Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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"Mignucci-Giannoni, A"

Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.: SEE ALSO Falcón et al., 2003; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Jiménez-Marrero et al., 1998; Montoya et al., 2001; Morales-V. et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
1990
Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico: urgent need for assessment and preventive action.
Whalewatcher 24(1): 10-12.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Toyos-González, Gian M.; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
   
1997
First osteological collection of marine mammals for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 33(3-4): 288-292. 1 tab.
–Lists 32 specimens of T. manatus from Puerto Rico cataloged in the University of Puerto Rico Biology Museum, Rio Piedras Campus, and in other museums.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
1998
Marine mammal captivity in the northeastern Caribbean, with notes on the rehabilitation of stranded whales, dolphins, and manatees.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 34(3-4): 191-203.
–Spanish summ.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1998
The diet of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2): 394-397. 1 tab. Mar. 31, 1998.
–Stomach contents of 8 manatees included mainly Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme, with small amounts of mangroves, algae, hydroids, and ascidians.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
   
1999
Parasites and commensals of the West Indian manatee from Puerto Rico.
Jour. Helminth. Soc. Wash. 66(1): 67-69. Jan. 1999.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Toyos-González, Gian M.; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Rodríguez-López, Marta A.; Vega-Guerra, Monica B.; Ventura-González, Margarita (detail)
   
1999
Helminths from a stranded manatee in the Dominican Republic.
Veter. Parasitol. 81(1): 69-71. Feb. 1, 1999.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Jiménez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2000
Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico.
Envir. Management 25(2): 189-198. Feb. 2000.
 
 
Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Millán-Sánchez, Sandra L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Lefebvre, Lynn W. (detail)
   
2001
Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia.
Biol. Conserv. 102(1): 117-129. 1 tab. 5 figs.
x
 
Falcón-Matos, Limarie; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Toyos-Gonzáles, Gian M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Meisner, René A.; Varela, René A. (detail)
   
2003
Evidence of a shark attack on a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Jour. Neotropical Mammalogy (Mastozoologia Neotropical) 10(1): 6-11. 1 fig. Jan.-June 2003.
–Spanish summ. Reports healed scars from a bite of a large shark (probably a tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier) on an adult female manatee that died of intestinal impaction and respiratory distress of uncertain relation to the shark bite. This is the first confirmed report of an ante-mortem shark attack on a manatee.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Velasco-Escudero, Mario (detail)
   
2003
Status of semi-captive manatees in Jamaica.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquat. Mamms. 2(1): 7-12. 3 figs. Jan./June 2003.
–Spanish summ. Reports on the captivity of 4 female manatees in the Alligator Hole River, Jamaica, since 1981. As of June 2003, three of these were thought to still survive; their release and radiotracking is recommended.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2003
Status of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) along the northern and western coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula, México.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 39(1): 42-49. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
 
 
Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Bonde, Robert K.; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Preen, Anthony R.; Cockcroft, Vic G. (detail)
   
2003
Echeneid-sirenian interactions, with information on sharksucker diet.
Jour. Fish Biology 63(5): 1176-1183. 1 fig.
 
 
Vianna, Juliana A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Caballero, Susana; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Pinto de Lima, Régis; Clark, Annmarie; Marmontel, Miriam; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Souza, Maria José de; Parr, Leslee; Rodríguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Santos, Fabrício R. (detail)
   
2006
Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation.
Molec. Ecol. 15: 433-447. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Moore, D. P.; Tippett, F. E.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A. (detail)
   
2008
Cardiac failure of an Antillean manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Puerto Rico.
Jour. Trop. Biol. 56 (Suppl. 1): 277-283.
 
 
Colon-Llavina, Marlene M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
   
2009
Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.
Parasitology Research 105(5): 1239-1252. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1544-4. Oct. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus, Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2010
El manatí de Puerto Rico.
San Juan, Red Caribeña de Varamientos & Univ. Interamericana de Puerto Rico: iv + 56. Illus.
–Informative children's book, well illustrated with color photos, on the natural history and conservation of TM in Puerto Rico.
 
