Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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"Marsh, Helene D."

Marsh, Helene D.: SEE ALSO Aragones & Marsh, 2000; Bryden et al., 1978, 1998; Corkeron et al., 1997; Denton et al., 1980; Elliott et al., 1979; Eros et al., 2000; Heinsohn et al.; Hernandez et al., 1995; Hudson & Marsh, 1986; Lanyon et al., 1989; Lanyon & Marsh, 1995; Leatherwood & Reeves, 1989; McCabe et al., 1978; Murray et al., 1977; Nishiwaki & Marsh, 1985; Ponte et al., 1994; Preen et al., 1989, 1997; Preen & Marsh, 1995; Rowlatt & Marsh, 1985; Smith & Marsh, 1990; Spain et al.; Tikel et al., 1996; Appendix 1, _Dugong Newsletter_. (detail)
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Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1976
Extreme risk of mortality to dugongs (Mammalia: Sirenia) from netting operations.
Austral. Jour. Wildl. Res. 3(2): 117-121. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Account of techniques used in catching Australian dugongs for research, behavior of dugongs in nets, and effects on dugong populations of netting operations in Queensland and Kenya.
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Correll, R. L. (detail)
   
1976
Sexual dimorphism and other sources of variation in a sample of dugong skulls from North Queensland (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Austral. Jour. Zool. 24(4): 491-497. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Analysis of 26 variables in 32 adult skulls found sexual dimorphism principally in the snout region; also found were lesser amounts of allometric variation, again mainly in the anterior part of the skull.
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Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1977
Sirens of tropical Australia.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 19(4): 106-111. 8 figs. Oct.-Dec. 1977.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs and dugong research in Australia, mainly covering the same material presented by Heinsohn, Wake, Marsh & Spain, 1977.
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Heinsohn, George Edwin; Wake, Judith Ann; Marsh, Helene D.; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1977
The dugong (Dugong dugon (Müller)) in the seagrass system.
Aquaculture 12(3): 235-248. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Heinsohn (1981b). Review, mainly from published literature, of dugong feeding habits, movements, trophic relations, exploitation, and conservation problems. Suggests dugongs should be studied for possible sustained-yield meat production.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1977
The alimentary canal of the dugong. [Abstr.]
Bull. Austral. Mamm. Soc. 4(1): 32. Sept. 1977 (read May 1977).
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Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1977
The stomach and duodenal diverticula of the dugong (Dugong dugon). In: R. J. Harrison (ed.), Functional anatomy of marine mammals.
London, Academic Press: Vol. 3: 271-295. 1 tab. 10 figs.
–Describes the gross anatomy, histology, and histochemistry of the stomach and diverticula and discusses their functional and ecological implications. Reports occurrences of the parasites Paradujardinia halichoris and Lankatrema sp.
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Murray, R. M.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1977
The role of the midgut caecum and large intestine in the digestion of sea grasses by the dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Compar. Biochem. Physiol. 56A: 7-10. 2 tabs.
–Reports on the analysis of gut contents for plant species, apparent digestibilities, and volatile fatty acids; the blood was analyzed for phosphorus and urea. Digestion was found to occur principally in the hindgut.
 
 
Bryden, Michael M.; Marsh, Helene D.; MacDonald, B. W. (detail)
   
1978
The skin and hair of the dugong. [Abstr.]
Austral. Jour. Anat. 126: 637-638. Read May, 1977.
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Heinsohn, George Edwin; Lear, Richard J.; Bryden, Michael M.; Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R. (detail)
   
1978
Discovery of a large population of dugongs off Brisbane, Australia.
Envir. Conserv. 5: 91-92. 1 fig.
–Reports aerial observations of at least 300 dugongs in Moreton Bay, 1976-77.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1978
Age determination in the dugong Dugong dugon, using dentinal growth layers. [Abstr.]
Bull. Austral. Mamm. Soc. 5(1): 37-38. Read May 1978.
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Marsh, Helene D.; Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1978
Minireview: physiology of the dugong.
Compar. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 61(2): 159-168. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Briefly summarizes published literature and some unpublished data on dugong anatomy, feeding, digestion, fat composition, excretion, reproduction, respiration, circulation, nervous and endocrine systems, social behavior, and vocalizations.
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McCabe, M.; Hamilton, R.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1978
Some studies on the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin from the dugong.
Compar. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 61(1): 19-22. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports that the oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium curves did not show the pronounced sigmoidality seen in humans; the oxygen affinities were rather high; and the Bohr effect was not very marked. Significant subunit dissociation of dugong hemoglobin may occur at low concentrations.
 
 
Elliott, Murray A.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Gardner, Blair R. (detail)
   
1979
Dugongs in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Environ. Conserv. 6(4): 277. 2 figs. Apr. 1979.
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D
Marsh, Helene D.; Channells, Peter W.; Morrissey, Janice (detail)
   
1979
A bibliography of the Recent Sirenia.... Prepared for the Dugong Seminar Workshop held at James Cook University, May 8-13th 1979.
Townsville (Australia), James Cook Univ.: i + 163.
–Lists 1,746 titles alphabetically by author; no index. Some entries are annotated. The preface states that "This bibliography was prepared as a background paper for the Dugong Workshop .... It was prepared in a limited time and without access to a major library. Accordingly, we were forced to rely on previous published and unpublished bibliographies of the recent Sirenia." This was the most comprehensive sirenian bibliography compiled prior to the present one, and it contains many paleontological and desmostylian as well as neontological references.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979a
Australian dugong.
Oceans 12(3): 48-52. 5 figs. May 1979.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R.; Spain, Alister V.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979b
Aerial surveys of dugongs. In: Proceedings of workshop on aerial surveys of fauna populations, Canberra, Feb. 22-25, 1977.
Austral. Natl. Parks & Wildl. Serv., Spec. Publ. No. 1: 85-96. 4 figs.
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Denton, G. R. W.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Burdon-Jones, C. (detail)
   
1980
The unusual metal status of the dugong Dugong dugon.
Marine Biology 57(3): 201-219. 6 tabs. 5 figs.
–Reports very high levels of iron and zinc found in dugong livers; levels of copper, cadmium, cobalt, and silver were also high in livers, and cadmium in kidneys; manganese concentrations were comparable to those in other marine mammals; nickel, lead, and chromium were not detected in any tissue. Concentrations of several metals varied with age of the dugongs. Seagrasses were probably the source of the iron, but anthropogenic pollution was not implicated.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1980
Age determination of the dugong (Dugong dugon (Müller)) in northern Australia and its biological implications. In: W. F. Perrin & A. C. Myrick, Jr. (eds.), Age determination of toothed whales and sirenians.
Repts. Internatl. Whaling Comm., Special Issue 3: 181-201. 6 tabs. 19 figs.
–Describes in detail the morphology and internal structure of the incisors and cheek teeth, and correlates their growth layers, size, and eruption with season of death, body length, puberty, and closure of cranial sutures. Growth layers were also observed in the tympanic bones and ribs, but not the humerus or malleus. Concludes that the tusks are best for age determination, that one growth layer group is deposited in them per year, and that marked accessory layering probably represents individual rather than latitudinal variation. Life span is in excess of 50 years. Puberty in both sexes occurs at 9 or more years of age in the Townsville population, but several years later in the Mornington Island population. The tusks of males erupt at about 12 and 14+ years in these two populations, respectively. An age-length growth curve for both sexes, based on number of dentinal growth layer groups, is presented. Techniques used in aging dugong teeth are also described on pp. 41-45 of this volume.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Glover, Timothy D. (detail)
   
