Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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"Reid, James P."

Reid, James P.: SEE ALSO Beck & Reid, 1995; Deutsch et al., 1998, 2003; Lefebvre et al., 2000; Mate et al., 1986, 1987; Rathbun, Reid & Bourassa, 1987; Rathbun, Reid & Tas'an, 1987; Rathbun et al., 1990, 1995. (detail)
Mate, Bruce R.; Rathbun, Galen B. ("Geylen Rathburn"); Reid, James P. ("James Reed") (detail)
An Argos-monitored radio tag for tracking manatees.
Argos Newsletter No. 26: 2-7. 1 tab. June 1986.
–Text in French & Engl.
Mate, Bruce R.; Reid, James P.; Winsor, M. (detail)
Long-term tracking of manatees through the Argos satellite system. In: Proc. Argos Internatl. Users Conference
(Greenbelt, Maryland): 211-220.
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Bourassa, J. B. (detail)
Design and construction of a tethered, floating radio-tag assembly for manatees.
NTIS Document No. PB 87-161345/AS: 1-49.
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Tas'an (detail)
Design and construction of a tethered, floating radio-tag assembly for dugongs.
NTIS Document No. PB 87-161352/AS: 1-36.
Reid, James P.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Three years operational use of satellite transmitters on Florida manatees: tag improvements based on challenges from the field.
Proc. 1989 North Amer. Argos Users Conference & Exhibit (Landover [Maryland], Service Argos, Inc., 361 pp.): 217-232. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–Recounts the history of satellite tracking of Florida manatees, discusses some of the data on manatee movements thereby obtained, and describes modifications made to the transmitters as a result of field experience.
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Carowan, Glenn (detail)
Distribution and movement patterns of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in northwestern peninsular Florida.
Florida Mar. Res. Publs. No. 48: 1-33. 6 tabs. 24 figs. Dec. 1990.
–Data from aerial surveys, radiotracking studies, and other sightings show that manatees in northwestern Florida (north of the Chassahowitzka River) use the Homosassa and Crystal rivers as winter refuges but disperse widely in summer. Relatively little manatee mortality in this area is human-caused.
Reid, James P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
Distribution patterns of individually identifiable West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(2): 180-190. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 30, 1991.
–Documents long-distance movements and site fidelity on the basis of photographs of distinctively scarred manatees. The migration pattern is predominantly northward in spring and southward in fall.
Beck, Cathy A.; Reid, James P. (detail)
An automated photo-identification catalog for studies of the life history of the Florida manatee. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 120-134. 3 tabs. 13 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 18-19).
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Reproduction in free-ranging Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 135-156. 5 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 19-20).
Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Reproduction and mortality of radio-tagged and recognizable manatees on the Atlantic coast of Florida. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 171-191. 9 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 20-21).
Reid, James P. (detail)
Chessie the manatee: from Florida to Rhode Island.
Argos Newsletter No. 15: 13. 1 fig. Aug. 1996.
–Brief account of radio-tracking a Florida manatee that reached Rhode Island waters in August 1995 before returning to Florida, having set the northernmost record for manatee travels up the Atlantic Coast. His sustained rate of movement during his 3-month journey also set a record for manatees.
Reid, James P. (detail)
Navy tracks manatees with satellites.
Endangered Species Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 22(1): 22-23. 1 fig. Jan./Feb. 1997.
–Brief description of radiotracking studies of T. manatus, primarily in Puerto Rico.
Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Reid, James P. (detail)
Radio-tracking manatees from land and space: tag design, implementation, and lessons learned from long-term study.
Marine Technology Society Jour. 32(1): 18-29. 5 figs.
–Traces the development of the manatee radio-tag assembly, and describes how the technology has been implemented in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, including capture and tagging methods, strengths and weaknesses of the current tag design, relative merits of VHF and satellite-monitored PTT transmitters, contributions of radio-tagging to studies of manatee biology, and promising new developments in tag technology and analytical methods.