 
Adimey, N. M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Auil Gomez, N.; da Silva, Vera M. F.; Alvite, Carolina Mattosinho de Carvalho; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; de Lima, Regis Pinto; Rosas, Fernando C. Weber (detail)
   
2012
Manatee rescue, rehabilitation, and release efforts as a tool for species conservation. Chap. 23 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 204-217. 1 tab. 7 figs.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2012
Sirenian pathology and mortality assessment. Chap. 17 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 148-156. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S. (detail)
   
2012
Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 101: 139-144. 3 figs. doi: 10.3354/dao02526 Nov. 8, 2012.
–Available at: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v101/n2/p139-144/
 ABSTRACT: Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Marmontel, Miriam; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2012
The role of scientists in sirenian conservation in developing countries. Chap. 27 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 243-245.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Reynolds, John E., III; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Marmontel, Miriam (eds.) (detail)
   
2012
Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida: xiv + 326. 28 tabs. 46 figs. 11 maps.
–Rev.: Quart. Rev. Biol. 89(3), Sept. 2014. The book comprises 28 chapters, listed in this bibliography by their authors.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2012
Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups.
Conserv. Genet. 13(6): 1623-1635. 3 tabs. 4 figs. + online supplemental material. DOI 10.1007/s10592-012-0414-2 Dec. 2012 (publ. online Oct. 7, 2012).
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P < 0.001)) and mitochondrial (F ST = 0.66; Ф ST = 0.50 (P < 0.001)) DNA. Microsatellite Bayesian cluster analyses detected two populations (K = 2) and no admixture or recent migrants between Florida (q = 0.99) and Puerto Rico (q = 0.98). The microsatellite genetic diversity values in Puerto Rico (HE = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Ф ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.
 
 
Satizábal, P.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Duchêne, S.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Perea-Sicchar, C. M.; García-Dávila, C. R.; et al. (detail)
   
2012
Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.
PLoS One 7: e52468. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052468
 
 
Satizabal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Duchene, Sebastian; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M.; Garcia-Davila, Carmen R.; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J. (detail)
   
2012
Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.
PLoS ONE 7(12): 10 pp. 4 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052468. Dec. 20, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.
 
 
Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2012
West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the wider Caribbean region. Chap. 4 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 36-46. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Includes box essays by Haydée Domínguez Tejo (pp. 38-39, "Manatees in Hispaniola"), Carolina Mattosinho de Carvalho Alvite & Regis Pinto de Lima (pp. 42-43, "Antillean manatees in Brazil"), and Ignacio Jiménez Pérez (pp. 44-45, "Manatees in Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Central America").
 
 
Ghim, Shin-je; Joh, Joongho; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzmán, Antonio L.; Falcón-Matos, Limarie; Alsina-Guerrero, Mayela M.; Rodríguez-Villanueva, Marinelly; Jenson, Alfred Bennett; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2014
Genital papillomatosis associated with two novel mucosotropic papillomaviruses from a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mammals 40(2): 195-200. 5 figs. DOI 10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.195.
 
 
Landrau-Giovannetti, Nelmarie; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Reidenberg, Joy S. (detail)
   
2014
Acoustical and anatomical determination of sound production and transmission in West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T.inunguis) manatees.
Anat. Rec. 297(10): 1896-1907. 3 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: 10.1002/ar.22993. July 16, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees are vocal mammals, with most sounds produced for communication between mothers and calves. While their hearing and vocalizations have been well studied, the actual mechanism of sound production is unknown. Acoustical recordings and anatomical examination were used to determine the source of sound generation. Recordings were performed on live captive manatees from Puerto Rico, Cuba and Colombia (T. manatus) and from Peru (T. inunguis) to determine focal points of sound production. The manatees were recorded using two directional hydrophones placed on the throat and nasal region and an Edirol-R44 digital recorder. The average sound intensity level was analyzed to evaluate the sound source with a T test: paired two sample for means. Anatomical examinations were conducted on six T. manatus carcasses from Florida and Puerto Rico. During necropsies, the larynx, trachea, and nasal areas were dissected, with particular focus on identifying musculature and soft tissues capable of vibrating or constricting the airway. From the recordings we found that the acoustical intensity was significant (P?
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Rivera-Pérez, Carla I.; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L. (detail)
   
