Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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"Powell, James Arthur"

Powell, James Arthur, Jr.: SEE ALSO Ackerman & Powell, 2001; Campbell & Powell, 1976; Etheridge et al., 1985; Kochman et al., 1983, 1985; Lefebvre & Powell, 1990; Lefebvre et al., 2000; Rathbun et al., 1983, 1995; Reynolds & Powell, 2002; Scott & Powell, 1982. (detail)
Campbell, Howard W.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Endangered species: the manatee.
Florida Naturalist 49(2): 15-20. 5 figs. Apr. 1976.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Evidence of carnivory in manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Mamm. 59(2): 442. May 30, 1978.
–Describes fish-eating by captive Florida manatees and the removal of fish from gill nets by wild manatees in Jamaica. Only the flesh of the fish was eaten; the bones were left behind.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
The manatee population in Crystal River, Citrus County, Florida. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 33-40. 5 tabs. 1 fig.
–Repr. in J.M. Packard (1983c: 125-132). Describes manatees' use of Crystal River as a warm-water winter refugium, based on aerial and boat surveys, 1967-78; the sex and age composition of the population; the number of known individuals resighted in successive winters; and the calving intervals of known females. Age at first conception is estimated at 7-8 years, calving interval at either 2.5 or 5 years.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Waldron, John C. (detail)
The manatee population in Blue Spring, Volusia County, Florida. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 41-51. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
–Describes manatees' use of Blue Spring as a warm-water winter refugium, based on observations from 1971 to 1978, including number of manatees present as a function of temperature, daily attendance of known individuals, population composition, number of known individuals resighted in successive years, reproductive data, feeding behavior, distribution in the St. Johns River south of Lake George, and existing protective measures. A preponderance of males in the upper St. Johns River is documented, and calving intervals of 3 and 4 years are reported for one female. The primary local food source appears to be Eichhornia, though Vallisneria is preferred.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Belitsky, David W.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
Status of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Jour. Mamm. 62(3): 642-646. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Aug. 20, 1981.
–Reports that aerial surveys in Puerto Rico in 1976-79 counted up to 51 manatees; gives notes on their occurrence in and drinking of fresh water, their preference for calm waters, and their mortality in fishing nets. The manatee population is said to be "small and widely distributed".
Scott, Michael D.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Commensal feeding of little blue herons with manatees.
Wilson Bull. 94(2): 215-216. June 1982.
–Reports observations of commensal feeding at rafts of water hyacinth on the St. Johns River, Florida.
Kochman, Howard I.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Use of Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida by the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 69-124. 4 tabs. 34 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Summ.: Kochman et al. (1985). Describes the physical characteristics and aquatic flora of Kings Bay, mapping the flora's distribution in detail; gives results of aerial surveys of manatees in the bay, 1977-81, with detailed maps for each month; and describes observations of behavior and diurnal movements within the bay.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Mermaids, very special animals.
The Fund for Animals Ltd. Newsletter (Australia) 3(1): 12. 1 fig. Mar. 1983.
–?Same as: "Mermaids: a special kind of animal." Fund for Animals 5: 26, 1983.
Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Cruz, Gustavo (detail)
Status of the West Indian manatee in Honduras.
Biol. Conserv. 26(4): 301-308. 3 figs.
–Aerial surveys and interviews indicated a low density of manatees and relatively heavy subsistence hunting pressure. A manatee harpoon is illustrated. Hunters state that manatees are nocturnal, move out to sea during storms, and enter rivers in the rainy season. Several manatees died of starvation after being trapped in a lagoon during the dry season.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
Distribution and abundance of manatees along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Northeast Gulf Science 7(1): 1-28. 8 tabs. 15 figs. July 31, 1984.
–An earlier version of this paper was publ. in J.M. Packard (1983c: 1-68), with a different fig. 4 and an additional fig. ("Fig. 6") included. Reviews historical and recent records of T. manatus, including aerial survey and carcass salvage data, emphasizing the southern Big Bend coast of northwestern peninsular Florida. Numbers of manatees have decreased in Texas but increased in the northeastern Gulf. The influences of temperature, sources of warm and fresh water, and food on manatee seasonal movements in the area are discussed, and used to explain the patterns of manatee use of different rivers in the Big Bend area and the increase in manatee population of this area compared with other parts of Florida. Concludes that the southern Big Bend coast offers the best long-term hope for manatee survival in the USA.
Etheridge, Kay; Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Kochman, Howard I. (detail)
Consumption of aquatic plants by the West Indian manatee.