1981
A preliminary description of the reproductive organs of the male dugong and suggested methods of specimen collection. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 261-273. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Proc. Soc. Study Fert. Camb. 1979: 16. Describes the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract, and recommends procedures for tissue and blood collection and preservation. Also suggests topics and approaches for future study.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981
Report of the aerial survey workshop. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 345-353. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Describes a workshop on aerial survey techniques, consisting of flights over the Cleveland Bay area (Queensland). Dugong sightings by different teams of observers are tabulated and compared, showing repeatability of the results.
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Marsh, Helene D.; Kasuya, Toshio (detail)
   
1981
Report of the age determination workshop. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 354-368. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Describes a workshop on the preparation and reading of growth layers in dugong tusks, with tabulation and comparison of the results obtained by experienced and inexperienced readers. Tusks from lower latitudes tended to be harder to score due to their numerous accessory layers.
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Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981
Present-day hunting and distribution of dugongs in the Wellesley Islands (Queensland): implications for conservation.
Biol. Conserv. 19(4): 255-267. 2 tabs. 4 figs. Apr. 1981.
–Describes present hunting techniques using harpoons and outboard motors, and the results of aerial surveys of the Wellesley Islands area. Peak hunting activity coincides with seasonal movements of dugongs; 374 animals were counted, of which about 40 are taken each year. Hunting is now easier and less dangerous, but some sociological factors discourage it, and some hunters try to avoid taking pregnant females.
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Marsh, Helene D. (ed.) (detail)
   
1981a
The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979.
[Townsville, Australia], James Cook Univ.: vii + 400. Illus.
–The "second ed." of this work (1984) is essentially identical in content, but is typeset rather than reproduced from typescript and has different pagination (viii + 240), and the paper by Blair has been updated with newly published names of parasites. The original pagination is used here for indexing. Contains 22 seminar papers and abstracts, listed in this bibliography by their authors (1-203); two sets of conservation recommendations (205-216); 10 background papers, listed here by author (217-343); 2 workshop reports, listed here by author (345-368); and, as appendices, sample data sheets for carcass salvage and aerial surveys used by the James Cook University and Papua New Guinea dugong projects (369-398) and a list of participants in the conference (399-400). See also Marsh, Channells, & Morrissey (1979).
  The seminar papers and abstracts are by Bertram, Nishiwaki et al., Hendrokusumo et al., Brownell et al., Jones, Heinsohn (2), Elliott, Prince et al., Marsh (2), Anderson, Chase, Hudson, Spain & Marsh, Murray, Denton, Miyazaki et al., Campbell & Ladds, Yamasaki et al., Kamiya & Yamasaki, and Kataoka & Asano. The background papers are by Heinsohn (2), Denton, Rainey, Marsh (2), Marsh & Glover, Blair, Spain & Marsh, and Channells & Morrissey. The workshop reports are by Marsh & Heinsohn and Marsh & Kasuya.
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Spain, Alister V.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981a
Geographic variation and sexual dimorphism in the skulls of two Australian populations of Dugong dugon (Müller) (Mammalia: Sirenia). In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 143-161. 2 tabs.
–Compares adult skulls from the Townsville and Wellesley Island areas, Queensland, on the basis of 74 variables. Sexual dimorphism was found in a wider range of characters than previously known, and geographic differences were also found.
n
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981b
The life history parameters of the dugong and their implications for conservation. [Abstr.] In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 88-90.
–Abstr. of Marsh (1980).
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Spain, Alister V.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981b
Dugong skull measurements. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 286-301. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Describes in detail a set of 79 standard cranial measurements, noting which are important in studies of allometry, sexual dimorphism, and geographic variation within Queensland.
n
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981c
The food of the dugong. [Abstr.] In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 164-165.
–Abstr. of Marsh, Channells, Heinsohn & Morrissey (1982).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981d
Preliminary description of the reproductive organs of the female dugong and suggested methods of specimen collection as part of a carcass salvage program. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 248-259. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Describes the gross anatomy of the female reproductive tract, discusses the evidences of ovulation and pregnancy, and recommends procedures for specimen collection and preservation.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981e
Techniques used for determining age in dugongs based on the examination of layers in hard tissues. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 311-343. 1 fig.
–Describes in detail techniques for collecting, processing, sectioning, staining, and examining dugong teeth. Also discusses layering in bones and the use of aspartic acid racemization in teeth and eyelenses. Includes a glossary (335-339).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1982
Conserving the dugong: Australia's responsibility.
Bull. Austral. Littoral Soc. 5(5): 1-5. 2 figs. Nov. 1982.
–Text reprinted: Marsh & Heinsohn (1983). Gen. acc. of dugong biology, threats to dugong survival, and conservation needs in Australia and Papua New Guinea.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Channells, Peter W.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Morrissey, Janice (detail)
   
1982
Analysis of stomach contents of dugongs from Queensland.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 9(1): 55-67. 3 tabs. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Marsh (1981c). Stomach contents of 96 dugongs confirmed that the diet consists almost entirely of seagrasses of all available genera, and probably reflects the generic composition of the beds where the animals were captured. Rhizomes were present in all stomachs, including that of a neonatal calf. Non-epiphytic algae were found in 51% of stomachs, but in small amounts. Also discusses the effects of cyclones on dugong feeding areas and diet, and the dietary importance of seagrass rhizomes vs. leaves and stems.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1983
Conserving the dugong (cowfish) in Vanuatu.
Naika, Jour. Vanuatu Nat. Sci. Soc. No. 9: 1-5. 1 fig. Mar. 1983.
–French & Pidgin summs. Gen. acc. of dugong biology, with some comments on dugongs in Vanuatu and recommendations for their protection.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1983
Probable susceptibility of dugongs to capture stress.
Biol. Conserv. 25(1): 1-3. Jan. 1983.
–Reports an elevated blood serum potassium level in a dugong chased by a speedboat and harpooned; recommends caution in research and management actions that may result in stress to dugongs.
n
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1983
Conserving the dugong: Australia's responsibility.
Habitat Austral. 11(2): 28-30. 1 fig. Apr. 1983.
–Repr. of Marsh & Heinsohn (1982).
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984
Sirens of northern Australia: the dugongs. In: M. Archer & G. Clayton (eds.), Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia (animals in space and time).
Carlisle (Western Australia), Hesperian Press (1203 pp.): 1003-1010. 13 figs.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Eisentraut, M. (detail)
   
1984
Die Gaumenfalten des Dugong.
Zs. Säugetierk. 49(5): 314-315. 1 fig.
–Illustrates and briefly describes the rather reduced pattern of palatal ridges in a dugong.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Channells, Peter W. (detail)
   
