Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt (detail)
Sirenia (peixe-boi-da-Amazônia, Peixe-boi-marinho). In: Z. S. Cubas, J. C. R. Silva, & J. L. Catão-Dias (eds.), Tratado de animais selvagens: medicina veterinária.
São Paulo, Editora Roca Ltda.: 701-714.
D'Alton, Eduard: SEE Pander & D'Alton, 1826. (detail)
D'Anastasio, Ruggero (detail)
Idiopathic hyperostosis: epidemiology and phylogeny.
Jour. Paleopathology 16(3): 133-145. 3 tabs. 7 figs.
D'Orbigny, Charles Dessalines (detail)
Keepsake d'histoire naturelle. Description des mammifères.
Paris, Bazouge-Pigoreau: i-xlviii.
–Consists of the "Introduction", apparently the only part of the projected work ever published. I cannot explain the citation in Palmer (1904: 398), referring to a mention of "Monatus" on pp. 256-257 and pl. 41, fig. 2.
D'Souza, Elrika; Patankar, Vardhan (detail)
First underwater sighting and preliminary behavioural observations of Dugongs (Dugong dugon) in the wild from Indian waters, Andaman Islands.
Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(1): 49-53.
D'Souza, Elrika; Patankar, Vardhan (detail)
Ecological studies on the Dugong dugon of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands: a step towards species conservation.
Mysore, Nature Conservation Foundation: 1-19.
D'Souza, Elrika; Patankar, Vardhan; Arthur, R.; Alcoverro, T.; Kelkar, Nachiket (detail)
Long-term occupancy trends in a data-poor dugong population in the Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago.
PLoS ONE 8(10): e76181. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076181
Dahl, Knut (detail)
In savage Australia: an account of a hunting and collecting expedition to Arnhem Land and Dampier Land.
London, Philip Allan: xii + 326. Illus.
–Later ed.: Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1927. States that dugongs "were by no means infrequent" in Roebuck Bay (266).
Dailey, Murray D.; Brownell, Robert L., Jr. (detail)
A checklist of marine mammal parasites. In: S. H. Ridgway (ed.), Mammals of the sea: biology and medicine.
Springfield (Illinois), Charles C Thomas (812 pp.): 528-589.
–Sir. parasites, 561-562.
Dailey, Murray D.; Vogelbein, Wolfgang; Forrester, Donald J. (detail)
Moniligerum blairi n. g., n. sp. and Nudacotyle undicola n. sp. (Trematoda: Digenea) from the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus L.
Syst. Parasitol. 11(2): 159-163. 5 figs.
–The new taxa are described from a single manatee killed by a boat in Hobe Sound, Martin County, Florida.
Dal Piaz, Giambattista (detail)
I mammiferi dell'oligocene veneto. No. 5. Halitherium sp.
Mem. Ist. Geol. Univ. Padova 11(5): 1-5.
Dal Piaz, Giorgio (detail)
L'Istituto Geologico dell'Università di Padova nel 1922. Notizie sommarie.
Mem. Ist. Geol. Univ. Padova 6(2): 1-15. 8 figs.
–Skull of Halitherium, 12-13.
Daley, B.; Griggs, P.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
Exploiting marine wildlife in Queensland: the commercial dugong and marine turtle fisheries, 1847-1969.
Australian Economic History Review 48(3): 227-265.
Dall, William Healey (detail)
Notes on an original manuscript chart of Bering's expedition of 1725-1730, and on an original manuscript chart of his second expedition; together with a summary of a journal of the first expedition, kept by Peter Chaplin, and now first rendered into English from Bergh's Russian version.
Rept. U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey 1890: 759-774. Pls. 69-70.
–For discussion of the chart of the second expedition and its picture of Steller's sea cow, see L. Stejneger (1936: 516ff.).
Dalley, Cameo (detail)
"Dugong Hunting as Changing Practice: Economic engagement and an Aboriginal ranger program on Mornington Island, southern Gulf of Carpentaria. Chap 15. in: Natasha Fijn, Ian Keen, Christopher Lloyd, Michael Pickering (eds.), Indigenous Participation in Australian Economies II" "Ed. 1"
The Australian National University: 4 figures.
Dalquest, Walter W.: SEE Hall & Dalquest, 1963. (detail)
Damarco, Piero: SEE Bagnato et al., 2000. (detail)
Dammermann, Karel Willem (detail)
Resultats zoologiques de l'expedition scientifique neerlandaise à l'île de Buru en 1921 et 1922. In: Boeroe-Expeditie ....
Buitenzorg, Archipel Drukkerij.
–Dugong, 19-20.
Dampier, Cindy: SEE Chu & Dampier, 1990. (detail)
Dampier, William: SEE ALSO Stanbury, P. J., 1978. (detail)
Dampier, William (detail)
A new voyage round the world. Describing particularly, the Isthmus of America, several coasts and islands in the West Indies, the Isles of Cape Verde, the passage by Terra del Fuego, the South Sea coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico; the isle of Guam one of the Ladrones, Mindanao, and other Philippine and East India islands near Cambodia, China, Formosa, Luconia, Celebes, &c. New Holland, Sumatra, Nicobar Isles; the Cape of Good Hope, and Santa Hellena. Their soil, rivers, harbours, plants, fruits, animals, and inhabitants. Their customs, religion, government, trade, &c. Vol. I. [Ed. 5, corrected, 1703.]
  Voyages and descriptions Vol. II. In three parts, viz. 1. A supplement of the Voyage round the World, describing the countries of Tonquin, Achin, Malacca, &c. their products, inhabitants, manners, trade, policy, &c. 2. Two voyages to Campeachy; with a description of the coasts, products, inhabitants, logwood-cutting, trade, &c. of Jucatan, Campeachy, New Spaine, &c. 3. A discourse of trade-winds, breezes, storms, seasons of the year, tides and currents of the torrid zone throughout the world: with an account of Natal in Africk, its products, Negro's, &c.... To which is added, a general index to both volumes. [Ed. 3, 1705.]
  A voyage to New Holland, &c. in the year, 1699. Wherein are described the Canary Islands, the Isles of Mayo and St. Jago. The Bay of All Saints, with the forts and town of Bahia in Brazil. Cape Salvadore. The winds on the Brazilian coast. Abrolho-Shoals. A table of all the variations observ'd in this voyage. Occurrences near the Cape of Good Hope. The course to New Holland. Shark's Bay. The isles and coast, &c. of New Holland. Their inhabitants, manners, customs, trade, &c. Their harbours, soil, beasts, birds, fish, &c. Trees, plants, fruits, &c. Illustrated with several maps and draughts; also divers birds, fishes, and plants, not found in this part of the world, curiously ingraven on copper-plates. Vol. III. [Ed. 1, 1703.]
London, James Knapton (3 vols.): Vol. 1: vi + 550. Several figs. 5 maps. Vol. 2: [4] + 184 + 132 + 112 + [36]. 4 maps. Vol. 3: [12] + 162 + [5]. 14 pls.
–Allen 151. Various later eds. Manatee material repr. in Durand (1983: 136-139; Spanish transl.) and in J. A. Murray (ed.), The islands and the sea ..., Oxford Univ. Press: 105-109, 1991. Allen explains his citation (repeated here) as follows: "In the set I have here collated, vols. ii and iii are bound together. Vol. i belongs to the 'fifth edition,' vol. ii to the 'third,', and vol. iii to the first.... I have references to a 1702 ed. which correspond exactly with the 1703 ed. here collated.
  "As is well known, Dampier was an acute natural-history observer as well as a bold navigator and adventurer, and his observations on the Beasts, Birds, and Fishes he met with during his long voyages are among the best and most trustworthy of his time. His work is of importance in the present connection for his very full account of the Manatee, which he met with at numerous and widely distant points....
  "Manatee, or Sea-cow, vol. i, pp. 33-37 - description of the animal, its habits, distribution, products, and the manner of its capture by the natives of Blewfield (or Bluefield) River [Nicaragua]; p. 41, in Darien River [Panama]; p. 321, its occurrence at Mindenao, in the East Indies; p. 381, do.; pp. 463, 469, its occurrence in New Holland [= Australia]; p. 547, the Manatee of Santa Hellena a Sea-Lyon [i. e., a Seal]. Vol. 2, pt. ii, pp. 73, 109, 128, in Campeachy, and near Vera Cruz [Mexico]....
  "Dampier's references to the 'Manatee, or Sea-cow,' as occurring in the East Indies and New Holland, relate, of course, to the Dugong. His statement that the Manatees of the West Indies are smaller than those of the American Isthmus and Guiana was seized upon by Buffon as indicating a diversity of species."
Dana, James Dwight (detail)
On the classification of animals based on the principle of cephalization. III. Classification of herbivores.
Amer. Jour. Sci. (2)37(110): 157-183. March 1864.
–Discusses various characteristics of the Sirenia and concludes they are separate from cetaceans (160-161, 163, 168-169, 175, 183).
Dana, James Dwight (detail)
Manual of geology, treating of the principles of the science with special reference to American geological history.
New York, Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co.: xvi + 828. Illus.
–Ed. 1, 1863; several later eds. Discussion of Deinotherium.
Dandouau, André (detail)
Ody et fanafody (charmes et remèdes). Pharmacopée Sakalave et Tsimihety.
Rev. d'Ethnogr. et des Trads. Pops. (Paris, Larose) 3(10): 111-128.
–Describes (119) Madagascar natives' use of the fat of a "cochon de mer" as a cure for deafness, and opines that the animal is a Physeter or sperm whale. Petit (1923: 83) thinks it more probably a dugong.
