Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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B

 
 
Bacchus, Marie-Lys; Dunbar, Stephen C.; Self-Sullivan, Caryn (detail)
   
2009
Characterization of resting holes and their use by the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Drowned Cayes, Belize.
Aquatic Mammals 35(1): 62-71. DOI: 10.1578/AM.35.1.2009.62
–ABSTRACT: In the Drowned Cayes area of Belize, manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are commonly observed resting in depressions in the substrate, locally referred to as manatee resting holes. To understand why manatees prefer locations with resting holes, the physical and environmental attributes of the depressions were characterized and diurnal and nocturnal use by manatees at four resting hole sites were documented over two summers. Twelve resting hole sites were compared with 20 non-resting hole sites in the Drowned Cayes, using water depth, substrate type, vegetation, water velocity, salinity, and water temperature. Four resting holes were chosen for repeated diurnal and nocturnal observations, during which sea and weather conditions were recorded in addition to the presence/absence of manatees. Resting holes were significantly deeper and had slower surface water velocity than areas without resting holes. A total of 168 point scans were conducted over 55 d, resulting in 39 manatee sightings over two summers. There was a significant difference in the number of sightings between research years and between day and night scans. Given the large number of resting holes in the Drowned Cayes, many of which are in sheltered areas with slow currents, it is possible that manatees select these spots based on the tranquility of the water and environment. The combination of slow currents, protection from waves, low numbers of boats, and nearby seagrass beds would make these ideal resting areas. These findings have implications for the conservation of important manatee habitat.
Bachman, K. C.: SEE ALSO Neal et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Bachman, K. C.; Irvine, A. Blair (detail)
   
1979
Composition of milk from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 62A: 873-878. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports that manatee milk is higher in lipid, protein, and salt content than bovine milk, but contains no lactose.
x
 
Bachteler, Daniel; Dehnhardt, Guido (detail)
   
1998
Tactile sensitivity of facial vibrissae in the Antillean manatee. [Abstr.]
Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems 101 (Suppl. 1): 44.
–Abstr. of Bachteler & Dehnhardt, 1999. Experiments on a captive manatee showed that the spatial resolving power of the vibrissae is lower than in pinnipeds but very close to that of Asian elephants.
x
 
Bachteler, Daniel; Dehnhardt, Guido (detail)
   
1999
Active touch performance in the Antillean manatee: evidence for a functional differentiation of facial tactile hairs.
Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems 102(1): 61-69. 5 figs.
–Abstr.: Bachteler & Dehnhardt, 1998. In texture discrimination experiments, a juvenile T. m. manatus at Nuremberg was able to distinguish as little as a 14% difference in width of grooves 2-10 mm wide. The lips, perioral bristles, and bristle-like hairs of the oral disc were all used in exploring the stimuli, but only the last were used for touching after acquisition of the stimuli. The tactile resolving power of the bristle-like hairs is lower than that of pinnipeds, but compares well with that of the trunk of Asian elephants.
x
 
Backhouse, James (detail)
   
1843
A narrative of a visit to the Australian colonies.
London, Hamilton, Adams, & Co.: xviii + 560 + cxliv.
–Pp. 368-369: {"The Blacks do not kill the Porpoises, because they shew where there are fish to be caught; but they value the flesh of another cetaceous animal, called here [near Brisbane] Youngon, the Dugong of India, Halicore Dugong. This animal feeds on marine vegetables; and is [369] taken when it goes up narrow creeks, by means of nets, skilfully made of the bark of various species of Hibiscus."}
Baden, Daniel G.: SEE Bossart et al., 1998; Trainer & Baden, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Badrudeen, M.; Nammalwar, P.; Dorairaj, K. (detail)
   
2004
Status of sea-cow Dugong dugon (Müller) along the southeast coast of India.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 101(3): 381-387. Sept.-Dec. 2004.
 
 
Baer, Karl Ernst von (detail)
   
1838a
Anatomische und zoologische Untersuchungen über das Wallross (Trichechus rosmarus) und Vergleichung dieses Thieres mit andern See-Säugethieren.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (6), Sci. Nat. 2 (= Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. (6)4(2)): 97-236. 1 pl. Read Nov. 6, 1835.
 
 
Baer, Karl Ernst von (detail)
   
1838b
Untersuchungen über die ehemalige Verbreitung und die gänzliche Vertilgung der von Steller beobachteten nordischen Seekuh (Rytina, Ill.).
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 3: 355-359.
–Allen 929. In French? Extract from v. Baer (1840).
x
 
Baer, Karl Ernst von (detail)
   
1840
Untersuchungen über die ehemalige Verbreitung und die gänzliche Vertilgung der von Steller beobachteten nordischen Seekuh (Rytina Ill.).
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (6), Sci. Nat. 3 (= Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. (6)5(2), Sci. Nat.): 53-80. Oct. 1840 (read Jan. 26, 1838).
–Allen 977. Published 1839, according to Romer's Bibliography of fossil vertebrates.... Concludes that the sea cow was limited to the Commander and possibly Aleutian Islands, and was exterminated by 1768.
 
 
Baer, Karl Ernst von (detail)
   
1861
Über das Aussterben der Thierarten in physiologischer und nicht physiologischer Hinsicht überhaupt, und den Untergang von Arten, die mit dem Menschen zusammen gelebt haben, insbesondere. (Erste Hälfte.)
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)3: 369-396.
–Repr.: Mél. Biol. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 3: 500-537? Rhytina, 382-396.
x
 
Bagnato, Mario; Cotroneo, Luigi; Damarco, Piero (detail)
   
2000
I sirenidi fossili della Provincia di Vibo Valentia.
Bol. Gruppo Paleontologico Tropeano, 7: 4-10. 6 figs. Dec. 2000.
–Illustrates a rib and a thoracic vertebra of a Late Miocene sir. (probably Metaxytherium medium) from southern Italy.
 
 
Bahlo, Ekkehard; Tobien, Heinz (detail)
   
1982
Bestandsaufnahme der Säugetiere im "prae-aquitanen" Tertiär des Mainzer Beckens.
Mainzer Geowiss. Mitt. 10: 131-157. Aug. 1982.
–Engl. and French summs.
 
 
Bahrdt, Hans Joachim (detail)
   
1933
Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sirenenflosse.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 68(1): 193-276. 35 figs. Aug. 1933.
Baier, Horst: SEE Bergey & Baier, 1987. (detail)
x
 
Baikie, William Balfour (detail)
   
1857
On the skull of a Manatus from western Africa.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 25: 29-33. Pl. 51. June 6, 1857 (read Feb. 24, 1857).
–Concludes that M. Vogelii of the Niger and Benue Rivers is probably a valid species intermediate between M. australis (=Trichechus manatus) and M. Senegalensis.
 
 
Baikie, William Balfour; Heddle, R. (detail)
   
1848
Historia naturalis Orcadensis. Zoology. Pt. 1. Being a catalogue of the Mammalia and birds hitherto observed in the Orkney Islands.
Edinburgh: 1-104.
Bain, O.: SEE Chabaud & Bain, 1965. (detail)
x
 
Baird, W. (detail)
   
1859
Description of a rare entozoon from the stomach of the dugong.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 27(2): 148-149. Pl. 56. Read Apr. 12, 1859.
–Repr.: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)5: 329-331, 1860. Gives the history of study, description (149), and an illustration of Ascaris halichoris Owen from the Red Sea dugong.
 
 
Bajpai, Sunil; Srivastava, Suresh; Jolly, Asit (detail)
   
1989
Sirenian-moerithere dichotomy: some evidence from the Middle Eocene of Kachchh, western India.
Current Science (Bangalore) 58(6): 304-306. 2 figs. Mar. 20, 1989.
x
 
Bajpai, Sunil; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1997
A new dugongine sirenian from the early Miocene of India.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 17(1): 219-228. 3 tabs. 6 figs. Apr. 16, 1997.
–Redescribes the holotype skull of Bharatisiren kachchhensis (Bajpai, Singh, and Singh, 1987), n.gen. n.comb., from the Khari Nadi Formation in Kachchh (Kutch). This skull is the best-preserved fossil sirenian specimen so far reported from the Indian Ocean region, and the first fossil from that region that is unequivocally referable to the Dugonginae. It is related cladistically to other dugongines as follows: (Crenatosiren(Dugong(Bharatisiren(other dugongines)))).
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A8B55171-C7A7-4D66-A8B6-149166103E2E
 
 
Bajpai, Sunil; Domning, Daryl Paul; Das, Debi P.; Mishra, Vijay P. (detail)
   
2009
A new middle Eocene sirenian (Mammalia, Protosirenidae) from India.
Neues Jb. Geol. Pal. Abh. 252(3): 257-267. 1 tab. 5 figs. 10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0252-0257 June 2009.
–Describes Ashokia antiqua n.gen.n.sp. from the early Middle Eoc. (Lutetian) Harudi Formation of Kutch, India.
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91FFF2B4-CD94-4B30-A06D-C0D84E151780
 
 
Bajpai, Sunil; Domning, Daryl Paul; Das, Debi P.; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Mishra, Vijay P. (detail)
   
2010
A new fossil sirenian (Mammalia, Dugonginae) from the Miocene of India.
Neues Jb. Geol. Pal. Abh. 258(1): 39-50. 3 tabs. 6 figs. Published online June 2010.
–Describes Kutchisiren cylindrica, n.gen.n.sp., from the Lower Miocene (Aquitanian or Burdigalian) Khari Nadi Formation of Kutch, Gujarat, western India.
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B3B87E4E-AC64-44C4-8D49-69699BF123DF
x
 
Bajpai, Sunil; Singh, M. P.; Singh, Pratap (detail)
   
1987
A new sirenian from the Miocene of Kachchh, western India.
Jour. Pal. Soc. India 32: 20-25. 1 tab. 1 fig. 1 pl.
–Describes Metaxytherium kachchhensis [sic], n.sp., from the Lower Miocene Khari Series.
 
 
Bajpai, Sunil; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Kapur, Vivesh Vir; Tiwari, Brahma N.; Sahni, Ashok (detail)
   
2006
Eocene and Oligocene sirenians (Mammalia) from Kachchh, India.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 26(2): 400-410. 2 tabs. 6 figs. June 12, 2006.
–Describes Eotheroides babiae, n.sp. (Middle Eocene) and Bharatisiren indica, n.sp. (Late Oligocene), in addition to other reported taxa.
 
 
Baker, Gail S. (detail)
   
1980
How much do you know on Trichechus manatus?
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(6): 10-13. 4 figs. + 1 fig. on p. 3. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Baker, John R. (detail)
   
2015
Sea cows.
Alabama Magazine, May/June 2015: 44-51. 7 figs.
–Pop. acc. of TML, illustrated with underwater photos.
 
 
Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Pagès, Jordi F.; Arthur, Rohan; Alcoverro,Teresa (detail)
   
2015
Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystems.
Ecography DOI: 10.1111/ecog.01651. Published online September 22, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: While large herbivores can have strong impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, much less is known of their role in aquatic systems. We reviewed the literature to determine: 1) which large herbivores (> 10 kg) have a (semi-)aquatic lifestyle and are important consumers of submerged vascular plants, 2) their impact on submerged plant abundance and species composition, and 3) their ecosystem functions.
 
 We grouped herbivores according to diet, habitat selection and movement ecology: 1) Fully aquatic species, either resident or migratory (manatees, dugongs, turtles), 2) Semi-aquatic species that live both in water and on land, either resident or migratory (swans), 3) Resident semi-aquatic species that live in water and forage mainly on land (hippopotamuses, beavers, capybara), 4) Resident terrestrial species with relatively large home ranges that frequent aquatic habitats (cervids, water buffalo, lowland tapir).
 
 Fully aquatic species and swans have the strongest impact on submerged plant abundance and species composition. They may maintain grazing lawns. Because they sometimes target belowground parts, their activity can result in local collapse of plant beds. Semi-aquatic species and turtles serve as important aquatic–terrestrial linkages, by transporting nutrients across ecosystem boundaries. Hippopotamuses and beavers are important geomorphological engineers, capable of altering the land and hydrology at landscape scales. Migratory species and terrestrial species with large home ranges are potentially important dispersal vectors of plant propagules and nutrients. Clearly, large aquatic herbivores have strong impacts on associated species and can be critical ecosystem engineers of aquatic systems, with the ability to modify direct and indirect functional pathways in ecosystems. While global populations of large aquatic herbivores are declining, some show remarkable local recoveries with dramatic consequences for the systems they inhabit. A better understanding of these functional roles will help set priorities for the effective management of large aquatic herbivores along with the plant habitats they rely on.
 
 
Balaguer, Jordi (detail)
   
2010
La troballa i l'excavació de les restes d'un sireni fòssil a Tona. In: Llibre de Tona Sant Jordi 2010.
Tona (Spain), Ajuntament de Tona: 39-45.
 
 
Balaguer, Jordi; Alba, David M. (detail)
   
2016
A new dugong species (Sirenia, Dugongidae) from the Eocene of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula).
Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 tabs. 6 figs. + Supplementary data at doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2015.10.002. Publ. online Feb 12, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: A new stem dugongid species, Prototherium ausetanum sp. nov. (Dugongidae, Halitheriinae), is described based on a cranium from the middle Eocene of Mas Vilageliu (Tona, NE Iberian Peninsula). The new species displays a combination of features that enables its distinction from other halitheriines, including Prototherium veronense (type species of the genus), Prototherium? intermedium (which likely belongs to a different genus), and Prototherium? montserratense (here considered a nomen dubium), as well as Eotheroides spp. In overall morphology (e.g., dolichocephaly) the new species more closely resembles species previously included in Prototherium. However, a cladistic analysis based on craniodental features recovers the new species as the sister taxon of Eotheroides aegyptiacum (type species of this genus), further constituting a polytomy with P. veronense, Eotheroides lambondrano and the remaining Halitheriinae. Our analysis further indicates that P.? intermedium is more derived than other species of Prototherium, but it does not conclusively resolve the phylogenetic relationships between the included species of Prototherium and Eotheroides. A deeper taxonomic revision of these two genera would be required in order to better resolve the phylogeny of early dugongids.
  French abstr.
 
 
Balderamos, Leo Paul (detail)
   
1977
[title?]
Belize Audubon Soc. [Publ.?] 9(5): [1 p.] July 1977.
 
 
Báldi, Tamás (detail)
   
1983
Magyarországi oligocén és alsómiocén formációk.
Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó.
–Sirs., 27.
Baldwin, Claudia L.: SEE ALSO Kenchington, R.A., 1985. (detail)
x
 
Baldwin, Claudia L. (detail)
   
1985
Management of dugong: an endangered marine species of traditional significance. The need for user involvement in an integrated program of research, management and education.
Tech. Rept., Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (Townsville, Queensland, Australia) No. 1: [v] + 20 + [vi]. Feb. 1985.
–Repr.: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 134-148, 1988. Outlines the rationale for, and specific areas of need in, the development of a dugong management program in northeast Queensland. Includes an appendix listing "Existing research programs relating to dugong and traditional hunting in Australia as of February 1984."
x
 
Baldwin, Claudia L. (detail)
   
1986
User involvement in conservation of endangered species. In: S. Burgin (ed.), Endangered species: social, scientific, economic and legal aspects ....
Sydney, Total Environment Centre: 206-212. 1 tab.
–Repr. (slightly edited) in Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985) 1: 199-204, 2 figs., Oct. 1988. Discusses management problems in the light of efforts to regulate the dugong take by the Hope Vale Aboriginal community in Queensland, 1983-84.
 
 
Baldwin, Claudia L.; Hunnam, Peter (detail)
   
1987
New dugong hunting rules.
Reeflections (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Australia) No. 20: 5. 1 fig. Sept. 1987.
Baldwin, L.: SEE Teleki & Baldwin, 1981. (detail)
 
 
Baldwin, Robert (detail)
   
1995
Abu Dhabi and the disappearing dugong.
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 5(2): 7-8. Oct. 1995.
 
 
Baldwin, Robert (detail)
   
1996
Marine mammals. In: P. J. Vine (ed.), Natural Emirates: wildlife and environment of the United Arab Emirates.
London, Trident Press (248 pp.): 199-212. Illus.
 
 
Baldwin, Robert; Cockcroft, Vic G. (detail)
   
1997
Are dugongs, Dugong dugon, in the Arabian Gulf safe?
Aquatic Mammals 23(2): 73-74.
–See also Hellyer, P., 1995.
 
 
Balensiefer, D. C.; Attademo, F. L. N.; Sousa, G. P.; Freire, A. C. D. B.; da Cunha, F. A. G. C.; Alencar, A. E. B.; et al. (detail)
   
2017
Three decades of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) stranding along the Brazilian Coast.
Trop. Conserv. Sci. 10: 1-9. doi: 10.1177/1940082917728375
 
 
Balogh, Kálmán; Rónai, András (detail)
   
1965
Magyarázó Magyarország 200 000-es földtani térképsorozatához. L-34-III. Eger.
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet kiadv.
Balzarotti, M. A.: SEE Moore & Balzarotti, 1976. (detail)
Bamber, M.: SEE Howes & Bamber, 1970. (detail)
 
 
Bamber, Roger N. (detail)
   
2012
A re-assessment of Hexapleomera Dudich, 1931 (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Tanaidae), with designation of three new species.
Zootaxa 3583: 51-70. Dec. 13, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The tanaid genus Hexapleomera has long been considered to be monotypic, comprising a cosmopolitan species predominantly commensal on turtles, or, more rarely, manatees. Recent discovery of material of a distinct species of Hexapleomera living on the hulls of yachts in south-west England encouraged re-assessment of the literature on this taxon, and re-examination of free-living benthic material from the eastern Mediterranean. As a result, five species are recognized within the genus Hexapleomera; two new species are described, Pancoloides moverlyi is moved to Hexapleomera, and H. robusta sensu Edgar is elevated to specific rank and re-named.
x
 
Bancroft, Edward (detail)
   
1769a
An essay on the natural history of Guiana, in South America. Containing a description of many curious productions in the animal and vegetable systems of that country. Together with an account of the religion, manners, and customs of several tribes of its Indian inhabitants. Interspersed with a variety of literary and medical observations. In several letters from a gentleman [Edward Bancroft] of the Medical Faculty, during his residence in that country.
London, T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt: iv + 402.
–Allen 306. Dutch transl., Utrecht, 1782. A brief but very accurate account - the original one - of the Guiana manatee (186-187).
x
 
Bancroft, Edward (detail)
   
1769b
Naturgeschichte von Guiana in Süd-Amerika. worinn von der natürlichen Beschaffenheit und den vornehmsten Naturproducten des Landes, ingleichen der Religion, Sitten und Gebräuchen verschiedener Stämme der wilden Landes-Einwohner, Nachricht ertheilet wird. In vier Briefen. von Eduard Bancroft, Esq.
Frankfurt & Leipzig, J. Dodsley & Compagnie: x + 248.
–Allen 307. Transl. of 1769a; sir. material on 112-113 with addition of a footnote on 113 identifying the "manati" as "Trichecus Manatus Linn."
 
 
Bando, Monica; Larkin, Iskande V.; Wright, Scott D.; Greiner, Ellis C. (detail)
   
2014
Diagnostic stages of the parasites of the Florida Manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Jour. Parasitology 100(1): 133-138. 1 tab. 8 figs. DOI:10.1645/13-206.1. Oct. 3, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Limited information is available on diagnostic stages of parasites in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). We examined 67 fecal samples from captive and wild manatees to define the diagnostic stages of the parasite fauna known to occur in Florida manatees. Parasite eggs were freshly extracted ex utero from identified mature helminths and subsequently characterized, illustrated, and matched to those isolated from fecal samples. In addition, coccidian oocysts in the fecal samples were identified. These diagnostic stages included eggs from 5 species of trematodes (Chiorchis fabaceus, Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Moniligerum blairi, and Nudacotyle undicola), 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus), and oocysts of 2 coccidians (Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa).
 
 
Banfield, E. J. (detail)
   
1968
The confessions of a beachcomber: scenes and incidents in the career of an unprofessional beachcomber in tropical Queensland.
Sydney, Angus & Robertson: 1-221. Illus.
–Dugong, 105-109.
x
 
Bangs, Outram (detail)
   
1895
The present standing of the Florida manatee, Trichechus latirostris (Harlan) in the Indian River waters.
Amer. Naturalist 29(345): 783-787. Sept. 1, 1895.
–Accounts of manatees killed by cold, size records (up to 13 feet 7 inches), and observations of wild manatees, including feeding on mangroves when "manatee grass was killed off by salt water."
Bani, Ernest: SEE Chambers & Bani, 1989. (detail)
Bank, H.: SEE Hirst & Bank, 1971. (detail)
x
 
Banks Da Rocha, Newton (detail)
   
1971a
Memória sôbre um exemplar de Trichechus manatus manatus L., 1758, capturado em Goiana (Pernambuco).
Arch. Mus. Nac. (Rio de Janeiro) 54: 101-103. 2 figs.
–Engl. and French summs. Reports a manatee captured in the spring of 1965 about 3 km south of the mouth of the Rio Goiana, Pernambuco, Brazil. Also summarizes the systematics of other Recent sirs.
x
 
Banks Da Rocha, Newton (detail)
   
1971b
Nota prévia sôbre a ocorrência de sirênios no Nordeste.
Anais Inst. Ciênc. Biol. (Recife) 1(1): 133.
–Records T. m. latirostris (!) from Canguaretama (Rio Grande do Norte) and Pitimbu (Paraiba), T. m. manatus from Goiana and Igarassu (Pernambuco), and Trichechus sp. from Barra de Sto. Antônio (Alagoas) and Estância (Sergipe), Brazil. No other details are given, nor any justification for the latirostris identifications.
x
 
Banks Da Rocha, Newton (detail)
   
1980
Chave para a determinação das espécies brasileiras de peixe-boi.
Caderno ômega Univ. Fed. Rural Pernambuco (Recife) 4(2): 147-148. Jul.-Dec. 1980.
–Engl. summ. Abstr.: Rev. Nordest. Biol. 3, Numero Especial, 1981: 250-251. Recognizes T. inunguis, T. m. manatus, and T. m. latirostris (!) as occurring in Brazil and gives a key for their identification. The former taxon is distinguished in the key by its lack of nails; the latter two by absence or presence, respectively, of a median notch in the border of the caudal fin. Again, no evidence is given to substantiate the identification of latirostris in Brazil.
 
 
Banks Da Rocha, Newton; Lima, Vilma Almeida (detail)
   
1995
Enciclopédia dos sirênios: peixes-bois e dugongos.
Recife, Univ. Federal Rural de Pernambuco: 1-229. 15 tabs. 1 fig.
–Title page bears date 1994; wrapper says 1995. Not an encyclopedia in the usual sense, this is a compilation of data similar to Ronald et al. (1978). It consists largely of direct quotes assembled from other authors, and covers the history of study of sirs., their paleontology, distribution, systematics, morphology (by organ system), feeding habits, predators and parasites, economic aspects, conservation, etymology of some Linnean names, and protective legislation in various countries. The bibliography includes 95 titles, of which almost all the technical works on sirs. predate 1985.
 
 
Banks, E. A. (detail)
   
1931
A popular account of the mammals of Borneo.
Jour. Malaysian Branch Brit. Roy. Asiatic Soc. 9(2): 1-139. Nov. 1931.
–Sirs., 11-13.
 
 
Bannister, J. L. (detail)
   
1968
A list of the species of mammals collected by W. H. Butler for the Archbold collections of the American Museum of Natural History and for the Western Australian Museum 1963-1966.
W. Austral. Mus. Ann. Rept. 1966-67: 61-76.
 
 
Bannister, J. L. (detail)
   
1988
Dugongidae. In: Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 5. Mammalia.
Canberra, AGPS: 230-231.
Banowetz, Donna J.: SEE Ackerman et al., 1995; Wright et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Barada, Bill (detail)
   
1970
Florida's vanishing mermaids.
Skin Diver, Aug. 1970: 52-55. 6 figs.
x
 
Barada, Bill (detail)
   
1971a
Manatees.
Anim. Kingdom 74(1): 18-23. 7 figs. Feb. 1971.
–Detailed pop. acc. of Florida manatees at Crystal River, and manatee biology in general.
 
 
Barada, Bill (detail)
   
1971b
Nightmare of the killer weeds.
Skin Diver, June 1971: 53-57. ?6 figs.
 
 
Barada, Bill (detail)
   
1979
Florida's manatee: extinction threatens the mythical mermaid.
Skin Diver 28(12): 62-67. 7 figs. Dec. 1979.
 
 
Barber, Edwin A. (detail)
   
1882
Mound pipes.
Amer. Naturalist 16(4): 265-281. 21 figs. Apr. 1882.
–Describes (but does not illustrate) examples of supposed manatee sculptures among a collection of stone tobacco-pipes collected from Indian mounds in the Mississippi Valley (267-268). Henshaw (1883) concluded that these did not represent manatees.
Barbosa de Faria, João: SEE Rondon & Faria, 1948. (detail)
Barbosa Du Bocage, J. V.: SEE Du Bocage, J. V. Barbosa. (detail)
 
 
Barbosa Rodriguez, João (detail)
   
1875
Exploração dos Rios Urubú e Jatapú. Relatório apresentado ao ... Dr. José Fernandes da Costa Pereira Ministro e Secretario de Estado....
Rio de Janeiro, Typographia Nacional: 1-129. 2 maps.
x
 
Barbosa Rodriguez, João (detail)
   
1885
Rio Jauapery. Pacificação dos Crichanás.
Rio de Janeiro, Impr. Nacional: 1-275.
–Gives the following vernacular names of the manatee in three Indian languages (256): Crichaná, uaiurary; Ipurucotó, uaimereré; Macuchy, apiná.
x
 
Barbosa Rodriguez, João (detail)
   
1892
Les reptiles fossiles de la Vallée de l'Amazone.
Vellosia (Contribs. Mus. Botan. Amazonas) 2 (Archeol., Paleont.), 1885-1888 ("ed. 2"): 41-56. "16 pls.", apparently never published.
–Suggests that rib fragments from Oco do Mundo, Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil, pertain to "Manatus Guetardi" (53-54).
 
 
Barbosa, Paula de Sousa; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Pereira Junior, Geraldo (detail)
   
2013
Tempo de passagem de duas dietas no trato gastrointestinal do peixe-boi da Amazônia Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) em cativeiro.
Acta Amazonica 43(3): 365-370. 2 tabs.
–Engl. summ.
 ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the transit time of two diets in the digestive tract of the Amazonian manatee in captivity. We tested separately two different diets: one composed exclusively of grass of the genus Brachiaria (experimental diet - ED- A 1) and the other composed of grass Brachiaria added with small portions of extruded pellets for horses (experimental diet ED- A 2). Two healthy adult manatees were selected and isolated from the rest and underwent a period of food acclimation with the experimental diets for 15 days. After this period, the experimental diet was marked with a plastic colored tape of 10-cm length and given to the animals. The manatees were monitored at intervals of 1 hour and all fecal material was collected until recovery of the markers. The mean transit time of ED – A1 was 123h57min , about 5.16 days and ED – A 2 was 125h04min or 5.21 days. There was no statistical difference (P <0.05) between the transit time of the two diets provided. The transit time observed (approximately 5 days) has also been reported by other authors for this species and is considered a strategy to increase the absorption time of food nutrients. Despite the small sample size, the results suggest that the use of pellets in the diet of the Amazonian manatee did not affect the transit time of the grass. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the introduction of concentrated food (pellets) does not affect the efficiency of the animal to digest and absorb food properly.
 
 
Barbot, Jean (detail)
   
1746
A description of the coasts of North and South Guinea; and of Ethiopia Inferior, vulgarly Angola; being a new and accurate account of the western maritime countries of Africa.... And a new relation of the province of Guiana, and of the great rivers of Amazons and Oronoque in South-America.... In: A. Churchill, A collection of voyages and travels.... Ed. 3.
London, Lintot & Osborn: Vol. 5: 1-580. 49 pls.
–First ed., 1732. Sirs., 562, pl. 7.
x
 
Barbour, Thomas (detail)
   
1937
Birth of a manatee.
Jour. Mamm. 18(1): 106-107. Feb. 14, 1937.
–Interesting account of a manatee conceived and born in the Miami Aquarium, including its being trained to breathe by its parents. For further details on this birth see J.C. Moore (1951b: 26).
x
 
Barbour, Thomas (detail)
   
1944
That vanishing Eden, a naturalist's Florida.
Boston, Little, Brown & Co.: x + 250. Illus.
–Anecdotes of manatees in the Miami area (98-99, 166-167), including a patrol blimp officer's report of seeing some 30 per day in Biscayne Bay.
 
 
Barboza, Meghan L. B.; Larkin, Iskande V. (detail)
   
2020
Gross and microscopic anatomy of the nasal cavity, including olfactory epithelium, of the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Aquat. Mamms. 46(3): 274-284. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.46.3.2020.274 May 11, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: As a fully aquatic mammal, the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) spends a limited amount of time at the water's surface. However, as a mammal that breathes air, they do need to filter, warm, and humidify that air, and anecdotal evidence indicates manatees have a sense of smell. This study characterized the nasal turbinate system, including identification of the olfactory epithelium, and compared it to other mammals using a combination of gross and micro-anatomic examination. Major turbinates were present, including nasal, maxillary, and ethmoturbinates, but with minimal convolution. The respiratory epithelium was found throughout much of the nasal cavity and covered maxillary and nasal turbinates, as well as the septum. Mucus-producing cells and cavernous veins were extensive. The olfactory epithelium was found in the dorsocaudal ethmoturbinates. As a herbivore that feeds predominantly underwater, the manatee likely relies on taste and touch for assessing food and, therefore, does not need to use smell in the same way as other marine mammals such as mysticetes (Bouchard et al., 2019) and pinnipeds (Kowalewsky et al., 2006). However, there are still substantial numbers of olfactory cells, especially considering the decreased amount of exposure time to odorants when breathing at the surface. Therefore, the question remains of why manatees have maintained their ability to smell while other fully aquatic species such as odontocetes have not. Future research should focus on a combination of behavioral and molecular techniques to fully understand the olfactory capabilities of the Florida manatee.
 
 
Barboza, Meghan L. B.; Larkin, Iskande V. (detail)
   
2020
Functional morphology of the taste buds of Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 36(3): 939-952. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12692 July 2020 (publ. online Apr. 21, 2020).
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a fully aquatic, threatened marine mammal for which increased understanding of their physiology, reproduction, and nutrition supports management decisions. Manatees may use taste to distinguish saltwater gradients, toxin detection, food assessment, and social interactions. This study sought to locate and characterize manatee taste buds comparing location, structure, number, and size to other species.
  Entire heads from manatees (6 males, 4 females) of various ages were obtained. The muzzle, tissue surrounding the nares, oral cavity, and epiglottis were examined grossly for pits and papillae. Tissues were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Within the predominant taste bud location, the tongue root, taste bud number was estimated using samples from four animals.
  The average number of taste buds within the tongue root was 11,534 (range 2,711–23,237) with sparse taste buds located on the soft palate and epiglottis. The location along the lateral surface of the tongue root and bordered by grooves, through which tastants could be easily transported, has functional significance. Large numbers of taste buds within the tongue root suggest that taste is an important component of manatee sensory systems and behavioral research would clarify this.
 