1984
Changes in the ovaries and uterus of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugongidae), with age and reproductive activity.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 32(6): 743-766. 4 tabs. 13 figs.
–Gross and histological studies of 49 female reproductive tracts showed extreme flattening of the ovaries, a high frequency of sterile cycles, low fecundity, greater activity of the right ovary than the left, and the presence of ovarian cysts and parasites. The dugong appears to be polyovular and polyestrous. Placental scars are considered the best index to parity. Similarities of reproductive biology between dugongs and elephants are pointed out.
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Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Glover, Timothy D. (detail)
   
1984
Changes in the male reproductive organs of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugondidae [sic]) with age and reproductive activity.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 32(6): 721-742. 5 tabs. 12 figs.
–Gross and histological studies of 59 male reproductive tracts showed wide variation in testicular activity; many males in a population at any given time seem not to be producing sperm. Differences from and resemblances to other "paenungulates" and other mammals are discussed.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Lachlan M. (detail)
   
1984
Breeding cycle, life history and population dynamics of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugongidae).
Austral. Jour. Zool. 32(6): 767-788. 5 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports that fertility is discontinuous in both males and females; calving is diffusely seasonal; neonates are 1.0-1.3 m long; sexual maturity is attained at 2.2-2.5 m and at least 9-10 years; gestation lasts about 1 year and lactation at least 1.5 years; the sex ratio is 1:1; the calving interval is 3-7 years; mortality is more important than the age of maturity in influencing population dynamics; estrus can occur during lactation; the low nutritive value of seagrasses may explain the discontinuous fertility; and the delay in maturity may be density-dependent. Gives original accounts of three births, one shark attack, and one case of males fighting with their tusks.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984a
How Borroloola "May-Day" launched air rescue for dugongs and turtles.
Habitat Australia 12(4): 2-5. 4 figs. Aug. 1984.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984b
The dugong problem.
Queensland Fisherman, Sept. 1984: 8.
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Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984c
Stranded!
Simply Living 2(5): 106-107. 6 figs.
–Pop. acc. of rescuing dugongs and turtles stranded by Cyclone Kathy in northern Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984d
Marine mammals: gargantuan yet graceful. In: The Readers' Digest book of the Great Barrier Reef.
Sydney, Readers' Digest: 298-303. 10 figs.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Wolanski, Eric; Bunt, John S.; Denton, Gary; Garnett, Stephen; Johannes, Robert Earle; Marsh, Helene D.; Veron, John (detail)
   
1985
The Torres Strait.
Habitat Australia 13(6): 12-18. 5 figs. Dec. 1985.
–Dugong conservation, 15-16.
 
 
Nishiwaki, Masaharu; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1985
Dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776). In: S. H. Ridgway & R. J. Harrison (eds.), Handbook of marine mammals. Vol. 3.
London, Academic Press: 1-31. 1 tab. 10 figs.
–Rev.: G.B. Rathbun, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(3): 236-237, Jul. 1986.
x
 
Rowlatt, Ursula; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1985
The heart of the dugong (Dugong dugon) and the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) (Sirenia).
Jour. Morph. 186(1): 95-106. 6 figs. DOI:10.1002/jmor.1051860109. Oct. 1985.
–Describes the gross anatomy of the heart and great vessels and their situation in the thorax. Most of the description is intended to apply to both species but is apparently based mainly on the dugong. Some differences between dugong and manatee hearts are explicitly pointed out and interpreted as consistent with greater stamina in the dugong; but otherwise the authors suggest only that "a morphologically unusual heart may be expected in a morphologically unusual thorax."
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986
Present and future value of data concerning the Torres Strait area accumulated by the Australian Coastal Surveillance Centre. In: A. K. Haines, G. C. Williams, & D. Coates (eds.), Torres Strait Fisheries Seminar, Port Moresby, 11-14 February 1985.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (vii + 344): 316-334. 6 tabs. 7 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Freeland, W. J.; Limpus, Colin J.; Reed, P. C. (detail)
   
1986
The stranding of dugongs and sea turtles resulting from Cyclone Kathy, March 1984: a report on the rescue effort and the biological data obtained.
Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (Darwin, Australia), Tech. Rept. No. 25: iv + 60. 8 tabs. 24 figs. May 1986.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1986
Research on sirenians.
Ambio 15(3): 177-180. 4 figs.
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Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986a
The status of the dugong in Torres Strait. In: A. K. Haines, G. C. Williams & D. Coates (eds.), Torres Strait Fisheries Seminar, Port Moresby, 11-14 February 1985.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (vii + 344): 53-76. 8 tabs. 4 figs.
–On the basis of an aerial survey, available life-history data, and available catch statistics, a population model is formulated that indicates that the Torres Strait dugong population has been seriously overexploited in the recent past, is insufficient to support the present catch level, and is in danger of extermination.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986b
'Dugong is Number One Tucker.'
Oceanus 29(2): 102. 1 fig. Summer 1986.
–See also B.E.T. Hudson (1986).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986c
Dugong life history: implications for management of Australian populations. In: S. Burgin (ed.), Endangered species: social, scientific, economic and legal aspects in Australia and the South Pacific. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Sydney, May 11 and 12, 1984.
Sydney, Total Environment Centre (iv + 231): 163-187. 5 tabs.
–Abstr.: Austral. Mar. Science Assoc. Bull. 79: 26-27, 1982.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986d
Research on dugongs and other marine mammals by James Cook University of North Queensland. In: P. D. Shaughnessy (ed.), Report of CSIRO Marine Mammal Workshop.
CSIRO Tech. Memo. No. 26: 42-43. Mar. 1986.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1987
Tracking dugongs.
Argos Newsletter No. 29: 8-9. 1 fig. Mar. 1987.
–Text in French & Engl.
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Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988a
An ecological basis for dugong conservation in Australia. In: M. L. Augee (ed.), Marine mammals of Australasia: field biology and captive management.
Sydney, Roy. Zool. Soc. New South Wales (vii + 140): 9-21. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Mar. 1988.
–Gen. acc. of dugong biology, ecology, and status in Australia, with preliminary data from a radiotracking study and dugong population estimates for several parts of the northern coast.
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Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988b
Dugong research: current status and opportunities. In: A. J. Dartnall (ed.), Australian tropical marine science and technology: current status and opportunities.
[Canberra], Austral. Marine Sciences & Technologies Committee, Austral. Inst. Marine Science, Dept. of Science, & Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (1-260): 128-130.
–Short summary of the types and results of dugong research being conducted in Australia.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988c
Dugongs of the southeast coast.
Whalewatcher 22(4): 8-10. Cover illus. + 3 figs. Winter 1988.
–Detailed gen. acc. of dugongs in Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988d
The dugong problem. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 120-131.
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Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988e
The importance of marine parks for the management of dugongs in Australian waters.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985) 1: 495-502. 1 fig. Oct. 1988.
–Reviews dugong life history, causes of mortality, and the role of marine parks and other conservation measures needed for dugong protection.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Limpus, Colin J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989
Dugongs and turtles: grazers in the seagrass system. In: A. W. D. Larkum, A. J. McComb & S. A. Shepherd (eds.), Biology of seagrasses: a treatise on the biology of seagrasses with special reference to the Australian region.
New York, Elsevier Science Publ. Co., Inc. (885 pp.): 610-634. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Saalfeld, W. Keith (detail)
   
