Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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C

Caballero Deloya, J.: SEE Bravo-Hollis & Caballero, 1973. (detail)
Caballero Y C., Eduardo: SEE Sokoloff & Caballero, 1932. (detail)
 
 
Cabral, Francisco; Cachão, Mário; Agostinho, Rui Jorge; Prista, Gonçalo Abreu (detail)
   
2014
Short note on the Sirenia disappearance from the Euro-North African realm during the Cenozoic: a link between climate and supernovae?
Quantitative Biology. Populations and Evolution. arXiv.org 1409.7589. 9 pp. 2 figs.
 
 
Cabrera, Angel (detail)
   
1908
Lista de los mamiferos de las possesiones españolas del Golfo de Guinea.
Mém. Soc. Españ. Hist. Nat. (Madrid) 1(25): 435-456.
x
 
Cabrera, Angel (detail)
   
1961
Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. II (Sirenia - Perissodactyla - Artiodactyla - Lagomorpha - Rodentia - Cetacea).
Rev. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. "Bernardino Rivadavia", Cienc. Zool. (Buenos Aires, Impr. y Casa Editora Coni) 4(2): 309-732. Aug. 25, 1961.
–Part I published 1958. Gives synonymies of T. inunguis and T. m. manatus and summarizes their distributions in South America (309-311).
 
 
Cabrera, Angel; Yepes, José (detail)
   
1940
Mamiferos Sud-Americanos.
Buenos Aires, Comp. Argentina de Editores: 1-370.
–Ed. 2, 1960 (2 vols.). Sirs., 287-290. The accompanying painting shows manatees hauled out on land!
Cabrero, Narciso Rabell: SEE Rabell Cabrero, Narciso. (detail)
 
 
Cabrias-Contreras, L. J.; Bras-Silva, I. D.; de Angel-Ramírez, J. E.; Escobar-Torres, S. M.; Fernández-Martínez, R.; Hernández-Lara, E.; Rivera-Guzmán, A. L.; Rivera-Pérez, C. I.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. (detail)
   
2022
Medical management and resolution of perinatal bilateral exophthalmia and secondary corneal ulcers in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) neonate from Puerto Rico.
Veterinary Ophthalmology http://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12983
Cadée, M. C.: SEE Bosch et al., 1975. (detail)
x
 
Cadenat, J. (detail)
   
1957
Observations de cétacés, siréniens, chéloniens et sauriens en 1955-1956.
Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, sér. A, 19(4): 1358-1375. Oct. 1957.
–Records cases of manatees caught accidentally in shark nets in Senegal, with other observations including one of a manatee surprised on shore (1368-1369).
 
 
Cadieux, Charles L. (detail)
   
1981
These are the endangered.
Washington, D.C., The Stone Wall Press. Illus.
–Chap. 10 is a pop. acc. of "The Manatee" (TM; 59-65, 3 figs.).
Caffin, John E.: SEE Irvine, Caffin, & Kochman, 1981; Irvine et al., 1982. (detail)
Cahalane, Victor H.: SEE ALSO Beard et al., 1942. (detail)
x
 
Cahalane, Victor H. (detail)
   
1948
The status of mammals in the U.S. National Park System, 1947.
Jour. Mamm. 29(3): 247-259. Aug. 31, 1948.
–Notes that manatees are protected in the Everglades National Park, and that several were apparently killed by cold weather in 1946-47 (258).
x
 
Cahn, A. R. (detail)
   
1940
Manatees and the Florida freeze.
Jour. Mamm. 21(2): 222-223. May 14, 1940.
–Report of 5 manatees found dead near Ft. Myers, Fla., in Jan. 1940; probably killed by freeze. (An additional individual was reported by Hamilton, 1941.)
 
 
Cahuzac, Bruno; Audouin, Michel (detail)
   
2005
Sur une vertèbre d'Halitherium (Siréniens), découverte dans le Calcaire à Astéries oligocène à Rauzan (Gironde). Aperçu paléoécologique.
Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 140, (N.S.) no. 33(3): 171-192. 7 figs.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Mona-Sanabria, Y; Gómez-Camelo, I. V.; Rosso-Londoño, M. C.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2020
Opportunistic fish consumption by Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Colombia.
Caribbean Naturalist 74: 1-9.
Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila: SEE Montoya et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Cailleux, André; Feugueur, L. (detail)
   
1947
Présence d'Halitherium schinzi dans le stampien inférieur de Cormeilles-en-Parisis (Seine-et-Oise).
C. R. Soc. Géol. France No. 11: 217-218.
Calambokidis, J.: SEE Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
Caldas, Sérgio Túlio: SEE ALSO Pinto de Lima & Caldas, 2001. (detail)
x
 
Caldas, Sérgio Túlio (detail)
   
2003
Floats of fancy.
BBC Wildlife 21(6): 56-58. 5 figs. June 2003.
–Pop. acc. of T. m. manatus (here called the "Brazilian manatee") and T. inunguis in Brazil, and of studies of the former conducted by the Brazilian Manatee Project at Itamaracá.
Caldwell, David K.: SEE ALSO Caldwell, Melba C. (detail)
 
 
Caldwell, David K. (detail)
   
1974
The need for studies of marine mammals in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In: R. E. Smith (ed.), Proc. Marine Environmental Implications of Offshore Drilling in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.
St. Petersburg, State Univ. Syst. Florida, Inst. Oceanogr.: 339-343. Mar. 1974.
 
 
Caldwell, David K.; Caldwell, Melba C. (detail)
   
1973
Marine mammals. Sec. 1. In: J. I. Jones, R. E. Ring, M. O. Rinkel, & R. E. Smith (eds.), A summary of knowledge of the eastern Gulf of Mexico.
State Univ. Syst. Florida, Inst. Oceanogr.
 
 
Caldwell, David K.; Caldwell, Melba C. (detail)
   
1985
Manatees - Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758; Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795 and Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883). In: S. H. Ridgway & R. J. Harrison (eds.), Handbook of marine mammals. Volume 3: The sirenians and baleen whales.
London & Orlando, Academic Press: 33-66. Illus.
–Rev.: G. B. Rathbun, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(3): 236-237, July 1986.
 
 
Caldwell, David K.; Golley, F. B. (detail)
   
1965
Marine mammals from the coast of Georgia to Cape Hatteras.
Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 81(1): 24-32.
x
 
Caldwell, Fred T., Jr.; Sherman, Eloise B.; Levitsky, Katherine (detail)
   
1969
The composition of bladder bile and the histological pattern of the gallbladder and liver of the sea cow.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 28(1): 437-441. 3 figs.
–Report of cholic, deoxycholic, and chenodeoxycholic acids found in bile of four Australian dugongs; cholesterol and lecithin found in very low concentrations; large hemosiderin deposits found in the liver.
Caldwell, Melba C.: SEE ALSO Caldwell, David K. (detail)
x
 
Caldwell, Melba C.; Caldwell, David K. (detail)
   
1972
Behavior of marine mammals. In: S. H. Ridgway (ed.), Mammals of the sea: biology and medicine.
Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas: 419-465.
–Detailed, illustrated account of a mating herd of Florida manatees (446-448); observations on play (450) and feeding (454) in captive animals.
Callcott, John: SEE Begley et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Callejas-Jiménez, Mariana E.; Alcérreca-Huerta, Juan Carlos; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Carrillo, Laura (detail)
   
2021
Spatial and seasonal variations in surface water temperature and salinity in the Mexico-Belize riverine estuary: Possible comfort conditions for manatees?
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 37(4): 1454-1474. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12838 Oct. 2021 (publ. online June 11, 2021).
–ABSTRACT: The Mexican Caribbean and Belize are home to one of the largest populations of Caribbean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus). However, the transboundary Hondo River estuary is less examined compared to the surrounding protected areas. This paper provides a quantitative description of the spatial and temporal variability in abiotic factors and manatee distribution throughout the Hondo River estuary, with monthly field measurements during 2018–2019. Simultaneously, visual observations and side-scan sonar detection were implemented, with 84 manatee sightings reported (calves 11.9%, noncalves 88.1%). Heatmap and frequency analyses showed that most manatee sightings occurred at the riverine estuary limit, the confluences between the river and the bay into which it flows. The surface water temperature and salinity ranged 28°C?T?32°C and 0.5 PSU?S?4.5 PSU for ~72% of the manatees identified, potentially describing locally preferred conditions for manatees. During the regional mid-summer drought, higher temperature (31.5°C), salinity (18 PSU), and estuary extent (17.6?km) were recorded, including the maximum peak of manatee sightings (~31%). The roles of these abiotic factors are discussed as tentative environmental comfort conditions for manatees that could reduce their energy and maintenance costs. The identification of preferred conditions could broaden perspectives on how manatees interact with their habitats.
 
 
Calleson, C. Scott (detail)
   
2014
Issues and opportunities associated with using manatee mortality data to evaluate the effectiveness of manatee protection efforts in Florida.
Endangered Species Research 26: 127–136. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.3354/esr00638. Publ. online Dec.10, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Protection zones to reduce risks to Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris associated with boat operation have been in place since the 1990s or earlier in most areas considered important for the species. Despite the relatively long period of time protections have been in place, evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts has proven to be difficult. This paper discusses manatee mortality data, which is one of the most long-term sources of data available for analysis, and some of the difficulties associated with using these data to evaluate effectiveness. It then explores the concept of using differences in rates of change in mortality during three 10 yr periods as an evaluation metric. Rates were calculated for the state of Florida as a whole and for Treatment and No Treatment groups, with the Treatment group including all counties where comprehensive protection zones have been established. The only rates of change that were statistically different from one another were for boat-related deaths, both statewide and for the Treatment group, between the 1981-1990 and 2001-2010 periods. Statewide, the average rate of increase fell from 11.2 to 1.0% yr-1, while, within the Treatment group, the rate fell from 12.4 to 1.2% yr-1. These results provide evidence that protection efforts have likely helped to reduce boat-related mortality risks; however, the analysis does not account for some uncertainties associated with the mortality data, and the confidence intervals are fairly wide. Additional research and analyses should be pursued to account for these issues and also to consider risks related to non-lethal manatee-boat collisions.
 
 
Calleson, Scott; Frohlich, R. Kipp (detail)
   
2007
Slower boat speeds reduce risks to manatees.
Endangered Species Bull. 3(3): 295-304.
–Viewable at: www.int-res.com/articles/esr2007/3/n003p295.pdf
 
 
Calvert, Albert Frederick (detail)
   
1917
The Cameroons.
London, T. W. Laurie, Ltd.: xxi + 82. Frontisp. 191 pls. 9 maps.
–Sirs., pl. 177.
 
 
Calvimontes, J. (detail)
   
2009
Etnoconocimiento, uso y conservación del manatí amazónico Trichechus inunguis en la Reserva de Desarrollo Sostenible Amanã, Brasil.
Lima, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina.
 
 
Calvimontes, Jorge; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2010
Estudios etnobiológicos sobre el manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis Natterer) y su conservación en la Reserva de Desarrollo Sostenible Amanã, Brasil. In: Á. Moreno Fuentes, M. T. Pulido Silva, R. Mariaca Méndez, R. Valadez Azúa, P. Mejía Correa, & T. V. Gutiérrez (eds.), Sistemas biocognitivos tradicionales: paradigmas en la conservación biológica y el fortalecimiento cultural.
Asociación Etnobiológica Méxicana, A.C. (with Global Diversity Foundation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, & Sociedad Latinoamericana de Etnobiologia): 396-401.
 
 
Calzada, S. (detail)
   
1969
Litoestratigrafía y paleontología de unas arenas del Miocene de Sant Pere de Ribes, (Garraf, Barcelona).
Acta Geol. Hispánica 4(2): 29-34.
–Reports ribs of Metaxytherium.
 
 
Camacho, Jorge I. Hern ndez (detail)
   
1971
Potencial y bases para la prospeccion de la fauna silvestre de la Amazonia Colombiana.
Bogotá, Inst. de Desarollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables: 1-66.
 
 
Camelli, G. J. (detail)
   
1706
De piscibus, moluscis & crustaceis Philippensibus.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 24(302): 2043-2080 [i.e., 2085-2089].
–Allen 160. Includes a description of "Dugong Indorum".
 
 
Camerano, L. (detail)
   
1915
Contributo allo studio dei wormiani palato palatini e dei wormiani medio palatini di Calori nei mammiferi.
Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Torino 30(706): 1-8. 4 pls.
–Sirs., 6, pl. 3, fig. 5.
x
D
Camp, Charles L. (detail)
   
1940
History of vertebrate paleontology on the West Coast.
Proc. 6th Pacif. Sci. Congr. (Berkeley, Stanford, & San Francisco, July 24-Aug. 12, 1939) 3: 643-646.
–P. 645: {"Dr. O. C. Marsh procured from him [Lorenzo G. Yates of Santa Barbara] the type tooth of Desmostylus - a sea-cow-like marine mammal whose relationships have only lately been worked out."}
x
D
Camp, Charles L. (detail)
   
1963
Old Doctor Yates.
Jour. of the West 2(4): 377-400. 5 figs. Oct. 1963.
–Biographical sketch of Lorenzo G. Yates, including an account of the discovery of the first Desmostylus specimens in a boulder in the bed of Alameda Creek in 1869. Marsh's holotype, however, evidently came from a hill near Arroyo del Valle, 5-6 miles south of Livermore, and a mile or so south of Cresta Blanca Winery, Alameda County, Calif. Fig. 1 reproduces Yates' broadside (1877) describing the find (387-389).
 
 
Campagna, Claudio; Short, Frederick T.; Polidoro, Beth A.; McManus, Roger; Collette, Bruce B.; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Sadovy de Micheson, Yvonne; Stuart, Simon N.; Carpenter, Kent E. (detail)
   
2011
Gulf of Mexico Oil Blowout Increases Risks to Globally Threatened Species.
Bioscience 61(5): 393-397. 1 tab. doi:10.1525/bio.2011.61.5.8 May 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Fourteen marine species in the Gulf of Mexico are protected by the US Endangered Species Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. As the British Petroleum oil spill recovery and remediation proceed, species internationally recognized as having an elevated risk of extinction should also receive priority for protection and restoration efforts, whether or not they have specific legal protection. Forty additional marine species--unprotected by any federal laws--occur in the Gulf and are listed as threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) Red List. The Red List assessment process scientifically evaluates species' global status and is therefore a key mechanism for transboundary impact assessments and for coordinating international conservation action. Environmental impact assessments conducted for future offshore oil and gas development should incorporate available data on globally threatened species, including species on the IUCN Red List. This consideration is particularly important because US Natural Resource Damage Assessments may not account for injury to highly migratory, globally threatened species.
 
 
Campana, D. Del (detail)
   
1924
Un nuovo resto di sirenoide del miocene superiore della Provincia di Catanzaro.
Riv. Ital. Paleont. Stratigr. Parma 30: 53-55.
 
 
Campbell, David G. (detail)
   
1978
The ephemeral islands: a natural history of the Bahamas.
London, Macmillan.
–Manatees, 21, 28-34, 109.
Campbell, Fred: SEE Welsby, T., 1967. (detail)
Campbell, Howard W.: SEE ALSO Irvine & Campbell, 1978; Irvine, Odell, & Campbell, 1981. (detail)
x
 
Campbell, Howard W. (detail)
   
1976
The Florida manatee and related species.
Plaster Jacket (Florida St. Mus.) No. 25: 1-10. 1 fig. July 1976.
–Gen. acc. of sirs., their distribution and status, and current research programs.
x
 
Campbell, Howard W. (detail)
   
1977
Mammalia; Sirenia; Trichechidae (manatees). In: J. E. Cooper, S. S. Robinson, & J. B. Funderburg (eds.), Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina.
Raleigh, N. Car. St. Mus. Nat. Hist. (xvi + 444): 396-397.
–Gen. acc. of T. manatus biology and status, with remarks on its occurrence in North Carolina.
x
 
Campbell, Howard W.; Gicca, Diderot (detail)
   
1978
Reseña preliminar del estado actual y distribución del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en México.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 49(1): 257-264. 4 figs.
–Engl. summ. Interviews and a brief aerial survey showed manatees to be scarce in Mexico due to past hunting and habitat destruction, but now seldom hunted and probably not in immediate danger of extinction.
x
 
Campbell, Howard W.; Irvine, A. Blair (detail)
   
1977
Feeding ecology of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus Linnaeus.
Aquaculture 12: 249-251.
–Brief summary of some available information on the diet of T. manatus in Florida, mostly taken from Hartman.
x
 
Campbell, Howard W.; Irvine, A. Blair (detail)
   
1981
Manatee mortality during the unusually cold winter of 1976-1977. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 86-91. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Analyzes mortality during the coldest winter in Florida's history, based on 54 salvaged carcasses; 38 of these deaths were attributed to cold. Suggests that artificial warm-water sources north of manatees' historic range on the east coast may be diverting them from their usual southward wintertime movements, and that inadequacy or shutdown of these sources result in manatee deaths during severe winters.
 
 
Campbell, Howard W.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1976
Endangered species: the manatee.
Florida Naturalist 49(2): 15-20. 5 figs. Apr. 1976.
x
 
Campbell, R. S. F.; Ladds, P. W. (detail)
   
1981
Diseases of the dugong in north-eastern Australia: a preliminary report. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 176-181. 1 tab.
–Notes cases of dermatitis, pneumonia, parasitic lesions, enteritis, salmonellosis, hepatitis, haemosiderosis, and other pathological conditions in 15 dugongs from Queensland.
Campbell, Terry: SEE Duignan et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Camper, Petrus (detail)
   
1786?
Kort berigt wegens den Dugon van den Graave de Buffon. Den 11 Juny, 1786. In: Kleinere Schriften die Arzneykunst und fürnehmlich die Naturgeschichte betreffend.
Leipzig, S. L. Crusius (4 vols. in 1, 1782-87): 3(1): 20-31.
–Transl. from Dutch. French ed., Paris, Henri J. Jansen: 2: 479-491, pl. 7, 1803 (Allen 467). Includes a fig. of the dugong based on that of Renard and reproduced by Durand (1983: 195-196). After Camper's death in 1798, two other figs., based on sketches by Vandersteege, appeared in vol. 2 of Camper's Obras and are also reproduced by Durand (1983: 196-198).
 
 
Canavan, W. P. N. (detail)
   
1934
On a trematode Allopyge undulatus n. sp. parasitic in Lilford's crane (Megalornis grus lilfordi).
Parasitology 26: 117-120.
–Records Chiorchis fabaceus from a captive T. manatus in Philadelphia.
x
 
Cañigueral, Juan (detail)
   
1952
Un notable sirénido en Mallorca.
Ibérica (2)16(245): 387-390. 6 figs. Nov. 15, 1952.
–Describes a tusk and molars of Metaxytherium from supposedly Miocene deposits of Mallorca.
x
 
Canocchi, Daniela (detail)
   
1987
On a skull of a sirenian from the Early Pliocene of Siena, Tuscany.
Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat. 92(4): 497-513. 1 tab. 8 figs. Pls. 39-40. Mar. 1987.
–Italian summ. Edited for publication by A. Azzaroli. A skull from Rúffolo is briefly described and referred to Metaxytherium gervaisi, which is considered intermediate between M. serresii and M. forestii. Other Pliocene skulls from Italy and southern France are illustrated for comparison, but their characters are not discussed in any detail.
 
 
Canova, Andrew P.; Perkins, Lindsay Sanders (detail)
   
1885
Life and adventures in south Florida.
Palatka (Florida), The Southern Sun Publ. House: 1-136.
–Ed. 2: Tampa, Tribune Printing Co.: 1-158, 1906. States that Seminole Indians once sold manatee meat to Spaniards; numbers of manatees now declining.
 
 
Canoville, Aurore; Buffrénil, Vivian de; Laurin, Michel (detail)
   
2016
Microanatomical diversity of amniote ribs: an exploratory quantitative study.
Biol. Jour. Linnean Soc. 118(4): 706-733. 4 tabs. 11 figs. https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12779 Aug. 2016 (publ. online June 30, 2016).
–ABSTRACT: Bone microanatomical diversity in extant and extinct tetrapods has been studied extensively, using increasingly sophisticated quantitative methods to assess its ecological, biomechanical and phylogenetic significance. Most studies have been conducted on the appendicular skeleton, and a strong relationship was found between limb bone microanatomy and habitat preferences. Few comparative studies have focused on the microanatomy of the axial skeleton and its ecological signal. In the present study, we propose the first exploratory study of the microanatomical diversity of amniote ribs. Our comparative sample comprises 155 species of extant amniotes and encompasses the taxonomic, ecological, and body size diversity of this group. We standardized our sampling location to the midshaft of mid-dorsal ribs. Transverse sections were obtained from classical petrographic methods, as well as by X-ray microtomography. Most of the microanatomical and size characters of the ribs display a phylogenetic signal, which is an expected result and is also observed in amniote limb bones and vertebrae. We found a significant relationship between rib cortical thickness, global compactness, and lifestyle. As for the vertebrae, the development of the spongiosa in the medullary region appears to be strongly correlated with size. Even though an ecological signal was found in the inner structure of the ribs, additional work is needed to document the intra-individual variability of the rib microanatomy along the rib cage and within a single element.
x
 
Cansdale, G. (detail)
   
1964
The Volta Dam may help wildlife in Ghana.
Oryx 7(4): 168-171. 1 fig. Apr. 1964.
–States that manatees may still occur above the dam and may still be ritually hunted; though they are theoretically protected, enforcement is still required (170-171).
x
 
Cansdale, George Soper (detail)
   
1970
All the animals of the Bible lands.
Grand Rapids (Michigan), Zondervan Publ. House: 1-272. 24 pls. 2 maps.
–British ed.: Animals of Bible lands, Exeter, Paternoster, 1970. Contains one of the most thorough discussions I have seen of the identity of the biblical tachash; concludes that this animal was probably the dugong (138-139).
 
