Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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"Shepard, Glenn H., J"

Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H., Jr. (detail)
Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.
Science Advances (Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci.) 2(10): e1600936 (14 pp.). 1 tab. 5 figs. + suppl. material. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600936. Oct. 12, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotalrole in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based co-management programs and science-led conservation governance.
 -Estimates that between 92,658 and 138,583 Amazonian manatees were killed between 1904 and 1969.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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