1989
Distribution and abundance of dugongs in the northern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 16(4): 429-440. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1989
Recommendations for the conservation and management of dugong in the Arabian region.
MEPA Coastal & Marine Management Series (Meteorological & Environmental Protection Administration, Saudi Arabia), Rept. No. 10, Vol. 2: iv + 43. 3 figs. 4 maps. Jan. 1989.
–Vol. 1: Preen (1989a). Excerpts reprinted in B. Heneman, 1991, The Gulf War oil spills: The ICBP survey of the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast, March, 1991. A report to the International Council for Bird Preservation and the National Commission on Wildlife Conservation and Development, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Bolinas (Calif.), publ. by the author (v + 21 + 111 pp.): Annex 12, pp. 1-8.
  Gives a summary and timetable for conservation actions proposed (1-3), discusses the international significance of dugongs in the region and the threats they face (5-6), presents the recommendations in detail (7-15), describes each of 12 areas recommended for protection (17-23), maps areas specially at risk from oil spills (25-27), provides instructions and data sheets for identifying stranded marine mammals (31-39; in Engl. & Arabic), and offers advice on the design and conduct of aerial surveys in the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea (41-42).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989a
Mass stranding of dugongs by a tropical cyclone in northern Australia.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 5(1): 78-84. 1 tab. 4 figs. Jan. 1989.
–Reports the stranding of at least 27 dugongs in the Northern Territory in 1984, of which 23 were rescued. Describes the condition, behavior, sex, and reproductive status of the stranded animals, and gives data on the age, reproductive status, stomach contents, and heavy metal status of 3 that were necropsied.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Sinclair, D. F. (detail)
   
1989a
Correcting for visibility bias in strip transect aerial surveys of aquatic fauna.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 53(4): 1017-1024. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Reports on the procedures used to develop survey-specific perception-bias and availability-bias correction factors in surveys of dugongs in northern Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989b
Tracking dugongs by satellite.
The Pilot (Newsletter of the UNEP Marine Mammal Action Plan) No. 3: 10-11. 1 fig. Apr. 1989.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Sinclair, D. F. (detail)
   
1989b
An experimental evaluation of dugong and sea turtle aerial survey techniques.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 16(6): 639-650. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989c
Dugongidae. Chapter 57 in: D. W. Walton & B. J. Richardson (eds.), Fauna of Australia, Vol. 1B. Mammalia.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (ix + 401-1227): 1030-1038. 3 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1990
Sea cows. In: E. Gould & G. McKay (eds.), Mammals.
New York & Sydney, Mallard Press (Encyclopedia of Animals) (240 pp.): 164-166. 4 figs.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1990
Development and application of conventional and satellite radio tracking techniques for studying dugong movements and habitat use.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 17(1): 83-100. 4 tabs. 8 figs.
–Describes techniques used on, and data obtained from, 6 male dugongs radiotagged in North Queensland and tracked for 1-16 months. Their movement patterns were surprisingly similar to those of Florida manatees; all spent most of their time in relatively small and overlapping home ranges near inshore seagrass beds. Only one pubertal male undertook long-distance movements (>140 km in 2 days). Another dugong repeatedly travelled 10 km up a tidal creek. Concludes that conventional transmitters are better for behavioral observations, but satellite transmitters are better for tracking movements.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Saalfeld, W. Keith (detail)
   
1990
The distribution and abundance of dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park south of Cape Bedford.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 17(5): 511-524. 4 tabs. 8 figs.
–Aerial surveys in 1986-87 gave a population estimate of 3,479 ± S.E. 459 dugongs in the region. Highest densities were observed on inshore seagrass beds and in waters less than 5 m deep. Maps of dugong density and distribution are given, and recommendations are made on the timing of future surveys.
x
 
Smith, Andrew J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1990
Management of tradtional hunting of dugongs [Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776)] in the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Environ. Manage. 14(1): 47-55. 1 tab. 1 fig. Jan. 1990.
–Outlines relevant legislation and past attempts to regulate dugong take in the Hopevale and Lockhart River aboriginal communities; summarizes aerial survey and catch data. Concludes that present harvest levels are probably less than the sustainable yield, and recommends a flexible management system that is conservative but involves the traditional hunters themselves in making management decisions.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1991
Our tropical siren.
Austral. Geogr. No. 21: 42-57. Cover illus. + 30 figs. Jan.-Mar. 1991.
–See also Preen (1991).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Saalfeld, W. Keith (detail)
   
1991
The status of the dugong in Torres Strait. In: D. Lawrence & T. Canfield-Smith (eds.), Sustainable development for traditional inhabitants of the Torres Strait region.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 16: 187-194. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Aerial survey data from 1987-88, and earlier catch statistics, indicate a minimum population estimate of 12,522 ± S.E. 1,487 dugongs in the region but are deemed insufficient to determine either the current catch level or the maximum sustainable harvest.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas; Ward, T. M. (detail)
   
1993
Conserving marine mammals and reptiles in Australia and Oceania. In: C. Moritz & J. Kikkawa (eds.), Conservation biology in Australia and Oceania.
Chipping Norton (New South Wales), Surrey Beatty & Sons (xii + 403 pp.): 225-244. 3 tabs. 8 figs.
–?Repr.: Marsh, Corkeron et al., 1995. Gen. acc. of dugong biology, status, and conservation problems, based mainly on data from Australia (232-234).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lefebvre, Lynn W. (detail)
   
1994
Sirenian status and conservation efforts.
Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 155-170. 2 tabs. 9 figs.
–Summarizes published and unpublished data on the status of the living taxa of sirs., emphasizing T. m. manatus, T. m. latirostris, and D. dugon (155-164); outlines conservation efforts in Florida and Australia (164-165); and reports the outcomes of three recent international meetings on sir. rersearch and conservation (165-168).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Prince, Robert I. T.; Saalfeld, W. Keith; Shepherd, R. (detail)
   
1994
The distribution and abundance of the dugong in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Wildl. Res. 21(2): 149-161. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
–Aerial surveys in winter 1989 gave a minimum population estimate of 10,146ñ1,665 (s.e.) dugongs at an overall density of 0.71ñ0.12 (s.e.) dugongs/kmý, the highest density ever recorded on a large-scale survey. The high proportion of calves (19%) suggested an exceptionally high calving rate in 1988. Dugong density was highest in relatively deep water (12-16 m). Surveys in summer 1990 and 1991 confirmed that dugong distribution in Shark Bay varies seasonally with water temperature.
x
 
Ponte, Fernando; Marsh, Helene D.; Jackson, Richard (detail)
   
1994
Indigenous hunting rights: ecological sustainability and the reconciliation process in Queensland.
Search (Doncaster) 25(9): 258-261. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Oct. 1994.
–Outlines the efforts needed to bridge the gap between legal recognition of Aboriginal and Islander hunting rights (e.g., in regard to dugongs; 260-261) and public opposition to exercise of those rights.
 