 
Barchewitz, Ernst Christoph (detail)
   
1730
Allerneueste und wahrhaffte ost-indianische Reise-Beschreibung....
Chemnitz, J. Christoph & J. D. Stöszeln: [20] + 657 + [13]. 1 map.
–Later eds.: Erfurt, 1751, 1752, 1756, 1762.
Barclay, Robert M. R.: SEE Anderson & Barclay, 1995. (detail)
x
 
Bard, J. (detail)
   
1965
Végétaux aquatiques tropicaux.
Bois et Forêts des Tropiques No. 99: 3-11. 8 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1965.
–Photo of T. senegalensis (4); discusses latter and T. manatus (in Guyana) as possible means of weed control (5, 8).
Bard, Samuel A.: SEE Squier, Ephraim George. (detail)
 
 
Barile, D. D. (detail)
   
1980
A local endangered species program - Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus.
Coastal Zone 1980/1: 186-205.
 
 
Barile, D. D.; McMillan, K.; Gipe, T. (detail)
   
1983
Local endangered species preservation Palm Bay, Florida.
Coastal Zone 1983(1): 769-782. Illus.
Barker-Hudson, Brydget E. T.: SEE Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
x
 
Barkow, H. C. L. (detail)
   
1851
Ueber die Nerven der Extremitäten und des Schwanzes von Halicore dugong.
Barkow's Anat. Abh. (Breslau) No. 21: 119-122.
–Detailed description of neuroanatomy and muscle innervation in a dugong fetus.
Barloy, Jean-Jacques: SEE ALSO Sylvestre & Barloy, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Barloy, Jean-Jacques (detail)
   
19??
La vache de mer.
[Serial & vol.?]: 38.
Barnes, Lawrence G.: SEE ALSO Aranda-Manteca et al., 1994; McLeod & Barnes, 1984. (detail)
x
D
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
1972
Miocene vertebrate geochronology of the West Coast of North America. Part 2: Marine vertebrates.
Proc. Pacif. Coast Mioc. Biostrat. Symp. (47th Ann. Pacif. Sect. Convention, Soc. Econ. Min. Pal., Bakersfield, Calif., Mar. 9-10, 1972): 126, 137-145. Figs. 3-4.
–Summarizes Miocene marine vertebrate faunas of California, including Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia, and Metaxytherium (126, 140-142).
x
 
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
1982
The fossil sirenian, Dusisiren jordani.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 16(1): 20. Cover illus. Spring 1982.
–Pop. acc. of recent studies of D. jordani and of hydrodamaline evolution, with artist's reconstruction of the species by Pieter Folkens.
 
D
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
1998
The sequence of fossil marine mammal assemblages in México. In: O. Carranza-Castañeda & D. A. Córdoba-Méndez (eds.), Avances en investigación: paleontología de vertebrados.
Univ. Auton. Estad. Hidalgo, Publ. Especial 1: 26-79.
x
 
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
2000
Dugong feeding on sea grass, by Pete Atkinson, United Kingdom. Runner-up for the Gerald Durrell Award for Endangered Wildlife.
Terra (Los Angeles County, Natural History Museum) 37(3): 3. 1 fig. Summer 2000.
–Underwater photo by Atkinson of a male dugong at Epi, Vanuatu, with a caption giving a short pop. acc. of sirs. and their evolution.
 
D
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
2002
Evolutionary history of the fossil marine mammals of México. In: M. Montellano-B. & J. Arroyo-C. (eds.), Avances en los estudios paleomastozoológicos en México.
Mexico City, Inst. Nac. Antropol. e Hist. (Collecion Cientifica, Serie Arqueología) (1-248): 125-225.
 
 
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
2008
Miocene and Pliocene Albireonidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti), rare and unusual fossil dolphins from the eastern North Pacific Ocean. In: X. Wang & L.G. Barnes (eds.), Geology and vertebrate paleontology of western and southern North America, contributions in honor of David P. Whistler.
Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County, Science Series No. 41: 99-152. 4 tabs. 34 figs. May 28, 2008.
–The faunal list (103, tab. 1) of marine vertebrates from the Lower Member of the Almejas Formation (latest Mioc., Isla Cedros, Baja California, Mexico) includes "aff. Hydrodamalis sp." and "Dugongidae, genus and species undetermined [small sea cow]". Also redescribes and discusses the type locality of Hydrodamalis cuestae (142).
 
D
Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
2013
A new genus and species of Late Miocene paleoparadoxiid (Mammalia, Desmostylia) from California.
Nat. Hist. Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 521: 51-114. 7 tabs. 39 figs. Sept. 11, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: The Desmostylia are an extinct order of quadrupedal, marine, herbivorous, placental mammals whose closest living relatives are Proboscidea (elephants and their relatives) and Sirenia (sea cows and manatees). Desmostylians lived around the margins of the North Pacific Ocean from the Oligocene until the end of the Miocene. A 10- to 11-million-year-old fossil skeleton, here named Neoparadoxia cecilialina, new genus and new species, was found in the early late Miocene part of the Monterey Formation in Orange County, coastal southern California, USA. This is the geochronologically youngest named species of desmostylian. The holotype of this species is the most complete known paleoparadoxiid desmostylian skeleton and only the second desmostylian skeleton yet reported from North America that includes a cranium. The skeleton is exhibited in the Age of Mammals hall of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Among previously named desmostylians, N. cecilialina is most closely related to middle Miocene (approximately 14-million-year-old) Paleoparadoxia repenningi Domning and Barnes, 2007. The two species share sufficient numbers of characters to warrant transferring P. repenningi to the new genus Neoparadoxia. These species demonstrate that geochronologically late paleoparadoxiids evolved enhanced adaptations for life in water (larger body size, larger manus and pes, enlarged external nares, elevated orbits) and other adaptations related to bulk aquatic feeding (enlarged oral cavity, ventrally turned snout and anterior end of the mandible, larger molars). Neoparadoxia cecilialina has incisors that are flatter and wider than those of any other known desmostylian. Other derived features of N. cecilialina, such as delayed eruption of canines and posterior-most molars, possibly extended its life span, with a result being larger adult body size. Such adaptations in the last known desmostylians may have been responses to competition with dugongid sirenians, also herbivores, that appeared in the North Pacific Ocean after the earlier endemic desmostylians and ultimately supplanted them in that realm. The comparatively small and primitive species, Paleoparadoxia weltoni Clark, 1991, from the latest Oligocene Skooner Gulch Formation in Mendocino County, California, USA, is assigned to the new genus Archaeoparadoxia.
x
D
Barnes, Lawrence G.; Goedert, James L. (detail)
   
1996
Marine vertebrate paleontology on the Olympic Peninsula.
Washington Geology 24(3): 17-25. Illus. Sept. 1996.
–Pop. acc. of Behemotops proteus (17, 19, 21) and other fossil vertebrates.
 
D
Barnes, Lawrence G.; Goedert, James L. (detail)
   
2001
Stratigraphy and paleoecology of Oligocene and Miocene desmostylian occurrences in western Washington State, U.S.A.
Bull. Ashoro Mus. Pal. 2: 7-22. 3 tabs. 7 figs. Mar. 30, 2001.
 
D
Barnes, Lawrence G.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
   
1985
Status of studies on fossil marine mammals.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 1(1): 15-53. 1 tab. 9 figs. Jan. 1985.
x
 
Barnes, Lawrence G.; Howard, Hildegarde; Hutchison, J. Howard; Welton, Bruce J. (detail)
   
1981
The vertebrate fossils of the marine Cenozoic San Mateo Formation at Oceanside, California. In: P. L. Abbott & S. O'Dunn (eds.), Geologic investigations of the San Diego coastal plain.
San Diego, San Diego Assoc. Geologists: 53-70. 2 tabs. 1 fig. April 1981.
–Reports new material of Hydrodamalis cuestae in association with Hemphillian faunas (56-57, 62-63).
Barnes, Lindsay B.: SEE Packard et al., 1983, 1985. (detail)
x
 
Barnett, A. A.; Prangley, M. L. (detail)
   
1997
Mammalogy in the Republic of Guinea: an overview of research from 1946 to 1996, a preliminary check-list and a summary of research recommendations for the future.
Mammal Rev. 27(3): 115-164. 1 tab. 2 figs. Sept. 1997.
–Gives a few lines of general information on T. senegalensis, derived from the literature (129-130); concludes that there is "no specific information on the occurrence of the animal" in Guinea.
x
 
Barnett, Colin; Johns, D. (detail)
   
1982
Dugong hunting and conservation in Queensland, Australia, with underwater observations of one individual in the wild. In: Mammals in the sea, vol. 4.
Rome, Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 515-524. 1 tab.
–French & Spanish summs. See also F.A.O. (1978-82). Describes harpooning techniques used in Torres Strait, the sale and use of dugong meat, conservation problems, and observations of a female dugong at Green Island, Great Barrier Reef.
Barnett, H. F., Jr.: SEE Drewes et al., 1961. (detail)
Barnhart, Marion I.: SEE Shoshani et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Barr, A. (detail)
   
1974
Winter haunt of the manatee.
Florida Conserv. News 10: 1.
Barras y de Aragón, Francisco de las: SEE Aragón, Francisco de las Barras y de. (detail)
 
 
Barreiro, Jesús (detail)
   
1944
El museo de ciencias naturales.
Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto "José de Acosta".
x
 
Barrere, Pierre (detail)
   
1743
Nouvelle relation de la France Equinoxiale, contenant la description des côtes de la Guiane; de l'Isle de Cayenne; le commerce de cette colonie; les divers changemens arrivés dans ce pays; & les moeurs & coûtumes des différens peuples sauvages qui l'habitent. Avec des figures dessinées sur les lieux.
Paris, Piget, Damonneville, & Durand: iv + 250. Pls.
–Account of the manatee (which the author believes to be a fish) in French Guiana, the method of its capture, and its use as food (159-162). The plate facing p. 159 shows Indians in a canoe attempting to harpoon a Lamentin.
x
 
Barrett, O. W. (detail)
   
1935
Notes concerning manatees and dugongs.
Jour. Mamm. 16(3): 216-220. Aug. 1935.
–Brief but really excellent account of Puerto Rican and Nicaraguan T. m. manatus natural history, behavior, and anatomy (especially the male urogenital system) (216-219); brief comments on East African dugong distribution and anatomy, including the author's complicity in a "mermaid" fraud (219-220).
x
 
Barrett, Sandra K. (detail)
   
1979
Manatee (Trichechus manatus) mortalities in flood control structures in south Florida. [Abstr.]
Florida Scientist 42(Suppl. 1): 26. Read Mar. 23, 1979.
–Refers to a study of manatee behavior in the vicinity of flood-control dams in southeastern Florida where manatees have been killed.
 
 
Barrett, Thomas; Rima, Bert K. (detail)
   
2002
Molecular biology of morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals. Chap. 15 in: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and cell biology of marine mammals.
Malabar (Florida), Krieger Publ. Co. (xvii + 427): 161-172. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Barriel, V.; Darlu, P.; Tassy, Pascal (detail)
   
1993
A propos des conflits entre phylogénies morphologiques et moléculaires: deux exemples empruntés aux mammifères.
Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. & Biol. Anim. (13)14(4): 157-171. 2 tabs. 11 figs.
–Engl. summ.
x
D
Barriel, Véronique; Tassy, Pascal (detail)
   
1991
La forme dans tous ses états (la morphologie et le binaire). In: P. R. Racheboeuf et al. (eds.), Les fossiles sont en forme: morphographie, morphologie, morphometrie, morphofonctionelle, morphogenese.
Géobios, Mém. Spéc. 13: 17-23. Illus.
–Engl. summ. Uses Desmostylus for outgroup comparison in a discussion of character polarity and cladistic analysis of proboscideans (18-19).
Barron, John A.: SEE Saito et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Barros, Francisco De, Júnior (detail)
   
n.d.
Caçando e pescando por todo o Brasil. Ed. 4.
São Paulo, Livr. Exposição do Livro (3 vols.) [before 1966]: Vol. 2: 1-314.
–Ed. 1, 1947; ed. 2, 1953-55.
 
 
Barros, Helen M. D.do R.; Meirelles, Ana C. O.; Luna, Fábia O.; Marmontel, Miriam; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Santos, Neide; Astúa, Diego (detail)
   
2016
Cranial and chromosomal geographic variation in manatees (Mammalia: Sirenia: Trichechidae) with the description of the Antillean manatee karyotype in Brazil.
J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 55(1): 73-87. doi: 10.1111/jzs.12153. Nov. 23, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: We employed landmark-based 3D geometric morphometrics to assess cranial size and shape diversification in Trichechus manatus and T. inunguis to compare it with patterns among all manatee taxa (T. manatus latirostris, T. m. manatus, T. inunguis and T. senegalensis), and to analyze geographic variation within American manatee populations, using a sample of 189 skulls. Chromosome G- and C-banding techniques were performed in T. m. manatus from Brazil. All taxa were statistically discriminated by skull shape. Trichechus m. manatus and T. m. latirostris have larger skulls than T. inunguis. A morphological discontinuity was noted within T. m. manatus, with the Brazilian population south of the Amazon discriminated from the T. m. manatus Caribbean and T. m. latirostris USA populations. Specimens from Suriname and Guyana had a skull shape more similar to the one from the Caribbean population. The Brazil Antillean manatee population exhibited morphological differences similar in magnitude to those found between the Amazonian and African species. Additionally, structural chromosome differences were detected between that population (chromosome pair 4 is metacentric and 10 is submetacentric) and manatees from Puerto Rico and Florida. Based on such morphological discontinuity and chromosomal divergence, we hypothesize that the Amazon River mouth may be acting as a reproductive barrier for the T. m. manatus population in Brazil, thus indicating that its taxonomic status and conservation strategies need an urgent reassessment.
Barros, Nélio B.: SEE Beck & Barros, 1991. (detail)
Barros, R. M. S.: SEE Assis et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Barroso, A. E. V. (detail)
   
1954
Marajó, estudo etnográfico, geológico, histórico sôbre a grandiosa ilha da foz do Amazonas.
Rio de Janeiro, Companhia Editôra Americana, 1-332.
–"Ele vai no rastro do Peixe-Boi (Manatus inunguis) tão bem como um de nós ao andarmos por um caminho terrestre. Aqui é um capim quebrado, ali amassado, enfim indícios de que o cetáceo [sic] passou."
Barry, Dave: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
x
 
Barry, Frank P.; Neame, Peter J.; Sasse, Joachim; Pearson, David (detail)
   
1994
Length variation in the keratan sulfate domain of mammalian aggrecan.
Matrix Biology 14(4): 323-328. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Amplification of the keratan sulfate domain from genomic DNA of 11 mammal species, including the Asian elephant and the "manatee" [T. m. latirostris], revealed 16 and 17 hexapeptide repeats in the latter two species, respectively, in contrast to 6-23 repeats in other mammals.
Barry, John C.: SEE Raza et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Barth, Heinrich (detail)
   
1857-58
Reisen und Entdeckungen in Nord- und Central-Afrika in den Jahren 1849 bis 1855.... Tagebuch seiner im Auftrag der brittischen Regierung unternommenen Reise....
Gotha, J. Perthes (4 vols.). 50 pls. 14 maps.
–Engl. eds.: New York, Harper & Bros., 1857 (3 vols.); London, Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts, 1857-58 (5 vols.); etc. Sirs., 3: 289.
 
 
Barthel, Karl Werner (detail)
   
1962
Über ein neues, montiertes Skelett von Halitherium schinzi Kaup (Sirenia).
Mitt. Bayer. Staatssamml. Pal. Hist. Geol. 2: 65-68. Pl. 7. Aug. 1, 1962.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Barthel, Karl Werner (detail)
   
1966
Mounting a skeleton of Smilodon californicus Bovard.
Curator 9(2): 119-124. 2 figs.
Barthelmess, Klaus: SEE Faust et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Bartholin, Thomas (detail)
   
1654-61
Historiarum anatomicarum rariorum centuria I[-VI].
Hafniae [= Copenhagen], sumptibus P. Hauboldt.
–Allen 80 = centuria IV, 1657; this work was published in six sections or "centuriae", 1654-1661. According to A. Dubois (1991), "Centuria I et II" were issued in 3 different editions: 1654a, The Hague, Adriani Vlacq: [xvi] + 314 + [vi], 9 pls.; 1654b, Amsterdam, Ioannem Henrici: [xvi] + 326 + [ix], 9 pls.; 1654c, Copenhagen, Academis Martzani: [xvi] + 360 + [viii], 9 pls.
 In "Centuria I et II", Bartholin describes and illustrates a "siren" captured in the "sea of Brazil" and dissected by P. Pavius (P. Paw) of Leiden (1654a: 162-166; 1654b: 169-173; 1654c: 186-191). The illustrated bones (forearm + manus and a rib) are clearly those of a West Indian manatee, though the artist's depiction of the intact animal is absurdly anthropomorphic (illustration reproduced by Kleinschmidt, 1983). This description became the basis of the name Siren Bartholini, bestowed by Oesterdam (1766).
 Allen's annotation refers to a chapter entitled "Cetorum genera" (centuria IV, pp. 272-285).
 
 
Bartmann, W. (detail)
   
1972
Zur Behandlung infektiöser Hautschäden bei Seekühen (Trichechus manatus L.). In: R. Ippen & H.-D. Schröder (eds.), Erkrankungen der Zootiere Wrocław 1972. (Verhandlungsvericht des XIV. Internatl. Symp. über die Erkrankung der Zootiere.)
Berlin, Akademie-Verlag (420 pp.): 233-236. 3 figs.
–Engl., French, & Russian summs.
x
 
Bartmann, W. (detail)
   
1974
Management of sea cows (Trichechus manatus) in the Duisburg Zoo.
Aquatic Mamms. 2(1): 13-16. June 1974.
–Account of treatment of skin disease (furuncular dermatitis) in two animals; eventually cured with help of sodium chloride in water.
 
 
Bartolomei, Giorgio (detail)
   
1969
Rinvenimento di un sirenio nei Colli Berici (Vicenza).
Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei, Rendiconti (Class. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat.) (8)47(1/2): 39-40. 2 pls. July-Aug. 1969 (read June 12, 1969).
–Discovery of an axial skeleton of Prototherium.
Bartone, John C.: SEE Kaiser & Bartone. (detail)
x
 
Bartram, William (detail)
   
1791
Travels through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws....
Philadelphia, James & Johnson: xi + 522.
–Repr.: London, J. Johnson, 1792; facsimile ed., Charlottesville, Univ. Press of Virginia, 1973. Later eds.: Macy-Masius, 1928 (reprinted by Dover Publs., 1955); Yale, 1958. Records that T. manatus is hunted by Indians at Manatee Spring in northern Florida, and called "by a name which signifies the big beaver" (231-232). For an earlier MS. version of the same material, see Bartram (1943).
 
 
Bartram, William (detail)
   
1943
Travels in Georgia and Florida, 1773-74: a report to Dr. John Fothergill.... Annotated by Francis Harper.
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.) 33(2): 121-242. 26 pls. Nov. 1943.
–Annotated ed. of a manuscript precursor of Bartram's Travels (1791). Manatee, 158, 166, 189-190, 213.
Baskin, Jon A.: SEE Webb et al., 1981. (detail)
Bastian, Jarvis: SEE Evans & Bastian, 1969. (detail)
 
 
Bastos, Aureliano Candido Tavares (detail)
   
1866
O valle do Amazonas: estudo sobre a livre navegação do Amazonas, estatistica, producções, commercio, questões fiscaes do valle do Amazonas....
Rio de Janeiro, B. L. Garnier: xxiii + 369. Dec. 1866.
–Ed. 2: São Paulo, Cia. Ed. Nacional: 1-411, 1937.
x
 
Basu, P. K.; Das, Debi P.; Lahiri, T. C. (detail)
   
1991
Study of fossil marine Palaeogene mammals of Gujarat.
Recs. Geol. Surv. India 124(2): 9-10.
–Brief notice of sir. fossils collected from the ?Early Eocene-Early Miocene Naredi, Harudi, Khari Nadi, and Vinjan formations in Kachchh, India. One of the Miocene specimens is thought to represent a new genus.
 
 
Bataller, José Ramón (detail)
   
1918
Mamífers fòssils de Catalunya.
Treballs de la Inst. Catalana de Hist. Nat. (Barcelona) 4: 111-272. Tabs. 35 figs. Pls. 4-22.
x
 
Bataller, José Ramón (detail)
   
1956
Contribución al conocimiento de los vertebrados terciarios de España.
Cursillos y Confer., Inst. "Lucas Mallada" 1954(3): 11-28. 1 fig. 8 pls.
–Illustrates a skull and mandible of "Halitherium fossile (Metaxitherium cuvieri)" from the Miocene of Spain (pls. 6-8) and lists the species' Miocene (Helvetian and Burdigalian) occurrences in Spain (24-25). Also lists "Halitherium" vertebrae and ribs from the Eocene (Lutetian and Bartonian) (25). The skull and mandible were later described by Pilleri et al. (1989) as Metaxytherium catalaunicum.
x
 
Bates, Henry Walter (detail)
   
1863
The naturalist on the River Amazons.
London, John Murray (2 vols.): Vol. 2: vi + 423.
–Account of a manatee harpooned and cooked on the Amazon (2: 165).
 
 
Batrawi, A. (detail)
   
1953
The external features of the dugong kidney.
Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt No. 11: 12-13.
 
 
Batrawi, A. (detail)
   
1957
The structure of the dugong kidney.
Publ. Marine Biol. Station Al-Ghardaqa Red Sea No. 9: 51-68. 2 figs. 2 pls.
Battail, Bernard: SEE Thomas et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
Bauchot, Roland; Stephan, Heinz (detail)
   
1968
Étude des modifications encephaliques observées chez les insectivores adaptés à la recherche de nourriture en milieu aquatique.
Mammalia 32(2): 228-275. 2 tabs. 16 figs. (figs. 1-7 on pls. 19-20). June 1968.
–Engl. & German summs. Sirs., 242-243.
 
 
Baudin, Nicolas (detail)
   
1974
The journal of Post Captain Nicolas Baudin, commander-in-chief of the corvettes Géographe and Naturaliste, assigned by order of the Government to a voyage of discovery. Translated from the French by Christine Cornell.
Adelaide, Libraries Board of South Australia: xx + 609. Maps.
–Early mention of dugong in Western Australia, 513.
 
 
Bauduin, S.; Martin, J.; Edwards, H. H.; Gimenez, O.; Koslovsky, S. M.; Fagan, D. E. (detail)
   
2013
An index of risk of co-occurrence between marine mammals and watercraft: example of the Florida manatee.
Biol. Conserv. 159: 127-136.
 
 
Bauer, Gordon B.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Colbert, Debborah E.; Leach , Jennifer B.; Stamper , Sarah A.; Mann, David; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2012
Tactile discrimination of textures by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 28(4): E456-E471. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00565.x Oct. 2012 (first published online June 13, 2012).
–ABSTRACT: Two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) demonstrated sensitive tactile discrimination in a two-alternative forced choice task, using a modified staircase method. Stimuli were acrylic plates with vertical gratings of ridges and grooves. The standard stimulus, present on every trial, had 2 mm gratings and the comparison stimuli had wider gratings. The blindfolded subjects were trained to demonstrate discrimination by pressing the target with wider gratings. Discrimination thresholds (75% correct) for the subjects were 2.05 mm and 2.15 mm, corresponding to Weber fractions of 0.025 and 0.075, respectively. These results indicate thresholds on similar stimuli comparable to humans (index finger tasks) and better than harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, and the closely related Antillean manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus. Memory for the tactile task was quite stable for both subjects, over 2 yr in the case of one of the subjects. Video analysis of responses indicated that bristle-like hairs, perioral bristles, and skin on the oral disk were involved in the discrimination response.
 
 
Bauer, Gordon B.; Reep, Roger L.; Marshall, Christopher D. (detail)
   
2018
The tactile senses of marine mammals.
International Journal of Comparative Psychology 31: 1-28. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1vk1c9z1
–ABSTRACT: The successful return of mammals to aquatic environments presented numerous sensory challenges to overcome. Aquatic habitats reduced the utility of vision and the type of chemoreception important in terrestrial perception. In several orders, the sense of touch assumed greater importance, especially when enhanced by the development of vibrissal (sensory hair) systems. Species of two extant orders, Sirenia and Cetacea, lost all of their hairs except for vibrissae. In the former, these hairs cover the entire bodies of the two families, Trichechidae and Dugongidae. Hairs in adult cetaceans are more constrained (e.g., some river dolphins and baleen whales) and are restricted primarily to rostral regions. Pinnipeds and sea otters retained their pelage, but in addition have elaborated their mystacial and other facial vibrissae. High numbers of vibrissal receptors, associated dense innervation, prominence of neural tracts, and hypertrophy of brain areas associated with touch suggest an importance of tactile senses for aquatic mammals. Experimental testing has demonstrated the exquisite tactile sensitivity of many marine mammal species. Sensory hairs contribute to that tactile sensitivity in both haptic and mechanosensory contexts. Several, if not most, pinniped species, seals and sea lions, can track prey based on mechanoreception alone. In this review we will discuss the neurobiological and behavioral evidence for the tactile senses of marine mammals.
Bauer, Gordon Bruce: SEE Colbert & Bauer, 1999; Colbert et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Bauer, Gordon Bruce; Colbert, Debborah E.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Littlefield, B.; Fellner, Wendi (detail)
   
2003
Underwater visual acuity of Florida manatees.
Intl. Jour. Comp. Psychol. 16: 130-142.
Bauer, H.: SEE De Iongh et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Baugh, Thomas M. (detail)
   
1987
Man and manatee: planning for the future.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 12(9): 7.
x
 
Baugh, Thomas M.; Valade, James A.; Zoodsma, Barbara Jo (detail)
   
1989
Manatee use of Spartina alterniflora in Cumberland Sound.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 5(1): 88-90. Jan. 1989.
–Reports behavioral observations of manatees feeding on salt marsh cordgrass, the only generally available species of emergent vegetation in the Cumberland Sound area of Georgia and Florida. Also discusses feeding on this species elsewhere in the range of T. manatus.
x
 
Baughman, J. L. (detail)
   
1946
Some early notices on American manatees and the mode of their capture.
Jour. Mamm. 27(3): 234-239. Aug. 14, 1946.
–Collection of old accounts of manatees and manatee hunting in the New World.
 
 
Baumann, O. (detail)
   
1905?
Sirene: eine naturhistorische Kuriosität.
Natur und Glaube 1905[?]: 269-272.
Baumgardner, George D.: SEE Jefferson & Baumgardner, 1997. (detail)
x
 
Baumgardner, George D.; Brooks, Daniel M. (detail)
   
2001
Documentation of West Indian manatee Trichecus [sic] manatus (Mammalia: Sirenia) from San Jose Island, Aransas County, Texas.
Texas Jour. Sci. 53(3): 292-294. 1 fig.
–Reports 2 ribs collected on the beach, apparently prior to 1929, that are now in the Houston Museum of Natural Science.
 
 
Baur, George (detail)
   
1887a
Über die Abstammung der amnioten Wirbelthiere.
Biol. Centralbl. 7: 481-493.
–?Repr.: Sitzb. Ges. Morph. Phys. (Munich), 1887: 44-61.
x
 
Baur, George (detail)
   
1887b
On the morphology and origin of the Ichthyopterygia.
Amer. Naturalist 21: 837-840.
–Rev.: Geol. Mag. (3)5: 325-326, 1888? Reports hyperphalangy (four phalanges on one digit) in individuals of Manatus americanus and Halicore dugong (840).
 
 
Bautista, A. P. (detail)
   
1990
A zooarcheological perspective on the Ambagan site, a prehistoric settlement in Butuan, Agusan del Norte, Southern Philippines.
Indo-Pacific Prehistoric Assoc. Bull. 1(10): 161-170.
–Reports ribs of butchered dugongs dating from 9th-12th centuries A.D.
x
 
Bauzá, Juan (detail)
   
1946
Contribución a la geologia y paleontologia de Mallorca.
Bol. Soc. Españ. Hist. Nat. 44(5/6): 369-380. Pls. 18-19.
–Reports a lower molar of "Metaxitherium cuvieri" reported from the Miocene of Sa Taulera (Santa Margarita) (376, pl. 18).
x
 
Bay, D.; Demoulin, V. (detail)
   
1989
The seagrass beds of Hansa Bay (north coast of Papua New Guinea).
Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 122(1): 3-17. 4 tabs. 6 figs.
–French summ. Mentions the presence of dugongs in the study area (12).
x
 
Bayer, Frederick M.; Harry-Rofen, Robert R. (detail)
   
1957
Project Coral Fish looks at Palau.
Ann. Rept. Smithson. Inst. 1956: 481-508. 6 figs. 20 pls.
–Describes the fauna of the eel-grass (Enhalus acoroides) environment (501-502), and the capture of a Palauan dugong for the Steinhart Aquarium (502, pl. 20).
x
 
Baylis, H. A. (detail)
   
1936
Some parasitic worms from the British Cameroons.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10)17: 257-272.
–Reports Chiorchis fabaceus from the intestines of a manatee in Nigeria (257).
 
 
Baylis, H. A.; Daubney, R. (detail)
   
1923
A further report on parasitic nematodes in the collection of the zoological survey of India.
Rec. Indian Mus. Calcutta 25: 551-578.
–Reports Dujardinia halicoris from the dugong.
x
 
Bayliss, Peter (detail)
   
1986
Factors affecting aerial surveys of marine fauna, and their relationship to a census of dugongs in the coastal waters of the Northern Territory.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 13(1): 27-37. 5 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports on experiments to determine the effects on survey results of environmental conditions and survey techniques, and to derive correction factors. A dugong census of the Northern Territory, Australia, between the Daly River and Millingimbi in December 1983 yielded a minimum estimate of 2593 ± 530 and a total population estimate of 38,000, the highest densities being associated with shallow and sheltered waters.
x
 
Bayliss, Peter; Freeland, W. J. (detail)
   
1989
Seasonal distribution and abundance of dugongs in the western Gulf of Carpentaria.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 16(2): 141-149. 5 tabs. 4 figs.
–Aerial surveys in 1984-85 showed no major seasonal changes in distribution and relative abundance. Mimimum population sizes of 16,816ñ2946 (dry season) and 16,846ñ3257 (wet season) were calculated. Abundance was correlated with area of available seagrass beds. Catch rate by Aboriginal hunters declined from about 60 to 10 per year between the 1960s and 1985, possibly due to excessive hunting, but the present harvest rate appears to be sustainable.
x
 
Bazzini, Maria D.; Reynolds, John E., III; Essman, Richard A. (detail)
   
1984
Hemopoiesis in the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus. [Abstr.]
Florida Scientist 47(Suppl. 1): 19.
–The vertebral bodies were found to be the primary site of hemopoiesis.
x
 
Bazzini, Maria D.; Reynolds, John E., III; Essman, Richard A. (detail)
   
1986
Erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis in the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Acta Anat. 126(3): 150-152. 2 figs.
–Concludes from the presence of erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, and myelocytes in the vertebral bodies that the latter are the main site of blood cell formation. Some developing blood cells were also found (rarely) in manatee livers, spleens, and kidneys. Notes the abundance of lymphatic tissue, especially mesenteric lymph nodes, in the manatee.
 