 
Cantanhede, A. M.; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Farias, I. P.; Hrbek, T.; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves-Gomes, J. (detail)
   
2005
Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia).
Molec. Ecol. 14(2): 401-413. doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02413.x
x
 
Cantley, Roland (detail)
   
1973
A siren is dying.
Walkabout 39: 34-35, 52. 1 fig. Jan. 1973.
–Describes the status of dugongs in Australia and the disastrous effects of shark nets, pollution, and noise. Notes the presence of herds of 50 or more in Torres Strait "30 years ago".
 
 
Cantor, Theodore Edward (detail)
   
1846
Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting the Malayan peninsula and islands.
Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 15: 171-203, 241-279.
–Lists Halicore, 274, 279?
x
 
Capasso, Luigi (detail)
   
1997
Osteoma: palaeopathology and phylogeny.
Intl. Jour. Osteoarchaeology 7: 615-620. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Briefly describes the histological structure of ribs of fossil and Recent sirs. (Felsinotherium forestii, Dugong dugon) as examples of hyperostosis, emphasizing that in the Sirenia this is adaptive and not pathological (616-617, 619-620).
Capelli, Cristian: SEE Greenwood et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Capellini, Giovanni (detail)
   
1865
[On Felsinotherium.] In: Seconda riunione stradordinaria della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali tenuta alla Spezia nei giorni 18, 19, 20 e 21 settembre 1865. Sezione di paleontologia. 21 settembre 1865.
Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Milano 8: 281-284. Read Sept. 21, 1865.
–Summary by Paolo Lioy of Capellini's presentation, in which he proposed the new generic name Felsinotherium [nomen nudum; 281], admitting at the same time (282) that its type species [later to be named F. forestii] is identical with that of Cheirotherium Bruno [i.e., C. subapenninum]!
 
 
Capellini, Giovanni (detail)
   
1872
Sul Felsinoterio, sirenoide halicoreforme dei depositi littorali pliocenici dell'antico Bacino del Mediterraneo e del Mar Nero.
Mem. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna (3)1: 605-646. 8 pls. Read Feb. 15, 1872.
–Abstr.: Rend. Accad. Sci. Bologna 1871-72: 50-55? Also exists as a separate in 49 pp. + 8 pls., re-set with different page-breaks. This is Capellini's most important work on sirs., in which he names the genus Felsinotherium (615) and the species F. Forestii (617) and F. Gervaisi (634), both from the Pliocene of Italy.
 
 
Capellini, Giovanni (detail)
   
1877
Balenottere fossili e Pachyacanthus dell'Italia Meridionale.
Rendiconti delle sedute della Reale Accademia dei Lincei (3)1: 611-630. 3 pls.
–Concludes that the atlas of Pachyacanthus cannot be referred to a mysticete or a sirenian but most closely resembles that of a river dolphin (Platanistidae sensu lato). Compares the atlas of Pachyacanthus with those of Halitherium schinzii, Felsinotherium forestii, Manatus, Halicore, and other cetaceans, with figures in pl. 3.
 
 
Capellini, Giovanni (detail)
   
1878
Della pietra leccese e di alcuni suoi fossili.
Mem. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna (3)9(2): 227-258. 3 pls. Read Mar. 21, 1878.
–Abstr.: Rend. Accad. Sci. Bologna 1877-78: 111-113?
 
 
Capellini, Giovanni (detail)
   
1886a
Sopra resti di un sirenio fossile (Metaxytherium lovisati, Cap.) raccolti a Monte Fiocca presso Sassari in Sardegna.
Mem. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna (4)7: 39-53. 1 pl. Read Feb. 14, 1886.
–Abstr.: Rend. Accad. Sci. Bologna 1885-86: 46-47?
 
 
Capellini, Giovanni (detail)
   
1886b
Cetacei e sirenii fossili scoperti in Sardegna.
Atti Accad. Rom. (Rend. Accad. Lincei?) (4)2(1): 79-81.
11223
 
Capper, Angela; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Arthur, Karen (detail)
   
2013
Dietary exposure to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins in the endangered manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Florida, USA.
Harmful Algae 26:1-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2013.04.009. Aug. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Florida is a hotspot for cyano- and microalgal harmful algal blooms (HABs) with annual red-tide events off-shore and blooms of Lyngbya spp. commonly observed in both marine and freshwater environments. This region also provides extensive foraging habitat for large populations of herbivorous green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). The exposure of aquatic organisms to HAB toxins is not well known and whilst acute exposures are better understood, the vulnerability of aquatic animals to chronic exposure from multiple HAB toxins over prolonged periods has rarely been addressed. This study aimed to identify the presence of toxic compounds produced by HAB species commonly found in Florida (brevetoxins, okadaic acid, saxitoxins and Lyngbya toxins) in tissues and gut samples from manatee and green sea turtles that stranded in Florida, USA. Muscle, liver and alimentary tract samples were opportunistically collected from 14 manatees and 13 green turtles that stranded on the Florida shoreline between December 2003 and February 2006. Samples from each animal were assessed for the presence of brevetoxin, okadaic acid, lyngbyatoxin-A and saxitoxin. Nine (64%) manatees and 11 (85%) turtles were found to have been exposed to one or more of the HAB toxins. Okadaic acid and saxitoxin were only found in alimentary tract samples, whereas brevetoxin was more widely distributed. No lyngbyatoxin-A was observed in any tissue samples. The majority of turtles (13) stranded on the Atlantic coast between St. Johns and Monroe counties, with one on the Gulf coast at Bay County, whereas nine manatees were stranded on the Gulf coast between Levy and Lee counties, with the remaining five between Volusia and Brevard counties on the Atlantic coast. This HAB toxin screen has identified that a large proportion of a random sample of turtles and manatees that stranded in Florida in 2003–2006 were exposed to HAB toxins. Most of the concentrations measured were low, and the toxins were directly linked to the death of only three of these animals. However, the presence of these compounds, and in some cases the presence of multiple HAB toxins in individual animals, indicates that turtles and manatees in Florida are exposed to deleterious compounds at sub-lethal levels in their environment, which could ultimately compromise their health.
x
 
Cappetta, Henri; Pfeil, Friedrich; Schmidt-Kittler, Norbert; with a contribution of Martini, Erlend (detail)
   
2000
New biostratigraphical data on the marine Upper Cretaceous and Palaeogene of Jordan.
Newsletters on Stratigraphy 38(1): 81-95. 3 figs. 1 pl. Aug. 15, 2000.
–Reports a rib fragment of "Halitherium sp." from the lower Priabonian (Middle Eocene) Shallala Formation at Dahikiya, south of Al Azraq, Jordan (91).
Caralp, M.: SEE Alvinerie et al., 1977. (detail)
 
 
Caras, Roger (detail)
   
1985
The endless migrations.
New York, E. P. Dutton.
–Sir. material repr. in J. A. Murray (ed.), The islands and the sea ..., Oxford Univ. Press, 1991, pp. 269-275.
 
 
Carbonell, J. L. (Antonio?); Trillo-Figueroa, A. (detail)
   
1926
Notas sobre los vertebrados terciarios hallados en Córdoba.
Bol. Inst. Geol. Españ. (Com. XIV Congr. Internatl. Geol. Madrid, 1926) 47(= (3)7)(2): 301-308?
–Sirs., 304?
 
 
Carboni, M. G.; Kotsakis, Tassos (detail)
   
1983
Nuovi resti di sirenide (Mammalia) nel Miocene della Sardegna settentrionale.
Bol. Soc. Sarda Sci. Nat. 22: 129-138. 1 pl.
Cardeilhac, Paul T.: SEE ALSO Francis-Floyd et al., 1991; Irvine et al., 1980; White et al., 1984. (detail)
x
 
Cardeilhac, Paul T.; Walker, Cecil M.; Jenkins, Robert L.; Popp, James A.; Forrester, Donald J.; White, Franklin H.; Smith, Richard T. (detail)
   
1981
Complications in the formula-rearing of infant manatees associated with bacterial infections. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 141-146. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Abstr.: Proc. 10th Ann. Meeting, Internatl. Assoc. Aquat. Anim. Med.: 7, 1979? Gives the case histories of two orphaned manatees that died of pneumonia and bacterial infections 24 and 80 days, respectively, after capture. Reports their blood values and growth rates, and suggests an artificial milk formula for manatees.
 
 
Cardeilhac, Paul T.; White, Jesse R.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth (detail)
   
1984
Initial information on the reproductive biology of the Florida manatee.
Proc. Internatl. Assoc. Aquatic Animal Medicine 1(1): 35-42. 2 tabs. Nov. 1984.
 
 
Cardim, Fernão (detail)
   
1625
A treatise of Brazil written by a Portugall which had long lived there. In: S. Purchas, ... Purchas his pilgrimes ... (q.v.).
London, Henry Fetherston: part 2, book 7, chap. 1: 1300-1320.
–Transl. from a Portuguese MS. seized (according to Whitehead, 1977: 175) when Cardim's ship was captured by an English privateer, and published anonymously by Purchas. The original was first published as Cardim (1885).
 
 
Cardim, Fernão (detail)
   
1885
Do clima e terra do Brasil e de algumas cousas notáveis que se acham assim na terra como no mar.
Brasileira, Rev. Mensal Seccão Soc. Geogr. Lisboa (Rio de Janeiro) 3: v-viii + 36.
–The first publication of the Portuguese original of the Engl. version cited above as Cardim (1625). Repr.: Cardim (1925).
 
 
Cardim, Fernão (detail)
   
1925
Tratados da terra e gente do Brasil.
Rio de Janeiro, J. Leite & Cia.: [7]-434.
–Repr. of Cardim (1885). Ed. 2: Brasiliana, Ser. 5a, Vol. 168, Bibliotheca Pedagógica Brasileira (São Paulo, Companhia Editora Nacional, 379 pp.), 1939: sirs. 70-71. See also Whitehead (1977: 174-175).
Carey, John: SEE Begley et al., 1983. (detail)
Caria, Ida Comaschi: SEE Comaschi Caria, Ida. (detail)
Carlton, Jedfrey M.: SEE Lewis et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Carmo, Talita Laurie Lustosa do; Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando Cesar Weber; D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; Reisfeld, Laura; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da (detail)
   
2013
Changes in the blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) after long-distance transportation.
Acta Scientiarum, Biological Sciences 35(4): 591-594. 1 tab. Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.20081 Oct.-Dec. 2013.
–Portuguese summ.
 ABSTRACT: In this study we report the hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters in a juvenile male Amazonian manatee measured before transport, immediately after transport, and during adaptation to a new facility. The animal was transported from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, to São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil, (2,733 km) within 6 hours. Among all blood parameters analyzed, we observed obvious neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and increases in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and serum glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, but these parameters subsequently returned to normal. These results suggest that transport and changes in the environment are temporary stressful events for Amazonian manatees. We, therefore, recommend monitoring the hematological and biochemical parameters before and after translocation to minimize the effects of handling stressors in this species.
 
 
Carney, Susan L.; Bolen, Ellen E.; Barton, Sheri L.; Scolardi, Kerri M.; Englund, Carolyn C.; Tringali, Michael D.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2007
A minimally invasive method of field sampling for genetic analyses of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(4): 967-975. 3 figs. Oct. 2007.
 
 
Carnot, Ad. (detail)
   
1892
Recherche du fluor dans les os modernes et les os fossiles.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 114: 1189-1192.
Carol, Lisa: SEE Allen & Carol, 2001. (detail)
x
 
Carone, Giuseppe (detail)
   
1997a
Uno scheletro di Sirenia rinvenuto a Cessaniti (Calabria, Italia).
Bol. Gruppo Paleontologico Tropeano 3: 2-10. 7 figs. Jan. 1997.
–Engl. summ. Reports a large adult partial skeleton of Metaxytherium medium from the Tortonian (Late Mioc.) of Italy, and summarizes previous Italian occurrences of the species.
x
 
Carone, Giuseppe (detail)
   
1997b
Metaxytherium medium (Desmarest) 1822 (Dugongidae, Sirenia, Mammalia), delle arenarie tortoniane di Cessaniti (Calabria, Italia).
Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Museo Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 137(I-II): 91-100. 1 tab. 6 figs. Sept. 1997.
–Engl. summ. Reports a mandible with right and left M/2 from Late Miocene rocks in Calabria.
x
 
Carone, Giuseppe (detail)
   
2001
I fossili e la storia della vita a Tropea. In: G. Carone et al., Pianeta Tropea: materiali per una storia urbana e territoriale.
Assoc. Socio-culturale Anthropos, Atti del 1. Seminario di Studi Tropeani (1995) (104 pp.): 32-38. 3 figs. May 2001.
–Also published under the imprint of Qualecultura (Jaca Book), Vibo Valentia, Italy.
  Locates specimens of Metaxytherium medium in the stratigraphic section at Cava Gentile (34), and illustrates the head of the mounted skeleton described by Moncharmont Zei & Moncharmont (1987) (36).
 
 
Carone, Giuseppe; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2007
Metaxytherium serresii (Mammalia: Sirenia): new pre-Pliocene record, and implications for Mediterranean paleoecology before and after the Messinian Salinity Crisis.
Bol. Soc. Pal. Ital. 46(1): 55-92. 16 tabs. 3 figs. 13 pls. Aug. 31, 2007.
 
 
Carone, Giuseppe; Domning, Daryl Paul; Marra, Antonella Cinzia (detail)
   
2013
New finds of Metaxytherium serresii (Gervais, 1847) (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Upper Miocene of Monte Poro (Calabria, Italy).
Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 52(3): 187-196. 3 tabs. 4 figs. Publ. online Dec. 30, 2013.
–Italian summ. Abstr.: Carone & Marra, 2012, Giornate di Paleontologia XII - Catania: 26.
 
 
Carone, Giuseppe; Marra, Antonella Cinzia (detail)
   
2013
Recupero e restauro di un cranio di Metaxytherium serresii (Mammalia, Dugongidae) del bacino miocenico di Cessaniti-Zungri (Calabria, Italia).
Boll. Mus. Stor. Nat. Venezia 64: 131-140. 6 figs.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Carone, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Roberto (detail)
   
2020
A new record of fossil sirenians from the Miocene of Sardinia (Italy).
Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 59(2): 5 tabs. 5 figs. Sept. 2020 (publ. online, July 21, 2020).
–ABSTRACT: The first diagnostic sirenian material from Sardinia is reported and the fossil record of Miocene Sardinian sirenians is reviewed through an updated geological and stratigraphic framework. The new specimens are referred to Metaxytherium cf. M. krahuletzi Deperet, 1895, indicating the diffusion of the species into the mid-southern Tethys. We also state that the other specimens from the early middle Miocene previously found on the island should be assigned to the same species. We regard the holotype of Metaxytherium lovisati Capellini, 1886 as not diagnostic and consider it a nomen dubium. This conclusion is consistent with the taxonomic analysis given by Sorbi (2008) which winnowed the nominal taxa into four Miocene and Pliocene species.
Carowan, Glenn: SEE ALSO Rathbun et al., 1990. (detail)
x
 
Carowan, Glenn (detail)
   
1988
Manatees on the move.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 13(6-7): 5. 1 fig.
–Notice of release of two rehabilitated manatees at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, and of the exhibition of two other animals at Disney World's Epcot Center in Orlando. One of the rehabilitated animals had suffered apparent chemical burns in a drainage canal.
 
 
Carp, E. (detail)
   
1976
United Arab Emirates: report of survey of marine habitats carried out during 3-15 February 1975.
IUCN Publs. (n.s.) No. 35: 107-114.
 
 
Carr, Archie (detail)
   
1976
The blitz is on to save the seacow: Operation Mermaid.
Internatl. Wildlife 6(2): 12-17. 4 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1976.
 
 
Carr, Archie, III (detail)
   
1979
A sirenian saga.
Florida Naturalist 52(1): 11-13. 1 fig. Feb. 1979.
–Pop. acc. of manatee conservation in Florida.
 
 
Carr, J.; Milstein, T. (detail)
   
2017
Keep burning coal or the manatee gets it: rendering the carbon economy invisible through endangered species protection.
Antipode 50(1): 82-100. https://doi.org/10.111/anti.12355
 
 
Carr, John; Milstein, Tema (detail)
   
2018
Keep burning coal or the manatee gets it: Rendering the carbon economy invisible through endangered species protection.
Antipode 50(1): 82-100. https://www.academia.edu/35626631/KeepburningcoalorthemanateegetsitRenderingthecarboneconomyinvisiblethroughendangeredspeciesprotection
–ABSTRACT: As ever expanding accretions of human industrial and residential development pave over endangered Florida manatees' warm water springs winter habitat, more than half of the manatees have come to depend upon fossil fuel-burning power plant hot water effluent channels for survival. In an effort to save these manatees, environmental activists have leveraged the US Endangered Species Act to protect the effluent streams and, by extension, have enshrined the power plants themselves as ecological saviors. This study interrogates the paradoxes within the resulting spatio-legal regime. Recognizing the problematic human/nature binary at the heart of dominant Western practices, our study suggests spatial and legal regimes do not simply reify and reproduce this binary but also produce invisible ecocultural spaces that are essential to prop up an inherently unstable, illusory, and ultimately destructive definition of human existence.
Carr, Nicole: SEE Rathbun et al., 1985. (detail)
Carr, Thomas: SEE ALSO Rathbun et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Carr, Thomas (detail)
   
1994
The manatees and dolphins of the Miskito Coast Protected Area, Nicaragua.
NTIS Document No. PB 94-170354: iv + 19. 7 figs. May 1994.
Carranza, Baltasar Dorantes de: SEE Dorantes de Carranza, Baltasar. (detail)
 
 
Carrier, James; Carrier, Achsah (detail)
   
1980
Dugongs in Ponam Island, Manus Province.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 80/13: 1-45. 26 figs.
 
 
Carrington, Richard (detail)
   
1957a
Mermaids and mastodons: a book of natural and unnatural history.
New York, Rinehart & Co.; London, Chatto & Windus: 1-251. Illus.
–1961 ed., London, Sci. Book Guild: xvi + 251. 8 pls. French transl., Laffont, 1957.
x
 
Carrington, Richard (detail)
   
1957b
Mystery of the mermaids.
Sci. Digest 42(1): 33-39. July 1957.
–Condensed from Carrington (1957a). Pop. acc. of the origins of mermaid legends; sirs., 38-39.
 
 
Carrington, Richard (detail)
   
1958
Elephants: a short account of their natural history[,] evolution and influence on mankind.
London, Chatto & Windus; New York, Basic Books: 1-272. 39 figs. 24 pls.
–Sirs., 88-90.
 
 
Carruthers, T. J. B.; Dennison, W. C.; Longstaff, B. J.; Waycott, Michelle; Abal, E. G.; McKenzie, Len J.; Lee Long, Warren J. (detail)
   
2002
Seagrass habitats of northeast Australia: models of key processes and controls.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 71(3): 1153-1169. 1 tab. 7 figs.
 
 
Carter, A. M.; Miglino, M. A.; Ambrosio, C. E.; Santos, T. C.; Rosas, F. C. W.; D'Affonsêca Neto, J. A.; Lazzarini, S. M.; Carvalho, A. F.; da Silva, V. M. F. (detail)
   
2008
Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 20(4): 537-545. https://doi.org/10.1071/RD08009
 
 
Carter, T. D.; Hill, J. E.; Tate, G. H. H. (detail)
   
1945
Mammals of the Pacific world.
New York, Macmillan: xviii + 227.
–Dugong, 136-137.
Cartwright, Anne M.: SEE Kirkpatrick & Cartwright, 1975. (detail)
 
 
Carus, Julius Victor (detail)
   
1868
Handbuch der Zoologie. 1ster Band. Wirbelthiere, Mollusken und Molluscoiden.
Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann: ix + 894.
–Sirs., 163-168.
 
 
Carvajal, Gaspar de (detail)
   
1934
The discovery of the Amazon according to the account of Friar Gaspar de Carvajal and other documents. (H. C. Heaton, ed.)
Amer. Geogr. Soc. Spec. Publ. No. 17: xiv + 7-467. Illus.
–Account written 1541-42; originally edited by J. T. Medina; transl. from Spanish by B. T. Lee. First ed.: Seville, E. Rasco: ccxxxix + 278, 1894. Sirs., 190, 239, 319, 417, 419, 422. Considered by Whitehead (1977) to be the earliest account of T. inunguis.
x
 
Carvajal, J. (ed.) (detail)
   
2004
El cocinero Puerto-Riqueño ó formulario para confeccionar toda clase de alimentos, dulces y pasteles, conforme a los preceptos de la química y la higiene y á las circunstancias especiales del clima y de las costumbres Puerto-Riqueñas.
San Juan, Ediciones Puerto: 1-281.
–Ed. 5 (ed. 1, 1859). Gives a recipe for cooking manatee (100-101).
 
 
Carvalho, C. C.; Marmontel, M.; Botta, S.; Emin-Lima, R.; Costa, A. F.; Crema, L. C.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Secchi, E. R. (detail)
   
2022
Spatio-temporal, ontogenetic and sex-related patterns in resource use of Amazonian manatees across floodplains and estuaries as inferred by 13C and 15N isotopic values.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 32(6): 967-980. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3833
 
 
Carvalho, Camila Carvalho de; Gräbin, Diogo Maia; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2017
Observation of a potential mating herd in Amazonian manatee.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 12(1-2): 40-44. 4 figs. https://doi.org/10.5597/lajam00239.
x
 
Carvalho, Cory T. De; Toccheton, Armando J. (detail)
   
1969
Mamíferos do nordeste do Pará, Brasil.
Rev. Biol. Trop. (San Jose) 15(2): 215-226.
–Records a male specimen of T. inunguis (with 14 pairs of ribs and no nails) from Icoraci (Pinheiro), Brazil (224).
Carvalho, José Cândido de Melo: SEE ALSO Rodriguez Ferreira, A., 1972. (detail)
x
 
Carvalho, José Cândido de Melo (detail)
   
1967
A conservação da natureza e recursos naturais na Amazônia Brasileira.
Atas Simp. Biota Amaz. (June 6-11, 1966) 7: 1-47. 2 figs.
–Quotes some statistics on export of mixira (canned manatee meat) and manatee hides from Amazonia, and emphasizes the need for manatee reserves (25-27, 31, 33).
 