2017
Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 127(1): 65-69. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03181. Dec. 19, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Rivera-Perez, Carla I.; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L. (detail)
   
2017
Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees.
Diseases of Marine Organisms 127: 65-69. 2 figs. doi:10.335/dao03181. Dec. 19, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A,; Iglesias-Escabi, Chabeli; Rosario-Delestre, Raúl J.; Alsina-Guerrero, Mayela (detail)
   
2018
Variación en la distribución del manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus manatus) en la costa sur de Puerto Rico a través de censos aéreos en helicóptero. [Variation in the distribution of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the southern coast of Puerto Rico through helicopter aerial surveys.]
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 10(1): 97-121. 4 tabs. 7 figs. DOI: 10.15359/revmar.10-1.6
–RESUMO: El manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus manatus) está en peligro de extinción debido a actividades antrópicas, las cuales afectan tanto su salud como el uso de hábitats requeridos para su supervivencia. El presente estudio detalla la distribución espacial y uso de hábitat del manatí en la costa sur de Puerto Rico al hacer censos aéreos en helicóptero y relacionarlos con aspectos zoogeográficos, ambientales y oceanográficas. Se realizaron 33 censos aéreos en helicóptero, paralelos a la costa sur, desde el año 2001 al año 2015. Hubo un total de 488 avistamientos y 914 individuos, lo cual representa 13 manatíes por hora de esfuerzo y 12.4% de crías. No se encontró que factores de temporada, temperatura superficial del mar o las corrientes afecten su presencia. El uso de recursos de agua dulce y praderas de yerbas no presentó estadísticamente una relación, pero si es claro que son parte de su naturaleza y necesarios para su sobrevivencia. Sin embargo, la profundidad y el grado de protección que ofrecen las bahías si es determinante para predecir la presencia de manatíes. Un marcado incremento en el número de manatíes por hora de esfuerzo entre el año 2007 y año 2015 representa un posible aumento poblacional. Dado que la supervivencia de los manatíes en Puerto Rico está amenazada por diferentes factores naturales y antrópicos, este estudio, junto a los de telemetría y uso de hábitat, deben ayudar a designar en el futuro áreas protegidas críticas para su supervivencia.
 ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is endangered due to anthropogenic activities, which affect both the manatee's health and use of habitats required for their survival. The spatial distribution and use of the manatee habitat on the southern coast of Puerto Rico was obtained using helicopter aerial surveys and was related to zoogeographic, environmental and oceanographic factors. A total of 33 surveys were conducted along the southern coast from 2001 to 2015. There was a total of 488 sightings and 914 individuals, which represents 13 manatees per hour of effort, 12.4% being calves. No correlation was found between their presence and seasons, sea surface temperature, or currents. The use of freshwater and seagrass bed resources did not present a statistical relationship, but it is clear that they are part of their nature and necessary for their survival. However, the depth and degree of protection offered by the bays is decisive to predict the presence of manatees. A marked increase in the number of manatees per hour of effort between 2007 and 2015 represents a possible population growth. Given that the survival of manatees in Puerto Rico is threatened by different natural and anthropogenic factors, this study, together with studies on telemetry and habitat use, should help designate future protected areas critical for their survival.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Chapman, Alycia; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Pérez, Carla I.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2018
Internal parasites of the two subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 130(2): 145-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03270. Publ. online Sept. 10, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is divided into 2 subspecies: the Antillean (T. m. manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. This study reports sample prevalence of manatee parasites from populations of these 2 subspecies in different geographical locations. Although necropsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for parasite infections, the need for antemortem diagnostic techniques is important. Fecal samples collected during necropsies of Antillean manatees (n = 3) in Puerto Rico and Florida manatees (n = 10) in Crystal River, Florida, as well as from live-captured Florida manatees (n = 11) were evaluated using centrifugal flotation with sucrose and ethyl acetate sedimentation to compare parasites from each of the populations. Although both fecal examination methods provided similar results, the centrifugal flotation method required less time for diagnosis. The most common parasite eggs found in both populations included the trematodes Pulmonicola cochleotrema and Nudacotyle undicola, oocysts of the coccidian Eimeria spp., and eggs of the ascarid Heterocheilus tunicatus. Eggs of the trematode Chiorchis groschafti were found in both populations of manatees; however, eggs of a related species, Chiorchis fabaceus, were abundant in the Florida samples, but not found in Puerto Rico populations. Trematode eggs of Moniligerum blairi were found in both populations, but were more common in the Florida manatee (42%) than the Antillean manatee (33%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of both Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa oocysts in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.
 