 
Beadnell, Hugh John Llewellyn (detail)
   
1905
The topography and geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt.
Cairo, Survey Dept. of Egypt: 1-101. 24 pls.
–Abstr.: Nature (London) 72: 535-536, 2 figs.
 
 
Beal, William P. B. (detail)
   
1922
[The manatee as a food animal.]
Jour. Gold Coast Agric. & Commercial Soc. 2: [pp.?] Oct.-Dec. 1922.
x
 
Beal, William P. B. (detail)
   
1939
The manatee as a food animal.
Nigerian Field 8(3): 124-126.
–Said to be an extract from Beal (1922), this is also a summary of Ménégaux (1918). It gives a gen. acc. of Manatus senegalensis, its distribution, supposed breeding and food habits, and the possibility of raising it in captivity for its meat, oil, and bones.
 
 
Beard, Daniel B.; Lincoln, Frederick C.; Cahalane, Victor H.; Jackson, Hartley H. T.; Thompson, Ben H. (detail)
   
1942
Fading trails: the story of endangered American wildlife.
New York, Macmillan: xv + 279. Illus.
–Manatees, 88-97.
 
 
Bearzi, G. (detail)
   
2007
Marine conservation on paper.
Conserv. Biol. 21(1): 1-3.
x
 
Beasley, Isabel; Jefferson, Thomas A. (detail)
   
1997
Marine mammals of Borneo: a preliminary checklist.
Sarawak Museum Jour. 51(72)(N.S.): 193-210. 1 tab. 1 fig. Pls. 25-34. Dec. 1997.
–Briefly summarizes, tabulates, and maps reported occurrences of dugongs in northern Borneo (194, 202, 204). Illustrates a stuffed skin of a dugong from Sabah in the Sarawak Museum (Pl. 34).
Beatty, Brian Lee: SEE ALSO Domning, 2001b. (detail)
 
D
Beatty, Brian Lee (detail)
   
2006a
Rediscovered specimens of Cornwallius (Mammalia, Desmostylia) from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
www.PalArch.nl, vertebrate paleontology 1(1): 5 pp. 2 figs. Jan. 2006.
–Describes two right femora from the type locality of C. sookensis.
 
D
Beatty, Brian Lee (detail)
   
2006b
Specimens of Cornwallius sookensis (Desmostylia, Mammalia) from Unalaska Island, Alaska.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 26(3): 785-787. 1 fig. Sept. 11, 2006.
 
D
Beatty, Brian Lee (detail)
   
2009
New material of Cornwallius sookensis (Mammalia: Desmostylia) from the Yaquina Formation of Oregon.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 29(3): 894-909. 11 figs. Sept. 12, 2009.
 
D
Beatty, Brian Lee; Cockburn, Thomas C. (detail)
   
2015
New insights on the most primitive desmostylian from a partial skeleton of Behemotops (Desmostylia, Mammalia) fromVancouver Island, British Columbia.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 35(5): e979939 (15 pp.). 15 figs. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2015.979939 Sept. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: A partial articulated skeleton of a desmostylian was found in siltstone of the Sooke Formation in the streambed at the mouth of the Sombrio River in Juan De Fuca Provincial Park, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Another exposure of the Sooke Formation southeast of the locality has been dated to Chron C6Cr age, 24.1–24.8 Ma. This specimen includes the left side of the skull, two molars, a premolar, canines, partial scapula, nearly complete humerus, and numerous vertebrae and ribs. Molar characteristics are the same as material of Behemotops proteus from the Pysht Formation of Washington State, which is near the type locality of Behemotops proteus of the upper Oligocene Pysht Formation, Washington State. Previous specimens of B. proteus were limited to lower jaws and portions of the upper and lower postcanine dentitions. The slightly smaller Behemotops katsuiei from Japan is known from more elements, yet its cranial material is limited to the posterior portion of the cranium and a small portion of the zygomatic arch. This new material allows us to see that Behemotops cf. B. proteus had cranial features much like those seen in Cornwallius sookensis of North America. These include a postorbital process of the jugal, with the zygomatic process of the squamosal not dorsally expanded, a concave hard palate, enlarged canine tusks that point ventrally, and a narrow, curved incisor arcade on a narrow rostrum. This is different from specimens previously referred to as Behemotops emlongi and then synonymized with B. proteus, which have a broad symphysis with large tusks. These specimens formerly known as B. emlongi are now referred to a new genus [Seuku; Seuku emlongi, n.comb.].
 http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A528C91D-8ED7-4A7E-BBF2-82BA296D10E4
 
 
Beatty, Brian Lee; Geisler, Jonathan (detail)
   
2010
A stratigraphically precise record of Protosiren (Protosirenidae, Sirenia) from North America.
Neues Jb. Geol. Pal. Abh. 258(2): 185-194. 1 fig. Publ. online Aug. 2010.
 
 
Beatty, Brian Lee; Vitkovski, Taisia; Lambert, Olivier; Macrini, Thomas E. (detail)
   
2012
Osteological associations with unique tooth development in manatees (Trichechidae, Sirenia): a detailed look at modern Trichechus and a review of the fossil record.
Anat. Rec. 295: 1504-1512. 4 figs. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.22525
 
 
Beaux, O. de (detail)
   
1931
Mammiferi. In: Spedizione del barone Raimondo Franchette in Dancalia.
Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Giacomo Doria, Genova 55: 183-217.
–Account of Dugong hemprichi, 214-215.
Bechamel, Francis: SEE Grillet & Bechamel, 1698. (detail)
 
 
Bechstein, Johann Matthäus (detail)
   
1795
Compend. Bibliothek. 21 (Zoologe I).
[Publisher?]
–I have been unable to verify or amplify this citation beyond the above information, given in Sherborn's nomenclator, where the name Manatus vulgaris is said to appear on p. 113 of this work.
 
 
Bechstein, Johann Matthäus (detail)
   
1800
Thomas Pennant's Allgemeine Uebersicht der vierfüssigen Thiere.
Weimar, im Verlage des Industrie-Comptoir's: Vol. 2: x + 323-766.
–Describes Manatus Guyannensis, n.sp., M. Oronocensis, n.sp., and M. Clusii, n.comb., 732.
 
 
Bechstein, Johann Matthäus (detail)
   
1801
Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drei Reichen. Ein Handbuch zur deutlichern und vollständigern Selbstbelehrung besonders für Forstmänner, Jugendlehrer und Oekonomen. Band 1. Ed. 2.
Leipzig, Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius (5 parts in 4 vols., 1801-09).
–Discusses Manati balaenurus, 1: 215.
Beck, Cathy A.: SEE ALSO Bonde et al., 1983; Bonde & Beck, 1990; Buergelt et al., 1984, 1990; Eros et al., 2000; Forrester et al., 1979; Hurst & Beck, 1988; Langtimm et al., 1998; Marsh et al., 1998; Mignucci G. & Beck, 1998; Mignucci G., Beck et al., 1999; O'Shea, Beck et al., 1985; O'Shea et al., 2001; Wright et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Clark, Ann Marie (detail)
   
2012
Individual identification of sirenians. Chap. 15 in: E. M. Hines et al., eds. Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 133–138. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Discusses scars, tags, freeze-branding, and genetic analysis.
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Barros, Nélio B. (detail)
   
1991
The impact of debris on the Florida manatee.
Marine Pollution Bull. 22(10): 508-510. 1 fig. Oct. 1991.
–Summarizes carcass-salvage data (1974-86) showing debris ingestion or entanglement.
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Forrester, Donald J. (detail)
   
1988
Helminths of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, with a discussion and summary of the parasites of sirenians.
Jour. Parasitol. 74(4): 628-637. Aug. 1988.
–Reports the geographic and anatomical distribution and intensity of infestation of parasites in carcasses of Florida manatees, lists all reported sir. parasites, and speculates on the intermediate hosts of the common manatee parasites.
 
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Reid, James P. (detail)
   
1995
An automated photo-identification catalog for studies of the life history of the Florida manatee. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 120-134. 3 tabs. 13 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 18-19).
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1981
Manatee mortality in Florida during 1978. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 76-85. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–Tabulates county, date, body length, sex, cause of death, and other data on 78 carcasses necropsied. 39.7% of the deaths were attributed to human activity.
x
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1982
Analyses of propeller wounds on manatees in Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 46(2): 531-535. 3 figs. Apr. 1982.
–Concludes from the sizes of propeller wounds that most manatee mortality attributed to propeller strikes is caused by large (>7.3 m) boats with inboard engines and propellers >38 cm in diameter.
 
 
Beck, Cathy A.; Clementz, Mark T. (detail)
   
2012
Techniques for determining the food habits of sirenians. Chap. 14 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 126-132. 2 tabs.
–Includes techniques for stable isotope sampling and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
Becker, B. L.: SEE Eberhardt et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Beckett, Jeremy (detail)
   
1987
Torres Strait Islanders: custom and colonialism.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press: xiii + 251. 10 pls. 2 maps.
–Contains several observations on the role of dugong hunting in the Islander culture and economy (28, 150, 159-161, 181).
x
 
Beckjord, Jon-Erik (detail)
   
1985
Ri evidence lacking (comment on Wagner [1982], and Wagner et al. [1983]).
Cryptozoology 3: 154-155. Apr. 1985.
–Argues, on the basis of new interviews, that the "ri" of New Ireland is a dugong. See R. Wagner (1985) for response.
x
 
Beddard, Frank Evers (detail)
   
1897
Notes upon the anatomy of a manatee (Manatus inunguis) lately living in the Society's gardens.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1897(1): 47-53. 5 figs. June 1897.
–Compares the digestive system, kidney, heart, and brain of M. inunguis with those of M. latirostris.
 
 
Beddard, Frank Evers (detail)
   
1900
A book of whales.
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons; London, John Murray: xv + 320. 40 figs.
 
 
Beddard, Frank Evers (detail)
   
1902
Mammalia. In: Cambridge Natural History.
London & New York, Macmillan: Vol. 10: xii + 605. 285 figs.
–Reprinted 1968. Sirs., 333-338.
Beebe, C. W.: SEE Beebe, M. B. (detail)
 
 
Beebe, M. B.; Beebe, C. W. (detail)
   
1910
Our search for a wilderness.
New York, Henry Holt & Co.: 1-408.
–Manatees, 125, 170, 221-222, 224, 381.
 
 
Beebe, William (detail)
   
1919
Higher vertebrates of British Guiana with special reference to the fauna of Bartica District. [List of Amphibia, Reptilia, and Mammalia.]
Zoologica (New York) 2(7): 205-227. May 1919.
–Lists T. manatus among British Guiana mammals (226).
x
 
Beebe, William (detail)
   
1920
A tropic garden.
Atlantic Monthly 126: 730-736. Dec. 1920.
–Repr. in Beebe (1921). A charming account of manatee-watching in the Georgetown (British Guiana) Botanical Gardens (730-732).
 
 
Beebe, William (detail)
   
1921
Edge of the Jungle.
Garden City (New York), Garden City Publ. Co.; New York, H. Holt & Co.: 3-303. Frontisp.
–Several later eds. Manatee, 231-236 (repr. of Beebe, 1920).
x
 
Beeckman, Daniel (detail)
   
1812
A voyage to and from the island of Borneo, in the East Indies; with a description of the said island; giving an account of the inhabitants, their manners, customs, religion, product, chief ports, and trade: together with the re-establishment of the English trade there, An. 1714, after our factory had been destroyed by the Banjareens some years before. Also a description of the islands of Canary, Cape Verd, Java, Madura; of the Streights of Bally, the Cape of Good Hope, the Hottentots, the island of St. Helena, Ascension, &c. With some remarks and directions touching trade, &c. The whole very pleasant and very useful to such as shall have occasion to go into those parts. In: J. Pinkerton (ed.), A general collection of ... voyages and travels ....
London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown and Cadell & Davies: Vol. 11: 96-158.
–Ed. 1: London, 1718. Briefly describes "an amphibious creature, called by them manitee, or a sea-cow," encountered at the Cape of Good Hope (150-151), which is obviously the hippopotamus. It is worth noting here the confusing South African usage of these terms (e.g., Afrikaans seekoei) for the hippo, which probably accounts for some early writers' attribution to the dugong and/or manatee of a range including the Cape of Good Hope.
 
 
Beeler, I. E.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1988
Distribution and mortality of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the southeastern United States: a compilation and review of recent information.
NTIS Document No. PB 88-207980/AS (2 vols.): 1-613. Illus.
–Also published as Natl. Ecology Research Center Rept. No. 88-09: xv + 613, 1988.
x
 
Begley, Sharon; Carey, John; Callcott, John (detail)
   
1983
Death of the Persian Gulf.
Newsweek 102(4): 79. 3 figs. July 25, 1983.
–Report on dugongs and other organisms killed by an oil spill from the Nowruz oilfield, Iran.
x
 
Behler, Deborah A. (detail)
   
1996
Manatee update.
Wildlife Conservation 99(4): 16. 1 fig. July/Aug. 1996.
–Briefly notes that Florida manatee "Chessie" has been added to the Save the Manatee Club's Adopt-A-Manatee program, and that the Spring 1996 manatee die-off in southwest Florida is still unexplained.
 
 
Bélanger, Leonard F. (detail)
   
1940
A study of the histological structure of the respiratory portion of the lungs of aquatic mammals.
Amer. Jour. Anat. 67(3): 437-465. 2 figs. 4 pls.
–Describes the lung histology of the manatee..
 
 
Belcher, A. A. (detail)
   
1998
[Title?]
Asian Diver, Jan. 1998: 33.
–Describes a dugong in Vanuatu aggressively butting people.
Belitsky, Cheryl L.: SEE Belitsky, David W. (detail)
Belitsky, David W.: SEE ALSO Powell et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Belitsky, David W.; Belitsky, Cheryl L. (detail)
   
1978
El manatí, Trichechus manatus, en la República Dominicana: distribución y abundancia.
Serie de Publicaciones Científicas, Dirección Nacional de Parques (Repúb. Domin.) No. 1: 7-36. 5 tabs. 5 figs. 6 appendices of other tabs. & figs. Mar. 1978.
x
 
Belitsky, David W.; Belitsky, Cheryl L. (detail)
   
1980
Distribution and abundance of manatees Trichechus manatus in the Dominican Republic.
Biol. Conserv. 17(4): 313-319. 2 figs. May 1980.
–Aerial surveys and interviews demonstrated that populations exist on the north and southwest coasts; calves were seen year-round; evidence was found of poaching, possible shark predation, possible coastwise movements and use of freshwater upwellings, but little if any use of rivers by manatees.
Bell, Alexander Graham: SEE Fairchild, D., 1917. (detail)
 
 
Bell, Charles Napier (detail)
   
1862
Remarks on the Mosquito territory, its climate, people, productions.
Jour. Roy. Geogr. Soc. 32: 242-268.
 
 
Bell, Charles Napier (detail)
   
1899
Tangweera; life and adventures among gentle savages.
London, Edward Arnold: xi + 318. 6 pls.
–Mosquito Indians, Central America.
 
 
Bell, Christopher J.; Godwin, William; Jenkins, Kelsey M.; Lewis, Patrick J. (detail)
   
2020
First fossil manatees in Texas, USA: Trichechus manatus bakerorum from Pleistocene beach deposits along the Gulf of Mexico.
Palaeontologia Electronica 23(3): a47. 16 pp. 6 figs. https://doi.org/ 10.26879/1006 Sept. 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Extant manatees were documented on the Texas coastline as early as 1853, but their reported occurrence in Texas waters has been sporadic and poorly documented until relatively recently. We report eight specimens that document the first occurrence of fossil manatees in Texas, and the westernmost fossil occurrence of manatees in the United States. Seven of the specimens were collected along McFaddin and Caplen beaches on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Mexico; one was recovered from Corpus Christi Bay. The fossil specimens reported here include a mandibular symphysis fragment diagnosable as the extinct morphotype denoted by the trinomial Trichechus manatus bakerorum Domning, 2005. Other specimens are diagnosed as Trichechus manatus or as Sirenia. They were found on beaches that are known to produce mammalian taxa characteristic of Pleistocene faunas, and our age assessment is based on that association, and the comparable preservation, color, and density of the manatee bones and bones of extinct taxa of Pleistocene age from the beaches. It is not clear whether the fossils represent remains of a resident population, or the fortuitous preservation of vagrant individuals. However, assuming that the ecological tolerances of manatees in the Pleistocene were comparable to the tolerances of extant populations,the presence of manatees in the northwest Gulf of Mexico in the Pleistocene adds an interesting, if enigmatic, data point for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the region.
Bell, Susan K.: SEE McKenna & Bell, 1997. (detail)
x
 
Bell, Thomas (detail)
   
1837
A history of British quadrupeds, including the Cetacea.
London, John Van Voorst: xviii + 526. Illus.
–Allen 907. Notice of two strandings of carcasses of "Manatus borealis" in the British Isles (525). One record is based on the accounts of Stewart (1801) and Fleming (1828); no details are given about the other.
x
 
Bellin, Jacques Nicolas (detail)
   
1763
Déscription géographique de la Guyane. Contenant les possessions et les etablissemens des François, des Espagnols, des Portugais, des Hollandois dans ces vastes pays. Le climat les productions de la terre et les animaux leurs habitans, leurs moeurs, leurs coutumes. et le commerce qu'on y peut faire. Avec des remarques pour la navigation et des cartes, plans, et figures, dressées au Dépost des Cartes et Plans de la Marine par ordre de M le Duc de Choiseul Colonel Général des Suisses et Grisons, Ministre de la Guerre et de la Marine.
Paris, Impr. de Didot: xiv + 294. 10 pls. Maps & plans.
–Allen 287. Brief description (taken directly from Gumilla) of the manatee in the Guianas (65-66). The scene of Indians harpooning a manatee and the illustration of a female with its young (pl. 5) are taken from Labat (1722), according to Allen.
 
 
Belmar, A. de (detail)
   
1861
Voyage aux provinces brésiliennes du Pará et des Amazones en 1860, précédé d'une rapide coup d'oeil, sur le littoral du Brésil.
London, Trezise: 1-236.
–Gen. acc. of the manatee and its use by natives (118-119).
 
 
Beltran de Santa Rosa Maria, Pedro (detail)
   
1859
Arte del idioma Maya reducido a sucintas reglas, y semilexicon Yucateco. Ed. 2.
Merida de Yucatan, José D. Espinosa: [16] + 242. 2 tabs. July 1859.
–Ed. 1, Mexico, 1746. Gives chiil and tek as Maya names of the manatee (230).
Benammi, M.: SEE Welcomme et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Benavente, Toribio de (detail)
   
1903
Memoriales de fray Toribio de Motolinia ... (Luis García Pimentel, ed.).
Mexico, en casa del editor (Documentos Históricos de Méjico, t. I): x + 364. 1 pl.
–Mentions manatees in the region of Papaloapan, Veracruz, Mexico, sometime after 1541 (pt. I, cap. lix; reprinted by Durand, 1983: 65).
Beneden, Pierre Joseph Van: SEE Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph. (detail)
Bengtson, John L.: SEE ALSO Medway, Bruss et al., 1982. (detail)
x
 
Bengtson, John L. (detail)
   
1982
Ecology of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the St. Johns River, Florida. [Abstr.]
Dissert. Abstrs. Internatl., B. Sci. Eng. 42(12): 4668. June 1982.
–Describes daily and seasonal movements in response to temperature; reports that males patrol large ranges in search of estrous females, which have relatively small home ranges; mentions observations on daily activity patterns; suggests that behavioral tradition may be important in manatee populations; and reports that manatees failed to show a preference among 4 species of food plants offered them in experimental trials.
x
 
Bengtson, John L. (detail)
   
1983
Estimating food consumption of free-ranging manatees in Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 47(4): 1186-1192. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–A study, partly experimental, of chewing rate and food consumption at Blue Spring and the St. Johns River indicated an estimated consumption rate of 108 g/min and 4-9% of body weight per day. The highest rates were observed just before winter.
x
 
Bengtson, John L.; Fitzgerald, Shannon M. (detail)
   
1985
Potential role of vocalizations in West Indian manatees.
Jour. Mamm. 66(4): 816-819. 2 figs. Nov. 29, 1985.
–Reports correlations between number of calls and various behaviors of manatees in Blue Spring and the St. Johns River, Florida. Concludes that vocalizations are mainly social and communicative in function, not navigational. Notes the possible use of vocalizations for alarm, greeting, and synchronizing of breathing, and estimates the distances at which manatees can hear various sounds.
x
 
Bengtson, John L.; Magor, Diana Marion (detail)
   
1979
A survey of manatees in Belize.
Jour. Mamm. 60(1): 230-232. 1 tab. 1 fig. Feb. 20, 1979.
–A total of 101 manatee sightings were made in 5 days of aerial survey.
 
 
Beniowski, Moritz August, Graf von (detail)
   
1790
Reisen durch Sibirien und Kamtschatka über Japan und China nach Europa. Nebst einem Auszuge seiner übrigen Lebensgeschichte.... Mit Anmerkungen von Johann Reinhold Forster.
Berlin, Voss: xxi + 447. Pls.
–Translated from Engl. Rhytina, p. 213.
Benjamini, Chaim: SEE Goodwin et al., 1998. (detail)
Bennett, F. D.: SEE Andres & Bennett, 1975. (detail)
 
 
Bennett, George (detail)
   
1860
Gatherings of a naturalist in Australasia: being observations principally on the animal and vegetable productions of New South Wales, New Zealand, and some of the Austral Islands.
London, John Van Voorst: xii + 456. Frontisp. 24 figs. 7 pls.
–Facsimile repr.: Milson's Point (New South Wales), Currawong Press, 1982. Account of dugongs and dugong exploitation at Moreton Bay (164-167).
x
 
Benoist, Émile-A. (detail)
   
1878
[Incisive de Rhytiodus.]
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux (4)32(2), Proc.-verb.: lxxxiii. Read June 19, 1878.
–P. lxxxiii: {{"M. Benoist montre à la Société un fragment important d'incisive de Rhytiodus qu'il a trouvé dans le falun de Mérignac."}}
 
 
Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe (detail)
   
2013
Cranial remain from Tunisia provides new clues for the origin and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa.
PLoS ONE 8(1): e54307. 9 pp. 1 tab. 6 figs. + 4 files of Supporting Information. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054307 Jan. 16, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea - the putative sister-groups to Sirenia - are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids' one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most seacows were likely restricted to fresh waters.
 
D
Benoit, Julien; Crumpton, Nick; Mérigeaud, Samuel; Tabuce, Rodolphe (detail)
   
2013
A memory already like an elephant's? The advanced brain morphology of the last common ancestor of Afrotheria (Mammalia).
Brain Behav. Evol. 16 pp. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1159/000348481 Publ. online March 21, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Virtually reconstructed and natural endocranial casts are used in the study of brain evolution through geological time. We here present work investigating the paleoneurological evolution of afrotherian mammals. Using microCT-generated endocasts we show that, with the exception of the subfamilies Macroscelidinae and Tenrecoidea, most Afroinsectiphilia display a more or less gyrencephalic and ventrally expanded neopallium, two derived features that are unexpected for these insectivore-grade afrotherians. This implies that the endocranial cast morphology at the root of the afrotherian clade may have been more advanced than previously thought. The reconstructed endocranial morphology of the Afrotheria's last common ancestor reaches the level of complexity of some early Cenozoic archaic ungulates. Our result gives support to the hypothesis of an ungulate-like ancestral body plan for Afrotheria. It also implies that the a priori 'primitive' suite of traits evident in the brain of Afroinsectivora, especially in the tenrecs, may have been secondarily acquired. Implications on the overestimation of the divergence age of Afrotheria are discussed.
  Provides a CT reconstruction of the endocranial cast of Prorastomus sirenoides, and a cladogram based on endocranial morphology including 8 fossil and Recent sir. taxa. Also comments briefly on Desmostylus.
 
 
Benwell, Gwen; Waugh, Arthur (detail)
   
1961
Sea enchantress.
London, Hutchinson; New York, Citadel: 1-287. 2 figs. 16 pls.
 
 
Benzoni, Girolamo (detail)
   
1565
La historia del Mondo Nvovo.... Laqval tratta dell'isole, & mari nuouamente ritrouati, & delle nuoue città da lui proprio vedute, per acqua & per terra in quattordeci anni.
Venice, Francesco Rampazetto: 175 leaves.
–Allen 20. Reprinted 1572; many later eds. Manati, p. 96.
 
 
Benzoni, Girolamo (detail)
   
1578
Novae novi orbis historiae, id est, rerum ab Hispanis in India Occidentali hactenus gestarum, & acerbo illorum in eas gentes dominatu, Libri tres, Vrbani Calvetonis opera industriáque ex Italicis Hieronymi Benzonis Mediolanensis, qui eas terras xiiii. annorum peregrinatione obijt, commentarijs descripti; Latini facti, ac perpetuis notis, argumentis & locu pleti memorabilium rerum accessione, illustrati. His ab eodem adiuncta est, de Gallorum in Floridam expeditione, & insigni Hispanorum in eos faeuitiae exemplo, breuis historia.
[Geneva,] Evstathivm Vignon: 1-480.
–Allen 23. Latin ed. of Benzoni, 1565. "Manati pisces", cap. xiii, pp. 213-214 (manatee of Nicaragua), 216-217 (a further account based on that of Peter Martyr [1533], which did not appear in the 1565 ed.).
 
 
Berg, L. S. (detail)
   
1946
Otkrytie Kamchatki i ekspeditsii Beringa 1725-1742 gg. [The discovery of Kamchatka and the Bering expeditions of 1725-1742.] Ed. 3.
Moscow & Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR: 1-379.
–First ed., 1924? Includes discussion of sources, with bibliography.
x
 
Bergey, Michael; Baier, Horst (detail)
   
1987
Lung mechanical properties in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Respir. Physiol. 68(1): 63-75. 5 tabs. 4 figs.
–Heavy cartilaginous reinforcements of airways were found to permit high expiratory flow rates at all lung volumes; to possibly compensate for low elastic recoil of lungs due to high gas/tissue ratio; and to prevent airway collapse during exhalation.
Berggren, Per: SEE Stensland et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Bergin, T. J. (detail)
   
1981
Veterinary aspects. Report on meeting of working party in Sydney, 15 February 1981. In: J. K. Ling (ed.), Marine mammal strandings in Australia: towards a national plan.
Adelaide, South Australian Museum (69 pp.): 14-17.
 
 
Berhanu, Allem (detail)
   
1976
Ethiopia: a report on the Dahlac Islands marine park.
IUCN Publs. (n.s.) No. 35: 45-49.
 
 
Berkel, Adriaan Van (detail)
   
1695
Amerikaansche voyagien, behelzende een reis na Rio de Berbice, gelegen op het vaste land van Guiana, aan de Wilde-kust van America, mitsgaders een andere na de Colonie van Suriname, gelegen in het noorder deel van het gemelde landschap Guiana. Ondermengd met alle de byzonderheden noopende de zeden, gewoonten, en levenswijs der inboorlingen, boom- en aardgewassen, waaren en koopmanschappen, en andere aanmerkelijke zaaken.
Amsterdam, J. ten Hoorn: 4 + 139. Frontisp. 2 pls.
–Report of a manatee in the lower Suriname River.
 
 
Berkel, Adriaan Van (detail)
   
1942
Travels in South America between the Berbice and Essequibo Rivers and in Surinam 1670,-1689, translated & edited by Walter Edmund Roth, 1925.
Georgetown (British Guiana), The xvi + 145 + v. Pls. 1 map.
Berkelmans, Ray: SEE Oliver & Berkelmans, 1999. (detail)
x
 
Bernal, F. (detail)
   
2001
¡Sirenas en Murcia!
Boletin Interno Asociación Cultural Paleontológica Murciana No. 1: 3. 2 figs. July 2001.
–One-page preliminary notice of a partial skeleton (vertebrae and ribs) of Metaxytherium from the Upper Miocene of Mazarrón, Spain.
 
 
Bernardes, A. T.; Machado, A. B. M.; Rylands, Anthony B. (detail)
   
1990
Fauna Brasileira ameaçada de extinção.
Belo Horizonte, Fundação Biodiversitas para a Conservação da Diversidade Biológica: 1-62.
–Considers T. inunguis "endangered" in Brazil.
 
 
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, J. H. (detail)
   
1773
Voyage à l'Isle de France, à l'Isle de Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne-Espérance, etc., avec des observations nouvelles sur la nature et sur les hommes. Par un Officier du Roi.
Neuchatel, Impr. Soc. Typographique (2 vols.).
 
 
Berndt, Ronald M. (detail)
   
1948
A 'Wეnguri-'Mandჳikai song cycle of the Moon-Bone.
Oceania 19(1): 16-50. Sept. 1948.
–Songs and legends about dugongs in northeastern Arnhem Land, Australia.
 
 
Berndt, Ronald M. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1964
Australian aboriginal art.
Sydney, Ure Smith: xiii + 118. 73 pls. 1 map.
–C. P. Mountford, 20-32? Recounts the myth of the moon-man and his sister, the dugong-woman (pl. 31).
 
 
Bernhauser, A. (detail)
   
1953
Über Mycelites ossifragus Roux: Auftreten und Formen im Tertiär des Wiener Beckens.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien (math.-natw. Kl.), Abt. 1, 162: 119-127. 6 figs. Read June 11, 1953.
–-Reports rib of Metaxytherium krahuletzi with borings made by algae cf. Gomontia (120-121, Fig. 1).
x
 
Bernhauser, A. (detail)
   
1955
Zur Kenntnis der Retzer Sande.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien (math.-natw. Kl.), Abt. 1, 164(3): 163-192. 1 tab. 12 figs.
–Reports rib fragments of Metaxytherium krahuletzi from Ober-Nalb, Austria (168, 172, 185). Thin sections of some ribs show borings made by algae cf. Gomontia polyrhiza.
x
 
Berovides. Vicente (detail)
   
n.d.
Protejamos nuestra fauna.
Havana, Editorial Gente Nueva: 1-39. Illus.
–One-paragraph pop. acc. of manatees (13), emphasizing their former economic uses (including leather whips for slaves), and illustrated with a photograph of two young Amazonian manatees copied from Coates (1940).
 