 
Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Groch, K. R.; Catão-Dias, J. L.; Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira de; Silva, Cristine Pereira Negrão; Monteiro, A. N. B.; Díaz-Delgado, J. (detail)
   
2019
Cerebral and cardiac congenital malformations in neonatal West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Comparative Pathology 166: 29-34. doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2018.10.173 Jan. 2019 (publ. online Nov. 30, 2018).
–ABSTRACT: Strandings of live new-born West Indian manatees (WIMs; Trichechus manatus) are one of the main challenges for the conservation of this species in Brazil, particularly in the northeastern states. Congenital malformations (CMs) are rare in sirenians. We identified CMs in two of 19 stranded WIMs that were rescued, rehabilitated and subjected to complete pathological examinations in Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte States between 1992 and 2017. In case 1, dilation of the cerebral lateral and fourth ventricles with abundant cerebrospinal fluid (internal hydrocephalus), was diagnosed. Furthermore, this animal developed necrotizing enterocolitis associated with pneumatosis intestinalis and aspiration pneumonia late during rehabilitation. Cardiac malformations in case 2 included: right ventricle hypoplasia with marked stenosis of the tricuspid outflow, high ventricular septal defect, segmental pulmonary artery aneurysm, mitral valve haemocyst and left ventricular hypertrophy. Herein, we provide the first description of a neural tube defect, specifically a developmental internal hydrocephalus, and multiple cardiac congenital anomalies, together with their respective clinicopathological features in manatees. Although the aetiology of the CMs remains unknown in these cases, a genetic basis is plausible given the low genetic variability in this population. These cases add to the body of knowledge on health and disease aspects of manatees and may provide scientific basis for future medical and conservation efforts on neonatal WIMs.
 
 
Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Oliveira de Meirelles, Ana Carolina; Alves Motta, Monica Regina; Colares Maia, Débora Castelo Branco de Sousa; Moraes Campello, Maria Verônica; Leal Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria (detail)
   
2009
Occurrence of Pulmonicola cochleotrema (syn. Cochleotrema cochleotrema) (Digenea: Opisthotrematidae) in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquat. Mamm. 7(1-2): 47-52. 1 tab. 3 figs. Dec. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: The present work reports the first record of the trematode parasite Pulmonicola cochleotrema in Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil. Out of 15 necropsied manatees in the State of Ceará, the parasite was found in the nares, trachea and bronchi of four animals (two juvenile males, one juvenile female and one adult female), for a prevalence of 26.7%. The parasites were identified based on morphological features observed in the 38 collected specimens. No pathological manifestations were observed associated with the presence of the parasites in the present study. The prevalence observed in the State of Ceará and the lack of reports of this parasite species in other states of northeastern Brazil may suggest the existence of an isolated population, a higher occurrence of the intermediate host, or differences in the feeding habits of the manatees.
 RESUMO: Este trabalho apresenta o primeiro registro do parasito trematóide Pulmonicola cochleotrema, em peixe-boi-marinho (Trichechus manatus manatus) no Brasil. De 15 peixes-bois necropsiados no Estado do Ceará, foram encontrados parasitos nas narinas, traquéiase brônquios de quatro animais (dois machos juvenis e duas fêmeas, sendo uma adulta e uma juvenil), com prevalência de 26.7%. A identificação dos parasitos foi feita com base nas características morfológicas observadas de 38 espécimes coletados. Não foram observados sinais patológicos relacionados com a presença dos parasitos no presente estudo. A prevalência observada para o Estado do Ceará e a ausência de registro deste parasito em peixes-bois-marinhos de outros Estados do Nordeste, pode sugerir a existência de uma população isolada, uma maior abundância de hospedeiros intermediários ou diferenças nos hábitos alimentares dos animais.
Cary, John R.: SEE Garrott et al., 1994, 1995. (detail)
Cascella, Antonio: SEE Bianucci et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Cascudo, Luis da Câmara (detail)
   
1979
Um pouco de folclore.
Cespaulista (São Paulo) 3(16): 28. Apr. 1979.
–Pop. acc. of folk beliefs concerning manatees in Brazil and West Africa, accompanying an article by Best & da Silva (1979).
 
 
Case, Ermine Cowles (detail)
   
1898
The development and geological relation of the vertebrates. V: Mammalia.
Jour. Geol. 6: 816-839.
–Sirs., 830.
x
 
Case, Ermine Cowles (detail)
   
1904
Mammalia. In: W. B. Clark, Systematic paleontology of the Miocene deposits of Maryland.
Maryland Geol. Surv., Miocene_: 1-56. Atlas, pls. 10-26.
–The type specimens of Trichechus giganteus (Manatus giganteus DeKay, 1842) are discussed (56-58) but apparently were not located; the radius and ulna of "a small species of Trichechus" are illustrated as "Trichechus giganteus (?)" (pl. 26).
 
 
Cashman, Mary E.; Ness, Traci L.; Roess, William B.; Bradley, W. Guy; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1996
Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding interleukin 2 from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(1): 89-98. 3 figs. Jan. 2, 1996.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Alvarez-Alemán, A., Torres, R.; Teague, A. L.; Barton, S. L.; Rood, K. A.; Ramos, E. A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. (detail)
   
2021a
First documentation of long-distance travel by a Florida manatee to the Mexican Caribbean.
Ethology, Ecology & Evolution DOI: 10.1080/03949370.2021.1967457
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Barba, Everardo; Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacobo; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Morales-Vela, Benjamín (detail)
   
2012
The trophic role of the endangered Caribbean manatee Trichechus manatus in an estuary with low abundance of seagrass.
Estuaries and Coasts 35(1): 60-77. 4 tabs. 4 figs. DOI 10.1007/s12237-011-9420-8. Jan. 2012 (publ. online June 11, 2011).
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Bermúdez-Romero, Ana Lucia; Gómez-Camelo, Isabel Victoria (detail)
   
2005
Ecología, distribución y conservación del manatí Trichechus manatus manatus en la Orinoquía colombiana. In: Programa Nacional de Conservación y Manejo de Manatíes en Colombia.
Bogotá, Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial - Fundación Omacha: 131-142. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Bermúdez-Romero, Ana Lucia; Gómez-Camelo, Isabel Victoria; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Trujillo, Fernando; Zerda-Ordoñez, Enrique (detail)
   
2009a
Seasonality of habitat use, mortality and reproduction of the Vulnerable [sic] Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in the Orinoco River, Colombia: implications for conservation.
Oryx 43(2): 235-242. 5 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Blanco-Parra, M. P.; Charruau, P.; Prezas, B.; Zamora-Vilchis, I.; Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto (detail)
   
2019
Detecting, counting and following the giants of the sea: a review of monitoring methods for aquatic megavertebrates in the Caribbean.
Wildlife Research 46(7): 545-556. doi.org/10.1071/WR19008 Oct. 9, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The Caribbean is a mega-diverse and bio-geographically important region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands, and surrounding coastlines. Among the billions of aquatic species inhabiting this region, the mega-vertebrates stand out for their social, economic and ecologic relevance. However, the Caribbean has been threatened by climate change, poverty, pollution, environmental degradation and intense growth of the tourism industry, affecting megafauna species directly and indirectly. Population monitoring plays a critical role in an informed conservation process and helps guide management decisions at several scales. The aim of the present review was to critically examine the methods employed for monitoring marine megafauna in the Caribbean, so as to create a framework for future monitoring efforts. In total, 235 documents describing protocols for the monitoring of sirenians, cetaceans, elasmobranchs, sea turtles and crocodilians in the Caribbean region, were reviewed. The methods included community-based monitoring (interviews, citizen science and fisheries monitoring), aerial surveys (by manned and unmanned aerial vehicles), boat-based surveys (including manta tow, and side-scan sonars), land-based surveys, acoustic monitoring, underwater surveys, baited remote underwater video, mark–recapture, photo-identification and telemetry. Monitoring efforts invested on aquatic megafauna in the Caribbean have been highly different, with some species and/or groups being prioritised over others. The present critical review provides a country-based overview of the current and emerging methods for monitoring marine megafauna and a critical evaluation of their known advantages, disadvantages and biases.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; et al. (detail)
   
2007
Mamíferos aquáticos. Chap. 14 in: Rapp Py-Daniel L. et al. (eds.), Biodiversidade do Médio Madeira: bases científicas para propostas de conservação.
Manaus, Probio/Mma.: 225-238.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Holguín, Victoria E.; Zapata (Morita), José Manuel (detail)
   
2005
Conservación y manejo del manatí en la Ciénaga de Paredes (Santander). In: Programa Nacional de Conservación y Manejo de Manatíes en Colombia.
Bogotá, Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial - Fundación Omacha: 105-113. 1 fig.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Kendall, Sarita; Orozco, D. L.; González, K. A. (detail)
   
2015
La conservación de los manatíes (Trichechus inunguis y Trichechus manatus) en áreas no protegida de Colombia. In: E. Payán, C. A. Lasso, & C. Castaño-Uribe (eds.), Conservación de grandes vertebrados en áreas no protegidas de Colombia.
Inst. de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, 81-98.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Slone, D. H.; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A.; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, H. A. (detail)
   
2015
Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags.
Mammalian Biology - Zs. f. Säugetierk. 80: 21-30.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Hernández-Arana, H. A.; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A. (detail)
   
2009b
Diet of manatees Trichechus manatus manatus in Chetumal Bay, Mexico.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquatic Mamms. 7(1-2): 39-46.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A. (detail)
   
2012
Using craniometrical predictors to infer body size of Antillean manatees.
Mammalia 78(1): 109-115. DOI:10.1515/mammalia-2012-0136
–ABSTRACT: Body size determines many physiological and ecological variables; however, there are few studies on this parameter for the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus). We studied an osteological collection and databases of Antillean manatees in Mexico to infer body measurements and to determine the body mass (BM)/body length (BL) relationship. The studied sample included 165 specimens: skulls (n=60), necropsies (n=51), and individuals captured for health assessment purposes (n=54). Specific regression equations for estimating BM were derived using the following craniometrical parameters: condylobasal length (BSL), occipital condyle width (OCW), and foramen magnum width (FMW). OCW and FMW were not significantly correlated with BL. The equation of the fitted model was BL=-121.644+10.8861×BSL (p<0.05, r2=0.93, SE=14.72). The allometric equation of weight/length relationship was defined as BM=exp (2.7477+0.0110957×BL) (p<0.05, r2=0.99, SE=0.07). The model showed a significant relationship between BL and BSL (>95%). Regression equations proved to be useful in estimating BL when only highly decomposed carcasses or skull dry bones are available, and in estimating weight when it is impossible to do it directly. Studies on biology history and age determination in T. m. manatus are required in order to establish an adequate age classification.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Nourisson, Coralie; Quintana-Rizzo, Ester; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A.; Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacobo (detail)
   
2012
Potential effects of human pressure and habitat fragmentation on population viability of the Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus: a predictive model.
Endang. Species Res. 18: 129-145.
–ABSTRACT: We present a population viability analysis for the metapopulation of the Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus with the aim of predicting its tendencies under various hypothetical scenarios of conservation. Multiple individual Monte Carlo simulations of deterministic and stochastic factors were run on VORTEX 9.73 software. Populations were defined using genetic structure, geographic barriers, and typical ranging behavior. Demographic characteristics and life history parameters were inferred from the most recent compilation of information on the subspecies or were extrapolated from the Florida manatee T. m. latirostris. The baseline model describes a metapopulation with a positive growth. This model was sensitive to changes in mortality, but did not show any significant response to variations in assumed carrying capacity, age at first reproduction, maximum reproductive age, or initial population size. We simulated different scenarios by modifying human pressure, habitat fragmentation, and catastrophic events (i.e. hurricanes). Additional combined models were developed to simulate the best- and worst-case scenarios for human pressure level and fragmentation. The model suggested that the metapopulation would not be able to withstand an annual anthropogenically induced mortality rate >5%. A decrease in the survival of transient individuals could also lead to a decline of the population. Variations of the hurricane parameters did not yield important changes in the population curves, but other effects of climatic change are discussed. The extensive geographical area used by manatees requires international collaboration to ensure the protection of the metapopulation through effective conservation strategies across countries.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Sáldivar, Janneth A.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D. H.; Reid, James P.; Morales-Vela, Benjamín (detail)
   
2012
Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(2): E166-E182. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00602.x Apr. 2013 (publ. online Sept. 17, 2012).
–ABSTRACT: Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.
 
 
Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Slone, D. H.; Landeo-Yauri, S. S.; Ramos, E.; Alvarez-Aleman, A.; et al. (detail)
   
2021b
Analysis of body condition indices reveals different ecotypes of the Antillean manatee.
Sci. Repts. 11(19451): 6 tabs. 6 figs. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98890-0 Sept. 30, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Assessing the body condition of wild animals is necessary to monitor the health of the population and is critical to defining a framework for conservation actions. Body condition indices (BCIs) are a non-invasive and relatively simple means to assess the health of individual animals, useful for addressing a wide variety of ecological, behavioral, and management questions. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered subspecies of the West Indian manatee, facing a wide variety of threats from mostly human-related origins. Our objective was to define specific BCIs for the subspecies that, coupled with additional health, genetic and demographic information, can be valuable to guide management decisions. Biometric measurements of 380 wild Antillean manatees captured in seven different locations within their range of distribution were obtained. From this information, we developed three BCIs (BCI1?=?UG/SL, BCI2?=?W/SL3, BCI3?=?W/(SL*UG2)). Linear models and two-way ANCOVA tests showed significant differences of the BCIs among sexes and locations. Although our three BCIs are suitable for Antillean manatees, BCI1 is more practical as it does not require information about weight, which can be a metric logistically difficult to collect under particular circumstances. BCI1 was significantly different among environments, revealing that the phenotypic plasticity of the subspecies have originated at least two ecotypes -- coastal marine and riverine -- of Antillean manatees.
 
 
Castellini, Michael (detail)
   
2012
Life under water: physiological adaptations to diving and living at sea.
Comprehensive Physiology 2(3): 1889-1919. DOI: 10.1002/cphy.c110013. July 2012.
–ABSTRACT: This review covers the field of diving physiology by following a chronological approach and focusing heavily on marine mammals. Because the study of modern diving physiology can be traced almost entirely to the work of Laurence Irving in the 1930s, this particular field of physiology is different than most in that it did not derive from multiple laboratories working at many locations or on different aspects of a similar problem. Because most of the physiology principles still used today were first formulated by Irving, it is important to the study of this field that the sequence of thought is examined as a progression of theory. The review covers the field in roughly decadal blocks and traces ideas as they were first suggested, tested, modified and in some cases, abandoned. Because diving physiology has also been extremely dependent on new technologies used in the development of diving recorders, a chronological approach fits well with advances in electronics and mechanical innovation. There are many species that dive underwater as part of their natural behavior, but it is mainly the marine mammals (seals, sea lions, and whales) that demonstrate both long duration and dives to great depth. There have been many studies on other diving species including birds, snakes, small aquatic mammals, and humans. This work examines these other diving species as appropriate and a listing of reviews and relevant literature on these groups is included at the end.
Castelnau, F. de: SEE Gervais, F.L.P., 1855a. (detail)
x
 
Castro, Eugenio de (detail)
   
1929
O "pôrto de Pernambuco" e o porto do "Rio de Pernambuco" em 1530: Um aspecto classico da navegação quinhentista.
Rev. Inst. Archeol. Hist. Geogr. Pernambucano 29(139): 157-161.
–Refers to "sea monsters" [more likely sea lions than manatees] seen at the "Rio de Pernambuco or Igaraçu" circa 1526 (160).
Castro, Eurico Freundt de: SEE Freundt de Castro, Eurico. (detail)
Castro, Francisco de Soza de: SEE Soza de Castro, Francisco de. (detail)
Castro, Napoleón: SEE Neville et al., 1976. (detail)
x
 
Caton, Albert (detail)
   
1979
Dugong, like mermaids, are scarce but northern Australian population may be increasing.
Austral. Fisheries 38(7): 13, 15-17. 4 figs. July 1979.
–Australian Fisheries Reprint No. 65. Pop. acc. of dugong research and conservation in Australia, with an account of the workshop held in Townsville in May 1979 (see Marsh, H., 1981a); color photos of harpoons and hunters.
 
 
Caton, Albert (detail)
   
1980
Dugong: a special animal in ritual and tradition.
Aboriginal News 3(8): 15-17. 2 figs.
 
 
Catullo, Tommaso Antonio (detail)
   
1827
Saggio di zoologia fossile.
Padua, Tipografia del Seminario: 1-348. 8 pls.
–Abstr.: Taschenb. Ges. Mineral. 1828: 445-475?
Catzeflis, François M.: SEE Lavergne et al., 1996. (detail)
Catzigras, F.: SEE Anglada et al., 1974. (detail)
 
 
Caulín, Antonio (detail)
   
1779
Historia corográfica, natural y evangélica de la Nueva Andalucía, provincias de Cumaná, Guayana y vertientes del Rio Orinoco.
Madrid, Juan de San Martin: 1-482. 3 pls. 1 map.
–Gives two versions of a drawing of a manatee, both reproduced by Durand (1983: 178-179).
x
 
Cave, Alexander J. E. (detail)
   
1979
The mammalian temporo-pterygoid ligament.
Jour. Zool. 188(4): 517-532. 12 figs. Aug. 1979.
–Illustrates and compares the pterygoid hamuli of various mammalian genera, including Trichechus and Dugong (530-531).
x
 
Cave, Alexander J. E. (detail)
   
1993
On the morphological constitution of the cetacean pituitary region.
Investigations on Cetacea 24: 253-258. 6 figs.
–Notes the "absence of pituitary fossa and dorsum sellae" in T. manatus (256-258, fig. 6).
 
 
Cave, Alexander J. E.; Aumonier, F. J. (detail)
   
1967
Observations on dugong histology.
Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc. 87(1): 113-121.
–Descriptions of lymph nodes and thyroid gland.
 
 
Cayaban, Leo; Harrison, Mariel (detail)
   
2012
Palawan dugongs.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 16-17. 3 figs. June 2012.
–Dugongs in the Philippines.
Ceja-Moreno, V.: SEE Noreno-B. et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Cerecedo, Doris; Stock, Roberto; Gonzalez, Sirenia; Reyes, Elba; Mondragon, Ricardo (detail)
   
2002
Modification of actin, myosin and tubulin distribution during cytoplasmic granule movements associated with platelet adhesion.
Haematologica 87(11): 1165-1176.
Cerný, K.: SEE Stivens & Cerný, 1976. (detail)
 
 
Chabaud, A.-G.; Bain, O. (detail)
   
1965
Description de Hartwichia rousseloti n.gen., n.sp., ascaride parasite de crocodile et remarques sur la famille des Heterocheilidae Railliet et Henry, 1912.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) Sér. 2, 37: 848-853.
x
 
Chambers, Marcus R.; Bani, Ernest (detail)
   
1989
Vanuatu - safe haven for the dugong.
The Pilot (Nairobi, IUCN & UNEP Marine Mammal Action Plan) No. 4: 13-14. 2 figs. Sept. 1989.
–Pop. acc. of aerial and questionnaire surveys in 1987-88, concluding that the dugong population is sparse but apparently stable, and that questionnaires are much more suitable for areas like Vanuatu than aerial surveys.
 
 
Chambers, Marcus R.; Bani, Ernest; Barker-Hudson, B. E. T. (detail)
   
1989
The status of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in Vanuatu.
Topic Review (Nouméa, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission) No. 37: 1-63.
 
 
Chance, M. R. A. (detail)
   
1996
Reason for externalization of the testis of mammals.
Jour. Zool. 239(4): 691-695.
Chancellor, Deborah: SEE Schad et al., 1981. (detail)
Channells, Peter W.: SEE ALSO Marsh et al., 1982; Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells, 1984. (detail)
x
 
Channells, Peter W.; Morrissey, Janice (detail)
   
1981
Technique for the analysis of seagrass genera present in dugong stomachs, including a key to North Queensland seagrasses based on cell details. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 303-309. 1 pl.
–Describes a technique for quantifying the generic composition of digesta samples, and gives a key to seven genera based on epidermal cells.
Chantrapornsyl, Supot: SEE Adulyanukosal & Chantrapornsyl, 1994; Adulyanukosal et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Chapla, Marie E.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Sadler, Valerie M. (detail)
   
2007
CT scans and 3D reconstructions of Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) heads and ear bones.
Hearing Research 228(1-2): 123-135. 6 tabs. 9 figs. + online supplementary material. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2007.01.029
–ABSTRACT: The auditory anatomy of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was investigated using computerized tomography (CT),three-dimensional reconstructions, and traditional dissection of heads removed during necropsy. The densities (kg/m3) of the soft tissues of the head were measured directly using the displacement method and those of the soft tissues and bone were calculated from CT measurements (Hounsfield units). The manatee's fatty tissue was significantly less dense than the other soft tissues within the head (p< 0.05). The squamosal bone was significantly less dense than the other bones of the head (p< 0.05). Measurements of the ear bones (tympanic, periotic, malleus, incus, and stapes) collected during dissection revealed that the ossicular chain was overly massive for the mass of the tympanoperiotic complex.
Chapman, Douglas G.: SEE Eberhardt et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Chapman, Henry C. (detail)
   
1876
Observations on the structure of the manatee.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1875(3) (= (3)5): 452-462. Pl. 26. Mar. 1876.
–Notes on the dissection of two Guiana manatees which died in Philadelphia, and on their behavior in captivity.
 