Dandouau, André (detail)
Une tournée dans l'Île de Nossi-Bé (1917).
Bull. Économique de Madagascar 1924(1/2): 139-155. 2 maps.
–Account of dugong ("lamantin") hunting practices and rituals (151-153).
Daniel, João (detail)
Quinta parte do thesouro descoberto no Rio Maximo Amazonas....
Rio de Janeiro, Impr. Regia: 1-152.
–Urges restriction of manatee exploitation to avoid the animal's extinction (150-151).
Daniel-Rentería, I. del Carmen; Serrano, Arturo; Sánchez-Rojas, G. (detail)
Distribution of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Alvarado Lagoon System (Veracruz, Mexico).
Ciencias Marinas 38(2): 459-465. 2 figs. June 2012.
–Also ?published as "El Manatí (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758) (Sirenia) una especie sombrilla, para el Sistema Lagunar de Alvarado, Veracruz", Cuadernos de Biodiversidad No. 33: 16-23, 3 figs., 2010.
 ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is considered endangered in Mexico. Local extinctions have been documented in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and the only remaining population with a northern distribution is found in the Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS). The objective of this study was to determine manatee distribution in ALS. The system covers an area of 267,010 ha and includes hundreds of lagoons, floodable areas, and dozens of rivers. To detect manatees, systematic line transects were done in a boat 7.6 m in length, totaling 332.6 h of search effort with an average of 7.38 h d–1 in 45 surveys. There was a total of 13 manatee sightings: seven direct sightings, five with hydrophones, and one with a side-scan sonar. For each record the geographical coordinates were taken and integrated in a geographical information system to analyze their distribution. Manatee distribution was not uniform throughout the study area. Manatees were sighted in very specific areas of ALS considered part of their habitat, mainly in areas with inland water bodies, in some estuarine and marshy areas, and in some wetlands with vegetation generally in appropriate condition. This lagoon system is very important for manatee conservation since it is the last site with viable populations in Veracruz and the northern Gulf of Mexico.
  RESUMO: El manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus manatus) es considerado una especie en peligro de extinción en México. En la zona norte del golfo de México se han documentado extinciones locales, y se sabe que la población remanente con distribución más norteña se encuentra en el Sistema Lagunar de Alvarado (SLA). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución del manatí en el SLA. El sistema presenta una extensión de 267,010 ha que incluyen cientos de lagunas, áreas inundables y docenas de ríos. La localización de los manatíes se realizó mediante muestreos en transectos lineales sistemáticos en una lancha de 7.6 m de eslora. El esfuerzo de muestreo fue de 332.36 h, con un promedio de 7.38 h d–1 en 45 recorridos. En total se obtuvieron 13 avistamientos de manatíes: siete observados de manera directa, cinco detectados mediante el uso del hidrófono y uno mediante el uso de una ecosonda. En cada registro se tomaron las coordenadas geográficas y se integraron a un sistema de información geográfica para analizar su distribución. La distribución del manatí no se dio de manera uniforme en el área de estudio. Los manatíes se observaron en áreas muy específicas dentro del SLA, consideradas como parte de su hábitat, principalmente en zonas que cuentan con cuerpos de agua interiores, algunas otras áreas estuarinas y palustres, y algunos humedales generalmente con una vegetación en condiciones apropiadas. El SLA es de suma importancia para la conservación de los manatíes, ya que es el último sitio con poblaciones viables en Veracruz y en el norte del golfo de México.
Dapper, Olfert: SEE Montanus, A., 1673. (detail)
Darga, Robert; Böhme, Madelaine; Göhlich, Ursula B.; Rössner, Gertrud E. (detail)
Reste höherer Wirbeltiere aus dem Alttertiär des Alpenvorlandes bei Siegsdorf/Oberbayern.
Mitt. Bayer. Staatssamml. Pal. Hist. Geol. 39: 91-114. 2 tabs. 4 figs. 2 pls. Dec. 15, 1999.
–Reports the proximal end of a sir. rib from the Upper Oligocene Molasse deposits (Thalberg-Schichten) in Upper Bavaria, Germany (104-105).
Darling, Kathy (detail)
Manatee: on location.
New York, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books: 1-48. Illus.
–Children's book.
Darlu, P.: SEE Barriel et al., 1993. (detail)
Dart, Raymond A. (detail)
The brain of the Zeuglodontidae (Cetacea).
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923(3): 615-648, 652-654. 21 figs. Sept. 3, 1923.
–Sirs., 637.
Dartevelle, E. (detail)
Les premiers restes de mammifères du Tertiaire du Congo: la faune Miocène de Malembe. (Première note sur les mammifères fossiles du Congo.)
C.R. 2e Congr. Natl. Sci. Belgique (Bruxelles): 715-720.
–Report of sir. rib fragments ("Halitherium sp.?") (717-718).
Darwin, Charles Robert (detail)
A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species.
London, Ray Society (2 vols., 1851-54). 42 pls.
–Discusses Platylepas bissexlobata from Australia, Gambia, and Honduras (428, pl. 17).
Das, D. P.: SEE Basu et al., 1991. (detail)
Das, D. P.; Basu, P. K. (detail)
Study of Palaeogene marine mammals of Kachchh, Gujarat.
Records Geol. Surv. India 127(2): 5.
–An abstract reporting on fossil cetaceans and sirs. from Kutch. Coins the nomina nuda "Eotheroides waghapadarensis sp. nov." (Middle Eoc.) and "Kotadasiren gracillis [sic] gen. et sp. nov." (Oligo-Mioc.).
Das, Debi P.; Basu, P. K. (detail)
Study of fossil marine Palaeogene mammals of Gujarat.
Records Geol. Surv. India 126(2): 8.
Das, H. S. (detail)
Status of seagrass habitats of the Andaman and Nicobar coast.
Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON) (Coimbatore, India) Technical Report No. 4: iii +32. 10 tabs. 6 figs.
–DD, 16, 18-20, 32.
Das, H. S.; Dey, S. C. (detail)
Observations on the dugong, Dugong dugon (Muller), in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 96(2): 195-198. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Aug. 1999.
–Interview and boat surveys, 1994-97, suggested that an estimated 40 dugongs may survive around the islands. Harpooning is no longer regularly practiced; mortality (in fishing nets) is now often unintentional. Population decline is attributed to habitat loss; conservation measures are suggested. External measurements of a lactating female are given.
Daubenton, Louis Jean Marie: SEE ALSO Buffon & Daubenton, 1765. (detail)
Daubenton, Louis Jean Marie (detail)
Oeuvres complètes de Buffon, avec les descriptions anatomiques de Daubenton.... Mammifères.
Paris, Verdière & Ladrange (40 vols., 1824-31, + 8-vol. atlas).
Daudin, F. M.: SEE Lacépède & Daudin, 1802. (detail)
David, B.; Mura Badulgal Committee (detail)
What happened in Torres Strait 400 years ago? Ritual transformation in an island seascape.
Jour. Island & Coastal Archaeology 1: 123-143.
Davidenkov, S. (detail)
Types of nervous system in man, their heredity and evolution.
Jour. Mental Sci. 93: 262-272.
–Sirs., 267.
Davidson, W. V. (detail)
Historical geography of the Bay Islands, Honduras: Anglo-hispanic conflict in the western Caribbean.
Birmingham (Ala.), Southern Univ. Press: 1-199.
–Reports that manatees are absent from the Bay Islands today.
Davies, A. G.: SEE Grubb et al., 1998. (detail)
Davies, J. H. (detail)
Mag. Nat. Hist. & Jour. of Zool. Bot., Min. Geol., & Meteorology (London) 3: 188.
–Repr.: Mirror of Literature, Amusement, & Instruction (London) 15: 215, 1830; Arcana of Science & Art (London) 4: 167, 1831; Dublin Penny Journal 3: 332, 1834-5.
  Includes a brief account of a dugong "brought to Portsmouth, which had been shot in the vicinity of the island of Mombass" [= Mombasa, East Africa?].
Davies, Nicola (detail)
Manatee rescue.
Somerville (Massachusetts), Candlewick Press: 1-112. Illus. Jan. 5, 2016.
–Previously published in England (Walker Books, Aug. 1, 2013) as Manatee Baby. Children's book on manatee hunting and protection, set in an Amazonian village.
Davies, Wayne I. L.; Collin, Shaun P.; Hunt, David M. (detail)
Molecular ecology and adaptation of visual photopigments in craniates.
Molecular Ecology 21(13): 3121-3158. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05617.x. July 2012.
–ABSTRACT: In craniates, opsin-based photopigments expressed in the eye encode molecular 'light sensors' that constitute the initial protein in photoreception and the activation of the phototransduction cascade. Since the cloning and sequencing of the first vertebrate opsin gene (bovine rod opsin) nearly 30 years ago (Ovchinnikov Yu 1982, FEBS Letters, 148, 179–191; Hargrave et al. 1983, Biophysics of Structure & Mechanism, 9, 235–244; Nathans & Hogness 1983, Cell, 34, 807–814), it is now well established that variation in the subtypes and spectral properties of the visual pigments that mediate colour and dim-light vision is a prevalent mechanism for the molecular adaptation to diverse light environments. In this review, we discuss the origins and spectral tuning of photopigments that first arose in the agnathans to sample light within the ancient aquatic landscape of the Early Cambrian, detailing the molecular changes that subsequently occurred in each of the opsin classes independently within the main branches of extant jawed gnathostomes. Specifically, we discuss the adaptive changes that have occurred in the photoreceptors of craniates as they met the ecological challenges to survive in quite differing photic niches, including brightly lit aquatic surroundings; the deep sea; the transition to and from land; diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal environments; and light-restricted fossorial settings. The review ends with a discussion of the limitations inherent to the 'nocturnal-bottleneck' hypothesis relevant to the evolution of the mammalian visual system and a proposition that transition through a 'mesopic-bottleneck' may be a more appropriate model.