 
Berry, Edward W. (detail)
   
1923
The Mayence Basin, a chapter of geologic history.
Sci. Monthly 16: 113-129. Feb. 1923.
Berry, William B. N.: SEE Floyd et al., 1958. (detail)
Berta, Annalisa: SEE Rice, D.W., 1998. (detail)
x
 
Berthold, Arnold Adolph (detail)
   
1827
Latreille's ... Natürliche Familien des Thierreichs. Aus dem Französischen, mit Anmerkungen und Zusätzen....
Weimar, Gr. H. S. priv. Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs: x + 606.
–Lists Manatus, Halicore, and Rhytina under "Cetacea: Herbivora"; first use of the emended spelling Rhytina (62).
x
 
Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo; Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1966b
Sea cows could be useful.
Sea Frontiers 12(4): 210-217. 5 figs. July-Aug., 1966.
–Pop. acc. of sir. status and use for weed control and other purposes; figs. of dugongs, tusks, harpoons, and seagrass.
x
 
Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo; Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1966d
The Sirenia: a vanishing order of mammals.
Animal Kingdom 69(6): 180-184. 4 figs. Dec. 1966.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and the prospects for their survival, with one photo of T. manatus, two of dugongs, and a sketch of Steller's sea cow from G. M. Allen (1942).
x
 
Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo; Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1968a
The Sirenia as aquatic meat-producing herbivores. In: M. A. Crawford (ed.), Comparative nutrition of wild animals.
Symp. Zool. Soc. London No. 21: 385-391; discussion, 393-394. 2 figs. Symposium held Nov. 10-11, 1966.
–Discusses sir. ecology, economic uses, and conservation.
x
 
Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo; Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1971
The decline of the dugong.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 17(4): 146-147. 1 fig. Dec. 1971.
–Pop. acc. of Australian dugongs. Mentions use of dugong oil in a Queensland hospital for medicinal purposes as late as 1965.
Bertram, George Colin Lawder: SEE ALSO Charnock-Wilson et al., 1974; Frazier et al., 1987; Kaiser, H.E., 1974; Little, E.C.S., 1966. (detail)
 
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1943
Note on the sea cow in the Gulf of Aqaba.
Jour. Soc. Preserv. Fauna Empire (n.s.) Pt. 47: 21-23.
 
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1963
In search of mermaids: the manatees of Guiana.
London, Peter Davies; New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Co.: xi + 183.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1974
Conservation of Sirenia: current status and perspectives for action.
Occas. Paper, Internatl. Union Conserv. Nature & Nat. Resources (Morges, Switzerland) No. 12: 1-19.
–Gen. acc. of sir. biology and status, with recommendations regarding the proposed International Manatee Research Centre in Guyana and conservation needs of each of the living species, especially dugongs in Australia and Somalia. Written as a discussion paper for the recently formed IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group.
 
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1975
Save the mermaids.
Wildlife, Wildl. Conserv. Yearbook 1975: 82-87. 1 fig. 5 pls.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1977
Sea cows.
Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group (Abu Dhabi) No. 1: 3-4. Mar. 1977.
–Summary of popular lecture on sirs., with mention of captures at Abu Dhabi.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1980
Dugongs in the nineteen-seventies.
Spolia Zeylanica 35(I/II): 219-221.
–Gen. acc. of dugong and manatee research and conservation.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1981
Dugong numbers in retrospect and prospect. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 1-7.
–Briefly sketches what is known of the past abundance of dugongs, calls attention to the effects of human population pressure, and emphasizes the critical responsibility of Australia in dugong conservation. Suggests that Queensland was the area of greatest dugong abundance in the world even in prehistoric times.
 
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1987
Antarctica, Cambridge, conservation and population: a biologist's story.
Publ. by the author: viii + 208.
–Tells the story of Colin and Kate Bertram's studies of sirs. (82, 108, 112-125, 197, 199).
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1962
Manatees of Guiana.
Nature (London) 196(4861): 1329. Dec. 29, 1962.
–Reprinted in Jour. Brit. Guiana Mus. & Zoo No. 37? Summarizes the status of manatees in British Guiana and neighboring regions, and efforts to use them in weed-clearing. Notes difficulty in the latter efforts due to losses in capture and transport, and failure of manatees to breed in captivity.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1963
The status of manatees in the Guianas.
Oryx 7(2/3): 90-93. Aug. 1963.
–Reviews the status and distribution of T. m. manatus in British Guiana, its use for meat and for weed control, and the impracticability of expanding the latter use. Makes recommendations for manatee conservation in the Guianas.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1964a
Manatees in the Guianas.
Zoologica (New York) 49(2): 115-120. Summer 1964.
–Describes the distribution, habits, and status of T. m. manatus in British Guiana and adjacent areas.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1964b
Does the "extinct" sea cow survive?
New Scientist 24(415): 313. 1 fig. Oct. 29, 1964.
–Pop. acc. of the presumed extermination and possible survival of Steller's sea cow.
 
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1965
Seaweed into beef.
Animals 6(13): 352-355. 7 figs.
–Gen. acc. of sir. natural history.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1966a
The dugong.
Nature (London) 209(5026): 938-939. Feb. 26, 1966.
–Optimistic report of dugong status in Australia and neighboring regions; hunting pressure believed to be diminishing in many places, and stocks seem secure.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1966c
Dugongs in Australian waters.
Oryx 8(4): 221-222. Apr. 1966.
–Dugongs reported to be doing well in Australia, and little hunted except by Aborigines.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1968b
Bionomics of dugongs and manatees.
Nature (London) 218(5140): 423-426. 3 figs. May 4, 1968 (read to Linnean Soc., Feb. 15, 1968).
–Gen. acc. of sirs. and their conservation, emphasizing Australian dugongs and Guyanese manatees.
 
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1968c
The world's most valuable reptiles.
Animals 10(10): 440-444. Feb. 1968.
–Compares sea turtles with sirs. as marine herbivores.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1970a
The dugongs of Ceylon.
Loris 12(1): 53-55. June 1970.
–Discusses problems of dugong conservation (particularly marked decline due to intensification of the marine fishery), summarizes present status, and urges establishment of a dugong sanctuary.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1970b
Dugongs in Ceylon.
Oryx 10(6): 362-364. 2 figs. Dec. 1970.
–Reports that dugongs are decreasing in Ceylon due to accidental netting, in spite of legal protection, and advocates creation of a dugong sanctuary.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1973
The modern Sirenia: their distribution and status.
Biol. Jour. Linn. Soc. 5(4): 297-338. 2 figs. Pl. 1. Dec. 1973.
–An excellent and detailed review, based on wide travel and correspondence, of the present distribution of sirs., population trends, economic use and past exploitation, present hunting and hunting techniques, accidental catch, use in weed control, and existing and needed conservation measures. Rather more emphasis is placed on dugongs than on manatees. Includes an analysis of data on size, sex, pregnancy, and month of capture of some 433 dugongs taken at Numbulwar Mission, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1963-69 (333-335); limited evidence for a breeding season was found.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo (detail)
   
1977
The status and husbandry of manatees Trichechus spp.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 17: 106-108.
–Briefly reviews the history and status of manatee weed-control attempts in Guyana and Surinam, and the Guyana manatee research project; urges creation of a captive-breeding program and discusses problems of weed-control and captive-breeding efforts.
x
 
Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Sale, J. B. (detail)
   
1975
Dugong meeting in Nairobi.
East Afr. Wildl. Jour. 13(3/4): 389-390. Dec. 1975.
–Report of meeting and recommendations for further research and conservation efforts.
 
 
Bertram, Brian (detail)
   
 
x
 
Bertram, Brian (detail)
   
2002
[Obituary of] George Colin Lawder Bertram.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 18(1): 304. Jan. 9, 2002.
–Repr. from Sirenews No. 36, Oct. 2001.
Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo: SEE Bertram, George Colin Lawder. (detail)
Bertram, William Halsey Ricardo: SEE Harris & Bertram, 1977. (detail)
 
 
Bertrand, Pierre (detail)
   
1988
Évolution de la structure de l'émail chez les Proboscidea primitifs: aspects phylogénétique et fonctionnel. In: D. E. Russell et al. (eds.), Teeth revisited.
Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Sér. C, Sci. Terre 53: 109-124. Illus.
–Engl. summ.
x
 
Berzin, Alfred Antonovich; Tikhomirov, E. A.; Troinin, V. I. (detail)
   
1963
Ischezla li stellerova korova? [Is Steller's sea cow extinct?]
Priroda 52(8): 73-75. 1 fig.
–Engl. transl.: Fisheries Research Board of Canada Transl. Ser. No. 548: 1-4, 1965. Report of animals seen off Cape Navarin on the Bering Sea coast of Russia in June 1962, which were thought to be Steller's sea cows. Other post-1768 reports are also cited, mostly from Grekov and Nordenskiöld.
x
 
Bessac, H.; Villiers, A. (detail)
   
1948
Le lamantin du Sènègal.
La Nature (Paris) 76(3158): 188-189. 4 figs. June 1948.
–Fascinating gen. acc. of T. senegalensis, including migrations, hunting methods, native beliefs, and natural history data (much of doubtful accuracy) supplied by a native informant.
Best, Maya Borel: SEE Boekschoten & Best, 1988. (detail)
 
 
Best, P. B. (detail)
   
1971
Order Sirenia. In: J. Meester & H. W. Setzer (eds.), The mammals of Africa: an identification manual.
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. Press: Pt. 13: 1 p.
–First ed., 1968.
Best, Robin Christopher: SEE ALSO Assis et al., 1988; Ayres & Best, 1980; Bullock et al., 1980; Farmer et al., 1979ab; Gallivan et al.; Kleinschmidt et al., 1988; Lainson et al., 1983; Lefebvre et al., 1989; Marsh et al., 1986; Mok & Best, 1979; Montgomery et al., 1981; Packard, Rathbun et al., 1984; Piggins et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1981
Foods and feeding habits of wild and captive Sirenia.
Mammal Review 11(1): 3-29. 12 tabs. 2 figs.
–Detailed review of diets, feeding behavior, food consumption, nutrition, and digestive physiology of the five Recent species, listing all reported food items consumed in the wild or in captivity, with analyses of composition and digestibility for some of them.
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1982a
Seasonal breeding in the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Biotropica 14(1): 76-78. 1 fig.
–Concludes from dates of capture of calves that the indirect effect of rising river levels on nutritional status serves as a cue for manatee reproductive activity.
 
 
Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1982b
A salvação de uma espécie: novas perspectivas para o peixe-boi da Amazônia.
Revista IBM No. 14: 10 pp. 12 figs. Dec. 1982.
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1983
Apparent dry-season fasting in Amazonian manatees (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Biotropica 15(1): 61-64. 1 fig.
–Reports observations on T. inunguis trapped in Lago Amanã, Brazil, during the 1979-80 dry season, with comments on physiology, hunting, and implications for conservation. Manatees normally appear to fast 3-4 months per year; in this case the fast lasted nearly 7 months.
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1984a
Trichechus inunguis vulgo peixe-boi.
Ciênciahoje 2(10): 66-73. 11 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1984.
–Excellent pop. acc. of T. inunguis biology and the diverse manatee research projects at INPA, Manaus, Brazil.
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1984b
The aquatic mammals and reptiles of the Amazon. In: H. Sioli (ed.), The Amazon. Limnology and landscape ecology of a mighty tropical river and its basin.
Monographiae Biol. 56 (Dordrecht, Dr. W. Junk, 763 pp.): 371-412. 11 tabs. 12 figs.
–Gen. acc. of the history of exploitation of T. inunguis and its biology, based on studies in progress at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil (371-377).
  According to eyewitness Mario Ypiranga (unpublished data in INPA files), the "anonymous" photo of a manatee and hunter (Fig. 1) was taken by INPA photographer Lourival Salgado near Freguesia do Andir  on the Rio Andir , Amazonas, Brazil. The manatee was a female, not pregnant, and not as huge as it looks; the hunter was only about 160 cm tall (compared to Ypiranga's 155 cm) and the manatee's back rose some 60-70 cm above the ground. Another view of this scene was published in the Amazônia Bibliografia 1614-1962, Rio de Janeiro, INPA, 1963.
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da (detail)
   
1979
Peixe-boi. Uma sereia na represa?
Cespaulista (São Paulo) 3(16): 26-27, 29. 3 figs. Apr. 1979.
–Pop. acc. of Brazilian manatees and manatee research at INPA in Manaus. See also Cascudo (1979).
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher; Teixeira, Dantes Martins (detail)
   
1982
Notas sobre a distribuição e "status" aparentes dos peixes-bois (Mammalia: Sirenia) nas costas amapaenses brasileiras.
Bol. Inf. FBCN (Rio de Janeiro, Fundação Brasileira para a Conservação da Natureza) No. 17: 41-47. 1 fig.
–A 1978 ground survey of the coast of Amapá, Brazil, found evidence only of T. manatus. Comments on hunting methods, food plants, body size of calves and adults, possible shark bites, status, and conservation efforts.
 
 
Best, Robin Christopher; Gallivan, G. James; Kanwisher, John W. (detail)
   
1982
Ecophysiology of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis [Abstr.].
Braz. Jour. Med. Biol. Res. 15(2-3): 193.
n
 
Best, Robin Christopher; Montgomery, G. Gene; Yamakoshi, Megumi (detail)
   
1981
Avaliação de técnicas de rádio-rastreamento e marcação do peixe-boi da Amazônia, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Acta Amazonica 11(2): 247-254. 1 tab. 4 figs. June 1981.
–A Portuguese version of Montgomery, Best & Yamakoshi (1981) (q.v.), with additional photographs showing the floating meadows in the study area, the freeze-brand and branding iron used, and the transmitter-peduncle belt assembly.
x
 
Best, Robin Christopher; Ribeiro, Gilberto de Assis; Yamakoshi, Megumi; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da (detail)
   
1982
Artificial feeding for unweaned Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 22: 263-267. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 1 pl.
–Describes the composition and effects on growth rates of three different artificial formulas used in the rearing of 14 captive calves.
x
 
Betz, Joseph J. (detail)
   
1968
Sea cow deception.
Sea Frontiers 14(4): 204-209. 4 figs. July 1968.
–Account of an abortive 1893 plan for raising manatees in captivity in Florida.
x
 
Beusse, D. O., Jr.; Asper, Edward D.; Searles, Stan W. (detail)
   
1981a
Some causes of manatee mortality. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 98-101. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Lists carcasses of T. manatus recovered in Florida, 1974-77, and gives detailed findings on the three that were fresh enough for necropsy. One died of septicemia with pneumonia after entanglement in a crab-trap line, another from septicemia without obvious wounds, and a third from propeller cuts and pneumonia. See also Irvine, Odell & Campbell (1981).
x
 
Beusse, D. O., Jr.; Asper, Edward D.; Searles, Stan W. (detail)
   
1981b
Diagnosis and treatment of manatees at Sea World of Florida. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 111-120. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports on the successful treatment of three T. manatus for entanglement in a crab-trap line, propeller cuts, and a possible retained placenta, respectively. Includes extensive tables showing the results of blood studies during treatment. See also Asper & Searles (1981) regarding these manatees.
x
 
Beveridge, James (detail)
   
2000
Belize: wildlife paradise.
Aqua Geographia 20: 38-56. Illus.
–Includes 4 photos of Central American manatees (wrongly claimed to be :here pictured for the first time"!), with brief, rather inaccurate text (45).
 
 
Beyer, Hermann (detail)
   
1908
Studien über den sogenannten Schallleitungsapparat bei den Wirbeltieren und Betrachtungen über die Function des Schneckenfensters.
Arch. Ohrheilk. 77: 77-105. Figs. 20-24.
 
 
Bhaskar, S. (detail)
   
1978
Notes on the Gulf of Kutch.
Hamadryad 3(3): 9-10.
–Reports finding a dead male dugong on Bhaidan Island, Gulf of Kutch, India (10).
 
 
Bhaskar, S. (detail)
   
1986
Dugongs. In: R. E. Hawkins (ed.), Encyclopedia of Indian natural history.
Bombay, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.: 189.
 
 
Bhaskar, S.; Rao, G. Chandrasekhara (detail)
   
1992
Present status of some endangered animals in Nicobar Islands.
Jour. Andaman Sci. Assoc. 8(2): 181-186.
Bhatia, S. B.: SEE Sahni et al., 1983. (detail)
Bhatti, M. Akram: SEE Gingerich et al., 1995, 1997, 1998. (detail)
Bianchini, Adalto: SEE Colares et al., 2000. (detail)
x
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Landini, Walter (detail)
   
2003
Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from Upper Miocene sediments of the Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy).
Riv. Ital. Pal. Strat. 109(3): 567-573. 5 figs. 2 pls. Nov. 2003.
–Describes the first Mioc. sirs. from Tuscany: skull roofs, jugal, squamosal and scapula fragments, humeri, vertebra fragments, and ribs. These are considered early Tortonian in age (10.5-8.14 Ma).
 
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Carone, Giuseppe; Domning, Daryl Paul; Landini, Walter; Rook, Lorenzo; Sorbi, Silvia (detail)
   
2008
Peri-Messinian dwarfing in Mediterranean Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia): evidence of habitat degradation related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In: N.T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, P. Pavlakis, & M.J. Salem (eds.), Circum-Mediterranean geology and biotic evolution during the Neogene Period: the perspective from Libya.
Garyounis Scientific Bull., Special Issue 5: 145-157. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–Summ.: [G. Carone], Bol. Gruppo Paleontologico Tropeano 10: 3-5, 5 figs., Dec. 2004.
 
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Gatt, Michael; Catanzariti, Rita; Sorbi, Silvia; Bonavia, Charles G.; Curmi, Richard; Varola, Angelo (detail)
   
2011
Systematics, biostratigraphy and evolutionary pattern of the Oligo-Miocene marine mammals from the Maltese Islands.
Geobios 44(6): 549-585. 28 figs. + 7 tables in online supplementary material. DOI: 10.1016/j.geobios.2011.02.009 Nov./Dec. 2011.
–Indet. sirs., 550-551, 555-556, 558, 560, 574-577, 579-581.
 ABSTRACT: An overview of the upper Oligocene-upper Miocene marine sediments outcropping in the Maltese Islands provides a detailed stratigraphical setting of several marine mammal assemblages. The studied fossil material collected within the entire sequence, is now kept in the National Museum of Natural History of Mdina (Malta). Nannoplankton analysis of some selected sections, where mammal remains have been discovered, is also undertaken. The fossil marine mammals, consisting mostly of isolated ear bones and teeth, are referred to cetaceans (both mysticetes and odontocetes), sirenians, and pinnipeds. The cetacean record evidences an evolutionary pattern that agrees with the Oligo-Miocene general trend, characterized by the progressive rarefaction and disappearance of archaic families (squalodontids, waipatiids, and, maybe, mammalodontids), and by the appearance and diversification of the extant families represented within younger strata (kogiids, pontoporiids and ziphiids). Pontoporiids, waipatiids, and tentatively mammalodontids are here reported for the first time in the Mediterranean, while the kogiid record represents the only sure Miocene evidence of this family in the Mediterranean. The geographical distribution of the mammalodontids and the waipatiids, based on the Maltese and extra-Mediterranean records, supports an open communication between the Proto-Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific during the late Oligocene. Sirenians are represented by several dugongid pachyosteosclerotic rib fragments, collected from upper Oligocene through upper Miocene sediments. Pinnipeds are represented by a femur fragment from the Serravallian, referred to an indeterminate monachine, a phocid subfamily already reported from the Mio-Pliocene of the Mediterranean.
 
 RÉSUMÉ: Une vue d'ensemble des sédiments marins de l'Oligocène supérieur-Miocène supérieur affleurant dans les îles maltaises, complétée par une analyse du nannoplancton de quelques coupes sélectionnées, fournit un cadre stratigraphique détaillé pour plusieurs assemblages de mammifères marins, connus sur la base de restes fossiles collectés tout au long de la séquence et conservés au Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Mdina (Malte). Les restes de mammifères marins, consistant principalement en os de l'oreille et dents isolés, sont raportés aux cétacés (mysticètes et odontocètes), siréniens et pinnipèdes. Le registre des cétacés montre une évolution des faunes en accord avec la tendance générale pour l'Oligo-Miocène, caractérisée par la raréfaction progressive et la disparition des familles archaïques (squalodontidés, waipatiidés et, peut-être, mammalodontidés) et par l'apparition et l'augmentation de la diversité des familles modernes, présentes dans les strates les plus récentes (kogiidés, pontoporiidés et ziphiidés). Les signalements de pontoporiidés, mammalodontidés et waipatiidés sont les premiers pour la Méditerranée, alors que l'identification d'un kogiidé est la seule preuve tangible de la présence de cette famille dans le Miocène de Méditerranée. Sur la base des identifications maltaises et extra-méditerranéennes, la distribution géographique des mammalodontidés et des waipatiidés soutient l'hypothèse d'une voie de communication entre la Proto-Méditerranée et la région indo-pacifique au cours de l'Oligocène supérieur. Le registre des siréniens consiste principalement en plusieurs fragments de côtes pachyostéosclérosées de dugongidé, collectées en continu dans les sédiments de l'Oligocène supérieur au Miocène supérieur. Les pinnipèdes sont représentés par un fragment de fémur, daté du Serravallien, rapporté à un monachiné indéterminé, une sous-famille de phocidés déjà signalée dans le Mio-Pliocène de Méditerranée.
 
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Landini, Walter (detail)
   
2005
I paleositi a vertebrati fossili della Provincia de Pisa.
Atti Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat., Mem., Ser. A, 110: 1-21. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Landini, Walter; Varola, Angelo (detail)
   
2003
New records of Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the late Miocene of Cisterna quarry (Apulia, southern Italy).
Bull. Soc. Pal. Ital. 42(1-2): 59-63. 1 pl. June 2003.
–Italian summ.
 
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Mazza, Paul; Merola, Donato; Sarti, Giovanni; Cascella, Antonio (detail)
   
2001
The Early Pliocene mammal assemblage of Val di Pugna (Tuscany, Italy) in the light of calcareous plankton biostratigraphical data and paleoecological observations.
Riv. Ital. Pal. Strat. 107(3): 425-438. Dec. 2001.
x
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Pesci, Fabio; Collareta, Alberto; Tinelli, Chiara (detail)
   
2019
A new Monodontidae (Cetacea, Delphinoidea) from the lower Pliocene of Italy supports a warm-water origin for narwhals and white whales.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 39(3): e1645148 (10 pp.). Cover illustration & 7 figs. + online supplemental data. "May 2019" (publ. online Aug. 22, 2019).
–Describes the cetacean Casatia thermophila, gen. et sp. nov., from lower Pliocene (lower Zanclean, 5.1–4.5 Ma) marginal-marine deposits of Arcille, Tuscany (central Italy). States that 5 skeletons of Metaxytherium subapenninum were found in the same deposit, including one from the same horizon as the cetacean holotype (2, 6-8).
 
 
Bianucci, Giovanni; Sorbi, Silvia; Suárez, Mario E.; Landini, Walter (detail)
   
2006
The southernmost sirenian record in the eastern Pacific Ocean, from the Late Miocene of Chile.
Comptes Rendus Palevol 5: 945-952. 3 figs.
–French summ.
x
 
Bibby, Geoffrey (detail)
   
1969
Looking for Dilmun.
New York, Alfred A. Knopf: [xvi] + 383 + viii. 41 figs. 32 pls. 9 maps.
–Mentions use of dugongs for food in Abu Dhabi, both today (224) and in the Umm an-Nar community of ca. 2800 B.C., where dugong bones made up about 80% of the total faunal remains (303-304, 306).
x
 
Bible, The (detail)
   
n.d.
The Holy Bible.
–The Hebrew word tachash is used in the Hebrew Scriptures in reference to a certain kind of animal hide, interpreted by various translators to be badger, seal, porpoise, or simply "violet" or "hyacinth"-colored hide; or, less commonly, narwhal, deer, goat, giraffe, "spotted" hide, etc. (see Aharoni, 1937 and Furman, 1940?, for discussion). According to Schoff (1920), the Talmud identifies it as a unique animal that existed only in the time of Moses. However, many commentators accept the likelihood that the dugong is meant (see, e.g., H. C. Hart, 1888; B. Orchard et al. (eds.), A Catholic commentary on Holy Scripture, New York, Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1953; G. S. Cansdale, 1970; The New English Bible; and E. Fox, Genesis and Exodus: a new English rendition, New York, Schocken Books, 1990).
  The word occurs in two different Biblical contexts, each of which indicates that tachash leather was considered to be durable and of high quality. First, it was used by the ancient Hebrews for the outermost covering of the Tabernacle (Exodus 25:5; 26:14; 35:7, 23; 36:19; 39:34; Numbers 4:25) as well as for individual coverings for the Ark, the Table of Showbread, the Altar, and the other furnishings and equipment of the Sanctuary (Numbers 4:6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14), in order to protect them from the weather and during transport. This use inspired the name Halicore tabernaculi Rüppell, 1834, for the Red Sea dugong.
 Second, in the allegory of the marriage between God and Jerusalem (Ezekiel 16:10), sandals of tachash leather are listed as part of the costly and luxurious trousseau of the bride. The use of dugong hide for shoes and sandals is attested in more recent times (Rüppell, 1834; Bertram & Bertram, 1973: 323; Preen, 1989a: 97, 114). The two Biblical contexts are evidently not unconnected: Schoff (1920: 51) notes that the bride's luxuries "were, item by item, substances that went into the construction, adornment, equipment and service of the tabernacle of Moses", so Ezekiel's allegory probably alludes consciously to the description of the Tabernacle.
  Use of dugong products for sacred purposes by the Hebrews in Sinai would not be inconsistent with earlier practices in the region, as attested by a ritual site associated with dugong bones in eastern Arabia dated to the fourth millennium B.C.E. (Méry et al., 2009).
  Tachash has also been adopted as the vernacular name of the dugong in modern Hebrew, apparently following the conclusions of early Israeli zoologists and without any particular etymological or rabbinical authority (Dr. J. Shoshani, pers. commun.). Shoshani is inclined to doubt that the dugong is meant, on the grounds that the dugong is not kosher (it seems unlikely that the hide of an "unclean" animal would have been used for the Tabernacle) and that tachash appears to carry a connotation of "spotted" or "multicolored". Cognate words meaning "dolphin" or "sea-mammal" and "to stretch (leather)" occur in Arabic and ancient Egyptian, respectively. See J. H. Bondi, Dem hebräisch-phönizischen Sprachzweige angehörige Lehnwörter in hieroglyphischen und hieratischen Texten, Leipzig: 1-130, 1886.
x
 
Bickmore, Albert S. (detail)
   
1869
Travels in the East Indian archipelago.
New York, D. Appleton & Co.: 1-553.
–P. 244: {"Large quantities of tripang [sea cucumbers] are gathered on the shallow coral banks of these low islands [the Arus], and in the sea the dugong, Halicore dugong, Cuv., is seen."} The same material appears on p. 182 of the German ed. (Jena, 1869).
Bierhuizen, Barbara: SEE De Iongh, Wenno et al., 1995; De Iongh et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Biet, Antoine (detail)
   
1664
Voyage de la France Equinoxiale en l'isle de Cayenne entrepris par les françois en l'année M.DC.LII.
Paris, François Clovzier: [xxii] + 432.
x
 
Billberg, Gust. Joh. (detail)
   
1827
Synopsis faunae Scandinaviae. Tom. I. Pars I. Mammalia....
Holmiae [= Stockholm], Off. Typogr. Ordinum Equestrium: viii + 55 + xv + [iii]. 3 tabs.
–Lists in classification under "Tribus Anthropocephala", "Natio Manatides" [both = Sirenia]: Manatus, Halicore, and Haligyna [n.gen.] borealis [= Hydrodamalis gigas], the latter based on Gmelin's Trichechus manatus borealis (tabs. A & B, 33).
x
 
Billberg, Gust. Joh. (detail)
   
1828
Synopsis faunae Scandinaviae. Tom. I. Pars I. Mammalia....
Holmiae [= Stockholm], Off. Typogr. Caroli Deleem: xii + 56 + x. 3 tabs.
–Material almost identical to that in 1827 ed., but gives the Greek etymology of the new name Haligyna and lists Rytina as a possible synonym of it (tabs. A & B, 33-34).
 
 
Bills, Meghan L.; Samuelson , Don A.; Larkin, Iskande L. V. (detail)
   
2013
Anal glands of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: a potential source of chemosensory signal expression.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(2): 280-292. 1 tab. 8 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00564.x Apr. 2013 (first published online June 5, 2012 ).
–ABSTRACT: In all vertebrate species examined, anal glands have been observed. These glands can be found anywhere along the anal canal and are generally a combination of apocrine and sebaceous adenomeres. They are used for signal expression in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. The goal of this study was to determine the morphology of the anal glands in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, and suggest functional hypotheses through comparison to other species. Samples were collected from manatees of varying ages, during all seasons, and from both sexes (six females and five males). The glands were examined grossly and microscopically. They are present in fetal, juvenile, and adult male and female manatees and are found in clusters on each side of the anal canal within the sphincter muscles. Unlike in other species, the glands are solely apocrine without a sebaceous component. Branched tubules empty into collecting ducts and enter the anal canal at the anorectal junction. The secretion is mucus, protein, and lipid-rich. The large size and productive nature of the glands suggest that, like anal glands in other species, these may be used for signal transmission. This is the first detailed description of anal glands in a fully aquatic mammal.
x
 
Bingham, Bruce (detail)
   
1981
The day of the manatee.
Cruising World, May 1981: 90-91. 3 figs.
–Pop. acc. of encounter with a friendly manatee in Florida, with a photo of the animal drinking from a fresh-water hose. Includes "A plea to save the manatee" by Katy Burke as a separate item on p. 91.
 