 
Charleton, Walter (= Charlton, Walter) (detail)
   
1677
Exercitationes de differentiis et nominibus animalium. Quibus accedunt Mantissa anatomica, et quaedam de variis fossilium generibus, deque differentiis & nominibus colorum. Editio secunda duplo fere auctior priori, novisque iconibus ornata.
Oxford, E Theatro Sheldoniano.
–Ed. 1, 1668. In 3 parts. Piscium Cetaceorum Classis (pars ii), 8: Manati, p. 49.
 
 
Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier de (detail)
   
1730-31
Histoire de l'Isle Espagnole ou de S. Domingue....
Paris, F. Barois: 2 vols. Maps & plans.
–Also publ. under the imprints of F. Didot and H.-L. Guerin. Manatee, lib. I (reprinted by Durand, 1983: 30).
 
 
Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier de (detail)
   
1744
Histoire et description generale de la Nouvelle France, avec le journal historique d'un voyage fait par ordre du Roi dans l'Amérique Septentrionnale.
Paris, Veuve Ganeau (3 vols.). Maps.
–Allen 222 & 223, which see for more data. Actually five eds. were issued at Paris by different publishers in 1744; in addition to those by Ganeau and Giffart cited by Allen, there are eds. by Didot, Nyon, and Rollin. "Vache marine", 143-149.
x
 
Charnock-Wilson, John P. (detail)
   
1968
The manatee in British Honduras.
Oryx 9(4): 293-294. Pls. 13-14. May 1968.
–Brief account of the ecology, habits, and status of T. m. manatus; concludes that the species is abundant and not endangered in British Honduras.
x
 
Charnock-Wilson, John P. (detail)
   
1970
Manatees and crocodiles.
Oryx 10(4): 236-238. May 1970.
–States that manatees appear to be numerous and thriving in British Honduras, and seldom hunted by man (236).
 
 
Charnock-Wilson, John P.; Bertram, Cicely Kate Ricardo; Bertram, George Colin Lawder (detail)
   
1974
The manatee in Belize.
Belize Audubon Soc. Bull. 6(1): 1-4. Mar. 1974.
–Abstr.: Oryx 13(3): 230, Feb. 1976.
 
 
Charvet, Christine J., Reep, Roger L.; Finlay, Barbara L. (detail)
   
2015
Evolution of cytoarchitectural landscapes in the mammalian isocortex: Sirenians (Trichechus manatus) in comparison with other mammals.
Journal of Comparative Neurology DOI : 10.1002/cne.23864. Published online September 2, 2015.
–ABSTRACT:
 The isocortex of several primates and rodents shows a systematic increase in the number of neurons per unit of cortical surface area from its rostrolateral to caudomedial border. The steepness of the gradient in neuronal number and density is positively correlated with cortical volume. The relative duration of neurogenesis along the same rostrocaudal gradient predicts a substantial fraction of this variation in neuron number and laminar position, which is produced principally from layers II–IV neurons. However, virtually all of our quantitative knowledge about total and laminar variation in cortical neuron numbers and neurogenesis comes from rodents and primates, leaving whole taxonomic groups and many intermediate-sized brains unexplored. Thus, the ubiquity in mammals of the covariation of longer cortical neurogenesis and increased cortical neuron number deriving from cortical layers II–IV is undetermined. To begin to address this gap, we examined the isocortex of the manatee using the optical disector method in sectioned tissue, and also assembled partial data from published reports of the domestic cat brain. The manatee isocortex has relatively fewer neurons per total volume, and fewer II–IV neurons than primates with equivalently sized brains. The gradient in number of neurons from the rostral to the caudal pole is intermediate between primates and rodents, and, like those species, is observed only in the upper cortical layers. The cat isocortex (Felis domesticus) shows a similar structure. Key species for further tests of the origin, ubiquity, and significance of this organizational feature are discussed
 
 
Chase, Athol (detail)
   
1980
Cultural continuity: land and resource among East Cape York Aborigines. In: N. C. Stevens & A. Bailey (eds.), Contemporary Cape York Peninsula.
Brisbane, Royal Society of Queensland: 83-88.
x
 
Chase, Athol (detail)
   
1981
Dugongs and indigenous cultural systems: some introductory remarks. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 112-122.
–Outlines Australian Aboriginal practices and attitudes regarding use of dugongs and other resources, arguing that the adoption of European technology may not necessarily lead to greater resource exploitation.
Chase, J. A.: SEE Randall et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Chasen, F. N. (detail)
   
1925
A preliminary account of the mammals of Singapore Island (concluded).
Singapore Naturalist 5: 74-89.
x
 
Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher R.; Bajpai, Sunil (detail)
   
2017
The restless Indian Plate and its epic voyage from Gondwana to Asia: Its tectonic, paleoclimatic, and paleobiogeographic evolution.
Geological Soc. of America Special Paper 529: iv + 147. Illus. https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE529 Jan. 1, 2017.
–Brief summary of Eoc. sir. fossil record in India and elsewhere (88 [Table 11], 92).
x
 
Chavanon, S.; Saubade, A. M. (detail)
   
1970
Découverte d'un squelette d'Halitherium Kaup aux environs de Saint-Emilion (Gironde).
Bull. Inst. Géol. Bassin Aquitaine 8: 261-262. 3 figs.
–Engl. summ. Reports ribs and vertebrae from the Calcaire á Astéries (Oligocene).
 
 
Cheek, Henry H. (detail)
   
1830
On the natural history of the dugong, (Halicore indicus, Desm.) - the mermaid of early writers; and particularly on the differences which occur in its dental characters.
Edinburgh Jour. Nat. & Geogr. Sci. 1: 161-172. "Dec. 1829" (read to Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., Nov. 3, 1829).
–Allen 744.
x
 
Cheesman, R. E. (detail)
   
1926
In unknown Arabia.
London, Macmillan & Co., Ltd.: xx + 447.
–The appendix contains a brief note on the presence of the dugong in the Red Sea (348; m350).
x
 
Chelnokov, F. G. (detail)
   
1969
Ostatki skeleta morskoi korovy. [Sea cow skeletal remains.]
Priroda (Moscow) 1969(1): 71-73. 3 figs.
–Describes the collection of skulls and other bones of Rhytina on Bering Island in 1967, and suggests that the bone accumulations there are the result of the 18th-century butcherings.
Chen, C. L.: SEE Francis-Floyd et al., 1991. (detail)
Chen, David H.: SEE Mou Sue et al., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Chen, Xin-jian (detail)
   
2012
Simulating hydrodynamics in a spring-fed estuary using a three-dimensional unstructured Cartesian grid model.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 115: 246-259. 4 tabs. 9 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2012.09.007. December 10, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: This paper presents an application of a three-dimensional unstructured Cartesian grid model (Chen, 2011) to a real-world case, namely the Crystal River/Kings Bay system located on the Gulf coast of the Florida peninsula of the United States. Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system which is believed to be the largest natural refuge in the United States for manatees during the coldest days in winter because of the existence of a large amount of discharge out of numerous spring vents at the bottom of Kings Bay. The unstructured Cartesian grid model was used to simulate hydrodynamics, including salinity transport processes and thermodynamics, in the estuary during a 34-month period from April 2007 to February 2010. Although there are some unidentified uncertainties in quantifying flow rates from the spring vents and salinity variations in spring flows, simulated water elevations, salinities, temperatures, and cross-sectional flux all match well or very well with measured real-time field data. This suggests that the unstructured Cartesian grid model can adequately simulate hydrodynamics in a complex shallow water system such as Crystal River/Kings Bay and the numerical theory for the unstructured Cartesian grid model works properly. The successful simulation of hydrodynamics in the estuarine system also suggests that an empirical formula that relates the spring discharge with the water level in Kings Bay and the groundwater level measured in a nearby well is reasonable.
 
 
Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine; Kaewkool, Manthanee; Poommouang, Anocha; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Kittiwattanawong, Kongkiat; Nganvongpanit, Korakot (detail)
   
2020
Age relationships with telomere length, body weight and body length in wild dugong (Dugong dugon).
PeerJ 8: e10319. 4 tabs. 5 figs. + online supplemental information. doi:10.7717/peerj.10319 Nov. 11, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: The ability to estimate age and determine the growth status of free-ranging dugongs (Dugong dugon) is vital to providing insight into the basic biology of this endangered species. Currently, age estimation in dugong carcasses relies on counting dentin growth layer groups (GLGs) in tusks, but a disadvantage is they need to be intact. We explored whether measures of telomere length could be used as an alternative approach to age estimation in dugongs given that in other species, telomere length and age are inversely related. In this study, relative telomere length (rTL) was measured by qPCR in skin samples from 24 dugongs of varying ages determined by counts of GLGs. In addition, relationships between age by GLG counts and body weight and length and were examined. Our findings indicate that age estimated by GLGs was negatively correlated with telomere length using the logistic formula with a rate of telomere attrition of approximately 0.036 rTL/year between the ages of 5–20 years. By comparison, both body weight and length were positively correlated with GLG-based age, with growth rates of ~8.8 kg/year for weight and ~3.58 cm/year for length, respectively. After that, growth rates slowed substantially and then plateaued. The results suggest that physical maturity in dugongs occurs at 20 years of age and that measures of rTL might serve as a tool for age estimation in dugongs, living and deceased.
 
 
Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Kittiwattanawong, Kongkiat; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana (detail)
   
2014
Dugong aerial surveys 2011-2012: declining trend of the dugong population in Muk-Talibong Island, Thailand.
Proc. Design Symposium on Conservation of Ecosystem (The 13th SEASTAR2000 Workshop) 2: 50-54. 4 tabs. 1 fig. Mar. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Muk-Talibong Islands in Trang Province are a habitat for the largest group of dugongs on Thailand's Andaman coast. Since 1994, the Phuket Marine Biological Center has regularly conducted aerial surveys over the area with various kinds of aircraft. In 2011 and 2012, the small aircraft model Tecnum P92J was used in line transect aerial surveys. Survey efforts were four flights (15.01 hours) and seven flights (17.14 hours) respectively. In 2011, the dugong detection rate was 51±50 animals per day, with a maximum count of 122 animals. In 2012, however, the dugong detection rate was 26±14 animals per day, with a maximum count of 54 animals. As a result of comparing the dugong detection rates for both years, we found that the number of dugongs is decreasing, even though the aerial survey periods in each year were the same month and tidal time. Windspeed is likely to be a physical factor that might lead to these results. Ranges of wind speed were 0-6 knot in 2011 and 5-17 knot in 2012. The wind speed affects waves and turbidity, and this may negatively affect visual detection of dugongs. Therefore, further aerial surveys in different weather conditions and dugong stranding reports may help to better understand the declining trends of dugongs in the area.
Cherepanov, Stepan: SEE Domning, D. P., 1978b. (detail)
x
 
Chermont de Miranda, Vicente (detail)
   
1905
Glossario paraense ou collecção de vocabulos peculiares á Amazonia e especialmente á Ilha do Marajó.
Pará, Livr. Maranhense: v + 120.
–Discusses the etymology of the Tupi word "michira", used for manatee meat fried and preserved in its own fat (62).
Chernova, O. F.: SEE Sokolov, Chernova et al., 1986. (detail)
Chetyrbok, I. S.: SEE Mukhametov et al., 1992, 1994. (detail)
Chiam, Ernest: SEE Smith et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Chiang, Mona (detail)
   
2008
High-tech rescue: an innovative project spares manatees' lives.
Science World 65(3): 8-10. Illus. Oct. 6, 2008.
–Pop. acc. describing a new sonic anti-crush system being installed on canal lock gates near Lake Okeechobee, Florida.
 
D
Chiba, Kentaro; Fiorillo, Anthony R.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Kimura, Yuri; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Kohno, Naoki; Nishida, Yosuke; Polcyn, Michael J.; Tanaka, Kohei (detail)
   
2015
A new desmostylian mammal from Unalaska (USA) and the robust Sanjussen jaw from Hokkaido (Japan), with comments on feeding in derived desmostylids.
Historical Biology 28(1-2): 289-303. 1 tab. 9 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2015.1046718 Publ. online Oct. 1, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Derived members of the enigmatic mammalian order Desmostylia have molars comprising appressed columns whose morphology does not render their function in feeding simple to discern. Here we describe a new genus and species, Ounalashkastylus tomidai, more derived than Cornwallius but less derived than Desmostylus and Vanderhoofius, which develop a hypertrophied medial eminence on the dentary ontogenetically. Tooth morphology, vaulted palate and the medial eminence, which can rise to the level of the occlusal surface of M2, suggest that derived desmostylids clenched their teeth strongly while employing suction during feeding, most likely on marine and coastal plants.
Chiji, Manzo: SEE Ikebe et al., 1972. (detail)
Child, Gilbert S.: SEE Henshaw & Child, 1972. (detail)
 
 
Chilvers, B. Louise; Delean, Steven; Gales, Nicholas J.; Holley, David K.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
2004
Diving behaviour of dugongs, Dugong dugon.
Jour. Exper. Marine Biol. Ecol. 304: 203-224.
–The following Corrigendum to this article was published in Jour. Exper. Marine Biol. Ecol. 315: 115, 2005: {{"The authors regret to inform you of an error in Figure 1 of this article. Two place names in Figure 1 have been mislabelled. The location labelled as Hervey Bay is actually Shoalwater Bay and the location labelled Shoalwater Bay is Hervey Bay.
 "Apologies for any confusion this error may have caused."}}
 
 
Chilvers, B. Louise; Lawler, Ivan R.; Macknight, F.; Marsh, Helene D.; Noad, M.; Paterson, R. (detail)
   
2005
Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia: an example of the co-existence of significant marine mammal populations and large-scale coastal development.
Biol. Conserv. 122: 559-571.
 
 
Chin, L. (detail)
   
1971
Protected animals in Sarawak.
Sarawak Mus. Jour. 19: 359-361.
 
 
Ching, John Lionel (detail)
   
1888
Halicore dugong australis.
Melbourne, printed by J. J. Miller: 1-7.
–Advertising brochure for dugong oil.
Chinzei, Kiyotaka: SEE ALSO Ikebe et al., 1972; Inuzuka et al., 1984. (detail)
 
D
Chinzei, Kiyotaka (detail)
   
1984
Modes of occurrence, geologic range and geographic distribution of desmostylians.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 13-23. 4 figs. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Chobee, O. K. (pseudonym) (detail)
   
1893
From furthest south. A sportsman's pets.
Forest & Stream 40(18): 381. 1 fig. May 4, 1893.
 
 
Choi, K. F.; Campos, T. M.; Meirelles, A. C. O. de; Campos, A. A.; Fernandes, M. B. (detail)
   
2009
Design of a wildlife refuge area for the conservation of the West Indian manatee.
Brazlian Jour. Nature Conservation 7(2): 174-181.
x
 
Chow, Barbara A. (detail)
   
1991
Diet and the West Indian manatee.
Jamaica Naturalist 1: 36. 1 fig.
–Very brief pop. acc. of manatee digestion.
 
 
Chow, Barbara A. (detail)
   
1997
Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica.
Publications of the Foundation for Scientific Research in the Caribbean 139: 1-22.
 
 
Christmas, W. (detail)
   
1892
Amazonfloden: erindringer og skildringer.
Copenhagen, Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag (F. Hegel & Søn): 1-249. Illus.
–Manatee, 51-52.
 
 
Christol, Jules de (detail)
   
1832a
Comparaison de la population contemporaine des mammifères de deux bassins tertiaires du département de l'Hérault.
Ann. Sci. Indust. du Midi de la France (Soc. de Statistique de Marseilles) 1: 215-224, 273-296, Pls. 5-6; 2: 15-29.
–Abstrs.: Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)128, 1833?; L'Institut 2(42): 75-76, Mar. 1, 1834 (Allen 809). Read to Acad. Sci. Paris, Feb. 24, 1834. ?Repr.: Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (2)4: 193-238, 1835 (Allen 844)?
 
 
Christol, Jules de (detail)
   
1832b
Mémoire sur le moyen hippopotame fossile de Cuvier, replacé au genre des dugongs.
Ann. Sci. Indust. du Midi de la France (Soc. de Statistique de Marseilles) 2: 161-176, 241-253. Pls. 6-7.
–Abstr.: L'Institut 2: 71. Reprinted, somewhat abbreviated and with minor editorial changes, in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (2)2: 257-277, pl. 13, 1834 (Allen 810) [publ. Mar. 25, 1835, fide de Blainville, 1844: 95]. The new specific name Halicore Cuvierii is given on p. 244 (274 in 1835 ed.). See also Brongniart & Cuvier (1834).
 
 
Christol, Jules de (detail)
   
1840
Recherches sur divers ossements fossiles attribués par Cuvier à deux phoques, au lamantin, et à deux espèces d'hippopotames, et rapportés au Metaxytherium, nouveau genre de cétacé de la famille des dugongs.
L'Institut Ann. 8, Sect. 1, No. 352: 322-323. Sept. 24, 1840.
–Allen 980. Abstr.: Rev. Zool. 3: 283, Sept. 1840 (Allen 979); C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 11(12): 527-529, read Sept. 21, 1840. All of these summarize the memoir published in full as de Christol (1841a). The notice in L'Institut, apparently the first of these to appear in print, was the first publication of the generic name Metaxytherium.
 
 
Christol, Jules de (detail)
   
1841a
Recherches sur divers ossemens fossiles attribués par Cuvier à deux phoques, au lamantin, et à deux espèces d'hippopotame, et rapportés au Métaxythérium, nouveau genre de cétacé, de la famille des dugongs.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (2)15: 307-336. Pl. 7. Read to Acad. Sci. Paris, Sept. 21, 1840.
 
 
Christol, Jules de (detail)
   
1841b
Nouvelles recherches sur le Metaxytherium.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 12: 119-120.
–Abstr.: L'Institut 9: 11-12?
 
 
Christol, Jules de (detail)
   
1852
Lettre à M. Delesse.
Bull. Soc. Gèol. France (2)9: 255.
–Discusses Metaxytherium cuvieri.
 
 
Chu, Dan; Dampier, Cindy (detail)
   
1990
Florida's sea doc, Jesse White, fights to save the gentle, helpless manatee.
People Mag. [vol.?] 2 pp. 4 figs.
 
 
Chua, Frederic H. C.; Mackay, Bruce; Whitfield, Mark; Ooi, Ee-Lin (detail)
   
2001
Rehabilitation and display of a stranded dugong (Dugong dugon) calf in Singapore.
Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. (Monaco), Num. Spec. 20(1): 403-406.
 
 
Church, A. E. (detail)
   
1945
The dugong hunt.
Walkabout 11(7): 29-30. 1 fig. May 1, 1945.
–Pop. acc. of dugong hunt at Sabai Is., Torres Strait, Australia.
Cichra, C. E.: SEE Francis-Floyd et al., 1991. (detail)
Cigala-Fulgosi, Franco: SEE ALSO Pilleri & Cigala-Fulgosi, 1989. (detail)
 
 
Cigala-Fulgosi, Franco; Pilleri, Georg (detail)
   
1985
The Lower Serravallian cetacean fauna of Visiano (Northern Apennines, Parma, Italy).
Invest. Cetacea 17: 55-116.
 
 
Cilento, Raphael; Lack, Clem (eds.) (detail)
   
1959
Triumph in the tropics: an historical sketch of Queensland.
Brisbane, Smith & Paterson Pty. Ltd.: 1-446. Illus.
–Account of the Queensland dugong fishery, 219-221.
 
 
Cione, Alberto Luis; Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Bond, Mariano; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Casciotta, Jorge R.; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto; Fuente, Marcelo de la; Gasparini, Zulma; Goin, Francisco J.; Noriega, Jorge; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo J.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Tonni, Eduardo Pedro; Verzi, Diego; Vucetich, María Guiomar (detail)
   
2000
Miocene vertebrates from Entre Ríos province, eastern Argentina. In: F. G. Aceñolaza & R. Herbst (eds.), El Neógeno de Argentina.
INSUGEO, Serie Correlación Geológica 14: 191-237. 3 tabs. 10 figs.
 
 
Cione, Alberto Luis; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto; Dozo, María Teresa; Acosta Hospitaleche, Carolina (detail)
   
2011
Marine vertebrate assemblages in the southwest Atlantic during the Miocene.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 423–440. 1 tab. 7 figs.
–Spanish summ. Sirenians, pp. 431 [Metaxitherium (sic) and Dioplotherium], 434, 435, 437 (Metaxytherium and Dioplotherium in Table 1).
 
 
Ciotti, Leandro L.; Luna, Fábia O.; Secchi, Eduardo R. (detail)
   
2014
Intra- and interindividual variation in d13C and d15N composition in the Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus from northeastern Brazil.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 30: 10 pp. 3 tabs. 1 fig. DOI:10.1111/mms.12102. Publ. online Jan. 13, 2014.
 
 
Ciotti, Leandro Lazzari; Secchi, Eduardo Resende (detail)
   
2012
The Antillean manatee.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 46: 12-13. 2 figs. June 2012.
–Diet of TMM in Brazil.
Clapham, P. J.: SEE Mattila et al., 1994. (detail)
Clapp, F. G.: SEE Matson & Clapp, 1909. (detail)
 
 
Clark, B. (detail)
   
1976
Florida manatee born at Miami Seaquarium on 3 May, 1975.
Internatl. Zoo News 131: 37-38.
 
D
Clark, Bruce L.; Arnold, Ralph (detail)
   
1923
Fauna of the Sooke Formation, Vancouver Island.
Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 14(5): 123-234. Pls. 15-42. Nov. 6, 1923.
–Discussion of Desmostylus sookensis, 178-179.
x
 
Clark, Eugenie (detail)
   
1953
Lady with a spear.
New York, Harper & Bros.: xii + 243. Illus.
–Account of Red Sea dugongs (175-176, 212, 224-225, 3 pls.).
x
 
Clark, J. W. (detail)
   
1889
On the skeleton of Rhytina gigas lately acquired for the Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, with some account of the history and extinction of the animal.
Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 6: 340-342. Read Feb. 25, 1889.
–States (342) that the skeleton was acquired through the U.S. National Museum, and came from Bering Island.
Clark, James M.: SEE ALSO Domning & Clark, 1993. (detail)
x
D
Clark, James M. (detail)
   
1991
A new early Miocene species of Paleoparadoxia (Mammalia: Desmostylia) from California.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 11(4): 490-508. 5 tabs. 6 figs. Dec. 31, 1991.
–Describes P. weltoni, n.sp. (494), based on the anterior half of a skeleton from the earliest Miocene Skooner Gulch Formation, Point Arena, California. The phylogenetic relationships of the species are emphasized, and a cladistic analysis of the Desmostylia is presented.
x
D
Clark, Joseph C. (detail)
   
1981
Stratigraphy, paleontology, and geology of the central Santa Cruz Mountains, California Coast Ranges.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1168: iv + 51. 7 tabs. 14 figs. 2 pls.
–Reports Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia tabatai, and Halianassa vanderhoofi from the Santa Margarita Formation, and the latter species also from the Purisima Formation (both Late Miocene) (27-28, 34).
 