 
Zahin, Maryam; Dean, William L.; Ghim, Shin-je; Joh, Joongho; Gray, Robert D.; Khanal, Sujita; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Trent, John O.; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Chariker, Julia H. (detail)
   
2018
Identification of G-quadruplex forming sequences in three manatee papillomaviruses.
PLoS One 13(4): e0195625. 5 tabs. 6 figs. + online supplementary material. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195625 April 9, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirotris) is a threatened aquatic mammal in United States coastal waters. Over the past decade, the appearance of papillomavirus-induced lesions and viral papillomatosis in manatees has been a concern for those involved in the management and rehabilitation of this species. To date, three manatee papillomaviruses (TmPVs) have been identified in Florida manatees, one forming cutaneous lesions (TmPV1) and two forming genital lesions (TmPV3 and TmPV4). We identified DNA sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplex structures (G4) across the three genomes. G4 were located on both DNA strands and across coding and non-coding regions on all TmPVs, offering multiple targets for viral control. Although G4 have been identified in several viral genomes, including human PVs, most research has focused on canonical structures comprised of three G-tetrads. In contrast, the vast majority of sequences we identified would allow the formation of non-canonical structures with only two G-tetrads. Our biophysical analysis confirmed the formation of G4 with parallel topology in three such sequences from the E2 region. Two of the structures appear comprised of multiple stacked two G-tetrad structures, perhaps serving to increase structural stability. Computational analysis demonstrated enrichment of G4 sequences on all TmPVs on the reverse strand in the E2/E4 region and on both strands in the L2 region. Several G4 sequences occurred at similar regional locations on all PVs, most notably on the reverse strand in the E2 region. In other cases, G4 were identified at similar regional locations only on PVs forming genital lesions. On all TmPVs, G4 sequences were located in the non-coding region near putative E2 binding sites. Together, these findings suggest that G4 are possible regulatory elements in TmPVs.
 