 
Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R.P.; Cardillo, Marcel; Jones, Kate E.; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Beck, Robin M.D.; Grenyer, Richard; Price, Samantha A.; Vos, Rutger A.; Gittleman, John L.; Purvis, Andy (detail)
   
2007
The delayed rise of present-day mammals.
Nature 446: 507-512. 2 figs. 1 table + online supplementary data. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature05634 Mar. 29, 2007.
–ABSTRACT: Did the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, by wiping out non-avian dinosaurs and most of the existing fauna, trigger the evolutionary radiation of present-day mammals? Here we construct, date and analyse the first species-level phylogeny of nearly all extant Mammalia to bring a new perspective to this question. Our analyses of how extant lineages accumulated through time show that net per-lineage diversification rates barely change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Instead, rates spike significantly with the origins of the currently recognized placental superorders and orders ~89 million years ago before falling and remaining low until accelerating again throughout the Eocene and Oligocene. Our results show that the phylogenetic fuses leading to the explosion of extant placental orders are not only very much longer than suspected previously, but also challenge the hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event had a major, direct influence on the diversification of today's mammals.
  Times of origin of, initial diversification within, and phylogenetic fuse lengths for major mammalian lineages (in Ma ± 95% confidence interval): Statistics for the Sirenia: crown-group size = 4 species; time of origin: 74.1 ± 3.9 Ma; time of basal diversification = 52.2 ± 14.3 Ma; waiting time to first split: absolute = 21.9 Ma; % = 29.6
Biosca Munts, Josep: SEE Pilleri et al., 1989, 1990. (detail)
Birch, W. R.: SEE Heinsohn & Birch, 1972. (detail)
Birtles, Alastair: SEE Anderson & Birtles, 1978; Marsh et al., 1997. (detail)
x
 
Birulia, A. A. (detail)
   
1929
O tazovoi kosti (os pelvis) morskoi korovy (Rhytina stelleri Oser.). [Note on the os pelvis of Rhytina stelleri Oser.]
C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS (Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR), Sér. A, 1929(4): 87-90. 1 fig.
–Describes a "left" [actually right] innominate found with a skeleton, for the most part representing a single individual, collected on Bering Island in 1895-96 and mounted in the Khabarovsk Regional Museum. Another skeleton collected at the same time was sold to the Paris Museum of Natural History in 1903.
x
 
Bisbal E., Francisco J. (detail)
   
1998
Mamíferos de la Península de Paria, Estado Sucre, Venezuela y sus relaciones biogeográficas.
Interciencia 23(3): 176-181. 1 tab. 1 fig. May-June 1998.
–Lists T. manatus as occurring at Yaguaraparo on the Península de Paria (179).
x
 
Bischoff, Th. L. W. (detail)
   
1847
Einige Beiträge zur Anatomie des Duyong.
Arch. Anat. Phys. Wiss. Med. (Müller) 1847: 1-6. Pl. 1.
–Describes the teeth, vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, hyoid apparatus, and penis of a young dugong. The plate shows the tongue, hyoid, and larynx.
 
 
Bisselink, A.-M. (detail)
   
1990
Manatees at Burgers' Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
IZN (Internatl. Zoo News) 37(7)(224): 5-7.
x
 
Bittencourt, Agnello (detail)
   
1925
Chorographia do Estado do Amazonas.
Manaus, Typ. Palacio Real: 1-346. Illus.
–Briefly comments on the intensity of exploitation of manatees in Amazonas, Brazil, with 2 photos (134-136).
x
 
Bittencourt, Agnello (detail)
   
1934
A pesca do pirarucu e do peixe-boi.
A Voz do Mar 14(117): 24-25. Nov. 1934.
–Briefly remarks on the hunting of manatees (considered less commercially important than pirarucu) and on the manufacture and price of mixira (canned manatee meat).
x
 
Bittencourt, Agnello (detail)
   
1966
Plantas e animais bizarros do Amazonas.
Manaus, Edições Governo do Estado do Amazonas: 1-59.
–Pop. acc. of "Manatus americanus" (35-36).
 
 
Bizzarini, Fabrizio (detail)
   
1994
Osservazioni sull'Halitherium schinzi Kaup, 1838 (Sirenia, Mammalia) conservato presso il Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia.
Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 43: 163-171. 2 tabs. 2 figs. 1 pl.
–Engl. summ. Describes an Oligocene skull found in the quarry of Bonnevault, near Provins, Seine et Marne, France.
  This skull was also the subject of a short unpublished student thesis in Earth Sciences by Frédéric Coulon (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1995, 45 pp.).
x
 
Bizzarini, Fabrizio; Bizzotto, Bruno; Braga, Giampietro (detail)
   
1977
Resti di sirenio (Prototherium) nella marna di Possagno (Eocene superiore) - Trevigiano Occidentale.
Mem. Ist. Geol. Min. Univ. Padova 30: 1-15. 5 figs. 2 pls.
–Reports parts of left and right mandibles, ribs, and a vertebra, considered to be slightly more advanced than the holotype of Prototherium veronense and referred to "P. veronense ssp."
 
 
Bizzarini, Fabrizio; Reggiani, Paolo (detail)
   
2010
Halitherium schinzi nel nuovo allestimento del Museo di Storia Naturale di Venezia.
Boll. Mus. Stor. Nat. Venezia 61: 131-137. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Engl. summ.
Bizzotto, Bruno: SEE ALSO Bizzarini et al., 1977. (detail)
x
 
Bizzotto, Bruno (detail)
   
1983
Prototherium intermedium n. sp. (Sirenia) dell'Eocene Superiore di Possagno e proposta di revisione sistematica del taxon Eotheroides Palmer 1899.
Mem. Sci. Geol., Ist. Geol. Min. Univ. Padova 36: 95-116. 2 tabs. 5 figs. 2 pls.
–Describes P. intermedium and compares it with P. veronense, E. libycum, and other forms; considers Eotheroides a junior synonym of Prototherium.
 
 
Bizzotto, Bruno (detail)
   
2005
La struttura cranica di Prototherium intermedium (Mammalia: Sirenia) dell'Eocene superiore veneto. Nuovi contributi alla sua anatomia e sistematica.
Lavori Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 30: 107-125. 8 figs. 5 pls. Jan. 31, 2005.
–Describes three new, topotypic specimens of Prototherium intermedium, and includes in it two other nominal species of G. Pilleri as new subspecies: P. i. solei and P. i. montserratense (123).
Bjorndal, Karen A.: SEE ALSO Thayer et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Bjorndal, Karen A. (detail)
   
1979
Cellulose digestion and volatile fatty acid production in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Comp. Physiol. 63(1): 127-133. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
Black, D. J.: SEE Forrester et al., 1979; Medway, Black & Rathbun, 1982; Medway, Bruss et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
Black, Norman (detail)
   
1900
Adaptive modification as seen in the teeth of Mammalia.
Brit. Jour. Dental Sci. 43: 4-23.
 
 
Blackburn, R.,; Andres, L. (detail)
   
1968
The snail, the mermaid, and the flea beetle.
U.S. Dept. Agric. Yearbk. Agric. 1968: 229-234.
–Use of Florida manatees in weed control.
Blackman, D.: SEE Prince et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de (detail)
   
1816
Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal.
Bull. Sciences Soc. Philomatique Paris (3)3: 113-124 [a total of 12 pages, misnumbered "105-112", 121-124]. July 1816.
–Classifies "Lamantins" in the order Ongulogrades (ungulates, not including proboscideans) ("109" = 117).
 
 
Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de (detail)
   
1836
[Classification presented in 1834.] In: F.-E. Guérin, Dict. pittor. hist. nat. phenom. nature.
Paris, Bureau de Souscription: Vol. 4: 619.
 
 
Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de (detail)
   
1837
Note sur la tête de Dinotherium giganteum, actuellement à Paris.
C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 4(12): 421-427? 2 figs. Read Mar. 20, 1836.
–Abstrs.: L'Institut 5: 93-94?; Froriep's Notizen 2: 49-52. See also Duméril (1837).
 
 
Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de (detail)
   
1841
Rapport sur un mémoire de M. Jules de Christol, intitulé: Recherches sur divers ossements fossiles attribués par Cuvier à deux phoques, au lamantin et à deux espèces d'hippopotames et rapportés au Metaxytherium, nouveau genre de cétacés de la famille des dugongs.
C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 12: 235-242.
–Abstrs.: L'Institut 9: 37-38?; Edinb. New Philos. Jour. 30: 445-448? See also Guérin-Méneville (1841).
 
 
Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de (detail)
   
1844
Ostéographie ou description iconographique comparée du squelette et du système dentaire des mammifères récent et fossiles pour servir de base à la zoologie et à la geologie. [Livr. 15] Des lamantins (Buffon), (Manatus, Scopoli), ou gravigrades aquatiques.
Paris, Arthus Bertrand (4 vols. + 4 vol. atlas): Vol. 3, Livr. 15: 1-140. 11 pls. (in folio atlas).
–A major contribution to knowledge of the osteology of Recent and fossil sirs., and likewise valuable for its detailed analysis of previous work on sirs. and their relationships. Blainville concluded decisively and correctly that sirs. are not cetaceans, but rather "Gravigrades aquatiques", related to the elephants. He also, however, cluttered nomenclature with many new combinations created in the course of lumping all known sirs. into the single genus Manatus.
Blair, David: SEE ALSO Tikel et al., 1996. (detail)
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1977
Parasites of the dugong in Australian waters. [Abstr.]
Abstrs. World Assoc. Adv. Vet. Parasitol., 8th Internatl. Conf. (Sydney, Australia, July 11-15, 1977): [abstr. no. 64.]
–Notes the locations in the body where several named and unnamed flukes (Digenea) have been found.
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1979
A new family of monostome flukes (Platyhelminths, Digenea) from the dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller).
Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Compar. 54(5): 519-526. 4 figs.
–Describes the Labicolidae, n.fam., and Labicola elongata, n.gen.n.sp., from abscesses in upper lips of dugongs from north Queensland, Australia.
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1980
Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus Crusz, 1951 (Platyhelminthes; Digenea) from the dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller) (Mammalia; Sirenia).
Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Compar. 55(5): 511-525. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Redescription and review, based on specimens from the Red Sea, East Africa, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Okinawa, Papua New Guinea, and Australia. "Zygocotyle sp." of Dollfus (1950) is referred to I. hirudinaceus; Solenorchis is retained as a distinct genus.
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1981a
The monostome flukes (Digenea: Families Opisthotrematidae Poche and Rhabdiopoeidae Poche) parasitic in sirenians (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Austral. Jour. Zool. Suppl. Ser. No. 81: 1-54. 1 tab. 51 figs. Dec. 21, 1981.
–Revision of the genera and species Opisthotrema dujonis, O. australe, n.sp., Cochleotrema cochleotrema, C. indicum, n.comb., Pulmonicola pulmonalis, Lankatrema mannarense, L. minutum, n.sp., L. microcotyle, n.sp., L. macrocotyle, n.sp., Lankatrematoides gardneri, n.gen.n.sp., Folitrema jecoris, n.gen.n.sp. (Opisthotrematidae), Rhabdiopoeus taylori, Taprobanella bicaudata, Faredifex clavata, n.gen.n.sp., and Haerator caperatus, n.gen.n.sp. (Rhabdiopoeidae). All these are from the dugong except C. cochleotrema, which inhabits T. manatus. All the new species are from Queensland and in some cases also from Papua New Guinea and elsewhere; new records of some species are also reported from Palau, Okinawa, the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Red Sea.
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1981b
Flukes parasitic in the dugong and sea-turtles in northern Australia. [Abstr.]
New Zealand Jour. Zool. 9(1): 46.
–Brief notice of the discovery of 10 new species of flukes in the dugong.
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1981c
Helminth parasites of the dugong, their collection and preservation. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 275-285. 1 tab.
–Describes techniques for collecting and fixing flukes, and gives a checklist of helminths found in the dugong (281). In the 1984 reprint of this volume (see Marsh, 1981a), this paper was updated with newly published names of parasites.
x
 
Blair, David (detail)
   
1986
Remarkable parasites in a unique host.
Parasitology Today, Australian Supplement 2(7): S21-S22. 3 figs. July 1986.
–Gen. acc. of dugong endoparasites, with illustrations of Labicola elongata, Cochleotrema indicum, and a dugong harpooned by an Aboriginal hunter.
x
 
Blair, David; Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1992
Population structure of Lankatrematoides gardneri (Digenea: Opisthotrematidae) in the pancreas of the dugong (Dugong dugon) (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Jour. Parasitol. 78(6): 1077-1079. 2 tabs.
–Reports, based on samples from Papua New Guinea, that established adult worms apparently inhibit the maturation of newly invading individuals so that most worms in the infrapopulation remain immature.
 
 
Blair, David; McMahon, Adrian; McDonald, Brenda; Tikel, Daniela; Waycott, Michelle; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2014
Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the phylogeography of the dugong in Australian waters.
Marine Mammal Science 30(1): 104-121. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI:10.1111/mms.12022. January 2014.
–ABSTRACT: We investigated phylogeography, demography, and population connectivity of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in Australian waters using mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 177 Australian dugongs and 11 from elsewhere. The dugong is widespread in shallow Indo-West Pacific waters suitable for growth of its main food, seagrass. We hypothesized that the loss of habitat and creation of a land barrier (the Torres Strait landbridge) during low sea level stands associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles have left a persisting genetic signature in the dugong. The landbridge was most recently flooded about 7,000 yr ago. Individual dugongs are capable of traveling long distances, suggesting an alternative hypothesis that there might now be little genetic differentiation across the dugong's Australian range. We demonstrated that Australian dugongs fall into two distinct maternal lineages and exhibit a phylogeographic pattern reflecting Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations. Within each lineage, genetic structure exists, albeit at large spatial scales. We suggest that these lineages diverged following the last emergence of the Torres Strait landbridge (ca. 115 kya) and remained geographically separated until after 7 kya when passage through Torres Strait again became possible for marine animals. Evidence for population growth in the widespread lineage, especially after the last glacial maximum, was detected.
 
 
Blair, E. H.; Robertson, J. A. (detail)
   
1950
Diego de Bobadilla's relation. In: The Philippine Islands 1493-1898.
29: 302-303.
–Dugongs in the Philippines.
Blanchard, Wendy: SEE Gaus et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Blanchere, H. de la (detail)
   
1875
Le lamantin du Central-Park à New York.
La Nature (Paris) 1(28): 18-19. Dec. 15, 1875.
 
 
Blanckenhorn, Max (detail)
   
1903
Neue geologisch-stratigraphische Beobachtungen in Aegypten.
Sitzb. Math.-phys. Kl., Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 32: 353-433. 21 figs.
x
 
Blancou, Lucien (detail)
   
1960
Destruction and protection of the fauna of French Equatorial and of French West Africa. III. Carnivores and some others.
Afr. Wild Life 14: 241-245. 2 figs.
–Notes that T. senegalensis is endangered by continued hunting, especially "in the Gaboon and along the Niger River" (244).
 
 
Bland, G. C. (detail)
   
1970
Dugong in Johore Strait.
Malayan Nature Jour. 23(4): 176-177. June 1970.
–Probable sighting, not positive identification. See B.S. Morton (1974).
Blane, Caroline E.: SEE Gingerich et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Blanford, William Thomas (detail)
   
1876
Eastern Persia: an account of the journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission, 1870-71-72. Mammals: Vol. 2.
London, Macmillan & Co.: 18-97. 8 pls.
–States that Canara is the site of the northernmost dugong record in western India.
 
 
Blanford, William Thomas (detail)
   
1891
The fauna of British India.... Mammalia. Part 2.
London, Taylor & Francis: 1-594.
–Sirs., 592-594.
 
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
1995a
Humboldt, Columbus, Therese von Bayern - Seekühe im Tierpark Berlin.
Zoofreund 95: 16.
 
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
1995b
Die Seekuhanlage im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde.
Zool. Garten (N.F.) 65: 175-181.
x
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
1996
Berliner Seekuh-Chronik.
Manati (Nuremberg) 11(1): 22-23. 3 figs. June 1996.
–A summary history of efforts to keep manatees (T. m. manatus) in captivity at zoos and aquaria in Berlin and elsewhere in Germany, 1884-1995.
 
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
1997
[Florida and its manatees.]
Bongo 27: 45-48.
x
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
1998
Zu einer Seekuh-Totgeburt im Tierpark Berlin.
Zool. Garten 68(2): 134. April 1998.
–Describes the stillbirth of a 118 cm-long full-term female fetus to an Antillean manatee in the Berlin Zoo, July 22, 1997. This was the mother's fourth pregnancy.
 
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
2000
Masse und Gewichte einer Seekuh-Frühgeburt.
Milu (Berlin) 10: 208-210.
x
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
2001
Seekuh-Zwillinge im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde.
Milu (Berlin) 10(4): 427-429. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Reports the birth (on 23 Aug. 2001) of twin male calves (one born dead, the other euthanized a day later) to an Antillean manatee in the Berlin zoo. The mother was a twin herself; both she and her mother had had one other twin pregnancy. The calf born alive had a partly uninflated lung and an oblique posture in the water.
 
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard (detail)
   
2003
Seekuh-Darstellungen in Tiergärten.
Milu 11(1): 86-92.
x
 
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard; Reinhard, Rudolf (detail)
   
1996
Säugetierkundliche Notizen aus indonesischen Zoos.
Milu (Berlin) 8(6): 875-884. 9 figs.
–Comments briefly on a female dugong in the Surabaya Zoo (878-881, figs. 4-5).
 
 
Bledsoe, Erin L.; Harr, Kendal E.; Cichra, Mary F.; Philips, Edward J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Lowe, Mark T. (detail)
   
2006
A comparison of biofouling communities associated with free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 22(4): 997-1003. 1 tab. Oct. 2006.
 
 
Bleher, H. (detail)
   
1993
Die letzten Seekühe.
Aqua Geographia 4: 60-72.
x
 
Blessing, Manfred H. (detail)
   
1972
Studies on the concentration of myoglobin in the sea-cow and porpoise.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Comp. Physiol. 41(3): 475-480. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Mar. 1, 1972.
–Data on cardiac and skeletal muscle myoglobin of "Trichechus manatus inunguis" show that the manatee has relatively little myoglobin, but that there are concentrations of it in the diaphragm, jaw, and forelimb muscles.
x
 
Blessing, Manfred H.; Ligensa, Klaus; Winner, Reinhard (detail)
   
1972
Zur Morphologie der Milz einiger im Wasser lebender Säugetiere.
Zs. Wiss. Zool. (Leipzig) 184(1/2): 164-204. 6 tabs. 12 figs.
–Compares spleens of two T. inunguis with those of various cetaceans and pinnipeds, and describes their gross and microscopical anatomy (166-171, 173-178, 182-188, 190, 193, 195-203).
 
 
Blount, Steve (detail)
   
1980
Diving destination: Crystal River, Florida.
Sport Diver, Jan.-Feb. 1980: 142-149. 10 figs. + cover photo.
Blue, Joseph E.: SEE Gerstein et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1788
Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Ed. 3.
Göttingen, Johann Christian Dieterich: xvi + 715. 3 pls.
–Allen 404. Many later eds.; see Allen 484, 537, 596, 653. "Trichecus manatus", 143.
 
 
Blunt, Wilfrid (detail)
   
1976
The ark in the park: the zoo in the nineteenth century.
Hamish Hamilton, in association with The Tryon Gallery:
–Sirs., 233-237.
 
 
Blyth, Edward (detail)
   
1859
On the great rorqual of the Indian Ocean, with notices of other cetals, and of the Syrenia or marine pachyderms.
Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 28: 481-498.
–?Reprinted in Zoologist 18: 7117-7133, 1860.
 
 
Blyth, Edward (detail)
   
1863
Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum [of the] Asiatic Society.
Calcutta, Savielle & Cranenburgh: [i] + 187 + xiii.
–Lists Halicore dugong and H. australis, 143.
 
 
Board Of Agriculture Of British Guiana (detail)
   
1916
The manatees at the Botanic Gardens.
Jour. Board Agric. Brit. Guiana 10(1): [pp.?] Oct. 1916.
–Weights and measurements of manatees (9).
 
 
Boardman, Barbara (detail)
   
1992?
Gales Point manatee.
Belize Currents, 1992?: 4-6. 2 figs.
 
 
Boas, Johan Erik Vesti (detail)
   
1914
Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere. In: R. Hertwig & R. von Wettstein, "Die Kultur der Gegenwart." Abstammungslehre: Syst., Pal., Biogeogr.
Berlin & Leipzig, 3. Teil, 4. Abt., 4. Bd. (ix + 620): 530-605. 47 figs. 15 schemes.
–Sirs., 577, 586.
 
 
Boas, Johan Erik Vesti; Paulli, Simon (detail)
   
1925
The elephant's head. Studies in the comparative anatomy of the organs of the head of the Indian elephant and other mammals. II.
Jena, Gustav Fischer (2 vols., 1908-25): Vol. 2: 81-131. Pls. 18-48.
x
 
Boaz, Noel Thomas; Cramer, Douglas L. (detail)
   
1982
Fossils of the Libyan Sahara.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 91(8): 34-41. 10 figs. Aug. 1982.
–Pop. acc. of the Sahabi fossil site and its Pliocene fauna, including Metaxytherium [serresii] and its predation by great white sharks (37, 40-41).
x
 
Boaz, Noel Thomas; Gaziry, Abdel Wahid; El-Arnauti, Ali (detail)
   
1979
New fossil finds from the Libyan Upper Neogene site of Sahabi.
Nature (London) 280(5718): 137-140. 2 tabs. 3 figs. July 12, 1979.
–Lists Metaxytherium sp. from beds of Late Turolian to Ruscinian age (7-4 m.y.B.P.).
Bobadilla, Diego de: SEE Blair & Robertson, 1950. (detail)
 
 
Boddaert, Pieter (detail)
   
1785
Elenchus animalium. Volumen I. Sistens Quadrupedia hus usque nota, eorumque varietates.
Rotterdam, C. R. Hake: xxxviii + 174.
–Allen 377. Uses the following new names for the sirs.: Rosmarus Indicus (= Dugong dugon; 169), Manati Trichecus (= Trichechus manatus and T. senegalensis; 173), and Manati Balaenurus (= Hydrodamalis gigas; 173).
 
 
Boede, E. O.; Mujica-Jorquera, E. (detail)
   
2016
Rescue and handling of Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus in Venezuela 1992–2014.
International Zoo Yearbook 50: 193-202. 3 tables. 3 plates. DOI: 10.1111/izy.12109. Published online Feb 5, 2016.
–ABSTRACT - Given the importance of the rescue and rehabilitation of confiscated manatees from illegal traffic or accidental fishery entanglements, the handling and transport of two Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus in the 'Llanos' of Apure state in Venezuela is described. In 1992, two ? calves were confiscated in the region of Arichuna in the Apure River and transported to a lagoon at the Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Biruaca, for rehabilitation. Data about age, size, weight and haematological values were recorded. In 1994, one of the manatees was transferred to the Parque Zoologico y Botanico Bararida, Barquisimeto, in order to form a breeding pair and start a captive-breeding programme. Successful reproduction was achieved in 2007, 2011 and 2013. In 1995, the second ? Antillean manatee was released into a natural environment in Santa Luisa Cattle Ranch, Apure state. The confiscation, rescue, rehabilitation and transport (by land and air) of these two ? Antillean manatees were carried out satisfactorily.
x
 
Boekschoten, G. J.; Best, Maya Borel (detail)
   
1988
Fossil and Recent shallow water corals from the Atlantic islands off western Africa.
Zool. Meded. (Rijksmus. Nat. Hist. Leiden) 62(8): 99-112. 6 figs. Nov. 15, 1988.
–Suggests that a compressed subtropical oceanic gyre during the Pleistocene may have enabled manatees to reach Africa from America (110-111).
 
 
Boenninghaus, Georg (detail)
   
1902
Der Rachen von Phocaena communis Less. Eine biologische Studie.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Anat. Ontog. 17(1-2): 1-98. 20 figs. Pl. 1. Nov. 10, 1902.
 
 
Boenninghaus, Georg (detail)
   
1904
Das Ohr des Zahnwales, zugleich ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Schalleitung. Eine biologische Studie.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Anat. Ontog. 19(2): 189-360. 28 figs. Pls. 12-13.
 
 
Boessenecker, Robert W.; Perry, Frank A.; Schmitt, James G. (detail)
   
2014
Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima formation, Central California: Strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.
PLOS ONE 9(3): 1-49. 5 tabs. 34 figs. + 1 suppl. online table. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091419. Mar. 13, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Background - Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.
  Methodology/Principal Findings - Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.
  Conclusions/Significance - Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical processes. The strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation and preservational bias within the Purisima Formation has implications for paleoecologic and paleobiologic studies of marine vertebrates. Evidence of preservational bias among marine vertebrates suggests that careful consideration of taphonomic overprint must be undertaken before meaningful paleoecologic interpretations of shallow marine vertebrates is attempted.
 
 
Boever, William J. (detail)
   
1978
Mycobacterium chelonei infections in three Natterer's manatees. In: R. J. Montali (ed.), Mycobacterial infections of zoo animals.
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. Press (275 pp.): 251-252.
x
 
Boever, William J.; Shiller, Jo; Kane, Kent K. (detail)
   
1977
Chiorchis spp. trematodiasis in a Natterer's manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Jour. Zoo Anim. Med. 8(1): 5-6.
–A trematode infestation of the large intestine of a female manatee at the St. Louis Zoo (Missouri) did not appear pathogenic; suggests that Chiorchis may in fact be a harmless commensal of manatees.
x
 
Boever, William J.; Thoen, Charles O.; Wallach, Joel D. (detail)
   
1976
Mycobacterium chelonei infection in a Natterer manatee.
Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 169(9): 927-929. 2 figs. Nov. 1, 1976.
–Reports a fatal infection in a T. inunguis at the St. Louis Zoo, Missouri, manifested by skin pustules and lung abscesses.
x
 
Bohaska, David J. (detail)
   
1998
Fossil marine mammals of the lower Miocene Pollack Farm site, Delaware. In: R. N. Benson (ed.), Geology and paleontology of the lower Miocene Pollack Farm site, Delaware.
Delaware Geol. Surv. Special Publ. 21: 179-191. 2 pls.
–Reports 3 rib fragments of indeterminate dugongids from an Early Miocene site in the Calvert Formation of Delaware; also mentions remains found in Maryland (183-185).
 
 
Boher, S.; Porras, J. (detail)
   
1991
Nuevos registros del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en la costa del Mar Caribe Venezolano.
Acta Científica Venezolana 1991: 287.
Böhme, Madelaine: SEE Darga et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Böhme, Madelaine (detail)
   
2001
Die Landsäugerfauna des Unteroligozäns der Leipziger Bucht - Stratigraphie, Genese und Ökologie. Land mammals from the Lower Oligocene of the Leipziger Bucht - stratigraphy, genesis and ecology.
Neues Jahrb. Geol. Pal. Abh. 220(1): 63-82. 11 figs. April 2001.
–German summ. Describes the sedimentological context of Halitherium ribs found in a phosphoritic tempestite (76-79).
x
 
Boice, L. Peter (detail)
   
1996
Managing endangered species on military lands.
Endangered Species Update 13(7-8): 1-5?. 2 figs.?
–Discusses manatee protection efforts by the U.S. Navy at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Georgia, and Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, Puerto Rico (3-4).
 
 
Boitard, P. (detail)
   
1844
Dugong (Halicore, Illig.). MAM.
Dict. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. 5: 144.
 
 
Boitard, P. (detail)
   
1846
Lamantin ou Manate. Manatus, Cuv. MAM.
Dict. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. 7: 212-218.
 
 
Boitard, Pierre (detail)
   
1827
Manuel d'histoire naturelle, comprenant les trois règnes de la nature; ou, Généra complet des animaux, des végétaux et des minéraux.... Première Partie.
Paris, Roret (2 vols.).
–Allen 693. Sirs., 45-49.
 
D
Bol, J. (detail)
   
1989
Olifanten en andere slurfdragers [Elephants and other trunk-bearers].
Grondboor en Hamer 43(3): 68-75. Illus. June 1989.
–In Dutch. Mentions "Dysmostylus".
 
 
Bolau, Heinrich (detail)
   
1906
Wissenschaftliche Beobachtungen an Robben, Sirenen und Waltieren. Fang lebender Säugetiere. In: G. B. von Neumayer, Anleitung zu wissenschaftlichen Beobachtungen auf Reisen.... Vol. 2. Ed. 3.
Hannover, M. Jänecke: 513-520.
Bolen, Meghan E.: SEE Fagone et al., 2000. (detail)
x
 
Bolingbroke, Henry (detail)
   
1807
A voyage to the Demerary, containing a statistical account of the settlements there, and of those on the Essequebo, the Berbice, and other contiguous rivers of Guyana.
London, Richard Phillips: 1-400.
–German ed., 1812; American ed., 1813. Brief account of the appearance and characteristics of the manatee (234).
 
 
Bolk, Louis (detail)
   
1913
Die Ontogenie der Primatenzähne. Versuch einer Lösung der Gebissprobleme.
Jena: v + 122. 74 figs. 2 pls.
–Sirs., 89.
 
 
Bomare, J. C. Valmont de (detail)
   
1775
Vache marine. In: Dict. rais. universel d'histoire naturelle.
Paris, Lacombe: Vol. 9: 178.
–Allen 335. Also 1764, 1767 (=1768?), & 1791 eds. The eds. of 1764, 1768, 1775, and 1791 were suppressed under the plenary powers for nomenclatural purposes (ICZN Opinion 89, Direction 32).
  Dugong, vol. 6: 325 in 1767 (=1768?) ed.
 
 
Bonaparte, Charles Lucien (detail)
   
1831
Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati.
Giorn. Arcad. Sci., Lett. ed Arti 49: 1-77. Mar. 1831.
–Also published in book form, Rome, 1831? German transl.: Isis von Oken 25(3): cols. 283-320, 1832 (sirs., 293). ?Transl.: Férussac's Bull. 25: 103?
 