Davis, Randall W.: SEE St. Aubin & Lounsbury, 1990; Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
Davis, Stephen (detail)
Aboriginal knowledge and use of the coast and sea in northern Arnhem Land. In: K. N. Bardsley, J. D. S. Davie, & C. D. Woodroffe (eds.), Coasts and tidal wetlands of the Australian monsoon region: a collection of papers presented at a conference held in Darwin, 4-11 Nov. 1984.
Darwin, Austral. Natl. Univ. North Austral. Res. Unit (Mangrove Monogr. No. 1) (1-375): 297-312. 4 figs.
–Sir. material (307) identical to that in Davis (1988).
Davis, Stephen (detail)
Aboriginal tenure of the sea in northern Arnhem Land. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 68-98. 3 figs.
–Hunting of sleeping dugongs, 79 (material identical to that in Davis, 1985).
Dawson, George M. (detail)
The extinct northern sea-cow, and early Russian explorations in the North Pacific.
Ottawa Naturalist 7: 151-161.
–History of the discovery and destruction of Steller's sea cow (154-160).
Daxner-Höck, Gudrun (detail)
Vertebrata (excl. Pisces) der Eggenburger Schichtengruppe. In: F. Steininger & J. Seneš (eds.), Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen: Miozän der zentralen Paratethys. Bd. II, M₁ Eggenburgien: Die Eggenburger Schichtengruppe und ihr Stratotypus.
Bratislava, Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej Akadémie Vied: 761-777. 4 pls.
–Describes material of Metaxytherium krahuletzi from the vicinity of Eggenburg, Austria (761, 764-765, pls. 3-4).
Dayton, Paul K. (detail)
Experimental studies of algal canopy interactions in a sea otter-dominated kelp community at Amchitka Island, Alaska.
Fish. Bull. 73(2): 230-237. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 1975.
–Rev.: R. M. May, Nature (London) 260(5549): 284, Mar. 25, 1976. Notes that Hydrodamalis gigas was formerly a major kelp consumer, and suggests that sea otters helped maintain sea cow populations by suppressing invertebrate herbivores (236-237).
De Beer, Gavin R. (detail)
The development of the vertebrate skull.
Oxford, Clarendon Press: xxiv + 552. 143 pls.
–Sirs., 346-348.
De Felice, Cynthia C. (detail)
The missing manatee.
Farrar, Straus & Giroux (A Sunburst Book): 1-181.
–A mystery novel for children.
de Foy, Karen (detail)
The short, sad story of Steller's sea cow.
Cricket (Chicago) 38(9): 14-18. 3 figs. July/Aug. 2011.
–Pop. acc. of the sea cow's discovery and extermination, and of Florida manatee conservation.
De Giuli, Claudio: SEE Azzaroli et al., 1982. (detail)
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert: SEE ALSO Persoon & De Iongh, 1996. (detail)
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert (detail)
Current status of dugongs in Aru, East Indonesia.
Nederl. Comm. Internatl. Natuurbescherming, Meded. No. 30: 75-86. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert (detail)
Optimizing the design of marine reserves to protect dugongs in a small island ecosystem.
Tigerpaper (Bangkok) 26(2): 6-13. Apr.-June 1999.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Bal, D. (detail)
As we see it: harmonization of Red Lists in Europe: some lessons learned in the Netherlands when applying the new IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.
Endangered Species Research 3: 53-60.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Bierhuizen, Barbara; Van Orden, Belinda (detail)
Observations on the behaviour of the dugong (Dugong dugon Müller, 1776) from waters of the Lease Islands, eastern Indonesia.
Contributions to Zoology (Amsterdam) 67(1): 71-77. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–French summ. Describes feeding behavior (including ?cultivation grazing of Halophila ovalis, foraging in rough water, making multiple feeding tracks per dive, and possibly eating lingulid brachiopods and Sipunculus sp.); diving times and behavior, including longer dives in deeper water (up to 10 m); and responses to boats and divers.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
The biological invasion of Sirenia into Australasia. Chap. 7 in: H. H. T. Prins and I. J. Gordon (eds.), Invasion biology and ecological theory: insights from a continent in transformation.
New York, Cambridge University Press (xiv + 528): 118-137. 3 figs.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Kiswara, W.; Bauer, H. (detail)
Dietary preference of a captive-held dugong (Dugong dugon Müller 1776) in Surabaya Zoo, Indonesia. In: Plant-herbivore interactions between seagrasses and dugongs in a tropical small island ecosystem.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Kiswara, W.; Kustiawan, W.; Loth, P. E. (detail)
A review of research on the interactions between dugongs (Dugong dugon Müller 1776) and intertidal seagrass beds in Indonesia.
Hydrobiologia 591(1): 73-83.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Langeveld, Paul; Van der Wal, Mark (detail)
Movement and home ranges of dugongs around the Lease Islands, East Indonesia.
Mar. Ecol. 19(3): 179-193. Third quarter, 1998.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Wenno, Bob J., Meelis, E. (detail)
Seagrass distribution and seasonal biomass changes in relation to dugong grazing in the Moluccas, East Indonesia.
Aquatic Botany 50(1): 1-19. 2 tabs. 14 figs.
–Studies of a seagrass bed at Ambon dominated by Halodule uninervis, and of biomass removal and recovery in natural and artificial dugong feeding tracks, indicated that the dugongs seemed to be maximizing their intake of rhizomes with high levels of total organic carbon, and therefore maximizing their net rate of energy intake.
De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert; Wenno, Bob J.; Bierhuizen, Barbara; Van Orden, Belinda (detail)
Aerial survey of the dugong (Dugong dugon Müller, 1776) in coastal waters of the Lease Islands, East Indonesia.
Austral. Jour. Mar. Freshwater Res. 46(4): 759-761. 2 figs.
–Surveys in 1990 and 1992, totaling 3.5 hours of observation, sighted 5-11 dugongs per survey hour and resulted in a minimum population estimate of 22-37 animals, presumably part of a larger regional population.
De Jong, C. (detail)
De zeekoevangst in Guyana in vroeger eeuwen. [Manatee hunts in Guiana in past centuries.]
De Surinamse Landbouw 9(3): 93-100. 1 fig.
–Engl. summ.
De Jong, C. (detail)
Amsterdamse rederij op de zeekoevangst in Guyana.
Ons Amsterdam 14: 150-154. 2 figs.
–Text identical to De Jong (1961).
De Jong, C. (detail)
Aantekingen over Jan Reeps in Suriname, 1693.
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 48(2-3): 201-205.
–Discusses the export of manatee meat from the Guianas to the West Indies.
De Jong, Wilfried W.: SEE ALSO Czelusniak et al., 1990; Springer et al., 1997; Stanhope et al., 1998. (detail)
De Jong, Wilfried W. (detail)
Use of eye lens a-crystallin sequences in mammalian phylogeny. [Abstr.]
Second Internatl. Congr. Syst. & Evol. Biol. (Vancouver, Univ. Brit. Columbia): 119.
De Jong, Wilfried W. (detail)
Molecules remodel the mammalian tree.
Trends in Ecol. & Evol. 13(7): 270-275. 3 figs. July 1998.
–Reviews the present state of molecular phylogeny, noting that the grouping of Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Hyracoidea in a paenungulate clade is supported by all available DNA sequence data, but also noting that "[c]oncerns about the robustness of molecular findings remain justified."
De Jong, Wilfried W.; Goodman, Morris (detail)
Mammalian phylogeny studied by sequence analysis of the eye lens protein a-crystallin.
Zs. Säugetierk. 47(5): 257-276. 2 tabs. 5 figs. Oct. 1982.
–Sequences of a-crystallin A indicate that paenungulates (Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, and Sirenia) are monophyletic and include the Tubulidentata, and are, together with the edentates, the oldest eutherian offshoots. The sir. data are based on 6 eye lenses of T. inunguis.
De Jong, Wilfried W.; Zweers, A. (detail)
Confirmação da relação entre peixes-bois, "hyraxes" e elefantes, por meio do estudo da proteína das lentes dos olhos.
Acta Amazonica 10(4): 897-902. 1 tab. 2 figs. Dec. 1980.
–Engl. summ. Amino acid sequence analysis of ?A eye-lens crystallin confirms the monophyletic origin of the Sirenia, Hyracoidea, and Proboscidea and suggests that the former two are closest to each other; the Paenungulata are the oldest placental offshoot after the Edentata.
De Jong, Wilfried W.; Zweers, A.; Goodman, Morris (detail)
Relationship of aardvark to elephants, hyraxes and sea cows from a-crystallin sequences.
Nature (London) 292(5823): 538-540. 1 tab. 2 figs. Aug. 6, 1981.
de Lima, Régis Pinto; Passavante, José Zanon (detail)
Assessment of the first decade (1994-2004) of the West Indian manatee reintroduction (Trichechus manatus) program in the Northeastern coast of Brazil.
Natural Resources 5(1) DOI: 10.6008%2F1147.