 
Collazo, Jaime A.; Krachey, Matthew J.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Pérez-Aguilo, Francisco J.; Zegarra, Jan P.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2019
Population estimates of Antillean manatees in Puerto Rico: an analytical framework for aerial surveys using multi-pass removal sampling.
Jour. Mammalogy 100(4): 1340-1349. 3 figs. 3 tabs. + online supplementary data. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz076 Aug. 2019 (published online Sept. 26, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Effective management of the threatened Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Puerto Rico requires reliable estimates of population size. Estimates are needed to assess population responses to management actions, and whether recovery objectives have been met. Aerial surveys have been conducted since 1976, but none adjusted for imperfect detection. We summarize surveys since 1976, report on current distribution, and provide population estimates after accounting for apparent detection probability for surveys between June 2010 and March 2014. Estimates in areas of high concentration (hotspots) averaged 317 ± 101, three times higher than unadjusted counts (104 ± 0.56). Adjusted estimates in three areas outside hotspots also differed markedly from counts (75 ± 9.89 versus 19.5 ± 3.5). Average minimum island-wide estimate was 386 ± 89, similar to the maximum estimate of 360 suggested in 2005, but fewer than the 700 recently suggested by the Puerto Rico Manatee Conservation Center. Manatees were more widespread than previously understood. Improving estimates, locally or island-wide, will require stratifying the island differently and greater knowledge about factors affecting detection probability. Sharing our protocol with partners in nearby islands (e.g., Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola), whose populations share genetic make-up, would contribute to enhanced regional conservation through better population estimates and tracking range expansion.
 El manejo efectivo del manatí antillano amenazado en Puerto Rico requiere estimados de tamaños de poblaciónes confiables. Dichas estimaciones poblacionales son necesarias para evaluar las respuestas a las acciones de manejo, y para determinar si los objetivos de recuperación han sido alcanzados. Se han realizado censos aéreos desde 1976, pero ninguno de ellos han sido ajustados para detecciones imperfectas. Aquí resumimos los censos desde 1976, actualizamos la distribución, y reportamos los primeros estimados poblacionales ajustados para la probabilidad de detección aparente en los censos de Junio 2010 a Marzo 2014. Las estimaciones poblacionales en áreas de mayor concentración del manatí promedió 317 ± 103, tres veces más abundante que los conteos sin ajuste (104 ± 0.56). Las estimaciones poblacionales en tres áreas fuera de las áreas de mayor concentración del manatí también fueron marcadamente diferentes (75 ± 9.89 vs 19.5 ± 3.5). El estimado mínimo poblacional en la isla entera fue de 386 ± 89, similar al estimado máximo de 360 sugerido en el año 2005, pero menor a los 700 sugeridos recientemente por el Centro de Conservación de Manatíes de Puerto Rico. Documentamos que el manatí tiene una distribución más amplia de lo que se sabía con anterioridad. El mejoramiento de los estimados poblacionales locales o a nivel de isla requerirá que se estratifique a la isla en forma diferente y que se investiguen los factores que influencian a la probabilidad de detección. Compartir protocolos como este con colaboradores de islas vecinas (por. ej., Cuba, Jamaica, Española), cuyas poblaciones de manatíes comparten material genético, contribuiría a la conservación regional mediante mejores estimaciones poblacionales y monitoreo de la expansión de su ámbito doméstico.
 
 
Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Mona-Sanabria, Y; Gómez-Camelo, I. V.; Rosso-Londoño, M. C.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2020
Opportunistic fish consumption by Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Colombia.
Caribbean Naturalist 74: 1-9.
 
 
Cowart, J. R.; Collins, D. M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Alejandro-Zayas, T., Rivera-Guzman, A. L.; et al. (detail)
   
2020
Manual collection and semen characterization in a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7: 810.
–Abstract, copied here from Sirenews No. 72, p. 52: "Limited information is available regarding male reproductive physiology in West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Currently, no reports evaluating any seminal characteristics exists in this species. To fill an apparent gap in knowledge, ejaculate samples were collected and characterized from a single, adult West Indian manatee. Samples were analyzed for the following semen parameters: volume, agglutination, pH, osmolality, viscosity, concentration, total sperm number, motility and kinematic parameters, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, chromatin maturation, and chromatin condensation. These results are the first of their kind for this species and suggest high semen quality, based on multiple ejaculates, in this male West Indian manatee."
 
 
Cowart, J.R.; Collins, D.M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A.; Alejandro-Zayas, T; Rivera-Guzman, A.L.; Larkin, I.V. (detail)
   
2020
Manual collection and semen characterization in a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7: 569993. (doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.569993)
 
 
Cabrias-Contreras, L. J.; Bras-Silva, I. D.; de Angel-Ramírez, J. E.; Escobar-Torres, S. M.; Fernández-Martínez, R.; Hernández-Lara, E.; Rivera-Guzmán, A. L.; Rivera-Pérez, C. I.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. (detail)
   
2022
Medical management and resolution of perinatal bilateral exophthalmia and secondary corneal ulcers in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) neonate from Puerto Rico.
Veterinary Ophthalmology http://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12983
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Cabrias-Contreras, L. J.; Dennis, M. M.; Escobar-Torres, S. M.; Ghim, S.; Howerth, E. W.; Landrau-Giovannetti, N.; Rivera-Guzmán, A. L.; Rivera-Pérez, C. I.; Joh J. J. (detail)
   
2022
Characterization of a novel papillovirus from free-ranging Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus with genital papillomatosis.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 149: 1-10. doi.org/10.3354/dao03656

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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