 
Bonaparte, Charles Lucien (detail)
   
1837
Synopsis vertebratorum systematis.
?London: 30 + 29 + 9.
–Allen 909. In the "Index Familiarum et Subfamiliarum", p. 7: "Ordo 4. Cete. (Natantia.) 9. Manatidae.... 18. Manatina."
x
 
Bonaparte, Charles Lucien (detail)
   
1839
Prodromus systematis mastozoologiae.
[Publ. by the author?]: 1-13.
–Allen 956. Under the order Cete, he includes the family Manatidae, comprising the single subfamily Manatina (4).
Bonaventura, Joseph: SEE Farmer et al. (detail)
x
 
Bondaroy, Auguste Denis Fougeroux de (detail)
   
1785
Mémoire sur l'usage qu'on pourroit faire des peaux de vaches marines.
Mém. Acad. Sci. Paris 1785: 30-32. Read June 18, 1785.
–Account of uses and endurance tests of hides of "sea cows", which term includes both the walrus and the Antillean manatee without discrimination.
Bonde, Robert K.: SEE ALSO Ackerman et al., 1995; Beck et al.; Buergelt et al.; Deutsch et al., 1998, 2003; Eros et al., 2000; Forrester et al., 1979; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Medway, Dodds et al., 1982; Mignucci-G. et al., 2000; Mou Sue et al., 1990; O'Shea, Beck et al., 1985; O'Shea et al., 1991; Rathbun et al., 1982, 1995; Reid et al., 1995; Watson & Bonde, 1986; Williams et al., 2003; Wright et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1982
Do manatees have a chance?
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 16(1): 3-5. 6 figs. Spring 1982.
–Pop. acc. of the Florida carcass salvage program, causes of accidental manatee mortality, and efforts to control it. See also P. Warhol (1982).
x
 
Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1993
Manatees in Florida: a personal perspective.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 27(1): 16-18. 4 figs. Spring/Summer 1993.
–Gen. acc. of manatee research and conservation efforts in Florida.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1990
How the Florida manatees fare today.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 24(1): 8-9. Cover photo + 4 figs. Spring 1990.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2004
Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?
EcoHealth 1: 255-262. 2 figs.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Flint, Mark (detail)
   
2017
Human interactions: manatees and dugongs. Chap. 17 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 299-314. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: There are three extant sirenian species of the Trichechidae family and one living Dugongidae family member. Given their close ties to coastal and often urbanized habitats, sirenians are exposed to many types of anthropogenic activities that result in challenges to their well-being, poor health, and even death. In the wild, they are exposed to direct and indirect local pressures as well as subject to large-scale stressors such as global climate change acting on regions or entire genetic stocks. In captivity, they are subject to husbandry and management practices based on our collective knowledge, or in some cases lack thereof, of their needs and welfare. It is therefore reasonable to consider that their current imperiled status is very closely linked to our actions. In this chapter, we identify and define human interactions that may impact dugongs and manatees, including hunting, fisheries, boat interactions, negative interactions with man-made structures, disease and contaminants, and global climate change. We examine techniques used to investigate these impacts and the influence of sirenian biology and of changing human behaviors on potential outcomes. We examine how this differs for dugongs and manatees in the wild and for those held in captivity. Finally, we provide possible mitigation strategies and ways to assess the efforts we are making to improve the welfare of individuals and to conserve these species. This chapter identifies how the welfare of these species is intrinsically linked to the human interactions these animals experience, and how the nature of these interactions has changed with societal shifts. We proffer suggested ways to minimize negative impacts. Current knowledge should be used to minimize negative human interactions and impacts, to promote positive impacts, and to protect these animals for the future.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Garrett, Andrew; Belanger, Michael; Askin, Nesime; Tan, Luke; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
   
2013
Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River - providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this unique aquatic mammal.
Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 5(2): 17-28. 2 tabs. 7 figs. http://www.oers.ca/journal/volume5/issue2/techniques-vol5-iss2.pdf Nominal date 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Federal and state researchers have been involved in manatee (Trichechus manatus) biomedical health assessment programs for a couple of decades. These benchmark studies have provided a foundation for the development of consistent capture, handling, and processing techniques and protocols. Biologists have implemented training and encouraged multi-agency participation whenever possible to ensure reliable data acquisition, recording, sample collection, publication integrity, and meeting rigorous archival standards. Under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wildlife research permit granted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project, federal biologists and collaborators are allowed to conduct research studies on wild and captive manatees detailing various aspects of their biology. Therefore, researchers with the project have been collaborating on numerous studies over the last several years. One extensive study, initiated in 2006 has focused on health and fitness of the winter manatee population located in Crystal River, Florida. During those health assessments, capture, handling, and work-up training has been afforded to many of the participants. That study has successfully captured and handled 123 manatees. The data gathered have provided baseline information on manatee health, reproductive status, and nutritional condition. This research initiative addresses concerns and priorities outlined in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan. The assessment teams strive to continue this collaborative effort to help advance our understanding of health-related issues confronting manatees throughout their range and interlacing these findings with surrogate species concepts.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Hunter, Margaret E. (detail)
   
2012
A review of the key genetic tools to assist imperiled species conservation: analyzing West Indian manatee populations.
Jour. Marine Animals & Their Ecology 5(1): 8-19. 2 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Managers faced with decisions on threatened and endangered wildlife populations often are lacking detailed information about the species of concern. Integration of genetic applications will provide management teams with a better ability to assess and monitor recovery efforts on imperiled species. The field of molecular biology continues to progress rapidly and many tools are currently available. Presently, little guidance is available to assist researchers and managers with the appropriate selection of genetic tools to study the status of wild manatee populations. We discuss several genetic tools currently employed in the application of conservation genetics, and address the utility of using these tools to determine population status to aid in conservation efforts. As an example, special emphasis is focused on the endangered West Indian manatee (Order Sirenia). All four extant species of sirenians are imperiled throughout their range, predominately due to anthropogenic sources; therefore, the need for genetic information on their population status is direly needed.
 
 
Bonde, Robert K.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2012
Sirenian pathology and mortality assessment. Chap. 17 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 148-156. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
x
 
Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1983
Manual of procedures for the salvage and necropsy of carcasses of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Gainesville (Florida), U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Denver Wildl. Res. Center (NTIS Document No. PB 83-255273): v + 175. 3 tabs. 23 figs. Sept. 1983.
–Spanish transl. by Angélica I. García-Rodríguez & Diana Antochiw-Alonzo, 2006; updated French version by Lucy Keith & Coralie Nourisson, 2010 (available from coralie.nourisson@gmail.com). PDFs of all 3 versions are available at http://sirenian.org/. Gives complete instructions for salvage and necropsy procedures, including sample forms for data recording, current list of anatomical materials requested by researchers, and glossary.
 
 
Bonsdorff, E. J. (detail)
   
1871
Kritik der allgemein angenommenen Deutung der Furcula bei den Vögeln.
Acta Soc. Sci. Fennicae 9: 297-326. 4 pls.
–Sirs., 318.
 
 
Bonvicino, C.; Viana, M. C.; Oliveira, E.; Emin, R.; Silva Junior, J.; Sousa, M.; Siciliano, S. (detail)
   
2020
Distribution of South American manatees, Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 and T. inunguis (Natterer, 1883) (Sirenia: Trichechidae).
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi - Ciências Naturais 15: 573-599. https://doi.org/10.46357/bcnaturais.v15i3.246
x
 
Boorer, Michael K. (detail)
   
1972
Some aspects of stereotyped patterns of movement exhibited by zoo animals.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 12: 164-168.
–Mentions a T. manatus at the London Zoo that "invariably swam round its pool in a clockwise direction", and speculates that, as a result, its muscles may have become unequally developed on the two sides of its body (165).
 
 
Borchardt, P. (detail)
   
1927
Die Messingstadt in 1001 Nacht - eine Erinnerung an Atlantis?
Petermanns Geogr. Mitt. 73(11/12): 328-331. Oct. 31, 1927.
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Gomes, Jeane Kury Nobre; Pinto de Lima, Régis (detail)
   
2007b
Ocorrência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. na água destinada a manutenção dos peixes-bois marinhos (Trichechus manatus) em cativeiro.
Biotemas 20(3): 67-74. Sept. 2007.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2011
Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 42(4): 593-596. 1 table. DOI:10.1638/2010-0216.1. Dec. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5%% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3%% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens.
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Lima, Danielle dos Santos; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Aguilar, Carla Verônica Carrasco; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Lima, Ana Maria Alves; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2007a
Ocurrencia de Cryptosporidium spp. en manatí amazônico (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883).
Biotemas 20(3): 63-66. Sept. 2007.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Camara; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Machado, Erilane de Castro Lima (detail)
   
2009
Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 18(1): 60-61. Jan.-Mar. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio--FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4',6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI) staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Araújo, P. G.; Anzolin, Daiane G.; Miranda, G. E. C. de (detail)
   
2008
Identificação de itens alimentares constituintes da dieta do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus) na região Nordeste do Brasil [Identification of food items consumed by the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) from northeastern Brazil].
Biotemas 21: 77-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p77
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Boaviagem Freire, Augusto C. da; Attademo, Fernanda L. N.; Lima Serrano, Ines de; Anzolin, Daiane G.; Carvalho, Paulo S. M. de; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt (detail)
   
2012
Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(3): 494-500. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1638/2011-0199R.1 Sept. 20, 2012.
 
 
Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Alvite, Carolina Mattosinho de Carvalho; Marcondes, Milton César Calzavara; Pinto de Lima, Régis (detail)
   
2007c
Embarcações motorizadas: uma ameaça aos peixes-boi marinhos (Trichechus manatus) no Brasil.
Biota Neotropica 7(3). Sept./Dec. 2007.
–Engl. summ. Available at: http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn03607032007
 
 
Borgia, C.; Varola, Angelo; Ruggiero, L. (detail)
   
1981
Rinvenimento di un sirenide nel Miocene della provincia di Lecce.
Thalassia Salentina (Taranto) No. 11: 1-9. 2 pls.
x
 
Borobia, Mônica; Lodi, Liliane Ferreira (detail)
   
1992
Recent observations and records of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in northeastern Brazil.
Biol. Conserv. 59(1): 37-43. 2 tabs. 1 fig. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(92)90711-u
–Reports sightings resulting from a survey by boat in the region of Barra de Mamanguape, Paraíba (1986); tabulates other recent records of T. manatus in northeastern Brazil; and discusses threats to manatees along the Brazilian coast and conservation measures needed.
 
 
Bosch, M. Van Den; Cadée, M. C.; Janssen, A. W. (detail)
   
1975
Lithostratigraphical and biostratigraphical subdivision of Tertiary deposits (Oligocene-Pliocene) in the Winterswijk-Almelo region (eastern part of the Netherlands).
Scripta Geol. 29: 1-167.
 
 
Boschele, Sergio; Gatto, Roberto; Bernardi, Massimo; Avanzini, Marco (detail)
   
2011
Fossili cenozoici della Valsugana. Catalogo della collezione Boschele, parte I.
Studi Trent. Sci. Nat. 88: 219-309. 11 figs. 28 pls.
–Engl. summ. Reports dugongid rib fragments from Late Eoc. and Early Olig. in East Trentino Province, Italy (250; pls. 15, 28).
Bossart, Gregory D.: SEE ALSO Converse et al., 1994; Duignan et al., 1995; Falcón et al., 2003; Miller et al., 2001; Odell et al., 1995; Upton et al., 1989; Walsh & Bossart, 1999; Walsh et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
1999
The Florida manatee: on the verge of extinction?
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 214(8): 1178-1183. 1 tab. Apr. 15, 1999.
–Detailed gen. acc. of the biology of manatees, threats to their survival in Florida, and medical and other efforts being made on their behalf.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2001
Manatees. In: L. A. Dierauf & F. M. D. Gulland (eds.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton, etc., CRC Press (lvii + 1063): 939-960. 10 figs.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2007
Emerging diseases in marine mammals: from dolphins to manatees.
Microbe 2(11): 544-549.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Dierauf, Leslie A. (detail)
   
1990
Marine mammal clinical laboratory medicine. In: L. A. Dierauf (ed.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease, rehabilitation.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (735 pp.): 1-52. 10 tabs. 31 figs.
–Discusses techniques of blood sampling (3), hematology (5, 7, 40-41, 43-44), and urine and fecal collection (43, 46) relevant to T. manatus.
x
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Baden, Daniel G.; Ewing, Ruth Y.; Roberts, Brenda; Wright, Scott D. (detail)
   
1998
Brevetoxicosis in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from the 1996 epizootic: gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features.
Toxicologic Pathology 26(2): 276-282. 2 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1998.
–Concludes that brevetoxicosis from exposure to red tide "was a component of and likely played a central role in the 1996 manatee epizootic." Such deaths can result from neurointoxication and/or hemopathy caused by chronic ingestion and/or inhalation of red tide toxins. Unlike the 1982 epizootic, ingestion of ascidians was not a prominent finding in the 1996 necropsies, wherein upper respiratory tract lesions were "the only severe and consistent inflammatory lesions seen".
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Baden, Daniel G.; Ewing, Ruth Y.; Wright, Scott D. (detail)
   
2002
Manatees and brevetoxicosis. Chap. 20 in: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and cell biology of marine mammals.
Malabar (Florida), Krieger Publ. Co. (xvii + 427): 205-212.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Ewing, Ruth Y.; Lowe, Mark; Sweat, Mark; Decker, Susan J.; Walsh, Catherine J.; Ghim, Shin-je; Jenson, Alfred Bennett (detail)
   
2002
Viral papillomatosis in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Exper. & Molec. Pathol. 72(1): 37-48. 7 figs. Feb. 2002.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Meisner, René A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Jenson, Alfred Bennett (detail)
   
2003
Pathological features of the Florida manatee cold-stress syndrome.
Aquatic Mammals 29(1): 9-17. 6 figs.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Meisner, René A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Lightsey, Jessica D.; Varela, René A.; Defran, R. H. (detail)
   
2004
Pathologic findings in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mammals 30(3): 434-440. 1 tab. 1 fig. 1 appendix.
 
 
Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S. (detail)
   
2012
Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 101: 139-144. 3 figs. doi: 10.3354/dao02526 Nov. 8, 2012.
–Available at: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v101/n2/p139-144/
 ABSTRACT: Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.
 
 
Bouchon, Claude; Lemoine, Soazig; Dromard, Charlotte; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande (detail)
   
2016
Level of contamination by metallic trace elements and organic molecules in the seagrass beds of Guadeloupe Island.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH 23 (1):61-72. 5 tables. 2 figures. DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-5682-1. January 2016.
–ABSTRACT: Seagrass bed ecosystems occupy the most important part of coastal shelf in the French West Indies. They also constitute nurseries for many invertebrates and fishes harvested by local fisheries. In Guadeloupe, coastal fish stocks are declining meanwhile several agroecosystems revealed to be heavily contaminated by pollutants (agricultural lands, rivers, mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs). Considering these facts, a study of the contamination of seagrass beds (8000 ha) of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (GCSM) bay was conducted on their sediments and marine phanerogams. The analyses concerned six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V, Zn), tributyltin, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 38 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dithiocarbamates (CS2 residues), and 225 pesticide molecules.
  Overall, the level of contamination of the seagrass beds was low for both sediments and phanerogams. Metallic trace elements were the main pollutants but with higher concentrations recorded in coastal sites, and their distribution can be explained by the proximity of river mouths and current patterns. The level of contamination was lower in plants than in sediments. However, the level of contamination between these two compartments was significantly correlated. The conclusion of this study is that, unlike other coastal ecosystems of Guadeloupe such as mangroves, the seagrass beds in the GCSM present a low degree of pollution. The observed level of contaminants does not seem to threaten the role of nursery played by the seagrass beds and does not likely present a risk for the reintroduction of manatees.
 
 
Bouchon, Claude; Lemoine, Soazig; Wetzel, Dana; Reynolds, John E., III; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande; Cordonnier, Sebastien; Louis, Max (detail)
   
2010
Level of contamination by metallic trace elements and organic molecules in the seagrass beds of Guadeloupe Island.
Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 63: 505a. Nov. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: In terms of area of extent, seagrass beds represent the main marine coastal ecosystem in the French West Indies. They also constitute nurseries for many invertebrates and fishes harvested by local fisheries. In Guadeloupe, coastal fish stocks are declining; concurrently, some agricultural areas, rivers, and mangroves areas have been shown to be heavily contaminated by pollutants. Moreover, the National Park of Guadeloupe plans to re-introduce West Indian manatees in the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin Bay (GCSM), from which they disappeared at the beginning of the last century. Considering these facts, a study of contamination of the seagrass beds (8,000 ha) of GCSM was conducted on both sediments and marine phanerogams (Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme). The analyses concerned 6 metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V, Zn), tributyltin, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 38 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dithiocarbamates (CS2 residues) and 225 pesticide molecules. In general, the level of contamination of the seagrass beds was low for both sediments and phanerogams. Metallic trace elements were the main pollutants, but their locations remained coastal and meir distribution can be explained by proximity to river mouths and current patterns. The level of contamination was lower in plants than in sediments; however, the level of contamination between these two compartments was significantly correlated. In conclusion, the level of contamination of the GCSM seagrass beds is low and does not appear to be a risk factor for fish and shellfish nurseries or grazing manatees.
Boulart, R.: SEE Pilliet & Boulart, 1895. (detail)
Bourassa, J. B.: SEE Rathbun, Reid & Bourassa, 1987. (detail)
x
 
Bourlière, F. (detail)
   
1951
Vie et moeurs des mammifères.
Paris, Payot: 1-249. 69 figs. 8 pls.
–New York ed., Knopf, 1954; London, Harrap, 1955. Notes longest recorded dive of a manatee as 16 minutes (21); mentions that manatees are not restricted in range by salinity (194).
 
 
Bourlière, F. (detail)
   
1955
Mammals of the world.
New York, Alfred A. Knopf.
–Sirs., 211.
 
 
Bourlière, F.; Morel, G.; Gala, G. (detail)
   
1976
Les grands mammiferes de la basse vallee du Senegal et leurs saisons de reproduction.
Mammalia 40(3): 401-412.
 
 
Bouveignes, Olivier de (detail)
   
1951
Ce que les anciens savaient du lamantin.
Zooleo (Leopoldville) (n.s.) No. 9: 25-32. 4 figs.
–Manatees in early legends.
 
 
Bouveignes, Olivier de (detail)
   
1952
Ce que les modernes savent du lamantin.
Zooleo (Leopoldville) (n.s.) No. 14: 237-244. 4 figs.
–Gen. acc. of T. senegalensis.
 
 
Bowdich, Thomas Edward (detail)
   
1821
An analysis of the natural classifications of Mammalia, for the use of students and travellers.
Paris, J. Smith: iv + 5-115. 15 pls.
–Allen 597. Sirs., 84-86, 97, 105, pls. 13-14.
 
 
Bowdler, Sandra (detail)
   
1990
Before Dirk Hartog: prehistoric archaeological research in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Austral. Archaeol. 30: 46-57. 2 figs.
–At Shark Bay, dugong remains are only found in middens postdating the arrival of European influence.
Bowen, B. W.: SEE Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Bowen, W. D. (detail)
   
1997
Role of marine mammals in aquatic ecosystems.
Mar. Ecol. Progress Series No. 158: 267-274. Nov. 17, 1997.
 
 
Bowen, W. Donald; Siniff, Donald B. (detail)
   
1999
Distribution, population biology, and feeding ecology of marine mammals. Chap. 9 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 423-484. 8 tabs. 20 figs.
Bowerman, Martin: SEE Slade et al., 1989. (detail)
Bowman, R. S.: SEE Mattila et al., 1994. (detail)
Bown, Thomas M.: SEE Fleagle et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Boyd, Ian L.; Lockyer, Christina; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1999
Reproduction in marine mammals. Chap. 6 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 218-286. 11 tabs. 21 figs.
Boyde, A.: SEE ALSO Lester & Boyde, 1967. (detail)
 
 
Boyde, A.; Lester, K. S. (detail)
   
1967
An electron microscope study of fractured dentinal surfaces.
Calcified Tissue Res. 1(2): 122-136.
x
 
Boyde, A.; Stewart, A. D. G. (detail)
   
1963
Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of developing mammalian dental enamel.
Nature (London) 198(4885): 1102-1103. 3 figs. June 15, 1963.
–Reports observations on tooth enamel of T. latirostris.
Brabb, E. E.: SEE Clark et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Bradford, Duane (detail)
   
1982
Are manatees worth saving?
Geojourney (Florida Dept. Natural Resources) 2(3): 9. 2 figs. Summer 1982.
–A statewide telephone survey of public opinion in Florida revealed solid support for manatee protection.
x
 
Bradley, Janice L.; Wright, Scott D.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
1993
The Florida manatee: cytochrome b DNA sequence.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 9(2): 197-202. 1 fig. Apr. 14, 1993.
–DNA from three individuals, representing both Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida, showed no within-sample variation. Two amino acid loci, otherwise invariant among more than 20 mammal species, are altered identically in the manatee and the African elephant.
 
 
Bradley, John J. (detail)
   
1988
The concurrence of knowledge and tradition in the hunting of dugongs and sea turtles in the Sir Edward Pellew Islands. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 99-115. 2 figs.
–Abbreviated version of Bradley (1991).
x
 
Bradley, John J. (detail)
   
1991
'Li-Maramaranja': Yanyuwa hunters of marine animals in the Sir Edward Pellew Group, Northern Territory.
Recs. So. Austral. Mus. 25(1): 91-110. 15 figs. May 1991.
–The text is largely identical to that of Bradley (1988), and includes lists of Yanyuwa terms for dugongs and sea turtles, notes on habitat use, harpooning equipment, hunting rules and techniques, butchering methods, mythology, ritual, songs, and the continuing significance of dugongs in Yanyuwa culture. This expanded version also includes additional descriptions and illustrations of dugong and sea turtle hunting and butchering, European accounts of hunting in the region, detailed descriptions of dugong hunting camps and butchering sites, and discussion of how the distribution of dugong remains left at these sites reflects kinship rules for meat distribution.
Bradley, R. E.: SEE Radhakrishnan & Bradley, 1970. (detail)
 
 
Bradley, R. M. (detail)
   
1971
Tongue topography. In: L. M. Beidler (ed.), Handbook of sensory physiology. IV. Chemical senses, Pt. 2, Taste.
Heidelberg, Berlin, & New York, Springer-Verlag: 1-30.
x
 
Bradley, Richard, Et Al. (detail)
   
1983
The Pre-Columbian exploitation of the manatee in Mesoamerica.
Univ. Oklahoma Dept. Anthrop., Papers in Anthrop. 24(1): i + 82. 8 figs. Spring 1983.
–Rev.: D. P. Domning, Sirenews No. 1: 14-17, 1984. M.A. thesis by Bradley, with Editor's Introduction by Stephen I. Thompson (3-8) and Comments by Frederick W. Lange, Franklin O. Loveland, Barbara L. Stark, B. L. Turner II, and Charles R. Wicke (61-82). Reviews data on manatee exploitation in the Americas, and speculates that the Olmecs were heavily dependent on manatees for food, raised them in artificial lagoons, portrayed them in their art, and may have used manatee calves in sacrifices.
Bradley, W. Guy: SEE Cashman et al., 1996; Ness et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Bradley, W. Guy; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2002
Isolation, cloning, sequencing, and expression of marine mammal interleukin 2. Chap. 28 in: C. J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and cell biology of marine mammals.
Malabar (Florida), Krieger Publ. Co. (xvii + 427): 300-309. 5 figs.
 
 
Brady, Beth; Moore, Jon; Love, Kim (detail)
   
2021
Behavior related vocalizations of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12904 Publ. online Dec. 31, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus) produce five broadly defined call types (squeaks, squeals, high squeaks, chirps, squeak-squeals) but their use in social and nonsocial settings is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate whether call categories and structure of manatee vocalizations varied with behavior. Multiple hydrophones were used to record vocalizations in four different environments and broad behavioral states. Vocalizations recorded from resting, cavorting, stressed, or feeding wild animals were subjected to mixed linear effects models to test whether vocalizations produced varied with behavior and calf presence. Measures of duration, entropy, and frequency modulation were extracted from vocalizations to investigate if structural parameters differ among behaviors. Although all five call categories were recorded, results suggest manatees vocalize using primarily three call types and vary the structure of the call based on behavior. High squeaks were correlated with calf presence. High entropy squeals were proportionally higher during cavorting suggesting they may be related to a heightened state of arousal. Squeaks were the dominant call type produced and were longer in duration and higher in frequency modulation when animals were stressed. This research provides a foundation for comparative studies on vocal behavior for the Florida manatee as well as studies on related species.
Braga, Giampietro: SEE Bizzarini et al., 1977. (detail)
 
 
Branca, Wilhelm von (detail)
   
1907
Die Eigenart der fossilen Säugetierfauna Patagoniens.
Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1907: 8-11.
–Sirs., 9.
 
 
Brandão, Ambrósio Fernandes (detail)
   
n.d.
Diálogos das grandezas do Brasil; interlocutores Brandonio e Alviano.
[Recife?]: various pagings.
–Repr. from Rev. Inst. Arch. Geogr. Pernambucano, 1883-87. Later eds., Rio de Janeiro, 1930 & 1943. Sirs., 72.
 
 
Brandt, Alexander (detail)
   
1867
Sur le rapport du poids du cerveau à celui du corps chez différents animaux.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 40(3-4): 525-543.
 
 
Brandt, Alexander (detail)
   
1871a
Über die Haut der nordischen Seekuh (Rhytina borealis Ill.).
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (7)17(7): 1-28. 1 pl. Oct. 1871 (read Apr. 20, 1871).
–See also J. Murie (1872b). Gives a German transl. (24-26) of Shilov's account of the use of sea cow hide for constructing boats (see P. P. Pekarskiy, 1869).
 
 
Brandt, Alexander (detail)
   
1871b
Ueber bereits untergegangene grosse Säugethiere, namentlich Mammuth und Steller'sche Seekuh, sowie auch über das Elenn und die Unhaltbarkeit des Darwinismus.
Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1871: 43-45.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1833
Über den Zahnbau der Stellerschen Seekuh (Rytina Stelleri) nebst Bemerkungen zur Charakteristik der in zwei Unterfamilien zu zerfällenden Familie der pflanzenfressenden Cetaceen.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (6), Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. 2: 103-118. Pl. 2. Nov. 1833 (read Jan. 25, 1832).
–Allen 786. Halicoreae and Rytineae proposed as new tribes.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1845a
Observationes ad structuram cranii Rhytinae stelleri spectantes.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (2)4(8-9): 135-138. May 6, 1845.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1845b
Observationes ad cetaceas herbivoras seu Sirenia et praecipue ad Rhytinae historiam generalem et affinitates spectantes.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (2)4: 167-170.
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1846a
Nachträgliche Bemerkungen über den mikroskopischen Bau der Kauplatte der Rhytina.
Bull. Phys.-math. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 5(6)(102): 92-94. Feb. 28, 1846 (read Dec. 12, 1845).
–Describes his study of the histology of the masticating pads of Rhytina, and other points relating to sea cows.
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1846b
Ueber den gleichzeitig mit der Ausrottung der Pflegemutter bewerkstelligten geschichtlich nachweisbaren Untergang einer kleinen parasitischen Krebsart (Cyamus? oder richtiger vielleicht Sirenocyamus? Rhytinae) und eines Eingeweidewurmes der Jetztwelt.
Bull. Phys.-math. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 5(12)(108): 189-192. Apr. 20, 1846 (read Mar. 20, 1846).
–Proposes the new specific and (tentatively) new generic name Sirenocyamus Rhytinae for the parasitic crustacean of Hydrodamalis described by Steller, and suggests that the internal parasite mentioned by Steller was a new species of ascarid nematode.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1846c
Symbolae sirenologicae, quibus praecipue Rhytinae historia naturalis illustratur.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (6), Sci. Nat. 5, Zool. Physiol. (= Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. (6)7(2), Sci. Nat. 5): 1-160. 5 pls.
–Engl. transl.: Brandt (1974). The first installment (continued in Brandt, 1868a) of Brandt's monumental summary of sirenological knowledge up to his time, emphasizing his own studies of Rhytina (= Hydrodamalis).
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1847
Bericht über neuerdings von dem Präparanten des Zoologischen Museums Ilia Wosnesenski von der Behrings-Insel eingesandte Skeletreste der nordischen Seekuh. (Rhytina borealis seu Stelleri.)
Bull. Phys.-math. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 6(2-3)(122-123): 46-48. Feb. 24, 1847 (read Sept. 11, 1846).
–Compares new material of Rhytina (skull and mandible, atlas, three rib fragments, two ?sternal fragments, one other bone) with the Recent manatee and dugong.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1861
Rapport sur un memoire qui, en traitant l'osteologie comparée de la Rhytine, constitute la second partie de mes Symbolae Sirenologicae.
Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 4: 75-77.
–?Repr.: Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)4: 304-305, 1862?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1862a
Bemerkungen über die Zahl der Halswirbel der Sirenien.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)5: 7-10. Feb. 5, 1862 (read Dec. 20, 1861).
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 4: 125-128, Dec. 20, 1861/Jan. 1, 1862?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1862b
Einige Worte über die verschiedenen Entwickelungsstufen der Nasenbeine der Seekühe (Sirenia).
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)5: 10-12. Feb. 5, 1862 (read Dec. 20, 1861).
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 4: 129-132?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1862c
Bemerkungen über die Verbreitung und Vertilgung der Rhytina.
Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 4: 259-268.
–?Repr.: Brandt (1863a)?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1862d
[Remarks on the skeleton of Rhytina.]
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 34(2): 612-613.
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1863a
Bemerkungen über die Verbreitung und Vertilgung der Rhytina.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)5: 558-564. Feb. 15, 1863 (read Dec. 19, 1862).
–Recapitulates von Baer's (1840) arguments for the extermination of Rhytina by man, refutes Owen's (1860) suggestion to the contrary, and makes further comments on its former distribution.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1863b
Einige nachträgliche Worte über die Nasenbeine der Sirenien.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)6: 111-115. Apr. 30, 1863 (read Dec. 19, 1862).
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 4: 269-274?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1863c
Quelques mots sur une ostéographie des sirènes accompagnées d'une ostéologie des pachydermes et des cétacés.
C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 57: 489-490.
–Abstrs.: Rev. Zool. 15: 345?; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)12: 406-407?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1864
Observationes de Elasmotherii reliquiis.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (7)8(4): 1-34. 5 pls.
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1866a
Noch einige Worte über die Vertilgung der Rhytina.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)9: 279-282. Jan. 20, 1866 (read Oct. 5, 1865).
–?Repr. from Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 5: 363-366, 1865? Criticizes Eichwald for failing to consult Brandt and von Baer for accurate data on Rhytina to include in his Lethaea (1853), and reiterates his insistence on 1768 as the date of the animal's extermination.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1866b
Nochmaliger Nachweis der Vertilgung der nordischen oder Steller'schen Seekuh (Rhytina borealis).
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 39(1): 572-597.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1866c
Mittheilungen über die Gestalt und Unterscheidungsmerkmale des Mammuth oder Mamont (Elephas primigenius). -- Einige Worte zur Ergänzung meiner Mittheilungen über die Naturgeschichte des Mammuth.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)10: 94-118, 362-364. 1 pl.
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 5: 561-605, 1 pl.? Sirs., 113.
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1867a
Ergänzende Mittheilungen zur Erläuterung der ehemaligen Verbreitung und Vertilgung der Steller'schen Seekuh.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)11: 445-451. May 31, 1867 (read Mar. 28, 1867).
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 6: 223-232, 1868? Discusses the occurrence of Rhytina on Copper Island, the methods employed in its capture, its final extermination, and its probable former distribution over the whole North Pacific except the extreme north.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1867b
Einige Schlussworte zum Nachweis der Vertilgung der Rhytina.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 40(1): 23-38.
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1867c
Einige Worte über die Gestalt des Hirns der Seekühe (Sirenia).
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)12: 269-270. Nov. 13, 1867 (read Oct. 17, 1867).
–Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 6: 364-366. Compares gross features of endocranial casts of Rhytina, Halicore, and Manatus. (Not illustrated.)
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1868a
Symbolae sirenologicae. Fasciculi II et III. Sireniorum, Pachydermatum, Zeuglodontum et Cetaceorum ordinis osteologia comparata, nec non Sireniorum generum monographie.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (7)12(1): 1-384. 9 pls.
–Also separately published: Leipzig, Voss, 1869. Brandt's culminating monograph on the Sirenia, a continuation of Brandt (1846c), this massive work summarized the knowledge of the Sirenia available up to its time, emphasizing osteological comparisons with other orders of mammals.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1868b
Wenige Worte in Bezug auf die Erwiederungen in Betreff der Vertilgung der nordischen Seekuh.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 40(2): 508-524. [1868(1867), Heft 4?]
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1868c
Bericht über den bereits gedruckten Zweiten und handschriftlich beendeten Dritten Fascikel der Symbolae sirenologicae.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)12: 471-474. Mar. 7, 1868 (read Dec. 12, 1867).
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 6: 588-592, 1867? Progress report on and summary of contents of the new installment of the Symbolae Sirenologicae (Brandt, 1868a).
x
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1868d
Einige Worte über eine neue unter meiner Leitung entworfene ideale Abbildung der Steller'schen Seekuh.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)12: 457-458. Jan. 13, 1868 (read Nov. 28, 1867).
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 6: 571-572? Mentions the previously published drawings of Hydrodamalis, and announces that a new reconstruction made under his direction will appear in his forthcoming monograph (Brandt, 1868a).
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1868e
Über die Gruppirung der Gattungen der Ordnung der Sirenien.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)13: 21-23.
–?Repr.: Mél. Biol. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg 8: 593-596?
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1873
Untersuchungen über die fossilen und subfossilen Cetaceen Europa's.... Mit Beiträgen von Van Beneden, Cornalia, Gastaldi, Quenstedt und Paulson nebst einem geologischen Anhange von Barbot de Marny, G. v. Helmersen, A. Goebel und Th. Fuchs.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (7)20(1): viii + 372. 34 pls. Read Feb. 8, 1872; publ. June 1873.
–Abstrs.: Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)17: 401-408, 1872?; Zs. Natw. 44: 39-52, 1874? Sirs., 366, etc.? This work also contains the first adequate description (166-188, pls. 14-18) of the fossil odontocete cetacean genus Pachyacanthus and its included species, whose names Brandt had previously employed as nomina nuda since 1871.
  The genus has been revised by E. Kazár (Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Serie A, 112: 537-567, June 2010), who recognizes only the species P. suessii as valid, and places it in the Platanistoidea and tentatively in the Platanistidae. It is known only from the Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) of the Central and Eastern Paratethys region.
 