 
Clark, Joseph C.; Brabb, E. E.; Addicott, Warren O. (detail)
   
1979
Tertiary paleontology and stratigraphy of the central Santa Cruz Mountains, California Coast Ranges.
Guidebook Geol. Soc. Amer. Cordilleran Sect. 75th Ann. Meeting: 1-23. Apr. 1979.
Clark, L. A.: SEE Marshall, Clark & Reep, 1998. (detail)
 
 
Clark, Margaret Goff (detail)
   
1990
The vanishing manatee.
New York, Cobblehill Books: 1-64. 25 figs.
–Rev.: Susan Markley, Sea Frontiers 37(4): 60, Aug. 1991. Children's book, emphasizing research and conservation efforts on behalf of the Florida manatee. Well illustrated with color photos, mostly by Patrick M. Rose.
Clark, Tim W.: SEE Wallace & Clark, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Clark, W. E. Le Gros; Sonntag, Charles F. (detail)
   
1926
A monograph of Orycteropus afer. - III. The skull.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1926(2): 445-485. Figs. 70-73. July 15, 1926 (read Feb. 23, 1926).
–Sirs., 454, 459.
Clarke, J. T.: SEE Leatherwood et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Clarke, Robert (detail)
   
1843
Sierra Leone. A description of the manners and customs of the liberated Africans; with observations upon the natural history of the colony, and a notice of the native tribes, &c. &c.
London, J. Ridgway: iv + 178.
–Sirs., 128.
 
 
Clarke, S. F. (detail)
   
1891
The habits and embryologie of the alligator.
Jour. Morph. 5(2): 181-214.
–Mentions manatees in the St. Lucie River, Florida.
x
 
Claudius, Friedrich Matthias (detail)
   
1867
Das Gehörorgan von Rhytina stelleri.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (7)11(5): 1-14. 2 pls. June 1867 (read Nov. 29, 1866).
–Discussion of hearing and ear apparatus in a variety of animals; detailed description of the bones of the ear region in Rhytina and comparison with those of Manatus, Halicore, and Halitherium (6-14). The plates show the ear bones of Rhytina.
 
 
Claudius, Friedrich Matthias (detail)
   
1868
Über Schallzuleitung zum Labyrinthe. Aus einer Abhandlung über Rhytina stelleri.
Monatsschr. Ohrenheilk. 2: 111.
Clauson, Barbara L.: SEE Timm et al., 1986, 1989. (detail)
 
 
Clavigero, Francesco Saverio (detail)
   
1780
Storia antica del Messico cavata da'migliori storici Spagnuoli, e da'manoscritti, e dalle pitture antiche degl'Indiani: divisi in dieci libri, e corredata di carte geografiche, e di varie figure: e dissertazioni sulla terra, sugli animali, e sugli abitatori del Messico.
Cesena, Gregorio Biasni (4 vols.): Vol. 1: viii + 302. Pls., map.
–Allen 355. Manatee, 1: 100-101. Engl. transl. by Charles Cullen, London, G.G.J. & J. Robinson (2 vols.), 1787 (manatee, 1: 62-63; Allen 397). Other eds.: London, 1807 (same pagination); Philadelphia, 1817 (manatee, 1: 83); etc.
Clay, Deborah: SEE Rathbun et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
Cleguer, C.; Garrigue, C.; Fuentes, M. M.P.B.; Everingham, Y.; Hagihara, R.; Hamann, M.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2017
Drivers of change in the relative abundance of dugongs in New Caledonia.
Wildlife Research 44: 365-376.
 
 
Cleguer, Christophe; Grech, Alana; Garrigue, Claire; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2015
Spatial mismatch between marine protected areas and dugongs in New Caledonia.
Biological Conservation 184: 154-162. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.01.007. Apr. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a powerful tool for conserving marine biodiversity when designed using ecological information and conservation goals and targets. Dugongs (Dugong dugon) were not an explicit target in the design of the network of MPAs in New Caledonia, despite being one of the region's World Heritage values. Our study retrospectively assessed the capacity of the New Caledonia MPA network to protect dugongs from anthropogenic threats. We developed a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution and relative density based on information collected from ?10 years of aerial surveys. We quantified the amount of overlap between areas supporting high densities of dugongs and MPAs. We found that most of the important dugong habitats of New Caledonia had a low coverage of MPAs that provide high levels of restriction on anthropogenic activities. We identified several important dugong habitats along the west and the north-east coast that were not covered by MPAs and should be a priority for future management. The spatial mismatch between MPAs and dugongs was likely caused by weaknesses in the planning process, including the: (1) lack of explicit conservation goals and targets; (2) omission of spatial information on species' distribution; (3) mismatch of spatial scales; (4) cost considerations; and (5) incorrect application of the IUCN protected area categories. We provide guidance on how these shortcomings can be avoided for marine species of conservation concern in New Caledonia and other regions.
 
 
Cleland, John (detail)
   
1863
On the relations of the vomer, ethmoid, and intermaxillary bones.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 152: 289-321. Pls. 4-5.
–Sirs., 302.
Clements, Diana: SEE Whybrow & Clements, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Clementz, Mark T.; Goswami, Anjali; Gingerich, Philip D.; Koch, Paul L. (detail)
   
2006
Isotopic records from early whales and sea cows: contrasting patterns of ecological transition.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 26(2): 355-370. 9 figs. 1 appendix. June 12, 2006.
 
 
Clementz, Mark T.; Holden, P.; Koch, Paul L. (detail)
   
2003
Are calcium isotopes a reliable monitor of trophic level in marine setings?
Intl. Jour. Osteoarchaeology 13: 29-36.
–Mentions calcium isotope values (δ44Ca) for tooth enamel of Dugong dugon and Dusisiren jordani.
x
D
Clementz, Mark T.; Hoppe, Kathryn A.; Koch, Paul L. (detail)
   
2003
A paleoecological paradox: the habitat and dietary preferences of the extinct tethythere Desmostylus, inferred from stable isotope analysis.
Paleobiology 29(4): 506-519. 2 tabs. 4 figs. Fall 2003 (mailed Oct. 27, 2003).
–Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotope compositions of enamel from Desmostylus (Middle Mioc., California) indicated a probable diet of aquatic vegetation and an estuarine or freshwater habitat.
 
 
Clementz, Mark T.; Koch, Paul L.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
2007
Diet induced differences in carbon isotope fractionation between sirenians and terrestrial ungulates.
Marine Biology 151(5): 1773-1784. 2 tabs. 3 figs. + online supplementary material. DOI 10.1007/s00227-007-0616-1. Publ. online Feb. 8, 2007.
–ABSTRACT: Carbon isotope differences (?13C) between bioapatite and diet, collagen and diet, and bioapatite and collagen were calculated for four species of sirenians, Dugong dugon (Müller), Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus), Trichechus inunguis (Natterer), and the extinct Hydrodamalis gigas (Zimmerman). Bone and tooth samples were taken from archived materials collected from populations during the mid eighteenth century (H. gigas), between 1978 and 1984 (T. manatus, T. inunguis), and between 1997 and 1999 (D. dugon). Mean ?13C values were compared with those for terrestrial ungulates, carnivores, and six species of carnivorous marine mammals (cetaceans = 1; pinnipeds = 4; mustelids = 1). Significant differences in mean ?13C values among species for all tissue types were detected that separated species or populations foraging on freshwater plants or attached marine macroalgae (?13C values < ?6‰; ?13Cbioapatite–diet ?14‰) from those feeding on marine seagrasses (?13C values > ?4‰; ?13Cbioapatite–diet ?11‰). Likewise, ?13Cbioapatite–collagen values for freshwater and algal-foraging species (?7‰) were greater than those for seagrass-foraging species (?5‰). Variation in ?13C values calculated between tissues and between tissues and diet among species may relate to the nutritional composition of a species' diet and the extent and type of microbial fermentation that occurs during digestion of different types of plants. These results highlight the complications that can arise when making dietary interpretations without having first determined species-specific ?13Ctissue–diet values.
 
 
Clementz, Mark T.; Sewall, Jacob O. (detail)
   
2011
Latitudinal gradients in greenhouse seawater δ18O: evidence from Eocene sirenian tooth enamel.
Science 332: 455-458. 4 figs. Supporting online material: 12 pp., 1 tab., 3 figs. Apr. 22, 2011.
–Comment: Gabriel J. Bowen, "A faster water cycle", Science 332: 430-431, 1 fig., Apr. 22, 2011. Summ.: Carolyn Gramling, "Toothsome sleuths of ancient oceans", Earth 56(7): 23, 2 figs., July 2011.
 
 
Clementz, Mark T.; Sorbi, Silvia; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2009
Evidence of Cenozoic environmental and ecological change from stable isotope analysis of sirenian remains from the Tethys-Mediterranean region.
Geology 37(4): 307-310. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.1130/G25533A.1 Apr. 2009.
Cleven, Gregory C.: SEE Springer et al., 1997. (detail)
Cleven, Gregory C.: SEE Stanhope et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Clifton, Kari B.; Reep, Roger Lyons; Mecholsky, John J., Jr. (detail)
   
2008b
Quantitative fractography for estimating whole bone properties of manatee rib bones.
Jour. Materials Science 43: 2026-2034. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
 
 
Clifton, Kari B.; Yan, Jiahau; Melchosky, John J., Jr.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2008a
Material properties of manatee rib bone.
Jour. Zool. 274(2): 150-159. Feb. 2008.
Clifton, Kari P.: SEE Miller et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Cligny, Adolphe (detail)
   
1900
Faune du Sénégal et de la Casamance.
 
 
Cloyed, Carl S.; Hieb, Elizabeth E.; Collins, Merri K.; DaCosta, Kayla Page; Carmichael, Ruth H. (detail)
   
2019
Linking use of ship channels by West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to seasonal migration and habitat use.
Front. Mar. Sci. 6: 00318. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00318. 5 tabs. 8 figs. + Suppl. material. June 12, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Research on marine mammal occurrence in ship channels often focuses on large cetaceans in offshore shipping routes, while nearshore research largely addresses small vessel strikes. Marine mammals, such as the West Indian manatee, that reside in or migrate through nearshore areas, have potential to travel through a wide range of channel types, encountering a greater diversity of vessels than previously recognized. We tested the extent and conditions of ship channel use by manatees along the north-central Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) coast by combining data from telemetry-tracked individuals, opportunistic citizen-sourced sightings, and environmental attributes linked to manatee movements. Manatees used both nearshore boat channels (130 and 300 m wide) and open water fairways but used nearshore channels much more frequently, consistent with habitat requirements. Satellite-tracked individuals swam faster and moved more directly in all channel types, indicating use of these channels as migratory and travel corridors. Accordingly, generalized additive models revealed that manatees used channels most often during spring/early summer and fall and at temperatures coincidental with entry to and exit from the nGoM during migration. Manatees also occurred in ship channels when freshwater discharges were low, likely because timing of peak manatee occurrence in the nGoM coincides with seasonally low discharge periods. Expanding shipping activity world-wide is likely to increase interactions between marine mammals and a variety of vessel types, and these effects may be particularly impactful to migratory animals like manatees that use nearshore habitats at the interface of recreational boating and commercial shipping. Linking near- and offshore ship channel use to migration and habitat use will better aid risk-assessment for vessel collision and other shipping related activities for migratory marine species globally.
 
 
Cloyed, Carl S.; Hieb, Elizabeth E.; DaCosta, Kayla; Ross, Monica; Carmichael, Ruth H. (detail)
   
2021
West Indian manatees use partial migration to expand their geographic range into the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Frontiers in Marine Science https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2021.725837
 
 
Clusius, Carolus (= L'Écluse, Charles De) (detail)
   
1605
Exoticorvm libri decem: quibus animalium, plantarum, aromatum, aliorumq'ue peregrinorum fructuum historiae describuntur: item Petri Belonii observationes, eodem Carolo Clusio interprete. Series totius operis post Praefationem indicabitur.
[Leiden], Officina Plantiniana Raphelengii: 1-378. Illus.
–Allen 39. Also an earlier ed., 1601 or before? Manatee, 132-135, with fig. based on a stuffed specimen brought to Amsterdam in 1600 by a Dutch navigator "ex Occidentali Oceano." According to Allen, this description and figure were "the first based on an original examination of specimens." For the possible whereabouts of the original drawing, see Whitehead (1977: 176). Durand (1983: 164-165) reproduces and discusses the figure. For additional background, see Peter Mason, 2007, "Americana in the Exoticorum libri decem of Charles de l'Écluse", in F. Egmond et al. (eds.), Carolus Clusius: towards a cultural history of a Renaissance naturalist, Amsterdam, K. Nederl. Akad. Wetens.: 195-219, on pp. 200-201.
Clyde, William C.: SEE Gingerich et al., 1998. (detail)
x
 
Coates, Christopher W. (detail)
   
1939
Baby mermaid - a manatee at the Aquarium.
Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 42(5): 140-148. 4 figs. Oct. 2, 1939.
–Detailed account of the care and behavior of an extremely emaciated 36-inch male T. inunguis calf from the Rio Tapajós, which survived 22 days at the New York Aquarium in August 1939.
x
 
Coates, Christopher W. (detail)
   
1940
Manatees at the Aquarium.
Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 43(3): 99-100. 1 fig. June 1, 1940.
–Brief notice and photograph of two T. inunguis, 4 and 5 feet long, respectively, which arrived in New York on Apr. 2, 1940, having lived in the Manaus (Brazil) municipal zoo for about 10 months. Their food and feeding are also discussed.
 
 
Cobo, Bernabé (detail)
   
1890-95
Historia del Nuevo Mundo.
Seville, E. Rasco: 4 vols.
–Written in 1653; only publ. in the last century. Manatee, pt. I, lib. VII, cap. xiv (reprinted by Durand, 1983: 72, 153).
Cockcroft, Vic G.: SEE ALSO Baldwin & Cockcroft, 1997; Williams et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Cockcroft, Vic G.; Korrubel, J. (detail)
   
1997
Dire days for dugongs.
Africa Environment & Wildlife 5(1): 28-33.
Codrea, V.: SEE Suraru & Codrea, 1988. (detail)
Cofer-Shabica, S.: SEE Zoodsma et al., 1991. (detail)
 
 
Cohen (detail)
   
1928?
Sur la définition et le nom des sirènes.
Donum Natalicum Schrijnen. Verzameling van Opstellen door oudleerlingen en bevriende Vakgenooten. '29. Nijmegen-Utrecht: 228-239.
Cohen, B. I.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Cohen, Joel L.; Tucker, Gail S.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1982
The photoreceptors of the West Indian manatee.
Jour. Morph. 173(2): 197-202. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Aug. 1982.
–Electron micrographic study of retina reveals both rodlike and conelike cells, in a low rod:cone ratio; a ventrally located central visual area may be present, as well as color vision.
x
 
Cohen, Philip (detail)
   
1999
Deaf, not dumb: high-pitched horns might save manatees from motorboats.
New Scientist No. 2197: 20. 1 fig. July 31, 1999.
–Pop. acc. of experimental studies by E. Gerstein on manatee hearing abilities.
x
 
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. (detail)
   
1972
Mamíferos ameaçados de extinção no Brasil. In: Espécies da fauna brasileira ameaçadas de extinção.
Rio de Janeiro, Acad. Brasil. de Ciências (175 pp.): 13-98.
–Reviews knowledge about and status of T. inunguis and T. manatus in Brazil, and recommends captive breeding as well as establishment and artifical stocking of reserves, with a view to eventual economic exploitation (82-87).
Colares, Elton Pinto: SEE ALSO Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Colares et al., 1990; Rosas et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
Colares, Elton Pinto; Ferreira, L. C. (detail)
   
1987
Ocorrência de pólipo hamartomatoso no intestino delgado do peixe-boi da Amazônia Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Anais da 2a. Reunião de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos da América do Sul (Rio de Janeiro, Aug. 4-8, 1986): 39. 1 tab.
–Reports case of a captive female manatee killed by intestinal blockage due to a benign polyp. Gives the animal's blood values in comparison with those of 6 healthy females.
 
 
Colares, Elton Pinto; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Pinto do Amaral, Ary Domingos (detail)
   
1992
Blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis): dietary variation.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Comp. Physiol. 103(2): 413-415.
–Portuguese ?transl.: Peixe-Boi 1(1): 19-25, 2 tabs., 1992.
 
 
Colares, Elton Pinto; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Bianchini, Adalto; Santos, Euclydes A. (detail)
   
2000
Seasonal variation in blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis.
Brazil. Archs. Biol. & Technol. 43(2): 165-171. Illus.
x
 
Colares, Elton Pinto; Moreira, G. R. S.; Ribeiro, Gilberto de Assis (detail)
   
1987
Amamentação de peixe-boi amazônico (Trichechus inunguis) em cativeiro.
Anais da 2a. Reunião de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos da América do Sul (Rio de Janeiro, Aug. 4-8, 1986): 40-41. 4 tabs.
–Compares weight gains of two calves maintained on three different powdered-milk formulas.
x
 
Colares, Francisco Antonio Pinto; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Colares, Elton Pinto (detail)
   
1990
Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis): a 15 year long-term study.
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vets. 1990: 43-47. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Describes the regimen of care and feeding given to captive manatees at INPA, Manaus, including diet, medications, and anatomical sites used for injections and blood sampling.
Colares, Ioni Gonçalves: SEE ALSO Colares et al., 1990, 1992, 2000; Rosas et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Colares, Elton Pinto (detail)
   
1987
Variação anual de vegetais que servem de alimentação para o peixe-boi amazônico (Mammalia - Sirenia).
Anais da 2a. Reunião de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos da América do Sul (Rio de Janeiro, Aug. 4-8, 1986): 42-44. 3 tabs.
–Documents seasonal changes in abundance of plants reportedly eaten by T. inunguis: food is more abundant in white water than in black, and during the flood season.
 
 
Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Colares, Elton Pinto (detail)
   
1992
Preferência alimentar do peixe-boi da Amazônia em cativeiro.
Peixe-Boi 1(1): 26-32. 2 tabs.
x
 
Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Colares, Elton Pinto (detail)
   
2002
Food plants eaten by Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia: Sirenia).
Brazil. Archs. Biol. Technol. 45(1): 67-72. 1 tab. 2 figs. Mar. 2002.
–Portuguese summ. Manatee stomach contents and feces from the central Amazon region, Brazil, contained 24 species of aquatic plants but were dominated by Gramineae, especially Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya. At high water, with vegetation more abundant, animals fed more selectively, and in general favored emergent plants.
 
 
Colbert, Debborah E.; Bauer, Gordon Bruce (detail)
   
1999
Basic husbandry training of two West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Soundings 24: 18-21.
 
 
Colbert, Debborah E.; Fellner, Wendi; Bauer, Gordon Bruce; Manire, Charles A.; Rhinehart, Howard L. (detail)
   
2001
Husbandry and research training of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mammals 27(1): 16-23.
 
 
Colbert, Debborah E.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Reep, Roger Lyons; Mann, David A.; Bauer, Gordon Bruce (detail)
   
2009
Four-choice sound localization abilities of two Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Jour. Exper. Biol. 212(13): 2105-2112. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.089227.
 
 
Colbert-Luke, Debborah E.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Reep, Roger Lyons; Bauer, Gordon B.; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Mann, David A. (detail)
   
2015
Eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.
Jour. Compar. Physiol. A 201(2): 249-259. Feb. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. An eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. Subjects performed above the 12.5 % chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. Errors were typically located to either side of the signal source location when presented in the front 180° but were more dispersed when presented from locations behind the subject. Front-to-back confusions were few and accuracy was greater when signals originated from the front 180°. Head-related transfer functions were measured to determine if frequencies were filtered by the manatee body to create frequency-specific interaural level differences (ILDs). ILDs were found for all frequencies as a function of source location, although they were largest with frequencies above 18 kHz and when signals originated to either side of the subjects. Larger ILDs were found when the signals originated behind the subjects. A shadowing-effect produced by the body may explain the relatively low occurrence of front-back confusions in the localization study.
x
 
Cole, A.; Okera, W. (detail)
   
1976
Records of the West African manatee, Trichechus senegalensis Desm. in Sierra Leone.
Bull. Inst. Marine Biol. & Oceanography, Fourah Bay College, Univ. of Sierra Leone 1(1): 42-43.
–Reports the accidental capture of a 2.43-m female in 1973; mentions three other unconfirmed reports from 1954 to 1963; and notes that manatees eat rice crops and are trapped for this reason and for food.
x
 
Cole, Brandon [photographer] (detail)
   
2015
Dugong "Dyson".
Nat. Hist. (New York) 123(8): 2-4. 2 figs. Oct. 2015.
–Two underwater photos of a dugong in the Red Sea near Marsa Alam, Egypt, with a short anonymous gen. acc. of DD by way of explanation.
 