 
Hernandez, Patricia; Reynolds, John E., III; Marsh, Helene D.; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
1995
Age and seasonality in spermatogenesis of Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 84-97. 3 tabs. 10 figs. 1 app. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 17).
x
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995
Digesta passage times in the dugong.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 43(2): 119-127. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Captive dugongs kept on a low-fiber, low-intake diet at Jakarta exhibited very slow passage times of 146-166 hours, similar to those of T. manatus. This is attributed to the long digestive tract, and results in almost complete digestion of low-fiber food.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas; Ward, T. M. (detail)
   
1995
The reptiles and mammals in Australian seas: their status and management. In: State of the marine environment report for Australia, Technical Annex 1.
Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: 151-166.
–Reprint of Marsh et al., 1993?
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Rathbun, Galen B.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1995
Can dugongs survive in Palau?
Biol. Conserv. 72(1): 85-89. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–An aerial survey of Palau in 1991 found even fewer dugongs per flight-hour than earlier surveys, while interviews indicated that regular poaching continued along with illegal sale of jewellery made from dugong ribs. The authors believe that dugongs will go extinct in Palau unless poaching is stopped immediately.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995
Response of dugongs to large-scale loss of seagrass from Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.
Wildl. Res. 22: 507-519. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–Following floods and a cyclone in 1992, a massive seagrass die-off resulted in the emigration and/or starvation of most of the Hervey Bay dugong population. Full recovery of this population may take more than 25 years.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995a
Fixed-width aerial transects for determining dugong population sizes and distribution patterns. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 56-62. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 11).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995b
The life history, pattern of breeding, and population dynamics of the dugong. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 75-83. 7 tabs. 3 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 10-11).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1996
Progress towards the sustainable use of dugongs by Indigenous peoples in Queensland. In: M. Bomford & J. Caughley (eds.), Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders.
Canberra, Australian Govt. Publ. Service (ix + 216): 139-151. 3 figs. 2 pls.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1996
The status of the dugong in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publ. No. 41: 1-80. 7 tabs. 7 figs. 2 appendix tabs. 7 appendix figs. Oct. 1996.
x
 
Tikel, Daniela; Blair, David; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1996
Marine mammal faeces as a source of DNA.
Molec. Ecol. 5(3): 456-457. 1 fig.
–Reports a mtDNA D-loop sequence obtained from feces of a dugong from Borroloola, Australia, and compares it with sequences from a Torres Strait dugong and a Florida manatee.
 
 
Corkeron, Peter J.; Morissette, Nina M.; Porter, Lindsay; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1997
Distribution and status of hump-backed dolphins, Sousa chinensis, in Australian waters.
Asian Marine Biology 14: 49-59.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1997
Going, going, dugong.
Nature Australia 25(9): 50-57. 8 figs. Winter 1997.
–Gen. acc. of dugong population biology, status, and conservation in Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Arnold, P. W.; Limpus, Colin J.; Birtles, Alastair; Breen, Barbara; Robins, J.; Williams, R. (detail)
   
1997
Endangered and charismatic megafauna. In: The Great Barrier Reef: science, use and management. A national conference.... [Held] 25-29 November 1996, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Proceedings, Volume 1, Invited Papers.
Townsville: 124-138.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Harris, A. N. M.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
1997
The sustainability of the indigenous dugong fishery in Torres Strait, Australia/Papua New Guinea.
Conserv. Biol. 11(6): 1375-1386. 8 tabs. 4 figs. Dec. 1997.
–Spanish summ. On the basis of aerial surveys in 1987 and 1991 and catch statistics, concludes that the annual catch approximates 5% of the estimated dugong population and is likely to be unsustainable. An increase in the Torres Strait population between the aerial surveys is thought to have been due to redistribution of dugongs within the survey region or to immigration, probably from Irian Jaya. For effective dugong management, the Torres Strait Islanders must be involved in management decisions and efforts.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Prince, Robert I. T.; Shepherd, R. (detail)
   
1997
Distribution and abundance of dugongs, turtles, dolphins and other megafauna in Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia.
Wildl. Res. 24(2): 185-208. 5 tabs. 10 figs.
–Aerial surveys in 1989 and 1994 estimated populations of about 10,000 dugongs at Shark Bay and about 1,000 each at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf. Extension of the Shark Bay Marine Park to coincide with the marine section of the Shark Bay World Heritage Area is recommended.
 
 
Bryden, Michael M.; Marsh, Helene D.; Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas (detail)
   
1998
Dugongs, whales, dolphins and seals: a guide to the sea mammals of Australasia.
St. Leonards (Australia), Allen & Unwin: 1-176. Illus.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Beck, Cathy A.; Vargo, Tim (detail)
   
1998
Comparison of the capabilities of dugongs and West Indian manatees to masticate seagrasses.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(1): 250-255. 1 tab. 2 figs. "Jan. 1999" (mailed Dec. 3, 1998).
–Compares fragment sizes of seagrasses (Halodule and Thalassia) in stomach contents of dugongs and of Florida and Puerto Rican manatees. The fragments from dugong stomachs were smaller despite the dugong's simpler teeth, indicating that other parts of the masticatory apparatus are also important in fragmentation of food.
 
 
Boyd, Ian L.; Lockyer, Christina; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1999
Reproduction in marine mammals. Chap. 6 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 218-286. 11 tabs. 21 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Giffney, Siriol (detail)
   
1999
The biology and conservation of dugong.
Sphere Square Newsletter 16: 2-3. 4 figs. May 1999.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Eros, Carole; Corkeron, Peter J.; Breen, Barbara (detail)
   
1999
A conservation strategy for dugongs: implications of Australian research.
Mar. Freshwater Res. 50(8): 979-990.
x
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2000
Impact of dugong grazing and turtle cropping on tropical seagrass communities.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 5: 277-288. 3 tabs. 2 figs.
–Elaborate simulations of leaf-cropping and rhizome removal in 2 seagrass beds in Australia's Great Barrier Reef region, extending over 1-13 months, showed that "herbivory" improved the structure and dynamics of these communities from the viewpoint of megaherbivores, by altering biomass, detritus volume, productivity, and species composition. Recovery occurred after several months to a year.
 
 
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin (detail)
   
2000
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 64: v + 74. 2 tabs. 20 figs.
–"First Edition." For second ed., see Eros et al. (2007).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2000
Evaluating management initiatives aimed at reducing the mortality of dugongs in gill and mesh nets in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16(3): 684-694. 1 tab. 1 fig. July 2000.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; De'ath, Glenn; Gribble, Neil; Lane, Baden (detail)
   
2001
Shark control records hindcast serious decline in dugong numbers off the urban coast of Queensland.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 70: 1-24. 1 tab. 8 figs.
–Publ. together with Marsh & Lawler (2001).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2001
Dugong distribution and abundance in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Hervey Bay: results of an aerial survey in October-December 1999.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 70: 25-87. 8 tabs. 3 figs. 3 appendix tabs.
–Publ. together with Marsh et al. (2001).
 
