Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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"Sattelberger, Daniel"

Allen, Aarin-Conrad,; Sattelberger, Danielle C.; Keith, Edward O. (detail)
The People vs. the Florida manatee: A review of the laws protecting Florida's endangered marine mammal and need for application.
Ocean & Coastal Management 102, Part A: 40-46. 2 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.08.010. Dec. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are a tropical species endemic at their northernmost habitat range within the southeastern United States. Manatees face a thermoregulatory requirement during winter months and follow a seasonal migration to warm water sources. To avoid cold stress syndrome (CSS), manatees utilize the warmth from artificial sources such as power plant discharge canals or natural sources such as artesian springs. Already endangered, this species nonetheless continually faces an ever-growing threat from human impact within these important locations. This paper reviews the past and present laws protecting manatees in Florida, chronicles the impacts manatees are facing presently and in the future, and details the increasing need for the application of protection from a management standpoint. With the correct management plan in place, manatees and humans can cooperatively coexist together in a shared environment.
Sattelberger, Danielle C. (detail)
Seasonal Warm-Water Refuge and Sanctuary Usage by the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida.
Nova Southeastern University 1 tables. 11 figures. 60 pages. April1, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The largest Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) aggregation at a natural warm-water refuge occurs in Kings Bay, Crystal River, FL. Over the last 32 years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Florida have created a network of manatee protection areas within Kings Bay including a year round refuge designation and seven Federal manatee sanctuaries during the winter manatee season (November 15 – March 31). Aerial survey data collected between 1983 and 2012 was used to examine the seasonal change in manatee distribution within Kings Bay in order to assess the effectiveness of current sanctuary sizes and locations. Regression analysis indicated a significant change in manatee abundance among the winter seasons (p < 0.05). The average winter manatee counts increased by 4.81 animals per year over the 30 year period. In contrast, no significant changes in average or peak manatee abundance was detected among the summer seasons (p = 0.71 and p = 0.45 respectively). The average manatee counts increased by only 0.109 animals per year over the summer periods. Spatially explicit models using Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis revealed a strong correlation between high manatee density and artesian springs during the winter seasons. Highest abundances were identified at three locations: King's Spring, Three Sisters Springs, and Magnolia Springs. These three locations coincide well with preexisting sanctuary designations, but additional coverage is needed to support the overflow of manatees outside of sanctuary boundaries. Manatees continued to use Kings Bay in the summer seasons but in lower numbers and densities. Because density patterns were not uniform across summer periods, a heavier reliance on boat speed regulation is recommended to provide adequate protection to the endangered Florida manatee. Within a habitat type, the Magnolia Springs, South Banana Island, and Three Sisters Springs sanctuaries exhibited a significant influence on manatee density, suggesting differences in quality among sanctuaries. Years coinciding with extreme cold weather events also had a significant influence on manatee density. Using GIS to investigate seasonal shifts in manatees can be very informative regarding many issues including habitat selection and may improve the design and management of protected areas.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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