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
Characterizing manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: implications for conservation and management.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 5: 289-298. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Compares manatee use of seagrasses in the Indian River Lagoon and eastern Puerto Rico, and with reports of seagrass use by dugongs. Manatees grazed more frequently on the locally most abundant species, exhibited possible cultivation grazing, and appeared to prefer Thalassia associated with clumps of Halimeda opuntia, which they pushed aside to get at the Thalassia. Florida manatees are hypothesized to be less specialized seagrass grazers than manatees in tropical regions.
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Marmontel, Miriam; Reid, James P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Status and biogeography of the West Indian manatee. Chap. 22 in: C.A. Woods & F.E. Sergile (eds.), Biogeography of the West Indies: patterns and perspectives. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press (582 pp.): 425-474. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
Deutsch, Charles J.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, Howard I.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Wildlife Monographs No. 151: 1-77. Frontisp. 10 tabs. 19 figs. Jan. 2003.
Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Easton, Dean E.; Butler, Susan (detail)
Modeling manatee response to restoration in the Everglades and Ten Thousand Islands.
GEER Program & Abstracts: Joint Conference on the Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem, from Kissimmee to the Keys: 521-523.
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Krohn, M. D.; Reid, James P.; Stith, Bradley M.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement.
Estuaries & Coasts 29(6A): 1026-1032.
Reid, James P. (detail)
Cooperative manatee research in Puerto Rico.
Endang. Sp. Tech. Bull. 31(2): 18-19. 3 figs. July 2006.
Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, W. F.; Reid, James P. (detail)
Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs.
Aquatic Invasions 4(3): 511-519.
Harr, Kendal E., Rember, R., Ginn, P. E., Lightsey, Jessica D., Keller, M., Reid, James P., Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
Serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(4): 1026-1031. 1 tab. 1 fig.
Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Reid, James P.; Gittens, Lester; Adimey, Nicole M.; Dillet, Jared Z. (detail)
Observations and relocation of a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) off Bimini, The Bahamas.
Aquatic Mammals 37(4):502-505. 1 fig. (DOI 10.1578/AM.37.4.2011.502)
–Abstract: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are uncommon in the Bahamas, including in Bimini where only three sightings have been reported in the last century. The close proximity of the Bahamas to the United States necessitates cooperation on many issues, including the management of protected or listed marine mammals. An adult male manatee was observed and monitored from 28 November 2008 to 24 January 2009, enabling us to present details on this rare occurrence and the subsequent bi-national management of this errant individual. TBH-02 "Harold" (aka "Kodi") was radio tagged with an Argos-linked GPS tag and monitored for 41 days. Observations and photo documentation revealed the animal to be in good body condition. Despite five distinctive scar patterns, no match to previously photo-cataloged Florida or Bahamian manatees was possible. Frequent daily GPS tag location fixes were associated with local resources including foraging and resting areas within the North Bimini harbor, and periodic trips to seagrass beds and canals of South Bimini. Despite his frequent visits to specific sites, adequate freshwater sources for drinking could not be identified. His tolerance for human presence, multiple propeller markings, close proximity to peninsular Florida, and preliminary genetic analyses strongly suggested an association with the Florida subspecies Trichechus manatus latirostris. Based on evidence of a Florida origin, the rare occurrence of manatees in Bimini and an apparent absence of conspecifics and reliable natural fresh water, the Bahamas Department of Marine Resources and US Fish and Wildlife Service arranged capture and transport to Florida. The US Coast Guard, Miami Seaquarium and local volunteers conducted the capture and transport. Assessed to be in good health, after a brief rehabilitation, he was radio tagged and released in Crystal River, Florida. This process marks successful marine mammal stranding cooperation between individuals, private businesses and government agencies in two countries.
Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Doyle, Terry J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Soderqvist, Lars E. (detail)
Temperature inverted haloclines provide winter warm-water refugia for manatees in southwest Florida.