Jour. Aquatic Plant Manage. 23(1): 21-25. 6 tabs.
–Feeding experiments (using Hydrilla and Vallisneria) and measurements of chewing rates in wild and captive Florida manatees indicated that adults can eat about 7.1% of body weight per day in wet weight of Hydrilla in 5 hours of chewing time. At this rate the manatees wintering at Crystal River fall short of controlling the growth of Hydrilla there by at least an order of magnitude, and manatees in general appear inefficient and impractical as a means of aquatic weed control.
Kochman, Howard I.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Temporal and spatial distribution of manatees in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 49(4): 921-924. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–An abridgement of Kochman et al., 1983. Presents aerial-survey data on manatee use of Kings Bay, 1977-1981.
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Manatee grazing impacts on seagrasses in Hobe Sound and Jupiter Sound in southeast Florida during the winter of 1988-89.
NTIS Document No. PB 90-271883: vi + 36. 6 tabs. 12 figs. Aug. 1990.
–Includes an appendix by Domning (34-36; see Domning, D.P., 1990a).
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Reproduction in free-ranging Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 135-156. 5 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 19-20).
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Characterizing manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: implications for conservation and management.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 5: 289-298. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Compares manatee use of seagrasses in the Indian River Lagoon and eastern Puerto Rico, and with reports of seagrass use by dugongs. Manatees grazed more frequently on the locally most abundant species, exhibited possible cultivation grazing, and appeared to prefer Thalassia associated with clumps of Halimeda opuntia, which they pushed aside to get at the Thalassia. Florida manatees are hypothesized to be less specialized seagrass grazers than manatees in tropical regions.
Ackerman, Bruce B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Can manatee numbers continue to grow in a fast-developing state? In: D. S. Maehr, R. F. Noss, & J. L. Larkin (eds.), Large mammal restoration: ecological and sociological challenges in the 21st century.
Covelo (Calif.), Island Press (375 pp.): 313-320.
–From the Symposium on Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Considerations, held at The Wildlife Society national conference, Austin, Texas, Sept. 7-11, 1999.
Nowacek, Stephanie M.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Johnson, M. P.; Shorter, K. A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Wells, Randall S. (detail)
Manatee behavioral responses to vessel approaches: results of digital acoustic logger tagging of manatees in Belize.
Mote Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 847: 1-61.
Reynolds, John E., III; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Manatees (Trichechus manatus, T. senegalensis, and T. inunguis). In: W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 709-720. 1 tab. 8 figs.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Sirenians. In: R. R. Reeves, B. S. Stewart, P. J. Clapham, & J. A. Powell, National Audubon Society guide to marine mammals of the world.
New York, Alfred A. Knopf (Chanticleer Press) (527 pp.): 474-492. 21 figs.
–Illustrated by Pieter A. Folkens.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Manatees: natural history and conservation.
Vancouver, Voyageur Press.
Bonde, Robert K.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?
EcoHealth 1: 255-262. 2 figs.
Vianna, Juliana A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Caballero, Susana; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Pinto de Lima, Régis; Clark, Annmarie; Marmontel, Miriam; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Souza, Maria José de; Parr, Leslee; Rodríguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Santos, Fabrício R. (detail)
Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation.
Molec. Ecol. 15(2): 433-447. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
Álvarez-Alemán, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
First report of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba.
Aquatic Mammals 36(2): 148-153. 2 figs.
Hunter, Margaret E. Kellogg; Auil Gomez, Nicole E.; Tucker, K. P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee.
Animal Conservation 13: 592-602. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
Sulzner, Kathryn; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Bonde, Robert K.; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso (detail)
Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).
PLoS ONE 7(9): e44517. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044517. 11 pp. 4 tabs. 2 figs Sept. 12, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.
Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field.
Aquatic Mammals 38(1): 1-16. 12 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.38.1.2012.1
–ABSTRACT: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p < 0.001). As monitoring time progressed, mean differences between the subspecies were no longer significant. High RR over monitoring time was associated with high lactate concentration. Antillean manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001). We recommend monitoring manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.
Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Harr, Kendal E.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Bonde, Robert K.; Heard, Darryl (detail)
Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(2): 285-294. 6 tabs. DOI: 10.1638/2012-0093R.1. June 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P ? 0.05). Mean WB aluminum, calcium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, vanadium, and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower in BZ versus FL manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P ? 0.05). Females had significant and higher mean WB nickel and serum barium compared to males (P ? 0.05). Mean WB arsenic and zinc, and mean serum iron, magnesium, and zinc concentrations fell within toxic ranges reported for domestic species. Results reveal manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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