was prepared by centrifugation. Serum iron concentration and unsaturated iron binding capacity were measured colourimetrically, and TIBC and percent transferrin saturation with iron were calculated. Serum amyloid A (SAA) was measured to assist in the health assessment of manatees and provide evidence of inflammation in diseased manatees. Based on the serum iron analytes, iron availability was lower in immature manatees compared with adults, and it was lower in housed manatees compared with free-ranging manatees. In contrast to other mammals studied, serum iron concentration was elevated rather than depressed in late pregnancy. Serum iron concentrations and transferrin saturation with iron percentages were significantly lower, and SAA concentrations were significantly higher, in diseased (ill and injured) manatees compared with healthy manatees. Serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation with iron values were negatively correlated with SAA concentrations, and manatees with the highest SAA concentrations had lower serum TIBC values. These findings indicate that inflammation is the major factor responsible for alterations in iron analytes in diseased manatees. Consequently, hypoferraemia may be used as supportive evidence of inflammatory disease in manatees (unless haemorrhage is also present). A decision threshold of ?13.8 ?mol/l was determined for hypoferraemia using receiver operating curve analysis. Based on studies in man and domestic animals, iron therapy is unnecessary for manatees with hypoferraemia associated with inflammation and has the potential for causing tissue damage and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.
 
 
Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Beaver, Caitlin E.; Nourisson, Coralie; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L. N.; Miranda, Adriana Vieira; Torres-Florez, Juan Pablo; Sousa, Glaucia Pereira de; Passavante, José Zanon; Hunter, Margaret E. (detail)
   
2021
Genetic connectivity of the West Indian Manatee in the southern range and limited evidence of hybridization with Amazonian manatees.
Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 574455. 4 tabs. 4 figs. + online supplementary material. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.574455 Jan. 6, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee is classified as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. In Brazil, the manatee population is listed as endangered with an estimated population size of 500–1,000. Historic hunting, recent habitat degradation, and fisheries bycatch have decreased the population size. The Amazonian manatee is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN with unknown population sizes within Brazil. The Antillean manatee occurs in sympatry with the Amazonian manatee in Brazil and hybridization has been previously indicated. To provide information on the genetic structure, diversity, and degree of hybridization in the sympatric zone near the Amazon River mouth, the mitochondrial DNA control region and 13 nuclear microsatellite markers were assessed on the two species. Samples were analyzed from the Antillean subspecies across its distribution in Brazil (n = 78) and from the Amazonian species (n = 17) at the Amazon River mouth and inland mainstem river. To assess the previously defined evolutionary significant units of Antillean manatees in the area, an additional 11 samples from Venezuela and Guyana were included. The Antillean manatee was found to be a single population in Brazil and had lower than average number of alleles (3.00), expected heterozygosity (0.34), and haplotype diversity (0.15) when compared to many other manatee populations. The low values may be influenced by the small population size and extended pressures from anthropogenic threats. Gene flow was identified with Venezuela/Guyana in admixed Antillean Brazil samples, although the two populations were found to be moderately divergent. The nuclear loci in Venezuela/Guyana Antillean manatee samples indicated high differentiation from the samples collected in the Amazon River (FST = 0.35 and RST = 0.18, p = 0.0001). No indication of nuclear hybridization was found except for a single sample, "Poque" that had been identified previously. The distribution of Antillean manatees in Brazil is extensive and the areas with unique habitat and threats would benefit from independent management and conservation actions. Gene flow, resulting in genetic diversity and long-term population stability, could be improved in the southern range through habitat restoration, and the establishments of travel corridors and protected areas, which are particularly important for successful parturition and neonatal calf survival.
 
 
Takoukam, A. K.; Gomes, D. G. E.; Hoyer, M. V.; Keith-Diagne, Lucy W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Francis-Floyd, R. (detail)
   
2021
African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) habitat suitability at Lake Ossa, Cameroon using trophic state models and predictions of submerged aquatic vegetation.
Ecology and Evolution 11(19): 13068-13080.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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