 
Brandt, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1974
Contributions to sirenology, being principally an illustrated natural history of Rhytina. [Transl. by Alison Barlow.]
Belgrade, Nolit Publishing House, for the Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NTIS Document No. TT 72-56004): 1-122. 5 pls.
–Transl. of Brandt (1846c). Rev.: D. P. Domning, Jour. Mamm. 56(2): 556-558, May 30, 1975.
 
 
Brandt, O. (detail)
   
1963
Principles of underwater acoustics. In: R. Busnel (ed.), Acoustic behavior of animals.
Amsterdam, Elsevier Publ. Co. (933 pp.): 48-53.
 
 
Branson, B. A.; Branson, M. L. (detail)
   
2000
Mermaids, manatees, and dugongs.
Biology Digest 26(6): 10-17. Feb. 2000.
x
 
Brant, Joel G.; Jones, Clyde (detail)
   
2005
Annotated checklist of marine mammals of Texas.
Occas. Papers, Mus. Texas Tech Univ. No. 244: 1-4. Sept. 28, 2005.
–Brief mention of 3 early-20th-century published reports of ?TMM in Texas (3).
x
 
Brash, J. C. (detail)
   
1927
The growth of the alveolar bone and its relation to the movements of the teeth, including eruption.
Dent. Rec. 46(12): 641-664; 47(1): 1-26. 4 tabs. 22 figs. 4 pls. Dec. 1, 1926; Jan. 1, 1927.
–?Abstr.: Trans. Brit. Soc. Study Orthodont. 1926: 43? Demonstrates resorption and deposition of alveolar bone in Manatus americanus from the gross appearance of the septa (19-20).
x
 
Brash, J. C. (detail)
   
1953
Comparative anatomy of tooth-movement during growth of the jaws.
Dent. Rec. 73(5): 460-476. 16 figs. May 1953 (read Nov. 10, 1952).
–Compares the jaws of manatees and dugongs with those of warthogs and elephants, showing evidence of reworking of alveolar septa, which he believes is responsible for the forward movement of the teeth.
Brassói Fuchs, Herman: SEE Fuchs, Herman Brassói. (detail)
Brattseva, Greta Mikhaylovna: SEE Sinel'nikova et al., 1985. (detail)
Brauer, K.: SEE Schober & Brauer, 1974. (detail)
 
 
Braun, M. (detail)
   
1906
Die Reste hinterer Extremitäten bei den Walen.
Schrift. Phys.-ökonom. Ges. Königsberg 46: 131.
Braunitzer, Gerhard: SEE Czelusniak et al., 1990; Jacquet et al., 1989; Kleinschmidt et al., 1986, 1988. (detail)
 
 
Bravo-Hollis, M.; Caballero Deloya, J. (detail)
   
1973
Catalogo de la coleccion helmintologica del Instituto de Biologia.
Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México, Publ. Especial 2: 1-138.
–Records Chiorchis fabaceus from T. manatus in Tampico, Mexico.
 
 
Breaux, Breanna; Deiss, Thaddeus C.; Chen, Patricia L.; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F. (detail)
   
2017
The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain reveals the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity.
Developmental & Comparative Immunology 72: 57-68. 7 figs. + supplementary material. doi:/10.1016/j.dci.2017.01.022. Publ. online July 25, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity.
 
 
Breaux, Breanna; Heard-Ganir, Ashley; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F. (detail)
   
2015
Understanding manatee immunogenetics and the implications for conservation (VET1P.1121).
Journal of Immunology 194. Suppl. 1.
–-ABSTRACT: The completion of the genome draft of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in 2012 made immunogenetic exploration of the Sirenia order more feasible. The endangered manatees are sentinel species for coastal ecosystems and their evolutionary origins are complex. It is believed that they evolved from a wading terrestrial mammal that became fully aquatic, which suggests distinctive adaptations for transitioning to a new environment. Discovering the genetic details of their immune system will help understand manatee evolution and allow species-specific diagnostic tools to be developed. Due to bottleneck signatures at other loci, the genetic diversity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is expected to be low. This could pose problems for conservation efforts because low diversity can increase the chance of extirpation. The primary focus of this project is to determine the immune robustness of manatees by looking at their antibody repertoire and MHC polymorphism. Two species will be compared: the West Indian manatee (T. manatus) and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis). Using next generation sequencing, we will robustly sample the IgH and IgL rearrangements contributing to the antibody repertoire, and identify dominant MHC alleles and estimate their frequencies. The allelic distribution between the species could reveal clues to their evolutionary relationship and aid conservation efforts to help this species become more stable in their environment.
 
 
Breaux, Breanna; Hunter, Margaret E.; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F. (detail)
   
2018
The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) T cell receptor loci exhibit V subgroup synteny and chain-specific evolution.
Jour. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 85: 71-85.
Breck, W. G.: SEE Denton & Breck, 1981. (detail)
Breen, Barbara: SEE Marsh et al., 1997, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Brehm, Alfred Edmund (detail)
   
1877
Brehms Thierleben.
Leipzig. Ed. 2.
–Rev.: Amer. Naturalist 12(10): 682-685, Oct. 1878. Ed. 1, Hildburghausen, 1865. Numerous later eds. in German and Engl. (e.g., Brehm's Life of Animals, 1895; see also M. Hilzheimer, 1915; Matthies, 1994). Sirs., Vol. 3: 657-670.
 
 
Brentjes, Burchard (detail)
   
1967
Maritime Säugetiere in den Kulturen des Alten Orient.
Zs. Säugetierk. 32(2): 114-125. 19 figs. Apr. 1967.
 
 
Breton, Raymond (detail)
   
1665
Dictionaire Caraibe-françois.
Auxerre.
–Sirs., 349-350.
Brew, Keith: SEE Pervaiz & Brew, 1986a, 1986b. (detail)
Brierly, Oswald W.: SEE Moore, D.R., 1979. (detail)
 
 
Briggs, E. A. (detail)
   
1921
A naturalist on the Great Barrier Reef.
Austral. Mus. Mag. 1(3): 79-84. 7 figs.
–Dugongs and their oil (81-82).
 
 
Brigham, William Tufts (detail)
   
1887
Guatemala: the land of the quetzal.
London, T. Fisher Unwin; New York, C. Scribner's Sons: xv + 453. Illus.
–Notes that T. manatus was formerly hunted for hides and meat in Golfo Dulce (370).
 
 
Brimley, C. S. (detail)
   
1908
A descriptive catalogue of the mammals of North Carolina, exclusive of the Cetacea.
Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 21: 1-32.
 
 
Brimley, C. S. (detail)
   
1946
The mammals of North Carolina.
Carolina Tips 9(1)(17): 2; 9(2)(18): 6. Jan. 1946.
–Records of T. manatus in Wrightsville in 1919 and Currituck Sound in 1934.
x
 
Brimley, H. H. (detail)
   
1931
The manatee in North Carolina.
Jour. Mamm. 12(3): 320-321. Aug. 24, 1931.
–Account of a manatee that was captured near Wilmington in 1919, and died in captivity during a cold spell.
x
 
Brinton, Daniel G. (detail)
   
1869
A guide-book of Florida and the South, for tourists, invalids and emigrants, with a map of the St. John River.
Philadelphia, George Maclean; Jacksonville, Columbus Drew: 1-136.
–Facsimile reproduction, 1978. Notes the former abundance and the present supposed near-extinction of manatees in Florida, and states that "Two were caught on the Indian river in the commencement of 1869, and exhibited in Jacksonville and Savannah" (50-51).
 
 
Briscoe, Dana K.; Hiatt, Seth; Lewison, Rebecca; Hines, Ellen (detail)
   
2014
Modeling habitat and bycatch risk for dugongs in Sabah, Malaysia.
Endangered Species Research 24: 237–247. 2 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.3354/esr00600. Publ. online June 3, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Bycatch of marine megafauna in fishing gear is a problem with global implications. Bycatch rates can be difficult to quantify, especially in countries where there are limited data on the abundance and distribution of coastal marine mammals, the distribution and intensity of fishing effort, and coincident interactions, and limited bycatch mitigation strategies. The dugong Dugong dugon is an IUCN-listed Vulnerable species found from the eastern coast of Africa to the western Pacific. As foragers of seagrass, they are highly susceptible to bycatch in small-scale fisheries. To address the knowledge gaps surrounding marine mammal bycatch, we used existing survey and fishing effort data to spatially characterize the risk of bycatch for this species. Using Sabah, Malaysia, as a case study, we employed presence-only modeling techniques to identify habitat associations of dugongs using a maximum entropy distribution model (MaxEnt) based on published sightings data and several geophysical parameters: coastal distance, depth, insolation, and topographic openness. Model outputs showed distance from the coast as the highest-contributing variable to the probability of dugong presence. Results were combined with previously published fishing effort maps of this area to develop a predictive bycatch risk surface. Our analyses identified several areas of high risk where dugong surveys were conducted, but also identified high-risk areas in previously unsurveyed locations. Such methods can be used to direct field activities and data collection efforts and provide a robust template for how existing sightings and fishing effort data can be used to facilitate conservation action in data-limited regions.
 
 
Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (detail)
   
1756
Regnum animale in classes IX distributum, sive synopsis methodica sistens generalem animalium distributionem in classes IX, & duarum primarum classium, quadrupedum scilicet & cetaceorum, particularem divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera & species, cum brevi cujusque speciei, descriptione citationibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. [or] Le regne animal divisé in IX classes, ou méthode contenant la division generale des animaux en IX classes, & la division particuliere des deux premieres classes, sçavoir de celle des quadrupedes & de celle des cetacées, en ordres, sectiones, genres & espéces. Aux quelles on a joint une courte description de chaque espéce, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms qu'ils leurs ont donnés, ceux qui leurs ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires.
Paris, Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche: vii + 382.
–Allen 272. Text in Latin and French. Sirs., 49-51. In the second, Latin ed., having the same Latin title as above (Lugduni Batavorum [= Leiden], Theodor Haak: [6] + 296, 1762; "Editio altera auctior"), the sir. material is on pp. 164-166. Here, all known sirs., explicitly including the dugong and Steller's sea cow as well as Amazonian and other manatees, are lumped in the genus Phoca and species manatus. Brisson, however, does not consistently use binominal nomenclature; hence this work (specifically, the 1762 ed.) is considered unavailable for most nomenclatural purposes (see, e.g., A. Gentry, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51(2): 135-146, June 1994; ICZN Opinion 1894).
British Guiana: SEE Board of Agriculture of British Guiana; Anon., 1973a, 1974c. (detail)
 
 
Brito, Cristina (detail)
   
2018
Connected margins and disconnected knowledge: Exotic marine mammals in the making of early modern European natural history. In: Amélia Polónia, Fabiano Bracht, Gisele C. Conceição, and Monique Palma (Eds.), Cross-cultural Exchange and the Circulation of Knowledge in the First Global Age.
Porto, CITCEM/Edições Afrotamento v. 1: 106-132. 5 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Mermaids, manatees, and hybrid representations of both marine beings, offer a case for debating the construction of an early modern history of exotic natural history, knowledge evolution and key actors involved. Based on written and visual sources, production, circulation and interconnections of well-established knowledge on mermaids as real elements of the old and new natural marine world, in comparison to the slow development of natural knowledge related to manatees in Europe, will be discussed. Also, a discussion on the relevance and persistence of monsters from the sea, during early modern Europe and Atlantic will be conducted. This will allow to establish a chronologic representation and understanding of this natural knowledge created by authors ranging from European writers, naturalists and cartographers to Atlantic travellers, settlers and missionaries. The novelty and abundance these latter witnessed was shared through maps, logbooks, letters, manuscripts and printed publications, mostly in vernacular languages, but did not make its way into central routes of European natural knowledge production and exchange in the 16th and 17th centuries and beyond.
 RESUMO: Sereias e manatins, assim como as representações híbridas destes seres marinhos, representam um bom caso de estudo para debater a construção de uma história natural do exótico no período moderno, assim como a evolução do conhecimento produzido e atores envolvidos. Tendo por base fontes escritas e visuais, é aqui discutida a produção e circulação de conhecimento natural sobre as sereias antigas e modernas, em comparação com as novas informações obtidas no Atlântico sobre manatins, e a sua inclusão na história natural Europeia. Este tipo de informação torna ainda possível discutir a relevância e persistência de certos mitos e de vários tipos de monstros marinhos. Assim, é apresentada uma cronologia dos autores que contribuíram para a construção deste tipo de conhecimento do mundo natural, desde humanistas, cartógrafos e naturalistas Europeus passando por missionários, colonizadores e viajantes do Atlântico. Estes últimos observaram em primeira mão uma abundância e novidade que transmitiram na forma de mapas, registos, cartas, manuscritos e livros, quase sempre em línguas vernaculares, os quais não entraram nos circuitos centrais da Europa letrada sobre história natural nos séculos XVI, XVII e nos que se se seguiram.
 
 
Broch, H. (detail)
   
1924
Cirripedia. Parasitica Mauretanica. Arthropoda. 2. partie.
Bull. Comm. Etud. Hist. Sc. Afr. Occ. Franç. 1924: 1-21. 6 figs.
 
 
Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Slade, R. W.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2007
Characterisation of 26 new microsatellite loci in the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Molecular Ecology Notes 7(6): 1275-1277.
Bromme, Traugott: SEE Gistel & Bromme, 1850. (detail)
 
 
Brongniart, Alexandre; Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1834
Rapport fait à l'Académie des sciences sur un mémoire de M. Christol ayant pour objet de ramener au genre Dugong les débris fossiles que M. G. Cuvier avait rapprochés des hippopotames.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (2)1: 282-290.
–Allen 807. Abstr.: L'Institut 2(52): 150? See de Christol (1832b).
Bronn, Heinrich Georg: SEE ALSO Giebel, C.G.A., 1883; Leche, W., 1887. (detail)
 
 
Bronn, Heinrich Georg (detail)
   
1838
Lethaea geognostica, oder Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der für die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen.
Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart (2 vols. + atlas, 1834-38): Vol. 2: 545-1350; atlas, pls. 28-47.
–Unlike Vol. 1 (1837; 2nd, i.e., corrected ed., 1838), no second edition of Vol. 2 was ever published, according to W. Quenstedt, "Clavis bibliographica", Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, Pars 102: 18-21, 1963. However, Bronn and F. Roemer published in 1853-56 a 3rd ed. in 3 volumes with an atlas of 124 plates.
  Sirs., 840 in 1838 ed.; also see vol. 3 of 1856 ed.
 
 
Bronn, Heinrich Georg (detail)
   
1848
Handbuch der Geschichte der Natur. III. Band. I. Abt. III. Theil [first and second parts]: Organisches Leben (Fortsetzung). Index palaeontologicus oder Uebersicht der bis jetzt bekannten fossilen Organismen bearbeitet unter Mitwirkung der Herren Prof. H. R. Goeppert und Herm. v. Meyer. A. Nomenclator palaeontologicus in alphabetischer Ordnung....
Naturgesch. drei Reiche 15(1): vi + LXXXIV + 775; 15(2): 777-1382.
–Coins the new combinations Halianassa Cordieri and H. Cuvieri, 562; sirs. also on 700?
x
 
Bronn, Heinrich Georg (detail)
   
1862
Bemerkungen über das zu dem älteren Halitherium-Schädel gehörige Skelett.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1862: 416-418.
–Discusses features of the vertebrae, ribs, humeri, and tusks of a skeleton associated with the more mature of the two Halitherium schinzii skulls described by Krauss (1862b), and those of other specimens from the Mainz Basin.
x
 
Brookes, Joshua (detail)
   
1828a
A prodromus of a Synopsis Animalium, comprising a catalogue raisonnée, of the zootomical collection of Joshua Brookes, Esq. F.R.S. etc. Part the First; and of the anatomical preparations, Part the Second: which will be sold by auction.... [Second title page] Brookesian Museum. The museum of Joshua Brookes, Esq. ....
London, printed by Gold and Walton: 1-20.
–The catalogue lists on p. 12 several specimens of the Order Cetacea, {"as well as a superb Cranium of a Dugong, and the inferior Maxillary Bone of another of the same family; also the Tusks of two others."}
 
 
Brookes, Joshua (detail)
   
1828b
A catalogue of the anatomical and zoological museum of Joshua Brookes .... Part 1.
London, Richard Taylor: 1-70.
–The new name Halicore Syren is said to have been introduced for the dugong on p. 40 of either this work or the following one.
 
 
Brookes, Joshua (detail)
   
1830
Museum Brookesianum. A descriptive and historical catalogue of the remainder of the anatomical and zootomical museum of Joshua Brookes ... comprising nearly one half of the original collection ....
London, Richard Taylor: iv + 124.
Brooks, Daniel M.: SEE Baumgardner & Brooks, 2001. (detail)
 
 
Brooks, John D. (detail)
   
1983
Manatees: man's friend in need.
Scuba Times 4(2): 28-29. 3 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1983.
x
 
Brooks, Lynn S. (detail)
   
1994
Manatees on the air.
ASPCA Animal Watch 14(3): 33. 1 fig. Fall 1994.
–Brief pop. acc. of Florida manatees, announcing the establishment in Crystal River in May 1994 of Manatee Information Radio, broadcasting pre-recorded manatee information 24 hours a day on 1610 AM.
x
 
Broom, Robert (detail)
   
1897
A contribution to the comparative anatomy of the mammalian organ of Jacobson.
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 39: 231-255. 2 pls.
–Assigns the Sirenia (together with the ungulates, etc.) to the eutherian grouping "Caenorhinata" on the basis of their supposed possession of "a well-developed organ of Jacobson" (252); but no further details or references are given to support this (incorrect) statement.
x
 
Broom, Robert (detail)
   
1901
On the ossification of the vertebrae in the wombat and other marsupials.
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 25(4)(100): 735-739. Pl. 49. May 20, 1901.
–States that "In the manati and the beaver among Eutherians the transverse processes of the caudal vertebrae are developed autogenously", and considers them homologous to ribs (739).
x
 
Broom, Robert (detail)
   
1915
On the organ of Jacobson and its relations in the "Insectivora". - Part I. Tupaia and Gymnura.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1915(2): 157-162. 2 pls. June 9, 1915 (read Apr. 13, 1915).
–Adds the Hyracoidea to the "Coenorhinata", along with the Sirenia, ungulates, etc. (162).
x
 
Browder, Joan (detail)
   
1967
Can man save the manatee?
Florida Naturalist 40(1): 3-5, 34. 2 figs. Jan. 1967.
–Account of Dr. Peter Sguros' weed-control and other experiments with Florida manatees.
Brower, Helen: SEE Masterson & Brower, 1948. (detail)
x
 
Brown, Arthur Erwin (detail)
   
1878
The Sirenia.
Amer. Naturalist 12: 291-298. May 1878.
–More or less accurate gen. acc. of Recent sirs.; observations on an Orinoco River manatee kept at Philadelphia in 1876 (294-297), including an unsuccessful experimental attempt to lure it out of the water (295-296).
Brown, Barbara E.: SEE Brown Elias et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Brown, C. Barrington; Lidstone, William (detail)
   
1878
Fifteen thousand miles on the Amazon and its tributaries.
London, Edward Stanford: xv + 520. Illus. 1 map.
–Accounts of manatee meat eaten at Jamaraqua, Brazil (175-176) and of a manatee calf kept in captivity at Manaus (395-396, 1 fig.).
 
 
Brown, David O. (detail)
   
1991
Siren song.
Calypso Log, April 1991: 14-16. 3 figs.
–Pop. acc. of manatees and other sirs.
x
 
Brown, J. N. Bish (detail)
   
1991a
Dugongs - a summary of their status in the UAE.
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 1(1): 20-21. 1 pl. April 1991.
–Brief gen. acc. of dugongs, with most of the Arabian Gulf data based on Preen (1989), plus some original 1989 data on dugong mortality in Abu Dhabi.
x
 
Brown, J. N. Bish (detail)
   
1991b
[Recorder's report for January-June 1991 - mammals.]
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 1(2): 33. Oct. 1991.
–P. 33: {"There was Dugong (Dugong dugon) meat in the Abu Dhabi fish souq on 21st January and on 7th March. We have had no reports of the family of Dugongs that spent many years in the Futaisi channel, until one was killed."}
x
 
Brown, Jamie (detail)
   
1993
Did dugongs die of muddy water? Bodies on beaches linked to lazy farming.
BBC Wildlife 11(4): 11. 2 figs. Apr. 1993.
–Pop. acc. of dugong mortality in Queensland and New South Wales resulting from flood-caused turbidity and seagrass dieoff in Hervey Bay.
 
 
Brown, Joseph; Erdle, Sandra (detail)
   
2009
Amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals of the York River.
Journal of Coastal Research S1: 111-117. 9 figs. Mar. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: The York River and its watershed support many natural vegetative communities, from aquatic grass beds to tidal marshes to a variety of woodlands. These communities support a wide variety of resident and migratory amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. There are eight families and 26 species of amphibians and ten families and 36 species of reptiles represented within the York River watershed. All three species of sea turtles are protected under the Endangered Species Act and the northern diamond-backed terrapin is a species of concern. Approximately 230 bird species, resident and migratory, have been recorded within the Chesapeake Bay area. Over 50 families and 190 species of birds have been observed along the estuarine environments of the York River. Specific reserve components support Bald Eagle nests and Great Blue Heron rookeries. Nineteen families and 50 species of mammals are represented within the York River and its watershed. Of special note is the infrequent occurrence of large marine mammals, such as the bottlenose dolphin and manatee, within the lower York River region.
 
 
Brown, Larry N. (detail)
   
1991
Sea mammals: Atlantic, Gulf and Caribbean.
Miami, Windward Publishing, Inc.: 1-64. Illus.
–Gen. acc. of sirs. and Florida manatees, 58-63, 4 figs.
 
 
Brown, Larry N. (detail)
   
1997
A guide to the mammals of the southeastern United States.
Knoxville, Univ. of Tennessee Press.
–Manatee, 175-178.
 
 
Brown, R. E. (detail)
   
1985
The marine mammals: orders, Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Sirenia. In: R. E. Brown & D. W. Macdonald, Social odours in mammals. Vol. 2.
Oxford, Clarendon Press (xii + 507-882): 723-731.
 
 
Brown, Robin C. (detail)
   
1988
Florida's fossils. Guide to location, identification and enjoyment.
Sarasota, Pineapple Press: 1-208. Illus.
 
 
Brown, S. R. (detail)
   
1999
Ethical considerations in marine mammal management.
Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 214(8): 1175-1177. Apr. 15, 1999.
Brown, Sidney O.: SEE Enlow & Brown, 1958. (detail)
Brown, Wendy C.: SEE Shoda et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Brown, William Perry (detail)
   
1914
On the trail of the Florida manatee.
Forest & Stream 82(21): 689-690.
 
 
Brown, William Perry (detail)
   
1917
On trail of the Florida sea-cow.
Hunter-Trader-Trapper 34(4?): 57-62. Jan. 1917.
x
 
Browne, Micou M.; Lee, David S. (detail)
   
1977
The manatee in North Carolina. [Abstr.]
A.S.B. Bull. (Assoc. Southeast Biologists) 24(2): 40.
–An interview survey indicated that T. manatus still occurs in North Carolina from June to early October; habitat surveys suggested that a substantial manatee population could be supported there in the summer.
 
 
Browne, Patrick (detail)
   
1756
The civil and natural history of Jamaica.
London, printed for the author: viii + 503. 49 pls. 2 maps.
–Ed. 2, London, B. White & Son, 1789. Manatee, 459.
Brownell, Robert L., Jr.: SEE ALSO Dailey & Brownell, 1972; Rathbun et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Brownell, Robert L., Jr.; Ralls, Katherine S. (eds.) (detail)
   
1981
The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978.
Cosponsored by Florida Audubon Soc.; Florida Dept. of Natural Resources; Natl. Fish & Wildl. Laboratory, U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.; & Sea World of Florida. Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res.: iv + 154.
–Includes a Preface by the editors (1-2); a report on the workshop (Brownell et al., 1981); 17 papers, two of them previously published elsewhere (Irvine & Campbell, 1978; Odell & Reynolds, 1979), and all listed in this bibliography under their authors; Moderator's Remarks by John F. Eisenberg (66) and Peter C. H. Pritchard (102) which summarize some of these papers; and an Appendix (147-154) listing manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida from 1 April 1974 through 31 December 1977.
  The included papers are by Irvine & Campbell, Rose, Reynolds, Powell, Powell & Waldron, Odell et al., Irvine et al., Beck et al., Campbell & Irvine, Odell & Reynolds, Beusse et al. (2), Zeiller, Asper & Searles, Jenkins, Odell, and Cardeilhac et al.
x
 
Brownell, Robert L., Jr.; Anderson, Paul K.; Owen, Robert P.; Ralls, Katherine S. (detail)
   
1981
The status of dugongs at Palau, an isolated island group. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 19-42. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Reviews historical data on dugongs at Palau, reports the results of two aerial surveys, discusses the natural history, habitat use, and poaching of Palauan dugongs, and recommends research and conservation measures. The population is estimated at no more than 50, with 13-24% calves and an abundant seagrass supply, but the high rate of poaching seems likely to exterminate the population.
 
 
Brownell, Robert L., Jr.; Ralls, Katherine S.; Perrin, William F. (detail)
   
1995
Marine mammal biodiversity: three diverse orders encompass 119 species.
Oceanus 38(2): 30-33. 8 figs. Fall/Winter 1995.
–Pop. acc., briefly mentioning and illustrating sirs. An artist's conception of Hydrodamalis gigas is copied from the one in Haley (1980).
x
 
Brownell, Robert L., Jr.; Ralls, Katherine S.; Reeves, Randall R. (detail)
   
1981
Report of the West Indian manatee workshop. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. S. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 3-16.
–Synthesizes data presented at the workshop with previously available data on Florida manatee abundance, reproductive biology, feeding, social behavior, human-caused and cold-related mortality, captive husbandry and breeding, and rehabilitation and release of captives. Points out where research is needed in these areas, and makes recommendations for management.
x
 
Bruemmer, Fred (detail)
   
1986
How the mermaid perished.
Internatl. Wildlife Mag. 16(1): 24. 1 fig.
–Pop. acc. of the extermination of Steller's sea cow, with an artist's color impression of the animal.
x
 
Bruenderman, Sue; Terwilliger, Karen (detail)
   
1994
Swimming beyond boundaries: the uncertain future of Virginia's marine mammals and sea turtles.
Virginia Wildlife 55(1): 11-27. 40 figs. + cover photo. Jan. 1994.
–Brief pop. acc. of Trichechus manatus and its occurrences in Virginia (18-19).
 
 
Brüggemann, C. (detail)
   
1831
Die Naturgeschichte. Säugetiere.
Halberstadt.
–Illustrates an "Indian dugung", reproduced by Matthies (1994).
 
 
Brum, S.; Rosas-Ribeiro, P.; Amaral, R. S.; de Souza, D. A.; Castello, L.; da Silva, Vera M. F. (detail)
   
2021
Conservation of Amazonian aquatic mammals.
Aquatic Conserv.: Marine & Freshwater Ecosysts. 31: 1068-1086. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3590
 
 
Brumund, J. F. G. (detail)
   
1845
Aanteekeningen gehouden op eene reis in het Oostelijke gedeelte van den Indischen Archipel.
Tijdschrift voor Neêrland's Indië 7: 38-89.
x
 
Brünnich, Morten Thrane (detail)
   
1771
Zoologiae fundamenta praelectionibus academicis accommodata. Grunde i dyrelaeren.
Hafniae et Lipsiae [= Copenhagen & Leipzig], Frider. Christ. Pelt: iv + 253.
–Text in Latin and Danish. Manatus listed in classification (34-35) and key (38-39); grouped under "Bruta" together with Rosmarus. This was the first use of the generic name Manatus; no species is mentioned in connection with it.
  This work is commonly, but incorrectly, stated to have been first published in 1772 (ICZN Opinion 236).
 
 
Bruno, Giovanni Domenico (detail)
   
1839
Illustrazione di un nuovo cetaceo fossile.
Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino (2)1: 143-160. Pls. 1-2.
–Allen 957. Summ.: Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1840: 496-501 (in German). Describes Cheirotherium sub-apenninum, n.gen.n.sp.
 