 
Coleman, Miriam (detail)
   
2010
Swimming with manatees.
New York, PowerKids Press (Rosen Publishing Group): 1-24. Illus.
–Children's book.
Coles, R. G.: SEE Lee Long et al., 1993, 2000. (detail)
 
 
Coles, Rob G.; Lee Long, Warren J.; McKenzie, Len J.; Roder, Chantal A. (detail)
   
2002
Seagrasses and marine resources in the dugong protection areas of Upstart Bay, Newry Region, Sand Bay, Llewellyn Bay, Ince Bay and the Clairview Region, April/May 1999 and October 1999.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 72: viii + 131. Illus. Feb. 2002.
Coligan, John E.: SEE Lew et al., 1986. (detail)
x
 
Collard, S. B.; Rubenstein, N. I.; Wright, J. C.; Collard, S. B., III (detail)
   
1976
Occurrence of a Florida manatee at Pensacola Bay.
Florida Scientist 39(1): 48. Winter 1976.
–Observation of a single manatee entering Santa Rosa Sound on June 30, 1975.
 
 
Collazo, Jaime A.; Krachey, Matthew J.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Pérez-Aguilo, Francisco J.; Zegarra, Jan P.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2019
Population estimates of Antillean manatees in Puerto Rico: an analytical framework for aerial surveys using multi-pass removal sampling.
Jour. Mammalogy 100(4): 1340-1349. 3 figs. 3 tabs. + online supplementary data. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz076 Aug. 2019 (published online Sept. 26, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Effective management of the threatened Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Puerto Rico requires reliable estimates of population size. Estimates are needed to assess population responses to management actions, and whether recovery objectives have been met. Aerial surveys have been conducted since 1976, but none adjusted for imperfect detection. We summarize surveys since 1976, report on current distribution, and provide population estimates after accounting for apparent detection probability for surveys between June 2010 and March 2014. Estimates in areas of high concentration (hotspots) averaged 317 ± 101, three times higher than unadjusted counts (104 ± 0.56). Adjusted estimates in three areas outside hotspots also differed markedly from counts (75 ± 9.89 versus 19.5 ± 3.5). Average minimum island-wide estimate was 386 ± 89, similar to the maximum estimate of 360 suggested in 2005, but fewer than the 700 recently suggested by the Puerto Rico Manatee Conservation Center. Manatees were more widespread than previously understood. Improving estimates, locally or island-wide, will require stratifying the island differently and greater knowledge about factors affecting detection probability. Sharing our protocol with partners in nearby islands (e.g., Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola), whose populations share genetic make-up, would contribute to enhanced regional conservation through better population estimates and tracking range expansion.
 El manejo efectivo del manatí antillano amenazado en Puerto Rico requiere estimados de tamaños de poblaciónes confiables. Dichas estimaciones poblacionales son necesarias para evaluar las respuestas a las acciones de manejo, y para determinar si los objetivos de recuperación han sido alcanzados. Se han realizado censos aéreos desde 1976, pero ninguno de ellos han sido ajustados para detecciones imperfectas. Aquí resumimos los censos desde 1976, actualizamos la distribución, y reportamos los primeros estimados poblacionales ajustados para la probabilidad de detección aparente en los censos de Junio 2010 a Marzo 2014. Las estimaciones poblacionales en áreas de mayor concentración del manatí promedió 317 ± 103, tres veces más abundante que los conteos sin ajuste (104 ± 0.56). Las estimaciones poblacionales en tres áreas fuera de las áreas de mayor concentración del manatí también fueron marcadamente diferentes (75 ± 9.89 vs 19.5 ± 3.5). El estimado mínimo poblacional en la isla entera fue de 386 ± 89, similar al estimado máximo de 360 sugerido en el año 2005, pero menor a los 700 sugeridos recientemente por el Centro de Conservación de Manatíes de Puerto Rico. Documentamos que el manatí tiene una distribución más amplia de lo que se sabía con anterioridad. El mejoramiento de los estimados poblacionales locales o a nivel de isla requerirá que se estratifique a la isla en forma diferente y que se investiguen los factores que influencian a la probabilidad de detección. Compartir protocolos como este con colaboradores de islas vecinas (por. ej., Cuba, Jamaica, Española), cuyas poblaciones de manatíes comparten material genético, contribuiría a la conservación regional mediante mejores estimaciones poblacionales y monitoreo de la expansión de su ámbito doméstico.
 
 
Collett, Robert (detail)
   
1887
On a collection of mammals from central and northern Queensland.
Zool. Jahrb. 2: 829-940.
–Discusses "Halicore dugung var. australis", 851-854.
x
 
Collignon, M.; Cottreau, Jean (detail)
   
1927
Paléontologie de Madagascar. XIV. Fossiles du Miocène marin.
Ann. Pal. 16(4): 135-171. 2 figs. Pls. 17-20. Dec. 1927.
–Refers a skullcap from the Miocene of Makamby Island to Halitherium sp. (138, 164-165, 169).
x
 
Collins, David (detail)
   
1798
An account of the English colony in New South Wales: with remarks on the dispositions, customs, manners, &c. of the native inhabitants of that country. To which are added, some particulars of New Zealand; compiled, by permission, from the MSS. of Lieutenant-Governor King. [Vol. 1.]
London, T. Cadell Jun. & W. Davies (entire work: 2 vols., 1798-1802).
–Facsimile repr.: Adelaide, Libraries Board of So. Austral., 1971. Another ed.: Sydney, A. H. & A. W. Reed, 1975. Skull of "Manatee" found south of Botany Bay in 1795 (1: 409). Ed. 2 (1804) abridged; sir. material different?
Collinson, Margaret E.: SEE As-Saruri et al., 1998, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Colliver, F. S.; Woolston, F. P. (detail)
   
1975
The Aborigines of Stradbroke Island.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 86(16): 91-104. 2 tabs. Pls. 7-8. Mar. 1, 1975.
x
 
Colmant, Florent (detail)
   
1949
Du lamantin d'Afrique.
Les Vétérans Coloniaux (Rev. Congolaise Illustrée) 21(2): 11. Feb. 1949.
–Notice: Anon. (1949a). States that he often saw manatees in the Belgian Congo in 1894-96.
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen: SEE ALSO Villa-Ramírez & Colmenero-Rolón, 1981. (detail)
 
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen (detail)
   
1982
Manatí: la perseguida sirena.
Revista de Geografía Universal, Año 7, 14(2): 136-155. 22 figs. Aug. 1982.
–Gen. acc. of manatees and manatee research.
x
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen (detail)
   
1984
Nuevos registros del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en el Sureste de México.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 54(1): 243-254. 5 figs. Mar. 21, 1984.
–Summarizes, mainly on the basis of interview surveys, the status and distribution of T. m. manatus in Tabasco, Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Yucatan, and Veracruz. Includes detailed maps of manatee localities.
x
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen (detail)
   
1986
Aspectos de la ecologia y comportamiento de una colonia de manaties (Truchechus [sic] manatus) en el Municipio de Emiliano Zapata, Tabasco.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 56(2): 589-602. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Nov. 20, 1986.
–Engl. summ. Describes the fluviatile and lacustrine manatee habitat in Tabasco, lists food plants and incidentally-consumed algae, describes seasonal movements, and presents evidence for seasonal breeding correlated with the rise and fall of river levels. States that fishing and other human activities in the area are not a threat to manatees, and that the manatee population may have increased in the last 5 years.
 
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen (detail)
   
1989a
El manatí, especie en peligro.
Boletin de Amigos de Sian Ka'an, June 1989: 12-13. 3 figs.
 
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen (detail)
   
1989b
El manatí del Caribe: una especie amenazada en Quintana Roo.
Cancún, publ. by the author: 1-24. 2 tabs. 9 figs.
 
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen (detail)
   
1991
Propuesta de un plan de recuperación para la población del manatí Trichechus manatus de México.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 62(2): 203-218. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Engl. summ.
x
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen; Hoz-Zavala, Ma. Elia (detail)
   
1986
Distribución de los manatíes, situación y su conservación en México.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 56(3): 955-1020. 7 tabs. 16 figs. Nov. 30, 1986.
–Engl. summ. Discusses and maps in detail the distribution of T. manatus in Mexico, based on interview surveys; describes manatee habitats at length; lists manatee food plants and their associated algae; describes hunting methods and uses of manatee products; and makes recommendations for manatee conservation.
 
 
Colmenero-Rolón, Luz Del Carmen; Zárate Becerra, Edith (detail)
   
1990
Distribution, status and conservation of the West Indian manatee in Quintana Roo, México.
Biol. Conserv. 52: 27-35. 1 tab. 2 figs.
x
 
Colom, G.; Bauzá, J. (detail)
   
1949
Sobre la extensión del Metaxitherium cuvieri Christol, en las "mollasas" Vindobonienses de Mallorca.
Bol. Soc. Españ. Hist. Nat. 47(1/2): 91-92. Pl. 7. Dec. 15, 1949 (for Jan.-Feb. 1949).
–Illustrates several teeth from the region of Santa Margarita, Mallorca.
Colomb, E.: SEE Anglada et al., 1974. (detail)
 
 
Colon-Llavina, Marlene M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
   
2009
Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.
Parasitology Research 105(5): 1239-1252. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1544-4. Oct. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus, Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented.
Columbus, Christopher: SEE Columbus, Ferdinand; Morison, S.E., 1942, 1963; Syllacio, N., 1494?. (detail)
 
 
Columbus, Ferdinand (detail)
   
1812
The history of the life and actions of Admiral Christopher Colon, and of his discovery of the West Indies, called the New World, now in possession of His Catholic Majesty. Written by his own son Don Ferdinand Colon. In: J. Pinkerton (ed.), A general collection of ... voyages and travels ....
London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown, and Cadell & Davies: vol. 12: 1-155.
–Repr. from Churchill's collection of voyages, vol. 2. Another transl.: Morison (1963). Manatee, 125. Ferdinand Columbus (Don Hernando Colón) was Christopher's illegitimate son, a participant in the Admiral's fourth voyage to the New World, and an accomplished scholar. The original Spanish MS. of this biography, written before 1539, has been lost; the text survived only in an Italian translation by Alfonso Ulloa printed at Venice in 1571 (see S. E. Morison, 1942, 1963).
 
 
Colyer, James Frank (detail)
   
1936
Variations and diseases of the teeth of animals.
London, John Bale, Sons & Danielsson, Ltd.: viii + 750. Illus.
–Sirs., 370-373, 435.
 
 
Comaschi Caria, Ida (detail)
   
1957
Nuovi resti di sirenii nel Miocene della Sardegna.
Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital. 76(1): 288-301. 3 pls.
–French summ.
 
 
Compost, Alain (detail)
   
1980
Pilot survey of exploitation of dugong and sea turtle in the Aru Islands.
Jakarta, Yayasan Indonesia Hijau/World Wildlife Fund: 1-63. 9 tabs. 5 figs. 39 pls. 7 maps. Mar. 1980.
Conacher, Carol A.: SEE Peterken & Conacher, 1997. (detail)
 
 
Conceição, F. P.; Costa, A. C.; Sousa, A.; Bugarin, R.; Andrade-Reis, L.; Vidal, M. D. (detail)
   
2020
Encalhe de peixe-boi-marinho-das-Antilhas (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758) na praia de Panaquatira, Maranhão, Brasil.
Revista Brasileira de Zoociências 21: 1-7. https://doi.org/10.34019/2596-3325.2020.v21.29282
 
 
Condamine, Charles Marie de La (detail)
   
1749
Relation abrégée d'un voyage fait dans l'intérieur de l'Amerique méridionale, depuis la côte de la Mer du Sud, jusques aux côtes du Brésil & de la Guiane, en descendant la rivière Amazones.
Hist. Acad. Sci. Paris 1745 (1749): 391-492. Pl. 9. Read Apr. 28, 1745.
–Allen 247. Manatee, 464-465. Other eds.: Paris, Veuve Pissot, 1745 (pp. 154-156)?; Maestricht, 1778 (pp. 150-153). Engl. transl.: in J. Pinkerton (ed.), A general collection of ... voyages and travels ...., v. 14: 211-269, London, 1813 (manatee, 244). Notes that the Amazonian manatee is "un peu différent" from that of the Guianas, and that its distribution on the Rio Marañon is limited by the Pongo ("Pass") de Borja.
x
 
Conklin, W. A. (detail)
   
1873
The manatee at Central Park.
Forest & Stream 1(11): 166. Oct. 23, 1873.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, their use in South America, and observations of an individual of unstated species exhibited in New York.
Connell, Des W.: SEE Gaus et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Contreras Fleury, Mario; Anguiano Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Arenas Fragoso, Miztli Daniel (detail)
   
????
Estado de conservacion del Manati antillano en Mexico.
???? 1-10. 2 figs.
–ABSTRACT: The antillean manatee (T. manatus: member of the order Sirenia, is a unique feature in the world by the peculiarity that it involves the only remnant marine mammals with pure herbivorous feeding habits, being called seacows because of that characteristics. This order, which evolution has been unique since its origin, 50 million years ago, has today all his living species in a vulnerable state of conservation according to the IUCN. This is why it is important to know the conservation status of this species in Mexico, country where lives one of the most important populations of T. manatus, and to know what to do for contributing in their conservation.
 RESUMEN: El manatí antillano forma parte del orden Sirenia, único en el mundo debido a la peculiaridad de albergar a los únicos mamíferos marinos existentes de hábito puramente herbívoro, de ahí que se les nombre vacas marinas. Este orden, cuya evolución ha sido única y cuyo origen se remonta a 50 millones de años atrás, tiene hoy en estado vulnerable a todos sus representantes según la UICN. Por esto, es importante conocer el estado de conservación de T. manatus en México, país donde sólo se distribuye esta especie de sirénido, y con ello proponer medidas para contribuir a su conservación.
 
 
Converse, Lisa J.; Fernandes, Peter J.; Macwilliams, Peter S.; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
1994
Hematology, serum chemistry, and morphometric reference values for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).
Jour. Zoo & Wildl. Med. 25(3): 423-431.
 
 
Conzemius, Eduard (detail)
   
1932
Ethnographical survey of the Miskito and Sumu Indians of Honduras and Nicaragua.
Bull. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 106: 1-191.
–Manatee hunting, 67.
 
 
Cook, C. (detail)
   
1994
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander traditional hunting and nature title.
Reef Research, June 1994: 6-8.
 
 
Cooke, H. B. S. (detail)
   
1968
Evolution of mammals on southern continents.
Quart. Rev. Biol. 43(3): 234-264. Illus.
 
D
Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Erik R. Seiffert; Mark Clementz; Sandra I. Madar; Sunil Bajpai; S.Taseer Hussain; Johannes G.M. Thewissen (detail)
   
2014
Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan are stem perissodactyls.
PLoS ONE 9(10): e109232. 15 pp. 5 figs. + 9 tabs. & 8 figs. in Supporting Information. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109232 Oct. 8, 2014.
–Concludes that desmostylians and anthracobunids are laurasiatheres related to perissodactyls, rather than paenungulates.
Cooper, William: SEE Mitchill et al., 1828. (detail)
Cope, Edward Drinker: SEE ALSO Lydekker, R., 1887. (detail)
x
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1868
[On a postpliocene deposit in Maryland.]
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 19(4): 138. Read Dec. 10, 1867.
–P. 138: {{"He [Prof. Cope] also announced the existence of a postpliocene deposit in Charles Co., Maryland, near the Patuxent River, as indicated by the remains of the common peccary, a Manatus and a new carnivore of the genus Galera."}}
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1869
Synopsis of the extinct Mammalia of the cave formations in the United States, with observations on some Myriapoda found in and near the same, and on some extinct mammals of the caves of Anguilla, W.I., and of other localities.
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 171-192. Pls. 3-5.
–Review: Jour. Zool. (Paris) 1: 168-169. Sirs., 189.
x
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1875
Synopsis of the Vertebrata whose remains have been preserved in the formations of North Carolina. Appendix B in: W.C. Kerr, Report of the Geological Survey of North Carolina. Volume I. Physical geography, resumé, economical geology.
Raleigh (North Carolina), Josiah Turner: 29-52. Pls. 5-8.
–Lists Ontocetus emmonsii Leidy under "Sirenia", without further comment (51). This species was actually based on a fossil walrus tusk.
x
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1880
On the foramina perforating the posterior part of the squamosal bone of the Mammalia.
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 452-461.
–The mastoid foramen alone is present in the squamosal of Halicore and Manatus (456).
x
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1883
On a new extinct genus of Sirenia from South Carolina.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 35(1): 52-54. Mar. 27, 1883.
–Abstr.: Amer. Naturalist 17: 309, March 1883. Description of the Miocene Dioplotherium manigaulti, n.gen.n.sp., and of a pelvis fragment cf. Halitherium, both from South Carolina. On p. 52 Cope inadvertently introduces the new combination Halitherium minor as a synonym of H. serresii, and mistakenly attributes it to Cuvier. He may have latinized a vernacular expression of Cuvier, or had in mind the name Hippopotamus minor Desmarest, which refers to a fossil hippopotamid and not a sirenian.
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1885
The genealogy of the Vertebrata as learned from paleontology.
Trans. Vassar Bros. Inst. (Poughkeepsie, N.Y.) 2: 60-80.
–Sirs., 71.
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1887
The origin of the fittest. Essays on evolution.
New York: xx + 467. 81 figs.
–Sirs., 342.
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1889a
The mechanical causes of the development of the hard parts of the Mammalia.
Jour. Morph. 3: 137-277. 93 figs. Pls. 9-14.
–Sirs., 142.
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1889b
Synopsis of the families of Vertebrata.
Amer. Naturalist 23: 849-877.
–Sirs., 874, 876.
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1890
The extinct Sirenia.
Amer. Naturalist 24(284): 697-702. 3 figs. Pls. 25-26. Aug. 1890.
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1891
Syllabus of lectures on geology and paleontology.
Philadelphia, Ferris Bros. (1890-91): 1-90. 60 figs.
–Sirs., 67, 70. Ed. 2: Cope (1898).
 
 
Cope, Edward Drinker (detail)
   
1898
Syllabus of lectures on the Vertebrata.
Philadelphia, Univ. of Pennsylvania: xxxv + 135. Portrait. 66 figs. 2 pls.
–First ed.: Cope (1891). Sirs., 109.
 
 
Cope, R. C.; Pollett, P. K.; Lanyon, J. M.; Seddon, J. M. (detail)
   
2015
Indirect detection of genetic dispersal (movement and breeding events) through pedigree analysis of dugong populations in southern Queensland, Australia.
Biological Conservation 181: 91-101. 1 tabs. 4 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.011. Jan. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Understanding the patterns of movement and breeding within and between wildlife populations is important for the assessment of conservation status of endangered species, the development of conservation management strategies and priorities, and the prediction of population behaviour based on future threats. Methods for determining long term gene flow and dispersal are well researched, but analysis of recent movement is more difficult, typically relying on real-time tracking of individuals using telemetry, or through identification of marked individuals at multiple locations. These methods are limited by the considerable sampling effort required over time periods sufficient to recapture individuals in multiple locations. In contrast, we can infer recent movement from a reconstructed pedigree based on genetic and ancillary biological data, by identifying parent-offspring relationships in which the parent and offspring may be found in different locations. Hence, this method can use a single sampling period to identify movement and possibly associated breeding events over the last one or two generations. This study demonstrates the utility of reconstructed pedigrees in inferring recent movements in a dugongs distributed across a number of spatially distinct foraging locations in southern Queensland, Australia. Dugongs, which are classified as vulnerable to extinction, have long lifespans and protracted breeding cycles and give birth to single offspring at irregular intervals, implying a complex pedigree without distinct generational structure or large sibling groups. A pedigree was constructed for 1002 different dugongs across four locations in southern Queensland: Moreton Bay (n = 630), the Great Sandy Straits (n = 281), Hervey Bay (n = 59) and Shoalwater Bay (n = 27) using PR-genie software. PR-genie is a pedigree reconstruction system designed specifically for complex multigenerational wildlife pedigrees based on genetic identity (microsatellite DNA) and including ancillary biological data (sex and body size-class). Movements of genetically tagged individuals between locations were detected as parent-offspring links found across locations. Approximately 30% of assigned parents had at least one offspring found in a different location, implying recent movement of the parent or offspring. Where multiple individuals in a family are present, parsimonious explanations of movement indicate that male dugongs move between populations more frequently than females. Markedly more movement between locations was found than has been previously possible to detect through repeated direct sampling of individuals or through telemetry.
 
_
Corbet, G. B. (detail)
   
1978
The mammals of the Palaearctic region: a taxonomic review.
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Publ. 788: 1-314.
–Dugong and Hydrodamalis, 193.
 
 
Corbett, Debra G.; Causey, Douglas; Clementz, Mark T.; Koch, Paul L.; Doroff, Angela; Lefèvre, Christine; West, Dixie (detail)
   
2008
Aleut hunters, sea otters, and sea cows: three thousand years of interactions in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. In: T.C. Rick & J.M. Erlandson (eds.), Human impacts on ancient marine systems -- a global perspective.
Berkeley, Univ. Calif. Press: 43-75. 10 tabs. 5 figs.
Corcoran, Gerald: SEE Gunter & Corcoran, 1981. (detail)
 
 
Corey, Donna (detail)
   
1990
Manatee: a first book.
Crystal River (Florida), Sundiver Productions Co.: 1-48. 32 figs.
–Revised ed., 1992. Children's book with simple text, well illustrated with drawings and black-and-white photos.
Corkeron, Peter J.: SEE ALSO Marsh et al., 1993, 1996, 1999; Marsh, Corkeron et al., 1995; Preen et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Corkeron, Peter J.; Morissette, Nina M.; Porter, Lindsay; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1997
Distribution and status of hump-backed dolphins, Sousa chinensis, in Australian waters.
Asian Marine Biology 14: 49-59.
x
 
Cornalia, Emilio (detail)
   
1850
Vertebratorum synopsis in Museo Mediolanense extantium quae per Novam Orbem Cajetanus Osculati collegit annis 1846-47-48.... In: Gaetano Osculati, Esplorazione delle regioni equatoriali lungo il Napo ed il fiume delle Amazzoni....
Milan, Tipogr. Bernardoni (320 pp.): 301-315.
–Brief notes on a five-foot-long "Manatus americanus" caught at "Manaca-Purus" on the Amazon River, Brazil (303, 311).
 