Estuaries & Coasts 34(1): 106-119. 2 tabs. 11 figs. DOI 10.1007/s12237-010-9286-1 Published online April 21, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) overwintering in the Ten Thousand Islands and western Everglades have no access to power plants or major artesian springs that provide warm-water refugia in other parts of Florida. Instead, hundreds of manatees aggregate at artificial canals, basins, and natural deep water sites that act as passive thermal refugia (PTR). Monitoring at two canal sites revealed temperature inverted haloclines, which provided warm salty bottom layers that generally remained above temperatures considered adverse for manatees. At the largest PTR, the warmer bottom layer disappeared unless significant salt stratification was maintained by upstream freshwater inflow over a persistent tidal wedge. A detailed three-dimensional hydrology model showed that salinity stratification inhibited vertical convection induced by atmospheric cooling. Management or creation of temperature inverted haloclines may be a feasible and desirable option for resource managers to provide passive thermal refugia for manatees and other temperature sensitive aquatic species.
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Sáldivar, Janneth A.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D. H.; Reid, James P.; Morales-Vela, Benjamín (detail)
Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(2): E166-E182. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00602.x Apr. 2013 (publ. online Sept. 17, 2012).
–ABSTRACT: Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.
Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Butler, Susan M. (detail)
Manatees mapping seagrass.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 46: 8-11. 7 figs. June 2012.
–Using manatee-tracking data to map seagrass distribution and abundance in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, and in southeastern Puerto Rico.
Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field.
Aquatic Mammals 38(1): 1-16. 12 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.38.1.2012.1
–ABSTRACT: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p < 0.001). As monitoring time progressed, mean differences between the subspecies were no longer significant. High RR over monitoring time was associated with high lactate concentration. Antillean manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001). We recommend monitoring manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Slone, D. H.; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A.; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, H. A. (detail)
Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags.
Mammalian Biology - Zs. f. Säugetierk. 80: 21-30.
Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel; Olivera-Gómez, Leon D.; Reid, James P.; Espinoza-Marin, Carlos; Ruiz, Kherson E.; Glander, Kenneth E (detail)
First successful capture and satellite tracking of a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Panama: feasibility of capture and telemetry techniques.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 10(1): 52-57. 1 table. 1 figure. DOI:10.5597/lajam00194. Sep. 16, 2015.
–ABSTRACT- It is currently unknown how important the Central American countries south of Belize are as a link between manatee populations in the north (Belize and Mexico) and populations in South America. Therefore, apart from knowing where manatees are found, it is important to understand how manatees are using these habitats and if they are moving between countries or distinct population centers. Here we report the results of a multi-national and multiinstitutional collaboration resulting in the first successful capture and satellite tracking of a West Indian manatee in southern Central America.
Adimey, Nicole M.; Ross, Monica; Hall, Madison; Reid, James P.; Barlas, Margaret E.; Keith Diagne, Lucy W.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
Twenty-six years of post-release monitoring of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): evaluation of a cooperative rehabilitation program.
Aquatic Mamms. 42(3): 376-391. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI 10.1578/AM.42.3.2016.376.
–ABSTRACT: The rescue, rehabilitation, and release of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) into the wild has occurred since 1974; however, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes of the releases has never been conducted. Herein, we examined data for 136 Florida manatees that were rehabilitated and released with telemetry tags between 1988 and 2013 to determine release outcome of each individual as either success (acclimation) or failure after at least 1 y. Ten predictor variables were statistically evaluated for potential relationships to release outcome. To assess the contribution of each predictor variable to release outcome, each variable was tested for significance in univariate analyses. Manatees born in captivity experienced poor success after release (14%), whereas the overall success of wild-born individuals was higher (72%). When compared with other variables in our dataset, number of days in captivity was the strongest predictor for determining success. Manatees rescued as calves and held in captivity for more than 5 y had a high likelihood of failure, while subadults and adults had a high likelihood of success, regardless of the amount of time spent in captivity. Ensuring the success of individual manatees after release is critical for evaluating the contribution of the manatee rehabilitation program to the growth of the wild population.
Haase, Catherine G.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Butler, Susan M. (detail)
Landscape complementation revealed through bipartite networks: an example with the Florida manatee.
Landscape Ecology 32(10): 1999-2014. 2 tabs. 5 figs. + supplemental materials. doi:10.1007/s10980-017-0560-5. Oct. 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Context -- Landscape complementation, or how landscapes that contain two or more non-substitutable and spatially separated resources facilitate resource use, is critical for many populations. Implicit to the problem of landscape complementation is the movement of individuals to access multiple resources. Conventional measures of complementation, such as habitat area or distance between habitats, do not consider the spatial configuration of resources or how landscape features impede movement.