–ABSTRACT: Thirteen captive manatees were released and tagged in three different northeastern coastal areas as part of the Brazilian Manatee Reintroduction Program from October 1994 to December 2004. All individuals were monitored locally with VHF transmitters and four were also tracked with satellite tags for different lengths of time. Manatees were tracked from Praia do Forte, Bahia state (12.538ºS/38.474ºW) to Macau, Rio Grande do Norte state (5.084ºS/36.682ºW) along 1200 coastal km of the northeast six states. To evaluate the re-adaptation process was the main objectives of this work, which will hopefully help researchers to make decisions in the future. Two release areas (RA) were beaches with shallow waters, seagrass beds, reefs and close to small rivers; and one was located inside a large estuary with few seagrass beds. Captivity time was not considered in this evaluation but can be an important factor on the success of the manatee reintroduction program. Five manatees occupied home ranges and each contained sites of high fidelity where they spent considerable time. Two manatees were re-captured shortly after release, having moved long distances, including offshore movements into deep waters. Six manatees had few tracked time. Although manatees had few age when released they have found natural conditions for them survival including reproductive behavior. The fidelity sites choose to release manatees in terms of environmental was very similar. A discontinuous occurrence area (RA2) has been used by some released manatees where a first released manatee female had her calf. We strongly recommend: Continuous of this Manatee Reintroduction Program, to protect this three released areas, develop studies in fidelity sites and one new release area in Ceara coast.
De María, Maite; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Kroll, Kevin J.; Walsh, Michael T.; Nouria, Mohammad-Zaman; Hunter, Margaret E.; Ross, Monica; Clauss, Tonya M.; Denslow, Nancy D. (detail)
Chronic exposure to glyphosate in Florida manatee.
Environment International 152: 3 tabs. 3 figs. July 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees depend on freshwater environments as a source of drinking water and as warm-water refuges. These freshwater environments are in direct contact with human activities where glyphosate-based herbicides are being used. Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide and it is intensively used in Florida as a sugarcane ripener and to control invasive aquatic plants. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of glyphosate and its breakdown product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in Florida manatee plasma and assess their exposure to manatees seeking a warm-water refuge in Crystal River (west central Florida), and in South Florida. We analyzed glyphosate's and AMPA's concentrations in Florida manatee plasma (n = 105) collected during 2009–2019 using HPLC-MS/MS. We sampled eight Florida water bodies between 2019 and 2020, three times a year: before, during and after the sugarcane harvest using grab samples and molecular imprinted passive Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (MIP-POCIS). Glyphosate was present in 55.8% of the sampled Florida manatees' plasma. The concentration of glyphosate has significantly increased in Florida manatee samples from 2009 until 2019. Glyphosate and AMPA were ubiquitous in water bodies. The concentration of glyphosate and AMPA was higher in South Florida than in Crystal River, particularly before and during the sugarcane harvest when Florida manatees depend on warm water refuges. Based on our results, Florida manatees were chronically exposed to glyphosate and AMPA, during and beyond the glyphosate applications to sugarcane, possibly associated with multiple uses of glyphosate-based herbicides for other crops or to control aquatic weeds. This chronic exposure in Florida water bodies may have consequences for Florida manatees' immune and renal systems which may further be compounded by other environmental exposures such as red tide or cold stress.
De Pourtalès, Louis François (detail)
Hints on the origin of the flora and fauna of the Florida Keys.
Amer. Naturalist 11: 137-144. Mar. 1877.
–Concludes that the occurrence of manatees in both Florida and the West Indies, and of "manatee" bone fragments in dredge samples off the Florida coast, indicates former migrations between Cuba and Florida (144). These may have been dugongid bones, however; see Reed et al., 2005.)
De Silva, G. S. (detail)
The fauna conservation ordinance of Sabah.
Loris 11(5): 283-286.
–The law took effect in July 1964, protecting dugongs and other wildlife.
De Silva, J. A. (detail)
A plea for the protection of the dugong.
Loris 8: 173-174. 1 fig. June 1959.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs and dugong hunting in the Indian Ocean; recommends "complete prohibition on the killing of the dugong" in Ceylon.
De Vis, Charles W. (detail)
On a fossil calvaria.
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 8(3): 392-395. Pl. 17. Read Aug. 29, 1883.
–Description of the supposed fossil sirenian Chronozoon Australe, n.gen.n.sp., based on a skull fragment from the Chinchilla (Darling Downs) drift deposits, southeastern Queensland. This specimen has been considered to represent a diprotodont marsupial, possibly the giant wombat Phascolonus gigas (see T. Edinger, 1975: 44), although it may represent a juvenile individual of some other diprotodontid. J. Louys & G. J. Price (Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 60(3):551-572, Fig. 6E (2013), consider it a species inquirenda.
De Vis, Charles W. (detail)
Fossil vertebrates from New Guinea.
Ann. Queensland Mus. No. 6: 26-31. Pls. 10-13.
–Describes Halicore brevirostris, n.sp., based on the rostral portion of a skull from alluvial deposits of unknown [but possibly subrecent] age on Murua or Woodlark Is., Papua New Guinea (27-30, pl. 10).
De Vries, T. J.: SEE Muizon & De Vries, 1985. (detail)
De Winton, W. E.: SEE Anderson and De Winton, 1902. (detail)
Debelius, H. (detail)
Sirenia: Kühe mit Flossen.
Abenteuer Natur 2: 86-97.
Debenham, F. (detail)
Bering's last voyage.
Polar Rec. (Cambridge) 3(22): 421-426. 1 pl.
–Reproduces the sea cow picture from Waxell's chart.
Debrot, Adolphe O.; Eybrecht, Luigi; Dawson, Emily; Cremer, Jenny; Stelten, Ruud (detail)
The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the southern Caribbean: A compilation and review of records for the Dutch Leeward Islands and the central Venezuelan coast.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. Jan. 2020; publ. online July 31, 2019.
Debrot, Adolphe O.; Van Buurt, G.; Caballero, Andy; Antczak, Andrzej A. (detail)
A historical review of records of the West Indian manatee and the American crocodile in the Dutch Antilles.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 42(2): 272-280.
Decari, R. (detail)
La faune malgache.
Paris, Payot.
Dechaseaux, Colette (detail)
Sirenia [and] Desmostylia. In: J. Piveteau (ed.), Traité de paléontologie. Tome VI en deux volumes. L'origine des mammifères et les aspects fondamentaux de leur évolution. Mammifères. Évolution. Deuxième volume.
Paris, Masson et Cie. (962 pp.): 333-367. 41 figs.
–Sirenia, 333-361, 35 figs.; "Encéphales de Siréniens fossiles", 361-363, 1 fig.; Desmostylia, 364-367, 5 figs.
Decker, Susan J.: SEE Bossart et al., 2002; Miller et al., 2001. (detail)
Defretin, R.: SEE Duguy & Defretin, 1979. (detail)
Dehnhardt, Guido: SEE Bachteler & Dehnhardt, 1998, 1999. (detail)
DeKay, James Ellsworth (detail)
Zoology of New-York, or the New-York fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals hitherto observed within the state of New-York, with brief notices of those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropriate illustrations.... Part I. Mammalia. In: Natural History of New York.
Albany, printed by W. & A. White & J. Visscher (entire work: 6 parts in 5 vols., 1842-44): Vol. 1: xv + 146. 33 pls.
–Sirs., 122-123, pl. 30.
Dekeyser, P. L. (detail)
Note sommaire sur la température rectale du lamantin (Trichechus senegalensis Link).
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (2)24(3): 243-246. May 1952.
–During periods out of water, the rectal temperature of a 1.5 m male manatee from Senegal varied between 25 and 28.5 degrees C, correlated only weakly with ambient air and water temperatures.
Dekeyser, P. L. (detail)
Note sommaire sur la denture d'un jeune lamantin (Trichechus senegalensis).
Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire 17A(3): 921-925. 1 fig.
–Discussion of the dental formula and tooth succession in a 1.5 m manatee calf from Senegal, probably the same one studied in Dekeyser (1952). Illustrates the dentition prior to any tooth loss, and concludes that the anteromost lower tooth belongs to the permanent rather than the deciduous series.
Dekeyser, P. L. (detail)
Les mammifères de l'Afrique Noire Français.
Initiations Africaines (Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire) 1: 1-426.
–Publ. 1955? Ed. 2? Sirs., 309-311.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Zeekoe, alias lamantijn, alias manati. [Title of parts II-IV:] Zeekoeien uit Suriname II [-IV].
Artis (Amsterdam) 12(5): 148-157, 12 figs.; 12(6): 184-191, 7 figs.; 13(1): 28-35, 8 figs.; 13(2): 58-65, 13 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1967, Mar.-Apr. 1967, May-June 1967; July-Aug. 1967.
–Account, in four installments, of the capture of manatees in Suriname for the Amsterdam zoo.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Schakels (The Hague) S64: 21-24. 4 figs.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Op zoek naar zeekoewijfjes. [In search of seacow females.]
Artis (Amsterdam) 17(1): 8-13; 17(2): 48-53; 17(3): 84-88. May-June 1971; July-Aug. 1971; Sept.-Oct. 1971.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Transport of manatees Trichechus m. manatus.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 14: 68-69.
–Account of the two-week transport by ship of four manatees from Suriname to Holland in Oct. 1966; two died (of cold?), two survived with bruises. Air transport is recommended for future attempts.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
On the natural history of manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Suriname for the Amsterdam Zoo.
Aquat. Mamms. 2(2): 1-3. Nov. 1974.
–Brief account of distribution, status, and food habits of Suriname manatees, and of the capture of 15 animals, all but one males.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Zeekoegeboorte: een unieke gebeurtenis. [Manatee birth: a unique occurrence.]
Artis (Amsterdam) 23(4): 111-119. 17 figs. Nov./Dec. 1977.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) born at Artis Zoo, Amsterdam.