 
Corneille, Thomas (detail)
   
1694
Le dictionnaire des arts et des sciences.
Paris, J. B. Coignard (2 vols.).
 
 
Corneli, Patrice Showers (detail)
   
2002
Complete Mitochondrial Genomes and Eutherian Evolution.
Journal of Mammalian Evolution 9(4): 281-305. 4 tabs. 7 figs. Dec. 2002.
–ABSTRACT: Recent large-scale nuclear DNA phylogenies have supported unconventional interordinal relationships among modern eutherians as well as divergence dates (100 mya) that substantially predate the first appearance of fossils from modern eutherians near the Cretaceous/Cenozoic (K/T) boundary (65-70 mya). For comparison to the nuclear data, I analyzed 12 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) protein-coding genes (10,677 bp) from 53 eutherian taxa, using maximum-likelihood methods to estimate model parameters (GTR + I + G) and to optimize topology and branch-length estimates. Although closely resembling the nuclear DNA trees, the mtDNA maximum-likelihood tree is just one of seven statistically indistinguishable (D lnL le 1.747) trees, each suggesting different evolutionary relationships. This 53-taxon data set and another including 56 taxa provide no statistically significant support for a monophyletic afrotherian clade. In fact, these mitochondrial DNA sequences fail to support the monophyly of three putative eutherian divisions suggested by the nuclear data (Afrotheria, Laurasiatheria or Euarchontoglires). By comparison to well-supported branches describing relationships among families, those describing interordinal relationships are extremely short and only tenuously supported. Neither these sequences, nor sequences simulated under a known tree, fully resolve any interordinal relationship. Even simulated sequences that are twice as long (22kb) as mtDNA protein-coding genes are too short and too saturated to resolve the deepest and shortest interordinal relationships. Further, the mammalian mtDNA sequences appear to depart significantly from molecular-clock and quartet dating assumptions. Unlike recent nuclear DNA studies, I find that mtDNA genes, by themselves, are inadequate to describe relationships or divergence times at the base of the eutherian tree.
  [However, the dugong/elephant grouping remains strongly supported.]
Cornell, John A.: SEE Packard et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Cornell, Lanny H.; Asper, Edward D. (detail)
   
1978
A census of captive marine mammals in North America.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 18: 220-224.
 
 
Cornell, Lanny H.; Asper, Edward D.; Duffield, D. A. (detail)
   
1982
Census up-date: captive marine mammals in North America.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 22: 227-232. Illus.
x
 
Cornide, Rosa I. (detail)
   
1984
Anticuerpos leptospirales en suero sanguíneo del manatí (Trichechus manatus L.). [Abstr.]
Acad. Cienc. Cuba, Inst. Zool., Misc. Zoologica No. 18: 1. Feb. 15, 1984.
–Reports antibodies to Leptospira bacteria of the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Shermani serogroups in blood serum from a manatee caught by a joint Soviet-Cuban expedition at Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba.
x
D
Cornwall, Ira E. (detail)
   
1922
Some notes on the Sooke Formation, Vancouver Island, B.C.
Canadian Field-Naturalist 36(7): 121-123. 4 figs. Oct. 1922.
–Describes the Late Oligocene Desmostylus sookensis, n.sp., on the basis of two isolated teeth (122-123).
 
 
Corona-Figueroa, M. F.; Ríos, N.; Castelblanco-Martínez, D. N.; Vichez-Mendoza, S.; Delgado-Rodriguez, D.; Niño-Torres, C. A. (detail)
   
2020
Searching for manatees in the dark waters of a transboundary river between Mexico and Belize: a predictive distribution model.
Aquat. Ecol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10452-020-09810-9 Nov. 5, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Antillean manatees in the Hondo River have been recorded from aerial and aquatic surveys, and interviews. However, these studies have been conducted only in the lower riverbed, leaving a gap of information about their presence and habitat characteristics in the rest of the river. We characterize and determine the ecohydrological variables influencing the presence and habitat use of manatees in the Hondo River. During 2017 and 2018, 30 boat-based field trips were conducted in five consecutive transects of 15 km each. A mixed methodology was used for manatee detection: side-scan sonar, direct sightings, and feces collection. Ecohydrological variables were measured in all transects and fixed points. The survey effort was 136.5 h. We recorded 123 manatees: 47% were observations during the boat-based surveys, 29% were at fixed points, and 24% were opportunistic. Additionally, 10 manatee feces were found. The first transect of the river showed the highest relative abundance for the two sampled seasons (windy?=?0.27 manatees/km, dry?=?0.55 manatees/km). According to the Poisson model, the estimated population was equal to 51 manatees. A random forest model suggested high probability of observing manatees in the first transects and decreasing at the upstream. The ecohydrological variables influencing the detection of manatees were conductivity, transparency, depth, and proximity to the Four Mile lagoon. The first two transects have ecohydrological characteristics that make a benign environment for refuge, rest and feeding of manatees. We recommend carrying out conservation efforts in the first transects, such as protection and the regulation of boat transit.
 
 
Correa Neto, J. J.; Cardoso, R. J.; Sarmento, N. M. F. P.; Riet-Correa, G.; Bezerra, P. S.; Moraes, C. M.; Costa, A. F.; Emin-Lima, R.; Cerqueira, V. D. (detail)
   
2021
Salmonellosis in a young Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Ciência Rural 51(2): e20190611. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20190611
Correa-Viana, Martín: SEE ALSO O'Shea et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Correa-Viana, Martín; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1992
El manatí en la tradición y folklore de Venezuela.
Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnología 10(1-2): 7-13.
–Abridged transl. of O'Shea et al. (1988).
 
 
Correa-Viana, Martín; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G. (detail)
   
1990
Distribucion y abundancia del manatí, Trichechus manatus, en Venezuela.
Biollania 7: 101-123. 3 tabs. 2 figs.
–Abridged transl. of O'Shea et al. (1988), omitting the material on traditional significance and with an expanded list of conservation recommendations.
Correll, R. L.: SEE Spain et al., 1976. (detail)
 
 
Corrigan, P. (detail)
   
1996
Manatees for kids.
Minnetonka (Minnesota), Northword Press: 1-47.
 
 
Cory, Charles Barney (detail)
   
1896
Hunting and fishing in Florida, including a key to the water birds known to occur in the state. Ed. 2.
Boston, Estes & Lauriat: 1-304. Illus.
–Manatee, 24-27, 113-114.
 
 
Cosentino, A. Mel; Fisher, Sue (detail)
   
2016
The utilization of aquatic bushmeat from small cetaceans and manatees in South America and West Africa.
Front. Mar. Sci. doi: 10/3389/fmars.2016.00163. 1 tab. Sept. 16, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g., marine mammals) that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive) and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as "near threatened," and one as "vulnerable," as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 cetacean species are listed as "data deficient," hence some of these species may also be at risk. No reports (recent or otherwise) were found for some countries; caution is needed in concluding that aquatic bushmeat is not utilized in these nations. Moreover, although aquatic bushmeat is mostly obtained opportunistically and was likely originally taken only for local consumption, directed catches occur in most countries and may have reached unsustainable levels in some areas. For example, in Peru and Nigeria, thousands of small cetaceans are illegally hunted annually. Reliable, recent data and a better overall understanding of the drivers of aquatic bushmeat will be essential in the development of effective mitigation measures.
x
 
Costa e Silva, Bernardo da (detail)
   
1891
Viagens no sertão do Amazonas....
Porto, Arthur José de Sousa & Irmão: 1-381.
–Account of a 4.5-m manatee caught by Tapuyo Indians, and of mixira (93-95).
 
 
Costa, Daniel P.; Williams, Terrie M. (detail)
   
1999
Marine mammal energetics. Chap. 5 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 176-217. 4 tabs. 28 figs.
x
 
Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques (detail)
   
2015
A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications.
Journal of African Earth Sciences 104: 43-55. 4 tabs. 7 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2015.01.006 Publ. online Jan. 28, 2015.
–Illustrates a single indeterminate sir. rib fragment (51-52; Fig. 6).
  ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as ''Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits.'' This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.
Cotroneo, Luigi: SEE Bagnato et al., 2000. (detail)
Cottreau, Jean: SEE ALSO Collignon & Cottreau, 1927. (detail)
 
 
Cottreau, Jean (detail)
   
1926
Note sur un squélette monté de Metaxytherium cuvieri de Christol (Halitherium fossile Gervais).
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 1926: 342.
 
 
Cottreau, Jean (detail)
   
1928
Le Metaxytherium cuvieri du Golfe de la Loire.
Ann. Pal. 17(1): 3-20. 4 figs. 2 pls. July 1928.
 
 
Couffon, O. (detail)
   
1906
Le Miocène en Anjou.
Bull. Soc. Études Sci. Angers (2)1907: 157-196.
Coulon, Frédéric: SEE Bizzarini, 1994. (detail)
 
 
Courbis, S. S.; Worthy, Graham A. J. (detail)
   
2003
Opportunistic carnivory by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mammals 29(1): 104-107.
–Feeding on tunicates.
x
 
Court, Nicholas (detail)
   
1990
Periotic anatomy of Arsinoitherium (Mammalia, Embrithopoda) and its phylogenetic implications.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 10(2): 170-182. 2 tabs. 4 figs. June 21, 1990.
–Compares the ear region of Arsinoitherium with those of Prorastomus and other ungulates; concludes that embrithopods are more closely related to proboscideans than are sirs.
 
 
Court, Nicholas (detail)
   
1994
The periotic of Moeritherium (Mammalia, Proboscidea): homology or homoplasy in the ear region of Tethytheria McKenna, 1975?
Zool. Jour. Linn. Soc. 112(1-2): 13-28. 4 figs. Sept./Oct. 1994.
x
 
Court, Nicholas; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques (detail)
   
1991
Anatomy of the periotic bone in the Eocene proboscidean Numidotherium koholense: an example of parallel evolution in the inner ear of tethytheres.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312, Sér. II: 559-565. 1 pl.
–French summ. Compares the cochlear foramina in an early proboscidean, Trichechus, and Prorastomus, concluding that a supposed tethythere synapomorphy was evolved in parallel in sirs. and proboscideans.
 
 
Cousteau, Jacques-Yves (detail)
   
1972
Notre pére l'ocean va mourir.
Paris Match 12: 34-44. Illus.
–Pop. acc. of T. manatus.
 
 
Couto de Magalhães, Agenor (detail)
   
1939
Ensaio sobre a fauna brasileira.
São Paulo, Sec. Agric., Indust., & Comércio do Estado de São Paulo, Diret. de Publicidade Agricola: 1-336. Illus.
–Manatee, 238-241.
 
 
Couto de Magalhães, José Vieira (detail)
   
1863
Viagem ao rio Araguaya. Contendo a descripção pitoresca desse rio, precedida de considerações administrativas e economicas a cerca do futuro de sua navegação, seguida de noticias sobre os rios Caiapó Grande, Caiapósinho, rio Claro, etc.
Goyaz (= Goiás, Brazil).
–Several later eds.
Couto, Carlos de Paula: SEE Paula Couto, Carlos de. (detail)
x
 
Cowan, Daniel F. (detail)
   
2000
Pathologist's report [on a manatee stranded in Texas].
Texas Stranding Newsletter, April 2000: 5. 1 fig.
–A mature female manatee stranded in Calhoun County, Texas, on Dec. 18, 1999, died of starvation and exposure to cold. It may have strayed from Mexican waters.
 
 
Coward, J.; Collins, D. M.; Stanton, D. L.; van der Horst, G.; Larkin, I. V. (detail)
   
2021
Morphometric and structural analysis of Florida manatee spermatozoa.
Anatomical Record https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.24645
 
 
Cowart, J. R.; Collins, D. M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Alejandro-Zayas, T., Rivera-Guzman, A. L.; et al. (detail)
   
2020
Manual collection and semen characterization in a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7: 810.
–Abstract, copied here from Sirenews No. 72, p. 52: "Limited information is available regarding male reproductive physiology in West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Currently, no reports evaluating any seminal characteristics exists in this species. To fill an apparent gap in knowledge, ejaculate samples were collected and characterized from a single, adult West Indian manatee. Samples were analyzed for the following semen parameters: volume, agglutination, pH, osmolality, viscosity, concentration, total sperm number, motility and kinematic parameters, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, chromatin maturation, and chromatin condensation. These results are the first of their kind for this species and suggest high semen quality, based on multiple ejaculates, in this male West Indian manatee."
 
 
Cowart, J.R.; Collins, D.M.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A.; Alejandro-Zayas, T; Rivera-Guzman, A.L.; Larkin, I.V. (detail)
   
2020
Manual collection and semen characterization in a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7: 569993. (doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.569993)
 
 
Cowart, J.R.; Collins, D.M.; Stanton, D.; van der Horst, G.; I.V. Larkin, I.V. (detail)
   
2021
Morphometric and structural analysis of Florida manatee spermatozoa.
Anatomical Record ["accepted"]
 
 
Cox, James; Engstrom, R. Todd; Paul, Ann; Stolen, Eric; Stoccardo, Eugene (detail)
   
2002
Florida's new method of evaluating rare species: a report by the Conservation Committee of the Florida Ornithological Society with emphasis on a proposed reclassification of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker.
Florida Field Naturalist 30(2): 44-59.
 
D
Cox, Raymond L. (detail)
   
19??
Biostratigraphy of the Sooke and Carmanah Formations.
Pap. Geol. Surv. Canada 65-1: 48.
 
 
Cox, V. (detail)
   
1981
Seekühe. Sirenen in Seenot.
Tauchen 4(10): 60-67. Illus.
 
 
Cox, Vic (detail)
   
1979
The beauty of the manatee.
Whalewatcher 13(2): 11-12. 3 figs.
 
 
Cox, Vic (detail)
   
1980
Plight of the manatee.
Omni, Feb. 1980: 36. 1 fig.
 
 
Coxe, William (detail)
   
1780
Account of the Russian discoveries between Asia and America. To which are added, the conquest of Siberia, and the history of the transactions and commerce between Russia and China. Ed. 2.
London, T. Cadell: xxiii + 344 + [13].
–Later eds.: Neuchatel, 1781; Paris, 1781; Frankfurt & Leipzig, 1783; London, 1786(?), 1787, 1803. The 1803 (fourth) ed. contains an abridged transl. of Steller's journal (octavo impression, pp. 30-93; quarto impression, pp. 24-72; see G.W. Steller, 1925: ix-x). Coxe closely follows G. F. Müller in his account of the Bering expedition. Sirs., 52, 54, 90.
 
 
Coy Otero, Alberto (detail)
   
1989
[A new species of trematode of the genus Chiorchis (Diplodiscidae), a parasite of the manatee Trichechus manatus (Sirenia) in Cuba.]
Poeyana (Inst. Zool. Acad. Cienc. Cuba) No. 378: 1-4.
–In Spanish; Engl. summ. Describes Chiorchis groschafti, n.sp.
x
 
Cozzuol, Mario A. (detail)
   
1996
The record of the aquatic mammals in southern South America. In: G. Arratia (ed.), Contributions of southern South America to vertebrate paleontology.
Münchner Geowiss. Abh., Reihe A, Geol. u. Pal. 30: 321-342. 4 figs. 1 appendix. Apr. 1996.
–Briefly reviews reported occurrences of fossil sirs. in the Miocene of South America (322, 325-328).
 
 
Craig, A. K. (detail)
   
1966
Geography of fishing in British Honduras and adjacent coastal waters.
Louisiana State Univ. Coastal Study Ser. No. 14: 1-143.
x
 
Craig, Bruce A.; Newton, Michael A.; Garrott, Robert A.; Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1997
Analysis of aerial survey data on Florida manatee using Markov chain Monte Carlo.
Biometrics 53(2): 524-541. 1 tab. 10 figs.
–French summ. Complex mathematical treatment of Atlantic Coast survey data, 1982-92, indicates that the manatee population increased during the 1980s, but the population growth rate declined in the early 1990s, while the population size was stable or slightly decreasing.
 
 
Craig, Bruce A.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2004
Determination of manatee population trends along the Atlantic coast of Florida using a Bayesian approach with temperature-adjusted aerial survey data.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 386-400. 1 tab. 8 figs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
Cram, William Everett: SEE Stone & Cram, 1916. (detail)
Cramer, Douglas L.: SEE Boaz & Cramer, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Cramer, Katie Lynn (detail)
   
2011
Historical Change in Coral Reef Communities in Caribbean Panama
University of California 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Scientists have witnessed a profound transformation in Caribbean coral reefs since the 1980s that includes a widespread mortality of corals and a shift in coral species composition. These changes have been widely attributed to modern disturbances such as coral disease and coral bleaching that have become prevalent in the most recent decades. However, the demise of corals in the Caribbean represents the most recent chapter in a long history of human alteration of Caribbean reef ecosystems. Centuries of human over-exploitation of turtles, manatees, monk seals, and predatory and large herbivorous fishes had virtually eliminated these organisms from reefs long before the 1980s. Historical deforestation of watersheds draining onto reef habitats had likely also substantially changed reef environments prior to this time. The timing and ultimate causes of change in Caribbean coral communities remains unresolved because of a lack of quantitative information about the state of these reefs from a time period preceding the 1980s. My dissertation reconstructed coral and mollusk community composition from reefs in Caribbean Panama over approximately the past 150 years to extend the timeline of ecological change. This work showed that changes in coral and mollusk communities occurred at least 50 years ago and likely as far back as the mid 19 super(th) century, a period coinciding with rapid human population growth and deforestation in the regions of study. Data confirmed that major changes in coral and mollusk communities off the Central American coast predate the first appearance of coral disease and bleaching outbreaks and that the demise of Caribbean coral populations is likely rooted in older anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing and deforestation. This work provides a more accurate ecological baseline of Caribbean coral reefs that will provide a better frame of reference for future reef management actions.
 
 
Crandall, Lee S. (detail)
   
1964
The management of wild mammals in captivity.
Chicago & London, Univ. Chicago Press: xv + 761.
–Summary of where sirs. have been successfully maintained; mention of their dietary and water temperature preferences (481-486).
x
 
Crane, Agnes (detail)
   
1881
Notes on the habits of the manatees (Manatus australis) in captivity in the Brighton Aquarium.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881(2): 456-460. 1 fig. Aug. 1881 (read Apr. 5, 1881).
–Interesting account appended to that of W.H. Flower (1881); describes two manatees (termed M. americanus in the text; probably T. inunguis) said to be from "Trinidad", and affirms their inability to travel on land.
 
 
Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Maya; Dickey, Meranda; Brewer, Leah Brinson; Arheart, Kristopher L. (detail)
   
2013
Assessment of serum amyloid A levels in the rehabilitation setting in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(4): 911-917. 3 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1638/2012-0270R.1. Dec. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) has been previously shown to have value as a biomarker of inflammation and infection in many species, including manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). In the current study, results from an automated assay for SAA were used in a rehabilitation setting. Reference intervals were established from clinically normal manatees using the robust method: 0-46 mg/L. More than 30fold higher mean SAA levels were observed in manatees suffering from cold stress and boat-related trauma. Poor correlations were observed between SAA and total white blood count, percentage of neutrophils, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio. A moderate correlation was observed between SAA and the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The sensitivity of SAA testing was 93% and the specificity was 98%, representing the highest combined values of all the analytes. The results indicate that the automated method for SAA quantitation can provide important clinical data for manatees in a rehabilitation setting.
 
 
Crema, L. C.; Da Silva, V. M. F.; Piedade, M. T. F. (detail)
   
2019
Riverine people's knowledge of the vulnerable Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in contrasting protected areas.
Oryx 54(4): 529-538. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605318000686
 
 
Crema, Luciana Carvalho; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Botta, Silvina; Trumbore, Susan; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez (detail)
   
2019
Does water type influence diet composition in Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)? A case study comparing black and clearwater rivers.
Hydrobiologia 835(1): 1-19. doi.org/10.1007/s10750-019-3900-4 June 2019 (publ. online Feb. 12, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: We assessed the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee inhabiting blackwater (Negro River) and clearwater (Tapajós River) igapós (floodplains) using ?13C and ?15N of dentin and bone collagen from different ontogenetic classes (nursing calves, juveniles, and adults). Within an individual, the dentine ?13C and ?15N values did not vary with tooth position. Bones were more depleted in 13C and 15N compared to teeth, and the ?13C and ?15N in bone differed among classes. Food sources had ?13C values typical of algae, plants of C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways. Mixing models showed that lactating females (inferred by isotopic values from nursing calves) had higher proportional consumption of C4 plants, while, for other adults, C3 plants were more frequent in the diet of manatees from both rivers. Juveniles had a mixed diet of C3 pants and C4 plants. We hypothesize the C4 plants signal of calves results from female movements to the floodplains of nearby whitewater rivers (várzeas), where C4 plants are abundant. Individuals from Tapajós may be more resident, as C3 plants and C4 plants are available during the flood pulse. Results demonstrate that manatee diets vary with ontogenetic classes and water typology. Preservation of habitats (igapó/várzea) is therefore required for the survival of Amazonian manatees.
 
