Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

Home   —   Introduction   —   Appendices   —   Search   —   [ Browse Bibliography ]   —   Browse Index   —   Stats
ANONYMOUS  -  A  -  B  -  C  -  D  -  E  -  F  -  G  -  H  -  I  -  J  -  K  -  L  -  M  -  N  -  O  -  P  -  Q  -  R  -  S  -  T  -  U  -  V  -  W  -  X  -  Y  -  Z

"Wittnich, Carin"

Sadchatheeswaran, Saachi; Belanger, Mike; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
A comparison of published brevetoxin tissue levels in West Indian manatee, bottlenose dolphin and double-crested cormorants in southwest Florida.
Journal of Marine Animals and their Ecology 5(1): 20-27. 1 tab. 5 figs. June 2012.
–ABSTRACT: This study compares reported brevetoxin concentrations in liver, kidney, brain, lung and stomach contents of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latriostris), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) that died due to exposure to brevetoxin in southwest Florida, to identify differing responses to brevetoxicosis. Liver, kidney, and brain of both manatee and cormorants had significantly higher levels of brevetoxin compared to dolphins, with manatee liver concentrations significantly higher compared to cormorants. Dolphins had significantly higher loads in their stomach contents compared to both manatee and cormorants, which were also significantly different from each other. Lung concentrations of brevetoxin were similar in all species. Manatee and cormorants had similar responses to brevetoxin, while dolphins appeared to be more vulnerable. Ingestion appears as the primary route of brevetoxin exposure, but inhalation is possible in all three species.
Bonde, Robert K.; Garrett, Andrew; Belanger, Michael; Askin, Nesime; Tan, Luke; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River - providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this unique aquatic mammal.
Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 5(2): 17-28. 2 tabs. 7 figs. Nominal date 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Federal and state researchers have been involved in manatee (Trichechus manatus) biomedical health assessment programs for a couple of decades. These benchmark studies have provided a foundation for the development of consistent capture, handling, and processing techniques and protocols. Biologists have implemented training and encouraged multi-agency participation whenever possible to ensure reliable data acquisition, recording, sample collection, publication integrity, and meeting rigorous archival standards. Under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wildlife research permit granted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project, federal biologists and collaborators are allowed to conduct research studies on wild and captive manatees detailing various aspects of their biology. Therefore, researchers with the project have been collaborating on numerous studies over the last several years. One extensive study, initiated in 2006 has focused on health and fitness of the winter manatee population located in Crystal River, Florida. During those health assessments, capture, handling, and work-up training has been afforded to many of the participants. That study has successfully captured and handled 123 manatees. The data gathered have provided baseline information on manatee health, reproductive status, and nutritional condition. This research initiative addresses concerns and priorities outlined in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan. The assessment teams strive to continue this collaborative effort to help advance our understanding of health-related issues confronting manatees throughout their range and interlacing these findings with surrogate species concepts.
Askin, Nesime; Belanger, Michael; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
A review of natural milk, commercial replacement formulas, and home-made substitutes used in the care of rescued manatee calves.
Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 7(1): 17-22. 3 figs. July-Aug. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: In marine animal rehabilitation, people with a wide range of education and experience must be knowledgeable on the nutritional requirements of numerous marine species and especially their young that may become abandoned. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) population has on average 10 calves per year requiring rehabilitation in that state alone. A review was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of natural manatee milk (NMM) versus the various milk replacers or 'home-made' formulas fed to rescued manatee calves with respect to maintaining growth and adequate weight gain. Various databases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Internet, etc) were searched (1979-2013) for any literature describing the composition and feeding of NMM and milk replacers to manatee calves. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) website was used to identify the number of rescued manatee calves per year (9.67 ± 3.39, mean ± SD) from 2008 through 2013. Of the 4 research articles describing manatee milk composition and the use of various commercial or 'home-made' formulas, only 2 articles compared growth patterns with the type of milk formulas used. This scant amount of published data alone reveals the need for further research into the use of milk replacers versus NMM when feeding rescued manatee calves. The lack of knowledge in the use of milk replacers or their efficacy in maintaining healthy manatee calves underlines the need for further scientific studies and published results to clarify the proper nutritional requirements to successfully rehabilitate rescued manatee calves and better insure their successful release back into their natural environment.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
Compendium Software Systems, LLC