Internatl. Zoo News 24(8): 30-31.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Die Sirene von Amsterdam.
Der Zoofreund 27: 6-7.
Dekker, Dick (detail)
Pre- and postnatal behaviour in the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in captivity.
Aquat. Mamms. 8(1): 21-26. 1 tab. 3 figs. June 1980.
–Describes attempts at copulation, genital swellings and mammary development in female, feeding, nursing, locomotor, respiratory, and protective behaviors, fright reactions, and growth of mother and male calf born at Amsterdam, Aug. 8, 1977.
Delaney, Judith: SEE ALSO Vallee, Judith Delaney. (detail)
Delaney, Judith; Hale, Wendy; Stone, Renee (detail)
Manatees: An educator's guide to the natural history, habitat, problems, and conservation of the Order Sirenia.
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. of Nat. Resources: [1] + 1-25. Illus. Packaged with 2 leaflets and 17
–Superseded Fritz (1980-1984). Distributed free by the Florida Audubon Society and the Save the Manatee Committee. Rev.: D. P. Domning, Sirenews No. 6: 10-11, Oct. 1986. The booklet contains information on sir. natural history and conservation (emphasizing Florida manatees), aquatic ecology, and marine mammals in general; sources of further information; and puzzles and activities for students in primary and secondary schools. The leaflets comprise a "manatee fact sheet" of natural history data, a list of resource and conservation agencies and organizations in Florida, and a list of printed sources and audiovisual aids. The poster illustrates the Recent sirs. with a map of their distribution. "Also available" on request was "a 23 minute video tape program, 'Silent Sirens: Manatees in Peril'...."
  In the second ed. (1989), the leaflets are incorporated into the booklet (29 pp.; revised by Marjorie Lamphear). Ed. 3, 1992 (revised by Nancy Guzik); ed. 4, 1994 (revised by Nancy Sadusky, Judith Vallee, and Patti Thompson); ed. 5, 1996 (30 pp.; revised by Nancy Sadusky and Patti Thompson); ed. 6, 2001 (38 pp.; revised by Nancy Sadusky and Valerie Gohlke). These later eds. (starting with ed. ??) were published by the Save the Manatee Club.
Delcourt, A.: SEE Anglada et al., 1974. (detail)
Delfortrie, Eugène (detail)
Les ossements entaillés et striés du Miocène aquitanien.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 27: 261-262. Pl. 14.
–Describes cetacean ribs scarred by fish teeth, noting that most bones from the Aquitanian deposits, including "maxillaires d'Halitherium", have similar scars.
Delfortrie, Eugène (detail)
Étude sur les restes fossiles de siréniens du genre Halitherium dans le bassin de la Garonne.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 28(= (3)8): 281-324. Pls. 18-22.
–Rev.: Jour. Zool. (Paris) 1: 343-344? Also exists as a separate in 38 pp. + 5 pls., re-set with different page-breaks.
  By lumping a variety of Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene specimens under the name Halitherium Cuvieri, this paper contributed little but confusion. Depéret & Roman (1920) are helpful in sorting out the correct ages and taxa of the localities mentioned here by Delfortrie.
Delfortrie, Eugéne (detail)
Squelette entier de Rytiodus découvert par M. Delfortrie, vice-président.
Procès-Verbaux des Séances de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 29: clxv.
Delfortrie, Eugène (detail)
Renseignements nouveaux sur le Rythiodus [sic].
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 30, Proc.-verb.: cviii.
–Announces the receipt of additional fragments of a Rytiodus specimen from Saint-Morillon, indicating a tusk length of 28 cm.
Delfortrie, Eugène (detail)
Découverte d'un squelette entier de Rytiodus dans le falun aquitanien.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 34(= (4)4): 131-144. 1 tab. Pls. 5-8.
–Abstrs.: Rev. Socs. Savs. (Paris) 9: 80-81, 1875; La Nature (Paris) 8(2)(386): 321-322, 1 fig., Oct. 23, 1880. Describes the skull of a skeleton which was for the most part destroyed by workmen. Considers Rytiodus closely related to Halitherium.
Delgado, Rolando: SEE Cruz & Delgado, 1986. (detail)
Delort, R. (detail)
Les animaux ont une histoire.
Paris, Le Seuil.
Delsman, Hendricus Christoffel (detail)
Dierenleven in Indonesië.
s'Gravenhage [& Bandung?], W. van Hoeve: 1-348. Illus.
Deméré, Thomas A.: SEE ALSO Domning & Deméré, 1984. (detail)
Deméré, Thomas A. (detail)
Fossil whales of San Diego. Part II.
Environ. Southwest 493: 22-25. Illus. June 1981.
Deméré, Thomas A. (detail)
Fossil mammals from the Imperial Formation (upper Miocene-lower Pliocene), Coyote Mountains, Imperial County, California. In: R. E. Reynolds & J. Reynolds (eds.), Ashes, faults and basins.
San Bernardino County Mus. Assoc., Special Publ. 93-1: 82-85. May 1993.
–Reports two indeterminate sir. rib fragments from the Latrania Sands in the Imperial Formation, Salton Trough of California (84). This deposit was formed in a Late Tertiary proto-Gulf of California.
Demoulin, V.: SEE Bay & Demoulin, 1989. (detail)
Dempster, R.; Shipman, W. (detail)
The use of copper sulfate as a medicament for aquarium fishes and as an algaecide in marine mammal water systems.
Occas. Paper California Acad. Sci. 71: 1-6.
–Discusses the use of sequestered copper to control algae in tanks at the Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco.
Denkinger, J. (detail)
Status of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in the Cuyabeno Reserve, Ecuador.
Avances 2: B29-B34.
Dennis, Jerry (detail)
The call of the mermaid.
Wildl. Conserv. 97(5): 70-72. Sept./Oct. 1994.
–Pop. acc. of mermaid legends, with passing mention of sirs.
Denton, G. R. W. (detail)
The effect of diet on the heavy metal status of the dugong (Dugong dugon (Müller)). In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 169-174.
–Summary of Denton et al. (1980).
Denton, G. R. W. (detail)
Brief outline of procedures recommended for the collection and storage of dugong tissues for heavy metal, organochlorine pesticide and PCB analyses. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 239.
–Two paragraphs on procedures for avoiding contamination of tissue samples.
Denton, G. R. W.; Breck, W. G. (detail)
Mercury in tropical marine organisms from North Queensland.
Mar. Pollution Bull. 12(4): 116-121. 3 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 1981.
–Reports that the mercury content of tissues of two dugongs from Cleveland Bay, Australia, was "extremely low" compared with other marine mammals.
Denton, G. R. W.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Burdon-Jones, C. (detail)
The unusual metal status of the dugong Dugong dugon.
Marine Biology 57(3): 201-219. 6 tabs. 5 figs.
–Reports very high levels of iron and zinc found in dugong livers; levels of copper, cadmium, cobalt, and silver were also high in livers, and cadmium in kidneys; manganese concentrations were comparable to those in other marine mammals; nickel, lead, and chromium were not detected in any tissue. Concentrations of several metals varied with age of the dugongs. Seagrasses were probably the source of the iron, but anthropogenic pollution was not implicated.
Denton, Gary: SEE Heinsohn et al., 1985. (detail)
Dependorf, Theodor (detail)
Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Zahnsystems der Marsupialier. In: R. W. Semon (ed.), Zoologische Forschungsreisen in Australien und dem Malayischen Archipel, Vol. 3.
Denkschr. Med.-natw. Ges. Jena 6(1): 243-402. 14 figs. Pls. 2-11.
–Sirs., 393, 397.
Dependorf, Theodor (detail)
Zur Frage der sogenannten Konkreszenztheorie.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 42: 539-566. 19 figs.
–Sirs., 560.
Depéret, Charles (detail)
Über die Fauna von miocänen Wirbelthieren aus der ersten Mediterranstufe von Eggenburg.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-natw. Cl. 104(1): 395-416. 2 pls.
–Describes Metaxytherium Krahuletzi, n.sp., on the basis of 6 isolated molars; lists other fossil sirs. and compares M. Krahuletzi with them. The associated fauna included Brachyodus onoideus, Testudo Noviciensis, Trionyx sp., and Crocodilus Eggenburgensis.
Depéret, Charles (detail)
Les transformations du monde animal.
Paris, E. Flammarion (Bibl. de Philos. Sci.): 1-360.
–Repr.: Paris, 1922. Transls.: Engl., London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd., 1909; German, Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart, 1909; Spanish, Buenos Aires, Editorial Impulso, 1945.
Depéret, Charles (detail)
Sur la reconstitution d'un squelette de Felsinotherium Serresi, sirénien pliocène des sables de Montpellier.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 158: 1858-1862. 1 fig.
–Discusses the anatomy of F. Serresi, comparing it with other fossil sirs., and concludes that a steady increase in body size took place in a phyletic series from "Metaxytherium" [i.e., Halitherium] Christoli, M. Krahuletzi, and/or Halianassa Studeri, through F. Serresi, to F. Forestii and possibly Rhytina. M. fossile [= M. medium], however, is excluded from this lineage on account of its large size.
Depéret, Charles; Roman, F. (detail)
Le Felsinotherium serresi des sables pliocènes de Montpellier et les rameaux phylétiques des siréniens fossiles de l'Ancien Monde.
Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Lyon 12(4): 1-56. 14 figs. 7 pls.
–Rev.: Bol. Soc. Españ. Hist. Nat. 20: 341-342? This noteworthy monograph, in addition to describing in some detail the osteology of F. serresi, provides an extremely useful summary of the then-known sir. fossil record and a handy guide to the European literature.