 
Crerar, Lorelei D.; Crerar, Andrew P.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Parsons, E. Christopher M. (detail)
   
2014
Rewriting the history of an extinction – was a population of Steller's sea cows (Hydrodamalis gigas) at St. Lawrence Island also driven to extinction?
Biology Letters (Royal Society) 10: 20140878; 5 pp. 2 tabs. 2 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2014.0878 Nov. 26, 2014.
–See also Pyenson et al. (2016); Crerar et al. (2016). For a correction to Table 1, see Biology Letters 12(5), May 1, 2016, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0361.
 ABSTRACT: The Komandorskiye Islands population of Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was extirpated ca. 1768 CE. Until now, Steller's sea cow was thought to be restricted in historic times to Bering and Copper Islands, Russia, with other records in the last millennium from the western Aleutian Islands. However, Steller's sea cow bone has been obtained by the authors from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, which is significantly farther north. Bone identity was verified using analysis of mitochondrial DNA. The nitrogen-15 (d15N)/carbon-13 (d13C) values for bone samples from St. Lawrence Island were significantly (p>0.05) different from Bering Island samples, indicating a second population. Bone samples were dated to between 1030 and 1150 BP (approx. 800–920 CE). The samples date from close to the beginning of the mediaeval warm period which could indicate that the population at St Lawrence Island was driven to extinction by climate change. A warming of the climate in the area may have changed the availability of kelp; alternatively or in addition, the animals may have been driven to extinction by the expansion of the Inuit from the Bering Strait region, possibly due to opening waterways, maybe following bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), or searching for iron and copper. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown population of sea cows in the North Pacific within the past 1000 years and a second Steller's sea cow extirpation event in recent history.
 
 
Crerar, Lorelei D.; Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Parsons, E. Christien M. (detail)
   
2017
Illegal trade of marine mammal bone exposed: simple test identifies bones of "mermaid ivory" or Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas).
Frontiers in Marine Science 3(272). 5 figs. 1 tab. DOI:10.3389/fmars.2016.00272. Jan. 6, 2017.
 
 
Crerar, Lorelei D.; Parsons, E. Christopher M.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2016
Serendipity in research – investigation into illegal wildlife trade discovers a new population of Steller's sea cows: a reply to Pyenson et al. (2016).
Biology Letters (Royal Society) 12: 20150670; 2 pp. 1 tab. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0670 Feb. 3, 2016.
 
 
Creswell, Joel (detail)
   
2002
The exploitative history and present status of marine mammals in Barbados, W.I.
Macalester Environmental Review. May 28, 2002.
–Viewable at: http://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/ MacEnvReview/marinemammalsbarbados.htm [viewed Sept. 19, 2002].
Croll, D. A.: SEE Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Croome, A. (detail)
   
1967
Mermaids are good to eat.
Sci. Jour., Jan. 1967.
–One paragraph on manatees converting vegetation to meat.
 
 
Cropp, Ben (detail)
   
1979a
Ugly mermaid.
Australasian Post, Apr. 12, 1979: 16-18. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs at Shark Bay, Australia.
 
 
Cropp, Ben (detail)
   
1979b
Where ocean giants meet.
Oceans 12(3): 43-47. 6 figs. May 1979.
 
 
Cropp, Ben (detail)
   
1979c
The timeless hunters.
QANTAS Airways Inflight, July/Aug. 1979: 24-27. 12 figs.
–Account of dugong hunting by Bardi Aborigines, Australia.
 
 
Cropp, Ben (detail)
   
1982
Timeless hunters: the rebirth of the Australian Aborigine culture brings renewed danger to the dugong.
Oceans 15(6): 16-20. 4 figs. Nov. 1982.
 
 
Cropp, Ben (detail)
   
1984
Back to the dreamtime.
Australasian Post, Nov. 15, 1984: 32-33. 6 figs.
–Pop. acc. of modern dugong hunting by Australian Aborigines of the Bardi tribe.
Crosby, E. C.: SEE Kappers et al., 1960. (detail)
Cross, J. H.: SEE Jones et al., 1971. (detail)
 
 
Crouch, J.; McNiven, Ian J,; David, B.; Rowe, C.; Weisler, M. (detail)
   
2007
Berberass: marine resource specialisation and environmental change in Torres Strait during the past 4000 years.
Archaeology in Oceania 42: 49-64.
x
 
Crouse, Nellis M. (detail)
   
1940
French pioneers in the West Indies, 1624-1664.
New York, Columbia Univ. Press: 1-294.
–P. 110: {"M. Aubert [Sieur Jean Aubert, Governor of Guadeloupe] had loaded a vessel with turtles and manatees to take to St. Christopher and had manned it with a crew composed chiefly of those who had been unwilling to declare peace with the Caribs."}
 
 
Crowe, Philip K. (detail)
   
1965
What is happening to the wildlife of South America.
Oryx 8(1): 28-37.
 
 
Cruls, Gastão (detail)
   
1958
Hiléia amazônica: aspectos da flora, fauna, arqueologia e etnografia indígenas. Ed. 3.
Rio de Janeiro, Livr. José Olympio Editora: xvi + 447. 48 pls.
–Manatees, 96, 111, 112, 126, 189, 419. 1944 ed.: São Paulo & Rio de Janeiro, Cia. Editora Nacional: xxiv + 267. 48 pls. Manatees, 70, 84, 85, 98, 143-144.
 
 
Crusafont-Pairó, M. (detail)
   
1959
La segunda fase transgresiva en el Vindoboniense del Vallès-Penedès.
Not. y Com. Inst. Geol. Minero Españ. No. 55: 3-16.
–Sirs., 14.
x
 
Crusafont-Pairó, M. (detail)
   
1973
Mammalia Tertiaria Hispaniae.
Fossilium Catalogus. I: Animalia. Pars 121: iii + 198. Oct. 22, 1973.
–Lists occurrences of Halianassa cuvieri, Halianassa sp., Halitherium schinzi, and Halitherium sp. in Spain and Mallorca, with bibliography (96-98). Mentions (ii) a sir. bibliography ?compiled by Luis Via at the Conciliar Seminary in Barcelona.
 
 
Crusafont-Pairó, M.; Golpe Posse, J. M. (detail)
   
1975
Datos paleontológicos sobre una formación costera del Terciario Catalán (Penedès).
Impresión y Ciencia 8/9: 15-24.
–Engl. & French summs. Halianassa cuvieri.
x
 
Crusz, Hilary (detail)
   
1951
A new amphistome fluke, Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus gen. et sp. nov., from the caecum of a dugong from the Indian Ocean.
Ceylon Jour. Sci. (B)24(3): 135-141. Pls. 17-20. July 15, 1951.
–Describes Indosolenorchis from Ceylon, compares it with Solenorchis Hilmy from the Red Sea, and refers both to the Solenorchiinae [sic].
x
 
Crusz, Hilary (detail)
   
1960
Dugongs - a zoological romance.
Loris 8(5): 300-302. 1 fig. June 1960.
–Pop. acc. of Ceylon dugongs and the mermaid legend, including vernacular names, economic uses, etc., of the former.
x
 
Crusz, Hilary; Fernand, V. S. V. (detail)
   
1954
The trematode parasites of the dugong with descriptions of two new monostomes and histopathological changes in the host.
Jour. Parasitol. 40(1): 499-507. 2 pls.
–Descriptions of Lankatrema mannarense, n.gen.n.sp., and Taprobanella bicaudata, n.gen.n.sp., from Ceylon dugongs, and a synopsis of known dugong trematodes.
 
 
Cruz, Adolfo Gustavo; Delgado, Rolando (detail)
   
1986
Distribution of the macrophytes of Lake Yojoa, Honduras.
Rev. Biol. Trop. 34(1): 141-150.
–In Spanish; Engl. summ. Introduction of manatees into the lake for weed control not recommended.
Cruz, Gustavo: SEE Rathbun et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Csorba, G.; Buzás, Balazs; Farkas, B. (detail)
   
2004
A previously undescribed skull of Steller's sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas (Mammalia: Sirenia: Dugongidae) in the Hungarian Natural History Museum.
Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici 96: 317-320. 5 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Description of a cranium and a mandible of Hydrodamalis gigas stored in the Hungarian Natural History Museum is given. The remains of two specimens were collected in 1884 and were donated to the Museum by the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg in 1957.
  (Illustrates a skull and non-associated mandible of HG, which were donated by the Russian Zoological Institute in 1957 to compensate for specimens destroyed in the 1956 revolution.)
 
 
Cullen-Unsworth, L. C.; Jones, B. L.; Seary, R.; Newman, R.; Unsworth, R. K. F. (detail)
   
2018
Reasons for seagrass optimism: Local ecological knowledge confirms presence of dugongs.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 134: 118–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.11.007
x
 
Cumbaa, Stephen L. (detail)
   
1980
Aboriginal use of marine mammals in the southeastern United States.
Southeast. Archeol. Conf. Bull. 17: 6-10. 1 fig.
–Notes the occurrence of manatees at several archeological sites in Florida and discusses probable hunting techniques (in particular, killing manatees at river shallows), but concludes that manatees were too scarce to be of much dietary significance to the Indians.
 
 
Cummings, Erin W.; Pabst, D. Ann; Blum, James E.; Barco, Susan G.; Davis, Shannon J.; Thayer, Victoria G.; Adimey, Nicole; McLellan, William A. (detail)
   
2014
Spatial and temporal patterns of habitat use and mortality of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Mid-Atlantic states of North Carolina and Virginia from 1991 to 2012.
Aquatic Mammals 40(2): 126-138. 1 tab. 6 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.126 2014. Apr. 1, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are known to range north into the U.S. mid-Atlantic during warmer summer and fall months. However, rapid cooling of water temperatures in the fall can be detrimental to their survival in this region. This study reports upon all known manatee sightings (n = 211) and strandings (n = 9) from 1991 to 2012 in North Carolina and Virginia. The goals were to describe spatial and temporal patterns of manatee habitat use and mortality and relate those patterns to seasonal water temperatures, and to develop a finer-scale understanding of environmental temperatures across the region by deploying temperature data loggers at multiple sites throughout inland and coastal waterways.
  Although sightings were opportunistically gathered and, thus, not corrected for effort, they reveal a consistent picture of manatee presence in the mid-Atlantic. In both states, sightings were most common from June to October when water temperatures were above 20 degrees C. Sightings in North Carolina were most common in the Intracoastal Waterway (27%), and in rivers and creeks (46%) in Virginia. Fine-scale temperature data collected throughout the region demonstrated highly variable, declining water temperatures in late fall, with temperatures dropping by as much as 1.35 degrees C/d. Manatee sightings decreased precipitously with water temperature in November, while strandings increased. The results of this study demonstrate that manatees are predictably found in North Carolina and Virginia throughout the late spring, summer, and fall. These data can be used to plan future education and outreach, monitoring, regulatory actions, and habitat protection measures for this endangered species in this region.
 
 
Cummins, J. M.; Woodall, P. F. (detail)
   
1985
On mammalian sperm dimensions.
Jour. Reprod. Fertility 75(1): 153-175. Sept. 1985.
x
 
Cundall, Frank (detail)
   
1928
Jamaica in 1928.
London, West India Committee, for Inst. of Jamaica: 1-224.
–Brief account of manatees in Jamaica (139, 143), including their capture in fishing nets and their frequent resort to Old Harbour to feed.
Cunha Vieira, Carlos O. da: SEE Vieira, Carlos O. da Cunha. (detail)
 
 
Cuní y Valera, Luis Augusto (detail)
   
1910
Contribución al estudio de mamíferos acuáticos observados en las costas de Cuba.
Habana, Impr. Avisador Comercial: 1-43. 3 pls.
x
 
Cuní y Valera, Luis Augusto (detail)
   
1918
Contribucion al estudio de mamiferos acuaticos observados en las costas de Cuba.
Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat. 3(2/3): 83-123.
–Gen. acc. of Manatus americanus (85-95), consisting largely of quotes from Oviedo (89-93), with almost no new data from Cuba. Mentions a resolution prohibiting manatee hunting, promulgated in January 1901 at the instigation of President Theodore Roosevelt.
x
 
Cunningham, R. C. (detail)
   
1871
[Letter] concerning a specimen of the manatee (Manatus americanus) kept alive in captivity.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1870(3): 798. Apr. 1871 (read Dec. 6, 1870).
–Observations on a young manatee from the Amazon, seen in Rio de Janeiro in 1867 and 1869.
 
 
Curran, A. P.; Morris, John G. (detail)
   
1988
The effect of boat traffic on manatee (Trichechus manatus) densities at selected sites on the Indian and Banana River Lagoons, Brevard County, Florida. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 28:
x
 
Currey, John (detail)
   
1984
The mechanical adaptations of bones.
Princeton, Princeton Univ. Press: viii + 294. Illus.
–Briefly notes the role of pachyostotic bones as ballast in sirs., and the supposed asymmetry of the sir. skeleton (227-228, 263-264).
Curry, B. E.: SEE Reeves et al., 1996. (detail)
Curry, Richard W.: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
x
 
Curry-Lindahl, Kai (detail)
   
1969
The new African Conservation Convention.
Oryx 10(2): 116-126. Sept. 1969.
–Lists D. dugon and T. senegalensis in Class A (totally protected species) of the Annexe to the African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, signed in Sept. 1968 (122).
x
 
Cuthbert, Richard (detail)
   
1993
Tales from the bush: Project Mermaid.
BBC Wildlife 11(11): 82. 2 figs. Nov. 1993.
–Pop. acc. of an expedition to study manatees and other fauna in Venezuela.
Cuvier, Frédéric: SEE ALSO Brongniart & Cuvier, 1834. (detail)
 
 
Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1816-29
Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Planches. 2e partie: Règne organisé. Zoologie. Mammifères.
Paris & Strasbourg, F. G. Levrault: 1-13. 100 pls.
–Allen 551. Manatee, pl. 96; dugong, pl. 97.
 
 
Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1822
Lamantin. In: Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles.
Vol. 25: 169-173.
–Allen 610.
 
 
Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1825
Des dents des mammifères, considérées comme caractères zoologiques.
Strasbourg & Paris, F. G. Levrault: lv + 258. 110 pls.
–Allen 654. Sirs., 236-239, pls. 96-97.
 
 
Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1829
Zoologie = mammalogie. In: Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles.
Vol. 59: 357-519.
–Allen 720. Sirs., 514ff.
 
 
Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1835-36
Cetacea. In: Robert B. Todd (ed.), Todd's cyclopaedia of anatomy and physiology.
Vol. 1: 562-594. Figs. 246-279.
–Allen 875. As Allen explains, most of the content is derived from F. Cuvier (1836)(q.v.). Lists Manatus (2 spp.), Halicore (2 spp.), and Rytina (1 sp.) as the members of the new Tribe Phytophaga in the Order Cetacea. This classification, and the new name Phytophaga, are presumably the work of Todd rather than Cuvier.
 
 
Cuvier, Frédéric (detail)
   
1836
De l'histoire naturelle des cétaceés, ou recueil et examen des faits dont se compose l'histoire naturelle de ces animaux.
Paris, Libraire Encyclopédique de Roret: lii + 416. 22 pls.
–Allen 887. Published Dec. 1835, fide Sherborn. Sirs., 1-71, 375-377, pls. 4-6. Includes a translation of G.W. Steller's (1751) memoir on Rytina, 41-71, 376(?), pl. 7. Durand (1983: 184, 199-200) reproduces a fig. of a manatee and one of a dugong from this work.
 Here F. Cuvier, in line with Blainville (1816) but in contradiction to his late brother Georges Cuvier, removed the sirenians from the true Cetacea and placed them with pachyderms.
Cuvier, Georges: SEE ALSO Buffon & Cuvier, 1826; Griffith et al., 1827-32; Guérin-Méneville, F.E., 1829-44. (detail)
Cuvier, Georges: SEE ALSO G. L. D., 1804. (detail)
 
 
Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1798?
Tableau élémentaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux.
Paris, Baudouin: xvi + 710. 14 pls. Read Dec. 26, 1797; publ. An 6 [= 1797/98?].
–Allen 452. No. 772 in J. C. Smith, Georges Cuvier: an annotated bibliography of his published works, Smithsonian Inst. Press, 1993; see Smith 773-776 for Danish, German, Portuguese, and Spanish transls. Sirs., 172-173.
 
 
Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1800-05
Leçons d''anatomie comparée.... Recueillies et publiées sous ses yeux, par C. Duméril....
Paris, Baudouin (5 vols., 1800-05): Vol. 1: xxxi + 521. 7 tabs. Vol. 2: xvi + 697.
–J. C. Smith 710, 712; vols. 3-5 also issued by Genets in 1805 (Smith 711). Engl. & German transls., Smith 715-722. Ed. 2, Paris, Crochard & Cie., 1835-46 (Smith 713); ed. 3, Bruxelles, H. Dumont, 1836-40 (Smith 714).
x
 
Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1809
Sur l'ostéologie du lamantin, sur la place que le lamantin et le dugong doivent occuper dans la méthode naturelle, et sur les os fossiles de lamantins et de phoques.
Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 13: 273-312. Pl. 19.
–Allen 496; J. C. Smith 256. Abstr.: Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. (Paris) (2)1, No. 24: 395-396, Sept. 1809 (Allen 497, Smith 265). Repr.: Cuvier (1812); also publ. as separate (no publisher or date given; 40 pp., 1 pl.; fide Smith).
  Allen's annotation is apt: "This celebrated memoir marks an epoch in the literary history of the Sirenia. After giving a detailed history [273-282] of the views respecting the affinities of these animals entertained by previous writers, including the absurdities of mermaids and mermen, the author closes his historical résumé by stating that the Sirenia form three distinct genera, the Lamantins (of which he recognizes two species), the Dugong, and Steller's Sea-Cow, and that these three genera constitute a separate family, very different from the Seals, with which they had been previously placed, and a little nearer to the Cetacea than the Pachyderms are to the Carnivores. Buffon's four species of Lamantin he reduces to two. Then follows an account, with figures, of the osteology of the Brazilian Manatee [282-293]; a comparison of the skulls of the African and American Manatees [293-296], and a résumé of the distinctive structural features of Steller's Sea-Cow [296-299], whereby it is generically separated from the Dugong [300-302] and Manatees. Cuvier's results agree closely with the modern interpretation of the affinities and generic relations of these animals. It was left, however, for Desmarest to bestow technical names upon the species here first clearly distinguished, Cuvier throughout his memoir employing only the French vernacular names."
  Allen, of course, erred in attributing priority to Desmarest's names. Cuvier's work also examines the existing records of fossil sirs., almost exclusively from France (303-309), and describes as "phoques" two fragments of humeri which were later recognized by de Christol (1840) as pertaining to Metaxytherium (309-311). The description of the "lamantin d'Amérique" (282-293; pl. 19, figs. 1-3, 8-10, 14-18) is based on a specimen that is said on p. 283 to have been sent from Cayenne; but it is apparently the same as that said on p. 281 to have come from Brazil. In any case it was correctly recognized by Natterer (in Diesing, 1839), Stannius (1845), and later writers as an Amazonian manatee. This is therefore the earliest description of the osteology of T. inunguis. Finally it may be noted that the historical summary at the start of this work is a very interesting précis of the history of sirenology from Oviedo (1535) up to Cuvier's time.
 
 
Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1812
Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles de quadrupèdes, où l'on rétablit les caractères de plusieurs espèces d'animaux que les révolutions du globe paroissent avoir détruites.
Paris, Deterville (4 vols.).
–J. C. Smith 740; later eds., Smith 741-744; Engl. transls., Smith 745-746. Sirs., vol. 4 (pt. 4, art. 9): 1-40, 1 pl. (repr. of Cuvier, 1809).
 
 
Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1817
Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée.... Tome I, contenant l'introduction, les mammifères et les oiseaux.
[Paris,] Deterville (4 vols.): Vol. 1: xxxvii + 540.
–Allen 552; J. C. Smith 747. Receipt of this publication was announced at the Dec. 2, 1816 meeting of the Académie des Sciences, fide Smith. Sirs., 273-275. Later eds.: Paris, 1829 (Allen 721, Smith 748; same as ed. 1 except for a few words added to the account of the dugong); New York, 1831 (Allen 759, Smith 753; scholarly transl. of 1829 French ed.); Paris, 1836 (Allen 889, Smith 750; the "disciples edition"; text unchanged from 1829); for other eds. & for Engl., German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, and Welsh transls., see Smith 749, 751-752, 754-771, 777, 779, 802.
 
 
Cuvier, Georges (detail)
   
1821-24
Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, où l'on rétablit les caractères de plusieurs animaux dont les révolutions du globe détruit les espèces.... Nouvelle édition [= ed. 2], entièrement refondue, et considérablement augmentée....
Paris & Amsterdam, G. Dufour & Ed. d'Ocagne: 5 vols. in 7.
–Allen 622, J. C. Smith 742. Sirs., 1: 332-334, pl. 7 (1821); 5(1): 235-271, pls. 19-20 (1823); 5(2): 527, 534 (1824). Later eds.: Paris, 1825 (Allen 655, Smith 743; "Troisième édition", apparently a reissue of the 1821-24 ed. with a new title-page); Paris, 1834-36 (Allen 888, Smith 744; "Quatrième édition", 10 vols. + 2-vol. atlas; sirs. in Vol. 8, Part 2, 1836). Engl. transls.: Smith 745-746.
Cyrus, J.-L.: SEE Duguy & Cyrus, 1976. (detail)
Czelusniak, John: SEE ALSO Kleinschmidt et al., 1986; Shoshani et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
Czelusniak, John; Goodman, Morris; Koop, B. F.; Tagle, D. A.; Shoshani, Jeheskel; Braunitzer, Gerhard; Kleinschmidt, Traute; De Jong, Wilfried W.; Matsuda, G. (detail)
   
1990
Perspectives from amino acid and nucleotide sequences on cladistic relationships among higher taxa of Eutheria. In: H. H. Genoways (ed.), Current mammalogy, Vol. 2.
New York, Plenum Press (577 pp.): 545-572. 1 tab. 7 figs.
x
 
Czyżewska, Teresa; Radwański, Andrzej (detail)
   
1991
Middle Miocene (Badenian) delphinid and phocoenid remains from the Fore-Carpathian Depression in southern Poland.
Acta Geol. Polonica 41(3-4): 183-191. 1 fig. 2 pls.
–Polish summ. Mentions "Thalattosiren (= Metaxytherium)" from the Pińczów Limestones on the southern slope of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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