 
Lawler, I.; Marsh, Helene D.; McDonald, B.; Stokes, T. (detail)
   
2002
Dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef: Current state of knowledge.
CRC Reef Research Center, Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2002
Dugong (Dugong dugon). In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wrsig, & J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 344-347. 2 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2002
Dugong distribution and abundance in the Northern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: November 2000.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication 77.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Penrose, Helen; Eros, Carole; Hugues, Joanna (detail)
   
2002
Dugong: status reports and action plans for countries and territories in its range.
Cambridge (U.K.), IUCN: viii + 162. 2 tabs. Illus.
–Also publ. as: Dugong: status reports and action plans for countries and territories. UNEP Early Warning and Assessment Report Series 1 (Cambridge, UNEP), 2002.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Arnold, P.; Freeman, M.; Haynes, D.; Laist, David; Read, A.; Reynolds, John E., III; Kasuya, Toshiro (detail)
   
2003
Strategies for conserving marine mammals. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell, & R. Kirkwood (eds.), Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues.
Collingwood (Australia), CSIRO Publ. (xii + 446): 1-19.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Penrose, H.; Eros, C. (detail)
   
2003
A future for the dugong? In: N. Gales, M. Hindell, & R. Kirkwood (eds.), Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues.
Collingwood (Australia), CSIRO Publ. (xii + 446): 383-399. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
 
 
Allen, Simon; Marsh, Helene D.; Hodgson, Amanda J. (detail)
   
2004
Occurrence and conservation of the dugong (Sirenia: Dugongidae) in New South Wales.
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 125: 211-216.
 
 
Chilvers, B. Louise; Delean, Steven; Gales, Nicholas J.; Holley, David K.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
2004
Diving behaviour of dugongs, Dugong dugon.
Jour. Exper. Marine Biol. Ecol. 304: 203-224.
–The following Corrigendum to this article was published in Jour. Exper. Marine Biol. Ecol. 315: 115, 2005: {{"The authors regret to inform you of an error in Figure 1 of this article. Two place names in Figure 1 have been mislabelled. The location labelled as Hervey Bay is actually Shoalwater Bay and the location labelled Shoalwater Bay is Hervey Bay.
 "Apologies for any confusion this error may have caused."}}
 
 
Heinsohn, Robert; Lacy, Robert C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Marsh, Helene D.; Kwan, Donna; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2004
Unsustainable harvest of dugongs in Torres Strait and Cape York (Australia) waters: two case studies using population viability analysis.
Animal Conservation 7(4): 417-425. 6 tabs. 3 figs. Nov. 2004.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Kwan, Donna; Delean, Steve; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Alldredge, Matthew W. (detail)
   
2004
Aerial surveys and the potential biological removal technique indicate that the Torres Strait dugong fishery is unsustainable.
Animal Conservation 7: 435-443. 5 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Chilvers, B. Louise; Lawler, Ivan R.; Macknight, F.; Marsh, Helene D.; Noad, M.; Paterson, R. (detail)
   
2005
Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia: an example of the co-existence of significant marine mammal populations and large-scale coastal development.
Biol. Conserv. 122: 559-571.
 
 
Fernandes, L.; Day, J.; Lewis, A.; Slegers, S.; Kerrigan, B.; Breen, D.; Cameron, D.; Jago, B.; Hall, J.; Lowe, D.; Innes, J.; Tanzer, J.; Chadwick, V.; Thompson, L.; Gorman, K.; Simmons, M.; Barnett, B.; Sampson, K.; De'ath, Glenn; Mapstone, B.; Marsh, Helene D.; Possingham, H.; Ball, I.; Ward, T.; Dobbs, K.; Zumend, J.; Slater, D.; Stapleton, K. (detail)
   
2005
Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: large-scale implementation of Theory on Marine Protected Areas.
Conserv. Biol. 19: 1733-1744.
 
 
Havemann, P.; Thiriet, D.; Marsh, Helene D.; Jones, C. (detail)
   
2005
Decolonising conservation? Traditional use of marine resources agreements and dugong hunting in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
Environmental & Planning Law Jour. 22: 258-280.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; De'ath, Glenn; Gribble, N.; Lane, B. (detail)
   
2005
Historical marine population estimates: triggers or targets for conservation? The dugong case study.
Ecol. Applics. 15: 481-492.
 
 
Mellors, J.; Waycott, Michelle; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2005
Variation in biogeochemical parameters across intertidal seagrass meadows in the central Great Barrier Reef region.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 51: 335-342.
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Foley, W. J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2006
Dugong grazing and turtle cropping: grazing optimization in tropical seagrass systems?
Oecologia 149(4): 635-647.
 
 
Kwan, Donna; Marsh, Helene D.; Delean, S. (detail)
   
2006
Factors influencing the sustainability of customary dugong hunting by a remote indigenous community.
Envir. Conserv. 33(2): 164-171.
 
 
Lawler, Ivan R.; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Berding, N.; Marsh, Helene D.; Foley, W. J. (detail)
   
2006
Near infrared spectroscopy is a rapid cost effective predictor of sea grass nutrients.
Jour. Chem. Ecol. 32: 1353-1365.
 
 
Pollock, Kenneth H.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Alldredge, Matthew W. (detail)
   
2006
Estimating animal abundance in heterogeneous environments: an application to aerial surveys for dugongs.
Jour. Wildlife Management 70: 255-262.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Whiting, Scott D.; Jones, Rhondda E. (detail)
   
2006
Movement heterogeneity of dugongs, Dugong dugon (Müller) over large spatial scales.
Jour. Exper. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 334(1): 64-83.
 
 
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, M.; Lemm, S.; Pears, R.; Bowater, R. (detail)
   
2007
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon), second edition.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 85: 1-98.
–First ed.: Eros et al. (2000).
 
 
Grech, A.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2007
Prioritising areas for dugong conservation in a marine protected area using a spatially explicit population model.
Applied GIS 3(2): 1-14.
 
 
Hodgson, Amanda J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2007
Response of dugongs to boat traffic: the risk of disturbance and displacement.
Jour. Exper. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 340(1): 50-61.
 
 
Hodgson, Amanda J.; Marsh, Helene D.; Delean, S.; Marcus, L. (detail)
   
2007
Is attempting to change marine mammal behaviour a generic solution to the bycatch problem? A dugong case study.
Animal Conservation 10(2): 263-273.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2007
Seagrass as pasture for seacows: landscape-level dugong habitat evaluation.
Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science 71(1-2): 117-132. 3 tabs. 9 figs. Published online Aug. 30, 2006.
 
 
Daley, B.; Griggs, P.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Exploiting marine wildlife in Queensland: the commercial dugong and marine turtle fisheries, 1847-1969.
Australian Economic History Review 48(3): 227-265.
 