  Objectives -- We advanced a bipartite network approach to capture the spatial configuration and connectivity of two habitat types and contrasted this framework to conventional approaches in a habitat selection model.
  Methods -- Using satellite-telemetry of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a marine mammal that relies on two distinct, spatially separate habitats for foraging and thermoregulating, we parameterized and compared mixed conditional logistic models with covariates describing classic habitat selection metrics, conventional measures of landscape complementation, and bipartite network metrics.
  Results -- The models best supported included habitat area, resistance distance between habitats, and the bipartite network metric eigenvector centrality. The connectivity between habitats and the spatial configuration of one habitat type relative to other types better described habitat selection than conventional measures of landscape complementation alone. The type of habitat, i.e. seagrass or thermal refuge, influenced both the direction and magnitude of the response.
  Conclusions -- Landscape complementation is an important predictor of selection and thus classic complementation measures are not sufficient in describing the process. Formalization of complementation with bipartite network can therefore reveal effects potentially missed with conventional measures.
Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.; Haase, Catherine G. (detail)
Timing of warm water refuge use in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge by manatees -- results and insights from Global Positioning System telemetry data.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2017–1146: 1-17. 1 tab. 11 figs. doi:10.3133/ofr20171146.
–ABSTRACT: Managers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) desire to update their management plan regarding the operation of select springs including Three Sisters Springs. They wish to refine existing parameters used to predict the presence of federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) in the springs and thereby improve their manatee management options. The U.S. Geological Survey Sirenia Project has been tracking manatees in the CRNWR area since 2006 with floating Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-monitored telemetry tags. Analyzing movements of these tagged manatees will provide valuable insight into their habitat use patterns.
  A total of 136 GPS telemetry bouts were available for this project, representing 730,009 locations generated from 40 manatees tagged in the Gulf of Mexico north of Tampa, Florida. Dates from October through March were included to correspond to the times that cold ambient temperatures were expected, thus requiring a need for manatee thermoregulation and a physiologic need for warm water. Water level (tide) and water temperatures were obtained for the study from Salt River, Crystal River mouth, Bagley Cove, Kings Bay mouth, and Magnolia Spring. Polygons were drawn to subdivide the manatee locations into areas around the most-used springs (Three Sisters/Idiots Delight, House/Hunter/Jurassic, Magnolia and King), Kings Bay, Crystal/Salt Rivers and the Gulf of Mexico.
  Manatees were found in the Crystal or Salt Rivers or in the Gulf of Mexico when ambient temperatures were warmer (>20 °C), while they were found in or near the springs (especially Three Sisters Springs) at colder ambient water temperatures. There was a trend of manatees entering springs early in the morning and leaving in the afternoon. There was a strong association of manatee movements in and out of the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon with tide cycles: manatees were more likely to enter the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon on an incoming tide, and leave the polygon on an outgoing tide. Both movement directions were associated with midtide. Future analysis will incorporate human activity and a finer spatial scale, including movements between Three Sisters Springs and Idiots Delight and nearby canals.
Hunter, Margaret E.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Ferrante, Jason A.; Takoukam Kamla, Aristide; Dorazio, Robert M.; Keith Diagne, Lucy; Luna, Fabia; Lanyon, Janet M.; Reid, James P. (detail)
Surveys of environmental DNA (eDNA): a new approach to estimate occurrence in Vulnerable manatee populations.
