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"Keith, Edward O."

Rappucci, Gina M.; Keith, Edward O.; Hardigan, Patrick C. (detail)
Tidal cycle effects on the occurrence of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) at the Port Everglades power plant.
Aquatic Mammals 38(1): 31-42. 3 tabs. 6 figs. Spring 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The seasonal distribution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is influenced predominantly by feeding locations in the summer and proximity to warm-water refuges during colder months. The tidal cycle may further influence distribution through its impact on manatee movement and foraging. Although the importance of tide on distribution and habitat selection has been acknowledged, it has yet to be studied quantitatively with respect to the manatee population in southeast Florida. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the tidal cycle on manatee occurrence at the Florida Power & Light (FPL) Port Everglades Power Plant during the winter. Walking surveys were conducted in Port Everglades during manatee season, 15 November through 31 March 2004 to 2009. The number of manatees in four established locations was noted, and the animals were categorized as calf, juvenile, or adult. Water temperature data were also collected at the sample locations. Because many surveys yielded zero manatees observed, data were analyzed using the zero-inflated negative binomial model. Although the results show no correlation between tidal state and total manatee occurrence, they do suggest that the probability of observing a cow/calf pair is greater during high tide when compared to low and mid-tides (p < 0.05). Total manatee occurrence and the presence of cow/calf pairs were both significantly correlated with water temperature (p < 0.05). These results are in contrast to those from other locations in Florida and are relevant to the optimal timing of manatee surveys to ensure that all animals using a warm-water refuge are observed and included in population estimates.
Allen, Aarin-Conrad,; Sattelberger, Danielle C.; Keith, Edward O. (detail)
The People vs. the Florida manatee: A review of the laws protecting Florida's endangered marine mammal and need for application.
Ocean & Coastal Management 102, Part A: 40-46. 2 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.08.010. Dec. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are a tropical species endemic at their northernmost habitat range within the southeastern United States. Manatees face a thermoregulatory requirement during winter months and follow a seasonal migration to warm water sources. To avoid cold stress syndrome (CSS), manatees utilize the warmth from artificial sources such as power plant discharge canals or natural sources such as artesian springs. Already endangered, this species nonetheless continually faces an ever-growing threat from human impact within these important locations. This paper reviews the past and present laws protecting manatees in Florida, chronicles the impacts manatees are facing presently and in the future, and details the increasing need for the application of protection from a management standpoint. With the correct management plan in place, manatees and humans can cooperatively coexist together in a shared environment.
Allen, Aarin-Conrad; Keith, Edward O. (detail)
Using the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) as a mechanism for invasive aquatic plant management in Florida.
Jour. Aquatic Plant Management 53: 95–104. 4 figures.
–ABSTRACT: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus L.) are opportunistic, herbivorous aquatic mammals that occupy the warm, shallow coastal waters throughout the southeastern United States. Manatees are known to feed on large quantities of diverse plant types. Presently within the state of Florida, manatees are an endangered species facing environmental and anthropogenic threats. Several different organizations work to rescue and rehabilitate these animals for an eventual return to the wild. Also within Florida, invasive aquatic plants are becoming increasingly problematic, creating both negative economic and environmental impacts. Each year, efforts are made to control these exotic plant species through several different methods. However, physical, mechanical, chemical and biological means to contain nonindigenous plants each have their drawbacks. There is a need for a natural, integrated approach to invasive aquatic plant management. The opportunity for manatees to control exotic plant species within the Florida ecosystem exists, but is improbable because of inadequate population densities. This study builds on this potential examining the use of manatees held in captivity as a tool for management by utilizing the physical collection of targeted nonindigenous plants to supplement the diet of rehabilitated manatees. Provisions are augmented with nutrients that manatees may not obtain from other sources typically found in captive diets. Early introduction of natural plants may allow for an easier transition to normal feeding patterns upon release and may condition animals to continue consumption of exotic plants in the wild. Each step has the potential to contribute to the reduction of invasive aquatic plants in Florida, and presents a cost-effective feeding alternative for manatee rehabilitation facilities. This method promotes a native Florida species as a natural solution to the problem.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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