 
Dobbs, K.; Fernandes, L.; Slegers, S.; Jago, B.; Thompson, L.; Hall, L.; Day, J.; Cameron, D.; Tanzer, J.; Macdonald, F.; Marsh, Helene D.; Coles, Robert (detail)
   
2008
Incorporating dugong habitats into the marine protected area design for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Queensland, Australia.
Ocean & Coastal Management 51: 368-375.
 
 
Garrigue, Claire; Patenaude, Nathalie; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Distribution and abundance of the dugong in New Caledonia, southwest Pacific.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 24(1): 81-90. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Jan. 2008.
 
 
Grech, A.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.
Conserv. Biol. 22: 711-720.
 
 
Grech, A.; Marsh, Helene D.; Coles, Robert (detail)
   
2008
Using spatial risk assessment to evaluate and address the problem of marine mammal bycatch. [?OR:] A spatial assessment of the risk to a mobile marine mammal from bycatch.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems 18: 1127-1139. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.943
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Marine mammals. In: P. Hutchings, M. Kingsford, & O. Hoegh Guldberg (eds.), A field guide to the Great Barrier Reef.
CSIRO Publishing.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Kwan, D. (detail)
   
2008
Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: the likely role of sea grass dieback.
Continental Shelf Research 28: 2152-2159.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Jones, Rhondda E.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2009
Effects of tidal and diel cycles on dugong habitat use.
Jour. Wildl. Management 73: 45-59.
 
 
McCook, Laurence J.; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J. Howard; Evans, Richard D.; De Freitas, Debora M.; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene D.; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Pressey, Robert L.; Russ, Garry R.; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R.; Williamson , David H.; Gaines, Steven D. (detail)
   
2010
Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(43): 18278-18285. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0909335107. Oct. 26, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.
 
 
Rajamani, Leela; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2010
Using parallel regional- and local-scale initiatives to inform conservation management of rare wildlife: a case study of the dugong Dugong dugon in Sabah, Malaysia.
Endangered Species Research 13(1): 17-23. 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.3354/esr00310. December 3, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Obtaining the information needed to inform management strategies for rare wildlife species at appropriate scales is costly and logistically demanding. Using coastal aerial surveys we obtained qualitative information on the distribution and abundance of the dugong Dugong dugon at the geopolitical scale of the state of Sabah in east Malaysia. At a local scale, interview surveys and a monitoring program were carried out at 2 sites: Mantanani Island and Banggi Island. A total of 53 dugongs were observed from the air, concentrated around Labuan Island--Brunei Bay and Sandakan Bay. The interview reports and monitoring program indicated that the residents of Mantanani Island and Banggi Island had local knowledge of the distribution and abundance of dugongs and, thus, an ability to participate in monitoring at that scale. Dugong populations in Sabah are small and clumped, and urgently require management intervention at local scales in the regionally important habitats identified by the aerial surveys. This combination of regional- and local-scale initiatives has a more generic application in the monitoring of other rare species of wildlife.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Marsh, Helene D.; Jones, Rhondda E.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2010
Dugong habitat use in relation to seagrass nutrients, tides, and diel cycles.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 26(4): 855-879. 4 tabs. 7 figs. Oct. 2010.
 
 
Grech, A.; Sheppard, J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2011
Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments.
PLoS ONE 6(3): e17993. 8 pp.
 
 
Hagihara, Rie; Jones, Rhondda E.; Sheppard, James K.; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2011
Minimizing errors in the analysis of dive recordings from shallow-diving animals.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399(2): 173-181. 1 table. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.01.001 April 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the diving behaviour of aquatic animals expanded considerably with the invention of time–depth recorders (TDRs) in the 1960s. The large volume of data acquired from TDRs can be analyzed using dive analysis software, however, the application of the software has received relatively little attention. We present an empirical procedure to select optimum values that are critical to obtaining reliable results: the zero-offset correction (ZOC) and the dive threshold. We used dive data from shallow-diving coastal dugongs (Dugong dugon) and visual observations from an independent study to develop and test a procedure that minimizes errors in characterizing dives. We initially corrected the surface level using custom software. We then determined the optimum values for each parameter by classifying dives identified by an open-source dive analysis software into Plausible and Implausible dives based on the duration of dives. The Plausible dives were further classified as Unrecognized dives if they were not identified by the software but were of realistic dive duration. The comparison of these dive types indicated that a ZOC of 1 m and a dive threshold of 0.75 m were the optimum values for our dugong data as they gave the largest number of Plausible dives and smaller numbers of other dive types. Frequency distributions of dive durations from TDRs and independent visual observations supported the selection. Our procedure could be applied to other shallow-diving animals such as coastal dolphins and turtles.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2011
Ecology and conservation of the Sirenia: dugongs and manatees.
Cambridge (U.K.), Cambridge Univ. Press (Conservation Biology Series No. 18): xvi + 521. Illus. Dec. 1, 2011.
–Revs.: R.K. Bonde, Ecology 93(9): 2127-2128, Sept. 2012; D.P. Domning, Jour. Mamm. 93(5): 1405-1406, Oct. 19, 2012; R.L. Reep, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(4): 780-782, Oct. 2013.
 Japanese transl. by Toshio Kasuya, Univ. of Tokyo Press, 2021; includes an extra chapter (Chap. 10) on "Dugongs of Okinawa" by T. Kasuya and Taro Hosokawa. An Engl. abstract of this chapter was published in Sirenews No. 74: 3-8, Nov. 2021.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2012
Are dugongs fussy eaters?
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 106. 5 figs. June 2012.
–Dietary diversity of dugongs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Morales-Vela, Benjamín (detail)
   
2012
Guidelines for developing protected areas for sirenians. Chap. 25 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 228-234. 1 tab.
 
 
Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Hodgson, Amanda J. (detail)
   
2012a
The role of sirenians in aquatic ecosystems. Chap. 1 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 4-11. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 1 map.
–Includes a box essay by Domning (p. 6, "Rostral deflection in sirenians").
 
 
Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Cleguer, Christophe; Liebsch, Nikolai; Bedford, Guy; Amber, David; Hankin, Charlie; McCarthy, Phillip; Shimada, Takahiro; Whap, Terrence; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2013
Adapting dugong catching techniques to different cultural and environmental settings.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(1): 159-166. 2 figs. Jan. 2013.
 
 
Blair, David; McMahon, Adrian; McDonald, Brenda; Tikel, Daniela; Waycott, Michelle; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2014
Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the phylogeography of the dugong in Australian waters.
Marine Mammal Science 30(1): 104-121. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI:10.1111/mms.12022. January 2014.
–ABSTRACT: We investigated phylogeography, demography, and population connectivity of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in Australian waters using mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 177 Australian dugongs and 11 from elsewhere. The dugong is widespread in shallow Indo-West Pacific waters suitable for growth of its main food, seagrass. We hypothesized that the loss of habitat and creation of a land barrier (the Torres Strait landbridge) during low sea level stands associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles have left a persisting genetic signature in the dugong. The landbridge was most recently flooded about 7,000 yr ago. Individual dugongs are capable of traveling long distances, suggesting an alternative hypothesis that there might now be little genetic differentiation across the dugong's Australian range. We demonstrated that Australian dugongs fall into two distinct maternal lineages and exhibit a phylogeographic pattern reflecting Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations. Within each lineage, genetic structure exists, albeit at large spatial scales. We suggest that these lineages diverged following the last emergence of the Torres Strait landbridge (ca. 115 kya) and remained geographically separated until after 7 kya when passage through Torres Strait again became possible for marine animals. Evidence for population growth in the widespread lineage, especially after the last glacial maximum, was detected.
 