 
Brusque, Francisco Carlos de Araujo (detail)
   
1862
Relatorio apresentado à Assemblea Legislativa da Provincia do Pará na primeira sessão da XIII Legislatura ... em 1o. de setembro de 1862.
Pará, Impr. Typogr. Frederico Carlos Rhossard: 1-91. 6 tabs. appended.
–Lists (68), in table of products imported into the city of Pará, Brazil in steamers of the "Companhia de Navegação e Commercio do Amasonas" in 1861, 23 potes of "mexira" (canned manatee meat) from the province of Amazonas and 3 potes from Obidos in the province of Pará, having a total value of 260 milreis.
Bruss, M. L.: SEE Medway, Bruss et al., 1982. (detail)
x
 
Bryant, J. Daniel (detail)
   
1991
New early Barstovian (middle Miocene) vertebrates from the upper Torreya Formation, eastern Florida panhandle.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 11(4): 472-489. 3 tabs. 12 figs. Dec. 31, 1991.
–Reports "Hesperosiren" crataegensis as part of the Willacoochee Creek fauna (475-476, 481, 484, 486).
Bryden, Michael M.: SEE ALSO Heinsohn et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
Bryden, Michael M. (detail)
   
1972
In: R. J. Harrison (ed.), Functional anatomy of marine mammals.
Vol. 1: 1-79.
 
 
Bryden, Michael M.; Marsh, Helene D.; MacDonald, B. W. (detail)
   
1978
The skin and hair of the dugong. [Abstr.]
Austral. Jour. Anat. 126: 637-638. Read May, 1977.
 
 
Bryden, Michael M.; Marsh, Helene D.; Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas (detail)
   
1998
Dugongs, whales, dolphins and seals: a guide to the sea mammals of Australasia.
St. Leonards (Australia), Allen & Unwin: 1-176. Illus.
 
 
Bšk., V. (detail)
   
1876
Morŏn indický (Halicore cetacea Illig.).
Vesmír (Prague) 5: 196-198. 2 figs.
Buchanan, Edna: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Buchholtz, Emily A.: SEE ALSO Giffin, Emily B. (detail)
 
 
Buchholtz, Emily A.; Seyfarth, Ernst-August (detail)
   
1999
The gospel of the fossil brain: Tilly Edinger and the science of paleoneurology.
Brain Research Bull. 48(4): 351-361. Mar. 1, 1999.
 
 
Buchholtz, Emily A.; Bailin, H. Grady; Laves, Susan A.; Yang, Jennifer T.; Chan, Mei-Yee; Drozd, Lucie E. (detail)
   
2012
Fixed cervical count and the origin of the mammalian diaphragm.
Evol. & Devel. 14(5): 399-411. 1 tab. 5 figs. + 1 tab. in online Supporting Information.
 
 
Buchholtz, Emily A.; Booth, Amy C.; Webbink, Katherine E. (detail)
   
2007
Vertebral anatomy in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: a developmental and evolutionary analysis. In: J.S. Reidenberg & J.T. Laitman (eds.), Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.
Anat. Rec. 290(6): 624-637. 3 tabs. 6 figs. June 2007 (mailed week of May 21, 2007).
 
 
Buchholtz, Emily A.; Wayrynen, Kaisa L; Lin, Iris W. (detail)
   
2014
Breaking constraint: axial patterning in Trichechus (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Evolution & Development 16(6): 382-93.DOI: 10.1111/ede.12103. Publ. online Oct. 22, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Meristic variation is often limited in serially homologous systems with high internal differentiation and high developmental modularity. The mammalian neck, an extreme example, has a fixed (at seven) count of diversely specialized segments. Imposition of the mammalian cervical constraint has been tentatively linked to the origin of the diaphragm, which is muscularized by cells that migrate from cervical somites during development. With six cervical vertebrae, the genus Trichechus (manatee) has apparently broken this constraint, although the mechanism of constraint escape is unknown. Hypotheses for the developmental origin of Trichechus cervical morphology include cervical rib 7 repatterning, a primaxial/abaxial patterning shift, and local homeosis at the cervical/thoracic boundary. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by documenting vertebral morphology, axial ossification patterns, regionalization of the postcranial skeleton, and the relationship of thoracic ribs to sternal subunits in a large data set of fetal and adult Trichechus and Dugong specimens. These observations forced rejection of all three hypotheses. We propose alternatively that a global slowing of the rate of somitogenesis reduced somite count and disrupted alignment of Hox-generated anatomical markers relative to somite (and vertebral) boundaries throughout the Trichechus column. This hypothesis is consistent with observations of the full range of traditional cervical morphologies in the six cervical vertebrae, conserved postcranial proportions, and column-wide reduction in count relative to its sister taxon, Dugong. It also suggests that the origin of the mammalian cervical constraint lies in patterning, not in count, and that Trichechus and the tree sloths have broken the constraint using different developmental mechanisms.
 
 
Buchholz, Gert (detail)
   
1964
Lebt die Stellersche Seekuh noch?
Das Tier (Frankfurt a. M.) 3(1): [pp.?] Jan. 1964.
–Notice: IUCN Bull. (n.s.) No. 11: 4-5, Apr.-June 1964.
 
 
Büchner, Eugen (detail)
   
1891
Die Abbildungen der nordischen Seekuh (Rhytina gigas, Zimm.). Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung neu aufgefundener handschriftlicher Materialien in Seiner Majestät Höchst Eigenen Bibliothek zu Zarskoje Sselo.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (7)38(7): 1-24. 1 pl. Nov. 1891 (read May 29, 1891).
–First publication of Sven Waxell's manuscript containing his eyewitness description of Steller's sea cow. The pictures of Hydrodamalis referred to and reproduced in this paper probably derive from originals by Plenisner, according to the detailed analysis by L. Stejneger (1936: 511-522). See also S. Waxell (1940, 1962).
Buckingham, Cheryl A.: SEE ALSO Turner & Buckingham, 1993. (detail)
 
 
Buckingham, Cheryl A. (detail)
   
1990
An evaluation of manatee distribution patterns in response to public use activities in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida.
Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit _(Gainesville, Fla.)_, Tech. Rept. No. 39: 1-49. 9 tabs. 15 figs. June 22, 1990.
 
 
Buckingham, Cheryl A.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Schaefer, Joseph M.; Kochman, Howard I. (detail)
   
1999
Manatee response to boating activity in a thermal refuge.
Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27(2): 514-522. 2 tabs. 10 figs. Summer 1999.
 
 
Buden, Donald W.; Haglelgam, John (detail)
   
2010
Review of crocodile (Reptilia: Crocodilia) and dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia) sightings in the Federated States of Micronesia.
Pacific Science 64(4): 577-583.
 
 
Budiarsa, A. A.; De Iongh, H. H.; Kustiawan, W.; van Bodegom, P. M. (detail)
   
2021
Dugong foraging behavior on tropical intertidal seagrass meadows: the influence of climatic drivers and anthropogenic disturbance.
Hydrobiologia https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-021-04583-0
Budiarso, Iwan T.: SEE ALSO Allen et al., 1976. (detail)
x
 
Budiarso, Iwan T.; Palmieri, James R.; Imes, George D., Jr.; Allen, John F.; Lepes, Marta M. (detail)
   
1979
Two species of trematodes causing nasal lesions in dugongs.
Jour. Parasitol. 65(4): 568. Aug. 1979.
–Reports Opisthotrema cochleotrema, O. dujonis, and "O. nasalis" from the nasal septa and eustachian tubes of 3 dugongs from South Sulawesi, and describes lesions caused by O. cochleotrema and "O. nasalis." The latter name is a nomen nudum equivalent to Cochleotrema indicum (see D. Blair, 1981a: 17).
 
 
Budker, Paul (detail)
   
1939
Sur la prétendue existence des phoques dans la region de l'ile Shadwan (Mer Rouge).
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (2)11(5): 450-453. June 1939.
 
 
Budker, Paul (detail)
   
1945
Pinnipèdes et siréniens d'Afrique.
Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire No. 27: 4-6. July 1945.
–Status of T. senegalensis in West Africa.
 
 
Bueno, Ramón (detail)
   
1933
Apuntes sobre la provincia misionera de Orinoco e indígenas de su territorio, con algunas otras particularidades.
Caracas, Tipogr. Americana: xviii + 164.
–Durand (1983: 73) reprints manatee passages from cap. iv of Bueno's Tratado histórico, a ms. from 1800, which may be a different work.
Buergelt, Claus D.: SEE ALSO O'Shea et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D. (detail)
   
1984
Observations on manatee mortality in northern Florida -- a necropsy survey.
Proc. Internatl. Assoc. Aquatic Animal Med. 1(1): 28-29. Nov. 1984.
–Short summary of necropsy findings, 1980-83; mentions two cases of natural pathology, one with an encephalitic Toxoplasma gondii infection, one with gram-negative bacterial encephalitis.
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1983
Toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis in a West Indian manatee.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 183(11): 1294-1296. 3 figs.
–Histologic description of a case from Florida, said to be the first documentation of disease-caused natural death in a manatee. Drinking from sewer effluents is suggested as the possible cause of the disease.
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1984
Pathologic findings in manatees in Florida.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 185(11): 1331-1334. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Describes and discusses necropsy findings in representative cases of boat kills (both impact and propeller wounds), ingestion of monofilament line, drowning, cold exposure, malnutrition, cachexia, and hematogenous bacterial meningoencephalitis and periventriculitis. Mentions the 1982 manatee dieoff caused by red tide near Ft. Myers, Florida.
x
 
Buergelt, Claus D.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1990
Myxomatous transformation of heart valves in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Med. 21(2): 220-227. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–Thickened atrioventricular valves, found in 8 of 26 manatee hearts, were studied histologically and appeared to be incidental rather than pathological.
Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, Comte de: SEE ALSO Daubenton, L. J. M. (detail)
 
 
Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, Comte de (detail)
   
1782
Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière.... Supplément, Tome Sixième.
Paris, Impr. Royale: viii + 405 + xxv. 49 pls.
–Allen 369. Supplement to Buffon & Daubenton (1765). Sirs., 381-405.
 
 
Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, Comte de (detail)
   
1792
Histoire naturelle des quadrupedes.... Tome septième.
Berne, La Nouvelle Société Typographique: 5-296.
–Allen 423. Sirs., 181-203, pl. 17.
 
 
Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, Comte De; Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1826
Oeuvres complètes de Buffon mises en ordre et précédées d'une notice historique par M. A. Richard ...; suivies de deux volumes sur les progrès des sciences physiques et naturelles depuis la mort de Buffon, par M. le Baron Cuvier....
Paris, Baudouin Frères & N. Delangle: 1-350.
–Allen 674. Sirs., 294-334.
 
 
Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, Comte De; Sonnini, Charles Nicolas Sigisbert (detail)
   
1800
Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, par Leclerc de Buffon; nouvelle edition, accompagnée de notes, et dans laquelle les Supplémens sont insérés dans le premier texte, à la place qui leur convient. L'on y a ajouté l'histoire naturelle des quadrupèdes et des oiseaux découverts depuis la mort de Buffon, celle des reptiles, des poissons, des insectes et des vers; enfin, l'histoire des plantes dont ce grand naturaliste n'a pas eu le tems de s'occuper. Ouvrage formant un cours complet d'histoire naturelle; redige par C. S. Sonnini.... Tome trente-quatrième.
Paris, F. Dufart, An VIII [= 1800]: 1-324.
–Allen 456. Sirs., 184-226, 231-246, 327-330. A later ed. (An X [= 1802]; Allen 463) is a reissue of this one, with only a change of date on the title-page and with the "Exposition méthodique" by Latreille (see Latreille, 1800) printed in smaller type and occupying 7 fewer pages (251-314), which gives to the volume a different collation (316 pp.; with pls. 232-235).
 
 
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte De; Daubenton, L. J. M. (detail)
   
1765
Histoire naturelle, générale et particuliére, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Tome treizième.
Paris, Impr. Royale: xx + 441. 59 pls.
–Allen 295. Later eds.: Buffon (1792); Buffon & Sonnini (1800); Buffon & Cuvier (1826); see also Buffon (1782). Sirs., 330, 374-394, 425-432, 437-441, pls. 56-59. The plate of a manatee fetus is reproduced by Durand (1983: 176-177).
Buffrénil, Vivian de: SEE Buffrénil ALSO Domning & Buffrénil, 1991; Ricqlès & Buffrénil, 1995. (detail)
x
 
Buffrénil, Vivian de (detail)
   
2018
Vertébrés. In: C. Montenat & D. Merle (coords.), Stratotype Danien.
Patrimoine géologique (Paris, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle) No. 9: 337-339.
–Describes a single rib fragment from the type section of the Danian Stage at Vigny, France, evidently sirenian based on its histology: the first sir. ever reported from rocks of Early Paleocene (or any Paleocene) age.
x
 
Buffrénil, Vivian De; Schoevaert, Damien (detail)
   
1989
Données quantitatives et observations histologiques sur la pachyostose du squelette du dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller) (Sirenia, Dugongidae).
Canad. Jour. Zool. 67: 2107-2119. 2 tabs. 18 figs.
–Engl. summ. Examination of bone samples from various parts of the dugong skeleton showed that the increased bone volume is due to hyperostosis of the periosteal cortices, whereas the increased bone density is due to greater compactness and mineralization of the tissue. These effects are localized in the head and thorax. The increased compactness is due mainly to decrease of osteoclastic bone resorption and to endosteal deposits which fill the medullary regions. Possible endocrine controls on these processes are discussed. Pachyostosis in the dugong is considered adaptive rather than pathological.
 
 
Buffrénil, Vivian de; Astibia, Humberto; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Berreteaga, Ana; Bardet, Nathalie (detail)
   
2008
Variation in bone histology of middle Eocene sirenians from western Europe.
Geodiversitas 30(2): 425-432. 2 figs.
–French summ.
 
 
Buffrénil, Vivian de; Canoville, Aurore; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2010
Evolution of sirenian pachyosteosclerosis, a model-case for the study of bone structure in aquatic tetrapods.
Jour. Mammalian Evolution 17: 101-120. 3 tabs. 9 figs. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-010-9130-1 Published online Feb. 26, 2010.
x
 
Buffrénil, Vivian De; Ricqlès, Armand de; Ray, Clayton Edward; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1990
Bone histology of the ribs of the archaeocetes (Mammalia: Cetacea).
Jour. Vert. Pal. 10(4): 455-466. 4 figs. Dec. 20, 1990.
–Compares the histology and functional significance of pachyostosis in sirs. with that in archaeocetes, where nearly identical morphological conditions occur (455, 463-465).
 
 
Bullen, Cameron D.; Campos, Alberto A.; Gregr, Edward J.; McKechnie, Iain; Chan, Kai M. A. (detail)
   
2021
The ghost of a giant – Six hypotheses for how an extinct megaherbivore structured kelp forests across the North Pacific Rim.
Global Ecology and Biogeography 30(10): 2101-2118. 1 tab. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13370 Aug. 8, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: The global decline of megafauna is believed to have had significant and widespread ecological impacts. One such extinction of likely important consequence is the 18th century extinction of the Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas); however, little has been written about how the loss of this megaherbivore may have impacted coastal ecosystem dynamics. Drawing on historical evidence, sea cow biology, kelp forest ecology, and the ecology of extant sirenians, we propose several discrete hypotheses about the effects Steller's sea cows may have had on kelp forest dynamics of the North Pacific.
 
 
Bullen, R. P. (detail)
   
1964
The archaeology of Grenada, West Indies.
Florida St. Mus. Soc. Sci. Contr. 11: 1-67.
 
 
Bulliet, Richard W. (detail)
   
1975
The camel and the wheel.
Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press: xiv + 327. Illus.
–Mentions dugongs at an archaeological site in South Arabia.
n
 
Bullock, Theodore H.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1977
Hearing in a manatee (Sirenia: Trichechus inunguis). [Abstr.]
Proc. 2nd Conf. Biol. Marine Mamms. (San Diego, Calif.): 72. Dec. 1977.
–Abstr. of Bullock et al. (1980).
x
 
Bullock, Theodore H.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1980
Evoked brain potentials demonstrate hearing in a manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Jour. Mamm. 61(1): 130-133. 1 fig. Feb. 20, 1980.
–Portuguese transl.: Bullock et al. (1981). Abstr.: Bullock et al. (1977). Reports that the most effective frequency was circa 3 kHz. Compares the hearing range with the range of vocalizations in other sirs. The most sensitive region of the head was found to be over the zygomatic process of the squamosal.
n
 
Bullock, Theodore H.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1981
Potências cerebrais através do estímulo acústico (AEP) mostram a audição no peixe-boi (Sirenia: Trichechus inunguis).
Acta Amazonica 11(3): 423-427. 1 fig. Sept. 1981.
–Portuguese transl. of Bullock et al. (1980).
x
 
Bullock, Theodore H.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; McClune, Michael C. (detail)
   
1982
Auditory evoked potentials in the West Indian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Comp. Physiol. 148A(4): 547-554. 3 figs.
–Some ultrasonic sensitivity was detected (to 35-40 kHz); the most effective frequencies and power spectra were both found to be lower in T. manatus than in T. inunguis; the greatest sensitivity was found in the region of the external auditory meatus.
x
 
Bulman, Philip (detail)
   
1988
Manatees on collision course.
Sierra 73(6): 23. 1 fig. Nov.-Dec. 1988.
–Brief pop. acc. of boat-caused manatee mortality in Florida and efforts by the Florida Marine Patrol to enforce boat speed laws.
Bunkley-Williams, Lucy: SEE Jiménez-Marrero et al., 1998; Williams et al., 2003. (detail)
Bunt, John S.: SEE Heinsohn et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Burbridge, A. A.; George, A. S. (detail)
   
1978
The flora and fauna of Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia.
Jour. Roy. Soc. West. Austral. 60(3): 71-90. 7 figs.
Burdon-Jones, C.: SEE Denton et al., 1980. (detail)
 
 
Burgess, Elizabeth A., Lanyon, Janet M.; Keeley, Tamara (detail)
   
2012
Testosterone and tusks: maturation and seasonal reproductive patterns of live, free-ranging male dugongs (Dugong dugon) in a subtropical population.
Reproduction 143(5):683-697. 9 figures. DOI: 10.1530/REP-11-0434. May 1, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Knowledge of male reproductive status and activity in free-ranging animals is vital to understanding reproductive patterns and population dynamics. Until now, almost all information regarding reproductive behavior of the dugong, a cryptic marine mammal, has relied on post-mortem examination. We examined the relationships between body length, tusk eruption (secondary sexual characteristic), seasonality, and group association on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in 322 free-ranging dugongs (159 males, 163 females) in subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia. Fecal testosterone concentrations demonstrated biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity between sexes and across reproductive/age classes, and were correlated with circulating concentrations in serum. Male dugongs have a pre-reproductive period that persists until a body length of 240 cm is achieved. Puberty apparently occurs between 240 and 260 cm body length when fecal testosterone levels increase fourfold (>500 ng/g) over juvenile levels, and is associated with tusk eruption. However, social maturity may be delayed until male dugongs are larger than 260 cm with well-developed tusks. In mature males, the lowest (<500 ng/g) fecal testosterone concentrations occur in the austral autumn months with maximal concentrations in September-October, coincident with the onset of a spring mating season. During spring, solitary mature males had fecal testosterone concentrations double those of mature males sampled within groups, potentially suggesting a mating strategy involving roving of reproductively active males. This study demonstrates that single-point physiological data from individuals across a population have value as indicators of reproductive processes. Our approach provides an efficacious non-lethal method for the census of reproductive status and seasonality in live male dugongs.
 
 
Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Blanshard, Wendy H.; Barnes, A. D.; Gilchrist, S.; Keeley, Tamara; Chua, J.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2013
Reproductive hormone monitoring of dugongs in captivity: detecting the onset of sexual maturity in a cryptic marine mammal.
Animal Reproduction Science 140(3-4): 255-267.
 
 
Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Brown, Janine L.; Blyde, David; Keeley, Tamara (detail)
   
2012
Diagnosing pregnancy in free-ranging dugongs using fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations and body morphometrics: a population application.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 177(1): 82-92. 2 tabs. 8 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.02.008. May 15, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Assessing reproductive status and monitoring reproductive rates is important in the effective management of vulnerable marine mammal species such as the dugong (Dugong dugon). Knowledge of the reproductive physiology of this species is limited, and determining reproductive parameters (e.g., sexual maturation, pregnancy, and reproductive senescence) has been restricted by a lack of non-lethal methods for assessing reproductive status in free-ranging individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify pregnant individuals in a wild dugong population. Using an enzyme immunoassay, we quantified concentrations of fecal progesterone metabolites (fP) in 322 dugongs, including confirmed pregnant females (n=10), presumed non-pregnant adult females (n=25), juvenile females (n=24), subadult females (n=41), adult females of unknown pregnancy state (n=63), and males of all sizes (n=159). External body morphometrics of each dugong were measured, and confirmation of pregnancy in adult female dugongs was determined by ultrasonography or observation of subsequent neonates. Concentrations of fP were different between sexes and reproductive size classes (P<0.001), and similar to 30-fold higher in confirmed pregnant dugongs (2017-7760ng/g) compared to presumed non-pregnant females (30-221ng/g), juvenile females (29-195ng/g), and males (24-261ng/g) (P<0.001). Body measures of maximum and anal girths, and teat length were all greater in confirmed pregnant females than presumed non-pregnant females (all P<0.05). We evaluated a Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) to provide a model for predicting pregnant and non-pregnant dugongs. Cross-validated results showed that the DFA correctly classified 100% of pregnant and non-pregnant females using fP concentrations, body length, fineness ratio (an index of body shape), and teat length (a female reproductive trait). Using the DFA model, we classified the pregnancy status of all female dugongs and identified a total of 30 females as pregnant and 133 females as non-pregnant from the sampled population over the sample period. Pregnant dugongs in the Moreton Bay population are characterized by fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations>1000ng/g, body length>=260cm, maximum girth>=215cm, anal girth>=126cm, and teat length>=5cm long. In summary, analysis of fP concentrations in combination with body morphometrics may be used to diagnose pregnancy in free-ranging dugongs, and provides a new tool to monitor breeding rates of wild sirenian populations.
Burke, Katy: SEE Bingham, B., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Burkill, H. I. (detail)
   
1921
Under-sea meadows.
Gard. Bull. Straits Settlement 2(12): 444-445.
x
 
Burmeister, Hermann (detail)
   
1837
Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen.
Berlin, Theod. Chr. Friedr. Enslin: xxvi + 858.
–Allen 911. Classifies, under Ordnung Pinnata, Zunft Cetacea, Fam. Sireniformia [new name?]: Rhytine [new spelling of generic name] Stelleri, Manatus australis, and Halicore dugong (792-793).
 
 
Burmeister, Hermann (detail)
   
1854
Systematische Uebersicht der Thiere Brasiliens, welche während einer Reise durch die Provinzen von Rio de Janeiro und Minas Geraës gesammelt oder beobachtet wurden. Erster Theil. Säugethiere (Mammalia).
Berlin, Georg Reimer: x + 341.
–Account of "Manatus australis" (T. manatus), 334-336.
x
 
Burn, Douglas M. (detail)
   
1986
The digestive strategy and efficiency of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Comp. Physiol. 85(1): 139-142. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–The cecum and colon were found to be the primary sites of digestion for both protein and lipid. Efficiency of cellulose digestion is very high, probably due to the slow rate of passage.
Burnell: SEE Yule & Burnell, 1903. (detail)
Burrell, Harry: SEE Le Soueff & Burrell, 1926. (detail)
Burrows, Dr.: SEE Harlan, R., 1824. (detail)
x
 
Burton, Bill (detail)
   
1980
The creature from Eastern Bay.
Chesapeake Bay Mag., Nov. 1980: 19, 40-41. 2 figs.
–Eyewitness accounts of unknown sea creatures in and around the Chesapeake Bay, at least one of which was probably a manatee.
x
 
Burton, Maurice (detail)
   
1951a
Animals in decline: Steller's sea-cow.
Illus. London News 218: 178. 2 figs. Feb. 3, 1951.
–Pop. acc. illustrated by pictures of the sea cow from Pallas and the masticating plate from Steller. Opines that the beast was dying out anyway and that the human predation didn't make any real difference.
x
 
Burton, Maurice (detail)
   
1951b
A scientists' legend.
Illus. London News 219: 588. 4 figs. Oct. 13, 1951.
–Pop. acc. of the Sirenia. Refreshingly, he criticizes the theory that sirs. gave rise to the mermaid legend.
x
 
Burton, Maurice (detail)
   
1957
Manatees, not mermaids.
Illus. London News 230: 272. 2 figs. Feb. 16, 1957.
–Summarizes Moore's (1956) account of Florida manatee behavior, and again expresses doubt as to the sir. origin of the mermaid legend.
Bus, Vicomte Du: SEE Du Bus, B.-A.-L., Vicomte. (detail)
 
 
Busch, F. (detail)
   
1892
Über die Bezahnung der schwimmenden Säugetiere (Cetaceen und Sirenen).
Verh. D. Odont. Ges. 3: 41.
 
 
Busnel, R. (detail)
   
1963
On certain aspects of animal acoustic signals. In: R. Busnel (ed.), Acoustic behavior of animals.
Amsterdam, Elsevier Publ. Co. (933 pp.): 69-111.
 
 
Butler, W. H. (detail)
   
1970
A summary of the vertebrate fauna of Barrow Island, W. A.
West. Austral. Nat. 11(7): 149-160. 1 map.
 
 
Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R. (detail)
   
2010
The insular cortex: a comparative perspective.
Brain Structure and Function 214(5-6): 477-493. 10 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00429-010-0264-y. June 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The human insular cortex is involved in a variety of viscerosensory, visceromotor, and interoceptive functions, and plays a role in complex processes such as emotions, music, and language. Across mammals, the insula has considerable morphologic variability. We review the structure and connectivity of the insula in laboratory animals (mouse, domestic cat, macaque monkey), and we present original data on the morphology and cytoarchitecture of insular cortex in less common species including a large carnivore (the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus), two artiodactyls (the pigmy hippopotamus, Hexaprotodon liberiensis, and the Western bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus), two cetaceans (the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and a sirenian (the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris). The insula shows substantial variability in shape, extent, and gyral and sulcal patterns, as well as differences in laminar organization, cellular specialization, and structural association with the claustrum. Our observations reveal that the insular cortex is extremely variable among mammals. These differences could be related to the role exerted by specific and selective pressures on cortical structure during evolution. We conclude that it is not possible to identify a general model of organization for the mammalian insular cortex.
 
 
Butti, Camilla; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R. (detail)
   
2011
The neocortex of cetaceans: cytoarchitecture and comparison with other aquatic and terrestrial species.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1225: 47-58. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05980.x. Apr. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The evolutionary process of readaptation to the aquatic environment was accompanied by extreme anatomical and physiological changes in the brain. This review discusses cortical specializations in the three major lineages of marine mammals in comparison to related terrestrial and semiaquatic species. Different groups of marine mammals adopted a wide range of strategies to cope with the challenges of aquatic living. Cetaceans and hippopotamids possess a completely agranular neocortex in contrast to phocids and sirenians; vertical modules are observed in deep layers V and VI in manatees, cetaceans, phocids, and hippopotamids, but in different cortical areas; and clustering in layer II appears in the insular cortex of hippopotamids, phocids, and cetaceans. Finally, von Economo neurons are present in cetaceans, hippopotamids, sirenians, and some phocids, with specific, yet different, cortical distributions. The interpretation of the evolutionary and functional significance of such specializations, and their relationships with the degrees of adaptation to the aquatic environment and phylogeny, remain difficult to trace, at least until comprehensive data, including representative species from all of the major mammalian families, become available.
 
 
Büttikofer, Johann (detail)
   
1885
Zoological researches in Liberia.
Notes Leyden Mus. 7: 129-255. Pl. 6a. 1 map.
–Sirs., 144-147. See also F.A. Jentink (1888).
x
 
Büttikofer, Johann (detail)
   
1890
Reisebilder aus Liberia. Resultate geographischer, naturwissenschaftlicher und ethnographischer Untersuchungen während der Jahre 1879-1882 und 1886-1887. II. Band. Die Bewohner Liberia's. -- Thierwelt.
Leiden, E. J. Brill (2 vols.): Vol. 2: 1-510. Illus.
–Reports that Manatus senegalensis occurs in the lower reaches of all major Liberian rivers; mentions several specific localities, and briefly describes one 2.64-meter specimen. Notes that manatees are shot, speared, netted, and caught by fencing off streams at high water, and that in one place schools of them posed a danger to passing canoes (2: 392-393). The single drawing shows a manatee feeding partly out of the water.
 
 
Buzzelli, Christopher; Robbins, Rebecca; Doering, Peter; Chen, Zhiqiang; Sun, Detong; Wan, Yongshan; Welch, Barbara; Schwarzschild, Arthur (detail)
   
2012
Monitoring and modeling of Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass) in southern Indian River Lagoon.
Estuaries and Coasts 35(6): 1401-1415. Tables. 11 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-012-9533-8. Nov. 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Decreased salinity and submarine light associated with hurricanes of 2004-2005 impacted seagrass habitats in the Florida coastal zone. A combination of salinities ?20 and light attenuation ?1.5 m^sup -1^ resulting from the freshwater discharge in 2005 were among the drivers for a widespread decrease in the coverage and biomass of Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass) in 2006. These observations provided an opportunity to develop and apply a modeling framework to simulate responses of S. filiforme to variable water quality. The framework connects water column variables to field monitoring of seagrass abundance and salinity growth response experiments. The base model was calibrated with macrophyte abundance observed in southern Indian River Lagoon (IRL) from 2002 to 2007 and tested against shoot data from a different time (1997-2002) and nearby location in the IRL. Model shoot biomass (gC m^sup -2^) was similar to field observations (r ^sup 2^=0.70) while responding to monthly seasonal fluctuations in salinity and light throughout the 6-year simulations. Field and model results indicated that S. filiforme growth and survival were sensitive to, and increased with, rising salinity throughout 2007. This modeling study emphasizes that discharge, salinity, and submarine light are inter-dependent variables affecting South Florida seagrass habitats on seasonal to inter-annual time scales.
 
 
Byczkowska-Smyk, W. (detail)
   
1979
[Can Sirenia be domesticated?]
Wszechświat 1976(4): 124-125.
–In Polish.
 
 
Byers, Anne M. (detail)
   
1982
Of manatees and mermaids.
Américas 34(2): 20-25. 8 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1982.
x
D
Byers, F. M., Jr. (detail)
   
1959
Geology of Umnak and Bogoslof Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1028-L: 267-369.
–P. 289: {"Vertebrate-fossil remains, chiefly teeth, have been found in greenish volcanic graywacke exposed in a quarry on the north side of Unalaska. These teeth were identified by G. Edward Lewis (written communication, 1954) as those of Cornwallius sp., a marine mammal of early Miocene age."}
Byers, Floyd M.: SEE Ortiz et al., 1999. (detail)
Byrne, K.: SEE Moore et al., 1998. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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