Endangered Species Research 35: 101-111. doi:10.3354/esr00880. Mar. 13, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Environmental DNA (eDNA) detection is a technique used to non-invasively detect cryptic, low density, or logistically difficult-to-study species, such as imperiled manatees. For eDNA measurement, genetic material shed into the environment is concentrated from water samples and analyzed for the presence of target species. Cytochrome b quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR eDNA assays were developed for the 3 Vulnerable manatee species: African, Amazonian, and both subspecies of the West Indian (Florida and Antillean) manatee. Environmental DNA assays can help to delineate manatee habitat ranges, high use areas, and seasonal population changes. To validate the assay, water was analyzed from Florida's east coast containing a high-density manatee population and produced 31564 DNA molecules l-1 on average and high occurrence (?) and detection (p) estimates (? = 0.84 [0.40-0.99]; p = 0.99 [0.95-1.00]; limit of detection 3 copies µl-1). Similar occupancy estimates were produced in the Florida Panhandle (? = 0.79 [0.54-0.97]) and Cuba (? = 0.89 [0.54-1.00]), while occupancy estimates in Cameroon were lower (? = 0.49 [0.09-0.95]). The eDNA-derived detection estimates were higher than those generated using aerial survey data on the west coast of Florida and may be effective for population monitoring. Subsequent eDNA studies could be particularly useful in locations where manatees are (1) difficult to identify visually (e.g. the Amazon River and Africa), (2) are present in patchy distributions or are on the verge of extinction (e.g. Jamaica, Haiti), and (3) where repatriation efforts are proposed (e.g. Brazil, Guadeloupe). Extension of these eDNA techniques could be applied to other imperiled marine mammal populations such as African and Asian dugongs.
Littles, Chanda J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Butler, Susan M.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Notestein, Skye K.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Frazer, Thomas K. (detail)
Coastal habitat change and marine megafauna behavior: Florida manatees encountering reduced food provisions in a prominent winter refuge.
Endangered Species Research 38: 29-43. 3 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: Jan. 24, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: A decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) within Florida's spring-fed, thermal refuges raises questions about how these systems support winter foraging of Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris. We analyzed telemetry data for 12 manatees over 7 years to assess their use of Kings Bay, a winter refuge with diminished SAV. After accounting for the effect of water temperature, we hypothesized that the number of trips out of Kings Bay would increase and the time wintering manatees spent in Kings Bay would decrease. Trips out of and into Kings Bay also were compared to assess potential influences on exiting or entering. There were no detectable differences in the number of trips out of the bay or overall time manatees spent in Kings Bay across winters. The percentage of time water temperatures were below 20oC was the single best predictor of increased time spent in Kings Bay. Trips out of Kings Bay were more likely to occur after 12:00 h and during a high but ebbing tide, compared to trips into the bay. Nine manatees tracked for longer than 75 days in winter spent 7–57% of their time in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 of these manatees spent 7–65% of the winter >80 km from the mouth of Kings Bay. Results suggest the low amount of SAV in Kings Bay does not obviate its use by manatees, though there are likely tradeoffs for manatees regularly foraging elsewhere. Accounting for movements of Florida manatees through a network of habitats may improve management strategies and facilitate desirable conservation outcomes.
  Note correction on website: "February 22, 2019: Substantial changes were made throughout the article after publication: to the text, Tables 1 & 2, and Fig. 4 (see .pdf 'Original text with edits')."
Haase, Catherine G.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Butler, Susan M. (detail)
Traveling to thermal refuges during stressful temperatures leads to foraging constraints in a central-place forager.
Jour. Mammalogy 101(1): 271-280. 1 tab. 3 figs. + online supplementary data. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyz197 Feb. 2020 (publ. online Dec. 13, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Central-place foragers can be constrained by the distance between habitats. When an organism relies on a central place for thermal refuge, the distance to food resources can potentially constrain foraging behavior. We investigated the effect of distance between thermal refuges and forage patches of the cold-intolerant marine mammal, the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), on foraging duration. We tested the alternative hypotheses of time minimization and energy maximization as a response to distance between habitats. We also determined if manatees mitigate foraging constraints with increased visits to closer thermal refuges. We used hidden Markov models to assign discrete behaviors from movement parameters as a function of water temperature and assessed the influence of distance on foraging duration in water temperatures above (> 20°C) and below (? 20°C) the lower critical limit of the thermoneutral zone of manatees. We found that with increased distance, manatees decreased foraging duration in cold water temperature and increased foraging duration in warmer temperatures. We also found that manatees returned to closer thermal refuges more often. Our results suggest that the spatial relationship of thermal and forage habitats can impact behavioral decisions regarding foraging. Addressing foraging behavior questions while considering thermoregulatory behavior implicates the importance of understanding changing environments on animal behavior, particularly in the face of current global change.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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