 
Hagihara, Rie; Jones, Rhondda E.; Grech, Alana; Lanyon, Janet M.; Sheppard, James K..; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2014
Improving population estimates by quantifying diving and surfacing patterns: A dugong example.
Marine Mammal Science 30(1): 348-366. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12041. January 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Diving animals are available for detection from above the water when environmental conditions are favorable and the animals are near the surface. The number of animals that are unavailable for detection needs to be estimated to obtain unbiased population estimates. The current availability correction factors used in aerial surveys for the dugong (Dugong dugon) allow for variation in environmental conditions but use the average time dugongs spend near the surface (i.e., constant availability corrections). To improve availability estimates, we examined location and dive data from nine dugongs fitted with satellite telemetry units and time-depth recorders (TDRs) in eastern Australia. The effects of water depth, tidal conditions, and habitat types on dugong surfacing time were examined using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). We found that availability for detection differed with water depth, and depth-specific availability estimates were often lower than the constant estimates. The habitat effect was less influential, and there was no tidal effect. The number of dugongs estimated using depth-specific availabilities were higher than those obtained using constant availabilities across water depth. Hence, information on water depth can refine availability estimates and subsequent abundance estimates from dugong aerial surveys. The methodology may be applicable to other aquatic wildlife.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2014
Impacts on dugongs. In: B. Daley (ed.), Great Barrier Reef: an environmental history.
London, Earthscan Publications Ltd.: 95-112.
 
 
Cleguer, Christophe; Grech, Alana; Garrigue, Claire; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2015
Spatial mismatch between marine protected areas and dugongs in New Caledonia.
Biological Conservation 184: 154-162. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.01.007. Apr. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a powerful tool for conserving marine biodiversity when designed using ecological information and conservation goals and targets. Dugongs (Dugong dugon) were not an explicit target in the design of the network of MPAs in New Caledonia, despite being one of the region's World Heritage values. Our study retrospectively assessed the capacity of the New Caledonia MPA network to protect dugongs from anthropogenic threats. We developed a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution and relative density based on information collected from ?10 years of aerial surveys. We quantified the amount of overlap between areas supporting high densities of dugongs and MPAs. We found that most of the important dugong habitats of New Caledonia had a low coverage of MPAs that provide high levels of restriction on anthropogenic activities. We identified several important dugong habitats along the west and the north-east coast that were not covered by MPAs and should be a priority for future management. The spatial mismatch between MPAs and dugongs was likely caused by weaknesses in the planning process, including the: (1) lack of explicit conservation goals and targets; (2) omission of spatial information on species' distribution; (3) mismatch of spatial scales; (4) cost considerations; and (5) incorrect application of the IUCN protected area categories. We provide guidance on how these shortcomings can be avoided for marine species of conservation concern in New Caledonia and other regions.
 
 
Zeh, Daniel R.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Limpus, Colin J.; Hamann, Mark; Fuentes, Mariana M.P.B.; Babcock, Russel C.; Pillans, Richard D.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2015
Is acoustic tracking appropriate for air-breathing marine animals? Dugongs as a case study.
Jour. Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 464: 1-10. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2014.11.013. Mar. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Marine animals face increased pressure through expanded shipping and recreational activities. Effective conservation and management of large species like marine mammals or sea turtles depend on knowledge of movement and habitat use. Previous studies have used data collected from either satellite or acoustic telemetry but rarely both. In this study, data from satellite and acoustic technologies were used to: determine the efficacy of satellite and acoustic telemetry to define dugong movement patterns; compare the benefits and limitations of each approach; examine the costs of each approach in relation to the amount and type of data provided; and relate telemetry data to the boundaries of a Go Slow area designed to protect dugongs and turtles from vessel strike within an urbanised coastal embayment (Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia). Twenty-one dugongs were captured in seagrass habitats on the Eastern Banks of Moreton Bay in July–September 2012 and July 2013 and fitted with GPS and acoustic transmitters. Both satellite and acoustic telemetry produced reliable presence and movement data for individual dugongs. When the dugongs were within the range of the acoustic array, there was relatively good correspondence between the overall space use measures derived from GPS and acoustic transmitters, demonstrating that acoustic tracking is a potentially valuable and cost-effective tool for monitoring local dugong habitat use in environments equipped with acoustic receiver arrays. Acoustic technology may be particularly useful for species that establish home ranges with stable residency especially near large urban or port environs. However, the relative merits of the two technologies depend on the research question in the context of the species of interest, the location of the study and whether the study site has an established acoustic array.
 
 
Cleguer, C.; Garrigue, C.; Fuentes, M. M.P.B.; Everingham, Y.; Hagihara, R.; Hamann, M.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2017
Drivers of change in the relative abundance of dugongs in New Caledonia.
Wildlife Research 44: 365-376.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Arraut, Eduardo Moraes; Keith Diagne, Lucy; Edwards, Holly H.; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2017
Impact of climate change and loss of habitat on sirenians. Chap. 19 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 333-357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Although the impacts of climate change on the welfare of individual manatees and dugongs are still uncertain, the effects are likely to be through indirect interactions between meteorological and biotic factors and the human responses to climate change. We divided the potential impacts into (1) those that will potentially affect sirenians directly including temperature increases, sea-level rise, increased intensity of extreme weather events and changes in rainfall patterns and (2) indirect impacts that are likely to cause harm through habitat loss and change and the increase in the likelihood of harmful algal blooms and disease outbreaks. The habitat modification accompanying sea-level rise is likely to decrease the welfare of sirenians including increased mortality. Many species of tropical seagrasses live close to their thermal limits and will have to up-regulate their stress-response systems to tolerate the sublethal temperature increases caused by climate change. The capacity of seagrass species to evoke such responses is uncertain, as are the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on such acclimation responses. The increase in the intensity of extreme weather events associated with climate change is likely to decrease the welfare of sirenians through increased mortality from strandings, as well as habitat loss and change. These effects are likely to increase the exposure of sirenians to disease and their vulnerability to predators, including human hunters. Climate-related hazards will also exacerbate other stressors, especially for people living in poverty. Thus the risks to sirenians from climate change are likely to be greatest for small populations of dugongs and manatees occurring in low-income countries. The African manatee will be particularly vulnerable because of the high levels of human poverty throughout most of its range resulting in competition for resources, including protein from manatee meat.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Grech, A.; McMahon, K. (detail)
   
2018
Dugongs: seagrass community specialists. In: Larkum, A.; Kendrick, G.; & Ralph, P. (eds.) Seagrasses of Australia.
Springer, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71354-019.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (ed.) (detail)
   
2022
Ethology and Behavioral Ecology of Sirenia
Springer

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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