Depierre, Daniel; Vivien, Jacques (detail)
Mammifères sauvages du Cameroun.
Fontainebleau, publié avec le concours du Ministère de la Coopération et du Développement: 1-250. Illus. June 1992.
–Gen. acc., partly inaccurate, of T. senegalensis in Cameroon (116-117, 1 fig.).
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Cured marine products of Ceylon.
Bull. Ceylon Fish., Sect. C, 1933: 55.
–Notes that considerable quantities of dugong meat were exported in the past century.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Some scientific results of two visits to Africa.
Spolia Zeylanica 25(2): 1-42. 4 figs. 14 pls. Dec. 30, 1948.
–Mentions "sirenians" from the Lower Oligocene of the Fayum, Egypt (15), and lists four Eosiren specimens from the Fayum (16) collected by the author on the University of California African Expedition led by Wendell Phillips. Most if not all of the latter specimens were deposited in the University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley; the scapula was described by Reinhart (1959: 53, 55).
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
A sanctuary for turtles, the dugong, whales and dolphins in the Indian and Southern oceans.
Loris 10(4): 246-250. 3 figs. Dec. 1965.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Some aspects of the fauna of Ceylon.
Jour. Roy. Acad. Sci. Ceylon 9(2): 201-221.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Some new Miocene vertebrates from Ceylon. [Abstr.]
Proc. Ceylon Assoc. Adv. Sci., 23rd Ann. Session, Part 1: 50.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Some aspects of the Tertiary Period in Ceylon.
Jour. Roy. Asiatic Soc. (Ceylon Branch) (2)12: 86-108. 5 figs. 3 pls. May 15, 1969.
–Very briefly describes Miodugong brevicranius [n.gen.n.sp.], based on a skull fragment from the Miocene Malu Member of the Jaffna Series, Ceylon (97, pl. 2). The photograph in the plate is useless. "Hypothetical reconstructions" (99) show both the dugong and a baleen whale with manatee-like tails. This appears to be the earliest of at least four publications of this and other new names in the same year; although it does not designate the names as "new", no prior publication of them is cited.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Some of the earliest vertebrates of Ceylon.
Loris 11(5): 235-237. 8 figs. June 1969.
–Summarizes the fauna described in 1969a. Miodugong brevicranius and the cetothere are again "reconstructed" with manatee-like tails.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
A Miocene vertebrate faunule from the Malu member of Ceylon.
Spolia Zeylanica 31(2): 551-570. 3 figs. 4 pls.
–"Tentatively" proposes "?Miodugong brevicranius", n.gen.n.sp. (554, 562-563, pl. 4). This was perhaps intended to be the definitive publication of this and the other new names of fossil vertebrates.
Deraniyagala, Paulus Edward Pieris (detail)
Some Miocene vertebrates from Ceylon.
Jour. Pal. Soc. India 13: 20-23. Pl. 1.
–Mentions Miodugong (22).
DEREC: SEE Desmostylus Research Committee. (detail)
Dermastia, Marina (detail)
[Florida manatees and their newly discovered relatives. Morphological studies using molecular biology data.]
Proteus 60(2): 79-81. Illus. Oct. 1997.
Derscheid, J. M. (detail)
Les lamantins du Congo (Trichechus senegalensis Desm.) avec notes sur la répartition géographique et l'extermination des siréniens.
Rev. Zool. Africaine 14(2), Bull. Cercle Zool. Congolais 3(1-2): 23-31. 1 fig.
–Discusses manatees exhibited at Antwerp, sir. distribution in Africa (recognizing "T. senegalensis vogellii" in the Chad and Uele districts in contrast to "T. s. senegalensis" elsewhere), and hunting and protective legislation in the Congo.
Derville, Solène; Cleguer, Christophe; Garrigue, Claire (detail)
Ecoregional and temporal dynamics of dugong habitat use in a complex coral reef lagoon ecosystem.
Sci. Repts. 12:552. 4 tabs. 5 figs. + online supplementary material. Jan. 11, 2022.
–ABSTRACT: Mobile marine species display complex and nonstationary habitat use patterns that require understanding to design effective management measures. In this study, the spatio-temporal habitat use dynamics of the vulnerable dugong (Dugong dugon) were modelled from 16 satellite-tagged individuals in the coral reef lagoonal ecosystems of New Caledonia, South Pacific. Dugong residence time was calculated along the interpolated tracks (9371 hourly positions) to estimate intensity of use in three contrasting ecoregions, previously identified through hierarchical clustering of lagoon topographic characteristics. Across ecoregions, differences were identified in dugong spatial intensity of use of shallow waters, deeper lagoon waters and the fore-reef shelf outside the barrier reef. Maps of dugong intensity of use were predicted from these ecological relationships and validated with spatial density estimates derived from aerial surveys conducted for population assessment. While high correlation was found between the two datasets, our study extended the spatial patterns of dugong distribution obtained from aerial surveys across the diel cycle, especially in shallow waters preferentially used by dugongs at night/dusk during high tide. This study has important implications for dugong conservation and illustrates the potential benefits of satellite tracking and dynamic habitat use modelling to inform spatial management of elusive and mobile marine mammals.
DeSalle, Robert: SEE Greenwood et al., 2001. (detail)
Descourtilz, Michel Étienne (detail)
Voyages d'un naturaliste, et ses observations faites sur les trois règnes de la nature, dans plusieurs ports de mer français, en Espagne, au continent de l'Amérique Septentrionale, à Saint Yago de Cuba, et à St.-Domingue, où l'auteur devenu le prisonnier de 40,000 noirs révoltés, et par suite mis en liberté par une colonne de l'armée française, donne des détailes circonstanciés sur l'expédition du général Leclerc....
Paris, Dufart, père (3 vols.): Vol. 2: 1-470. Illus.
–Account of manatees and manatee hunting (with nets, guns, and harpoons) on Santo Domingo, where the manatees can be ambushed as they come out of the rivers at noon to graze in the fields of maize and sweet potatoes (2: 274-276)! The author notes with regret that, despite having followed these instructions several times, he never succeeded in shooting one.
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan: SEE ALSO Harlan, R., 1824. (detail)
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Tableau méthodique des mammifères.
Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. (Paris, Deterville; 24 vols., 1803-04) 24: 5-38.
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. (Paris, Deterville) 9: 603-604.
–Allen 553: "Résumé of its affinities as variously maintained by previous authors, with the recognition of the single species 'Trichecus dugong, Gmel.'"
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. (Paris, Deterville) 17: 258-264.
–Allen 554: "Spp. 2, Manatus americanus et M. senegalensis, Desm."
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. (Paris, Deterville) 18: 483-542.
–Allen 555. Sirs.?
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Rytine, Rytina Illig.
Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. (Paris, Deterville) 29: 573-576.
–Allen 577.
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères. Seconde partie, contenant les ordres des rongeurs, des édentés, des pachydermes, des ruminans et des cétacés.
Paris, Mme. Veuve Agasse: viii + 277-556 (= Encyclopédie Methodique, vol. 182). 126 pls.
–Allen 611. The "Premiere Partie" (pp. viii + 1-276) appeared in 1820. Hippopotamus medius and Hippopotamus minimus, 388-389. Recent sirs., 506-511. Dugong and manatee, pl. 112.
Desmarest, Anselme Gaëtan (detail)
Rytine; Rytina, Ill.
Dict. des Sci. Nat. 46: 476-477.
–Allen 694.
Desmarest, E.? (detail)
Stellère, Stellurus.
Dict. Pittor. Hist. Nat. et des Phénom. de la Nature 9, livr. 657: 173.
–Allen 958.
Desmostylus Research Committee (DEREC) (detail)
[The second skeleton of Desmostylus in Gifu Prefecture.]
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 57(672): 414. Sept. 1951.
–In Japanese. Engl. transl. done by Engineer Intelligence Division, Office of the Engineer, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces Far East, Tokyo, 1954; available from Military Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey?
  Brief account of the discovery (in October 1950), collection, and plans for the study of the Izumi desmostylian skeleton, provisionally identified here as Desmostylus but later recognized as Paleoparadoxia. This was the second desmostylian skeleton to be found, the first being the Desmostylus from Keton in Sakhalin.
  The Desmostylus Research Committee was established on July 3, 1950 to carry out a collaborative study of the Keton skeleton of Desmostylus and, later, the Izumi Paleoparadoxia. It consisted of H. Yabe (chairman), F. Takai, S. Ijiri, M. Minato, and T. Shikama, and was active from 1950 to 1953 (see also citations under the names of the committee members); "but afterwards it stopped its official activity owing to a cause not to be published" (Shikama, 1966b: 1, 10-14). The cause, apparently, was political dissension among the committee members. Ijiri was to describe the skulls, Shikama the limb bones and sterna, and Takai the remaining parts. This plan was only partly carried out in the publications of Ijiri & Kamei (1961) and Shikama (1966b); it remained for Inuzuka (1980-82) to complete the description of the Keton skeleton.
Desmostylus Research Committee (DEREC) (detail)
[Re-excavation of desmostylids in Toki District, Gifu Prefecture, and its stratigraphical horizon.]
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 58(679): 144. Apr. 1952.
–In Japanese. Reports an unsuccessful attempt to relocate and recollect the locality of the Togari Desmostylus skull discovered in 1898 (see Yoshiwara & Iwasaki, 1902), and the enlargement of the excavation at the Izumi "Desmostylus" [= Paleoparadoxia] locality. Ten additional bone fragments plus associated fauna and flora were collected at the latter site. The two localities are assigned to the Togari and Yamanouchi members, respectively, of the Akeyo Formation [Miocene].
Desmoulins, Antoine (detail)
Dugong, Trichechus Dugong, Gmel. In: Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle.
Paris, Rey et Gravier & Baudouin Frères: Vol. 5 (Cra-D): 640-641. Pl. 141.
–Allen 637. See also Saint-Hilaire (1826) and Lesson (1829). The illustration of the dugong on Pl. 141 is taken from Home (1820b: pl. 25).
 A copy of the 17-volume Dictionnaire classique was carried aboard H.M.S. Beagle during Charles Darwin's 1831-36 voyage.
Desnoyers, Jules Pierre Stanislas (detail)
Observations sur un ensemble de dépôts marins plus récens que les terrains tertiaires du bassin de la Seine, et constituant une formation géologique distincte; précédées d'un aperçu de la non simultanéité des bassins tertiaires.
Ann. Sci. Nat. 16: 171-214, 402.
–Allen 722. Sirs., 446-448??
Desse, Jean; Desse-Berset, N. (detail)
Failaka. La faune: les mammifères et les poissons. In: Y. Calvet & J. Gachet (eds.), Failaka, fouilles françaises 1986-1988.
Lyon, GDR-Maison de l'Orient; Paris, de Boccard (Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient 8): 51-70.
DeTample, Craig: SEE Gallagher et al., 1989. (detail)
Detre, Cs.; Dudich, E., Jr.; Kecskemeti, T. (detail)
Hungariae originalia animalia fossilia Eocaenica.
Magyar. Állami Földt. Intez., Evk. 54(1969), No. 4, Pt. 2: 161-178.
Dette, Kurt (detail)
Halitherium schinzi Kaup im norddeutschen Septarienton.
Zs. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. 81(10): 539.
Dette, Kurt (detail)
Seekuhrest im Septarienton von Köthen.
Serimunt (Blätter der Vereins Heimatmus. f. Köthen) 4(24).
Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Reid, James P. (detail)
Radio-tracking manatees from land and space: tag design, implementation, and lessons learned from long-term study.
Marine Technology Society Jour. 32(1): 18-29. 5 figs.
–Traces the development of the manatee radio-tag assembly, and describes how the technology has been implemented in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, including capture and tagging methods, strengths and weaknesses of the current tag design, relative merits of VHF and satellite-monitored PTT transmitters, contributions of radio-tagging to studies of manatee biology, and promising new developments in tag technology and analytical methods.
Deutsch, Charles J.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, Howard I.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Wildlife Monographs No. 151: 1-77. Frontisp. 10 tabs. 19 figs. Jan. 2003.
Deutsch, Charles J.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
Florida manatee status and conservation issues: a primer. Chap. 3 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 23-35. 2 tabs., 1 map.
–Includes box essays by Michael G. Sorice (p. 29, "Transforming manatee tourism into ecotourism"), Jim Brown (p. 30, "Role of law enforcement in conservation of the Florida manatee"), and Kari A. Rood, Sheri L. Barton, & Cathy A. Beck (p. 32, "Partnering for success: Florida manatee photo-identification").
Devillers, Ch. (detail)
Sur la biologie du lamantin en captivité.
Mammalia 2(2): 84-88. 3 figs. June 1938.
–Describes the external anatomy, measurements, locomotor behavior, and captive diet of two T. inunguis brought to France from Manaus, Brazil.
Dewar, Heather (detail)
At Crystal River Refuge, manatee protection is working.
Refuge Update (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service) 9(5): 4. 1 fig. Sept./Oct. 2012.
–Gen. acc. of managing human-manatee interaction at the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida.
Dexler, Hermann (detail)
Bericht über eine Reise nach Australien zum Zwecke der Erwerbung anatomischen und entwicklungsgeschichtlichen Materiales vom Dugong.
Dt. Arbeit. Prag 1(7): 552-562. 1 pl.
Dexler, Hermann (detail)
Leipzig: 1-200.
–Sirs., 200.
Dexler, Hermann (detail)
Das Rückenmark von Halicore dugong Erxl.
Ver. Internatl. Zool. Kongr. (Jena) 8: 527-534.
Dexler, Hermann (detail)
Das Hirn von Halicore dugong Erxl.
Morph. Jahrb. (Leipzig) 45(1): 97-190. 35 figs. Pls. 5-6.
–Detailed gross and microscopic description of the brains of eight Queensland dugongs.
Dexler, Hermann; Eger, O. (detail)
Beiträge zur Anatomie des Säugerrückenmarkes. I. Halicore dugong Erxl.
Morph. Jahrb. (Leipzig) 43: 107-207. 27 figs. Pl. 7.
Dexler, Hermann; Freund, Ludwig (detail)
Zur Biologie und Morphologie von Halicore dugong.
Arch. Naturgesch. 72(1): 77-106. 1 fig. 3 pls.
Dexler, Hermann; Freund, Ludwig (detail)
Contributions to the physiology and biology of the dugong.
Amer. Naturalist 40(469): 49-72. Jan. 1906.
–Excellent treatise and literature review on dugong behavior, sense perception, locomotion, etc.
Dexler, Hermann; Freund, Ludwig (detail)
External morphology of the dugong.
Amer. Naturalist 40(476): 567-581. 5 figs. Aug. 1906.
–Detailed anatomical description and literature review.
Dey, S. C.: SEE Das & Dey, 1999. (detail)
Dhandapani, P.; Alfred, J. R. B. (detail)
Conservation of marine mammals in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India.
Indian Jour. Mar. Scis. 27(3-4): 506-508. Sept.-Dec. 1998.
Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Kenworthy, W. Judson (detail)
Evaluation of aboveground and belowground biomass recovery in physically disturbed seagrass beds.
Oecologia 158(2): 285-298. 6 tabs. 5 figs. + online supplementary material.
–Describes, in addition to recovery from anthropogenic damage to seagrass beds in Florida and Puerto Rico, recovery from grazing by Antillean manatees in a Puerto Rican Thalassia bed.
Di Natale, Antonio (detail)
Il signore del fiume.
Cetacea Informa 10(18): 24-28. 8 figs.
–Gen. acc. of West African manatees in Mali.
Diard Duvaucel (detail)
Sur le dugong.
Jour. de Physique, Chimie et Hist. Nat. 91: 159-160. Aug. 1820 (Read to Roy. Soc. London, June 15, 1820).
–Rev.: Ann. Philos. 16: 55. Summary of Raffles (1820), with other remarks on the internal anatomy of the dugong. Mentions (160) the seasonal occurrence of dugongs at Singapore (mostly during the northern monsoon).
Dias Vieira, João Pedro: SEE Vieira, João Pedro Dias. (detail)
Díaz-Berenguer, E.; Houssaye, A.; Badiola, A.; Canudo, J. I. (detail)
The hind limbs of Sobrarbesiren cardieli (Eocene, Northeastern Spain) and new insights into the locomotion capabilities of the quadrupedal sirenians.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 27, 649–675.
–ABSTRACT: In the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic environment, sirenian marine mammals reduced and lost their hind limbs and developed a horizontal caudal fin, the main propulsive organ in extant sirenians. Quadrupedal forms are only known from the Eocene and are represented by three different clades: the amphibious "prorastomids," the aquatic quadrupedal protosirenids, and Sobrarbesiren cardieli, a four-legged sirenian from the middle Eocene of Spain, considered the sister taxon of the fully aquatic Dugongidae. This ecological shift from terrestrial to an aquatic environment was naturally associated with adaptations, among others, of the skeleton. However, sirenian hind limb bones have been poorly studied because of the scarce material available in the fossil record. Here, we describe in detail the hind limb bones of Sobrarbesiren, analyzing their functional morphology and comparing them with other basal sirenians and cetaceans, and with related terrestrial mammals such as proboscideans and hyracoids. The hind limbs of Sobrarbesiren were capable of a great variety of movements. Based on the presence of a strong sacroiliac articulation, we propose that it swam by dorsoventral pelvic undulation combined with pelvic paddling analogous to extant otters and the "prorastomid" Pezosiren. We also conduct the first microanatomical analysis of hind limb bones of an Eocene sirenian. Data reveal extreme inner compactness in the Sobrarbesiren innominate and femur, with the first description of osteosclerosis in an amniote innominate combined with the highest degree of osteosclerosis observed in amniote femora. The results confirm that the microanatomical changes precede the external morphological changes in such ecological transitions. The process of adaptation of sirenians to an aquatic life was thus a more complex process than previously thought.
Diaz-Berenguer, Ester; Badiola, Ainara; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Canudo, José Ignacio (detail)
First adequately-known quadrupedal sirenian from Eurasia (Eocene, Bay of Biscay, Huesca, northeastern Spain).
Nature Scientific Reports 8(5127):1-13. 11 figs. Mar. 23, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Sirenians are the only extant herbivorous mammals fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. They originated in Africa during the Paleocene from an undetermined clade of afrotherian mammals, and by the end of the Eocene they were widely distributed across the tropical latitudes. Here we introduce Sobrarbesiren cardieli gen. et sp. nov. It is the first adequately-known quadrupedal sirenian from Eurasia and the oldest record of this clade from western Europe. Fossils have been recovered from the middle Lutetian (SBZ15) site of Castejón de Sobrarbe-41 (Huesca, Spain), and comprise many cranial and postcranial remains, including pelvic girdle and hind limb bones, from at least six sirenian individuals of different ontogenetic stages. Sobrarbesiren shows a suite of characters previously considered synapomorphies of different clades of derived sirenians, such as the presence of the processus retroversus of the squamosal and the pterygoid fossa, combined with ancestral characters such as the presence of an alisphenoid canal, a permanent P5, at least two sacral vertebrae, a primitive pelvis and functional femora and fibulae. Sobrarbesiren is recovered as the sister taxon of Dugongidae and represents a transitional stage of adaptation to aquatic life between the amphibious quadrupedal prorastomids and the aquatic quadrupedal protosirenids.
Diaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Guzmán, Héctor M. (detail)
Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama.
Aquatic Mammals 43(4): 378-386. 2 tabs. 2 figs. doi:10.1578/AM.43.4.2017.378. July 10, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak (SSPS) wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama, was studied using a segment of the mitochondrial DNA (control region). No genetic information to date has been published for manatee populations in Panama. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N = 20), carcass tissue (N = 4), and bone (N = 4) samples. However, after DNA processing, only 10 samples provided enough quality DNA for sequencing -- three fecal, four tissue, and three bone samples. We identified three haplotypes in total: J01 was previously published (N = 3), while the other two haplotypes, J02 (N = 3) and J03 (N = 4), are reported for the first time. The genetic diversity was similar to previous analyses conducted in the Caribbean with moderate values of nucleotide (pi = 0.00152) and haplotypic (Hd = 0.57) diversity. Connectivity assessment between the SSPS population with published range-wide manatee haplotypes was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance, and genetic differentiation. The identified J01 haplotype is also found in populations to the north along the Central American and Gulf of Mexico coasts indicating reduced differentiation (Fst = 0.0094). In contrast, comparisons between SSPS sequences and South American populations (not including Colombia), the West Indies, and Florida showed fewer similarities (Fst = 0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate the manatee population in Panama within the Belize/Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings provide a baseline for comparative studies of manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results can assist with management decisions regarding conservation of genetic diversity, future introductions, connectivity, and effective population size of manatee populations along the Central American corridor.
Dick, Heather (detail)
Hugh Manatee.
Ranger Rick, Mar. 1975: 35-37. 4 figs.
Dick, Thomas M. (detail)
The Florida manatee.
Underwater Naturalist (Bull. Amer. Littoral Soc.) 13(4): 19-22. 4 figs. Spring 1982.
–Pop. acc. of manatee behavior and conservation problems.
Dickerson, R. E.; Merill, E. D.; McGregor, R. C.; Schultze, W.; Taylor, E. H.; Heere, Albert W. C. T. (detail)
Mammals in the Philippines. Distribution of life in the Philippines.
Manila, Bureau of Printing.
–Dugong, 273-280.
Dickey, Beth (detail)
For manatees, KSC is paradise found.
Spaceport News (John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida) 27(7): 4-5. 4 figs. Mar. 25, 1988.
Dieckman, L. E. (detail)
Bull. Audubon Soc. Belize 4(7): 1.
–Short description of apparent mating in T. manatus.
Diedrich, Cajus G. (detail)
The food of the miosiren Anomotherium langenwieschei [sic] (Siegfried) - indirect proof of seaweed or seagrass by xenomorphic oyster fixation structures in the Upper Oligocene (Neogene [sic]) of the Doberg, Bünde (NW Germany) and comparisons to modern Dugong dugon (Müller) feeding strategies.
Senckenbergiana Maritima 38(1): 59-73. 12 figs. May 9, 2008.
Diedrich, Cajus G. (detail)
Palaeoecology of Placodus gigas (Reptilia) and other placodontids - Middle Triassic macroalgae feeders in the Germanic Basin of central Europe - and evidence for convergent evolution with Sirenia.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 285(3-4): 287-306. 18 figs. Jan. 15, 2010 (available online Nov. 24, 2009).
Diedrich, Cajus G. (detail)
Fossil Middle Triassic "sea cows" - placodont reptiles as macroalgae feeders along the north-western Tethys coastline with Pangaea and in the Germanic Basin.
Natural Science 3(1): 9-27. 11 figs. DOI: :10.4236/ns.2011.31002. Jan. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The descriptions of fossil Triassic marine placodonts as durophagous reptiles are revised through comparisons with the sirenia and basal proboscidean mammal and palaeoenvironment analyses. The jaws of placodonts are convergent with those of Halitherium/Dugong or Moeritherium in their general function. Whereas Halitherium possessed a horny oral pad and counterpart and a special rasp-like tongue to grind seagrass, as does the modern Dugong, placodonts had large teeth that covered their jaws to form a similar grinding pad. The Sirenia also lost their anterior teeth during many millions of years and built a horny pad instead and specialized tongue to fed mainly on seagrass, whereas placodonts had only macroalgae available. Indirect evidence for Triassic macroalgae is provided by benthic palaeocommunities from different layers and extended European regions in the Germanic Basin. Studies of tooth wear stages for Placodus indicate that anterior teeth may have been used in a similar manner to the procumbent front teeth of modern Dugong. Paraplacodus and Placodus seem to have used these teeth as spatulas to dig out seaplants. Cyamodus and other placodonts such as Placochelys had smaller or reduced anterior teeth. The scarcity of highly worn palatine or maxillary and lower jaw dentary Placodus or Cyamodus teeth (less then 0.5%) suggests that they had a relatively soft diet. The seaplants would only have been squeezed in a similar feeding strategy to that of modern Dugong feeding on seagrass without jaw rotation and grinding. The phylogenetic trend in tooth reduction within the placodonts Paraplacodus, Placodus, especially in Cyamodus but also Placochelys, and Henodus within 11 My appears to have been a result of this plant-feeding adaptation and may even explain the origin or at least close relationship of the earliest Upper Triassic turtles as toothless algae and jellyfish feeders, in terms of the long-term convergent development with the sirens.
Diedrich, Cajus G. (detail)
The most northerly record of the sirenian Protosiren and the possible polyphyletic evolution of manatees and dugongs.
Natural Science 5(11): 1154-1164. 4 figs. DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.511142 Nov. 4, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Newly discovered remains of the early Middle Eocene (Lutetian) sirenian Protosiren (Protosirenidae) in shark tooth rich conglomerates from a coastal delta environment northwest of the European Rhenish Massif at Fürstenau (northwestern Germany), represent the most northerly occurrence of this genus whose global distribution was generally restricted to warm waters. Its presence of the remains so far north can be explained by seasonal inflow of warm Tethys surface water into the cool, upwelling-influenced, basin. The existence of two discrete centers of sirenian evolution can be explained by the opening of the Atlantic and the upwelling that separated the North American warm water faunal province from those of Africa and Eurasia. A slightly modified evolutionary model is presented in which the oldest Early Eocene manatee sirenians evolved in the Caribbean of Central America. Protosiren, however, appears to have developed polyphyletically along the African coastline of the Tethys, and represents the oldest known dugong ancestor. Younger (Oligocene) European sirenian skeletons of Halitherium and Anomotherium are included in the phylostratigraphic model in which sirenians had generally reduced their teeth by 28 Ma as an adaptation for feeding on sea-plants (macroalgae/seagrass). Teeth from early megatooth sharks, which preyed on sirenians, have been recorded from shallow marine Eocene and Oligocene coastlines of the southern proto-North Sea Basin, and shark bite marks have been found on sirenian skeletons.
Diedrich, Cajus G. (detail)
Evolution of white and megatooth sharks, and evidence for early predation on seals, sirenians, and whales.
Natural Science 5(11): 1203-1218. 6 figs. DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.511148 Nov. 13, 2013.
DiEdwardo, Judy Alexandra (detail)
Follow the manatee trail.
RoadSmart (Amoco Motor Club), Winter 2000: 22-25. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and places to see them.
Dierauf, Leslie A.: SEE ALSO Bossart & Dierauf, 1990. (detail)
Dierauf, Leslie A. (detail)
From fish to fin to flipper: the evolution of marine mammals. In: L. A. Dierauf (ed.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease, rehabilitation.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (735 pp.): 381-397. 7 figs.
–Presents a slightly garbled summary of sir. phylogeny (381-385, 391).
  Other chapters in this volume listed here are by Bossart & Dierauf, Spotte, Stoskopf, White & Francis-Floyd, and Williams et al. Sirs. are also mentioned in other chapters by Dierauf (list of manatee parasites; 93), Janette Roletto & Jeff Mazzeo (identification of T. manatus; 448-449), Graham A. J. Worthy (energetics; m490), and Brian E. Joseph, Edward D. Asper, & James E. Antrim (transport techniques; 550). Rev. of volume: C. A. Harms, 1996, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(1): 157-160, Jan. 2, 1996.
Diesing, Carl Moritz (detail)
Abbildungen neuer Gattungen brasilianischer Binnenwürmer (Entozoën). [Abstr.]
Ber. XV. Versamml. Deutsch. Naturf. u. Aerzte (Prague, Sept. 1837): 189. Read Sept. 21, 1837.
–Mentions the occurrence of the parasites Lobocephalus heterolobus and Amphistoma fabaceum in the stomach and intestine, respectively, of Manatus australis. Both names of parasites were nomina nuda.
Diesing, Carl Moritz (detail)
Neue Gattungen von Binnenwürmern nebst einem Nachtrage zur Monographie der Amphistomen.
Ann. Wiener Mus. Naturgesch. 2: 219-242. Pls. 14-20. Feb. 1839.
–Describes the nematode Heterocheilus tunicatus, n.gen.n.sp., from the stomach and small intestine of "Manatus exunguis Natt." from Brazil (229-232, pls. 15, 19). The description of the host, given in a footnote on p. 280, is an account by Natterer in which he uses the name exunguis instead of the later-published spelling inunguis. M. exunguis is also contrasted with M. americanus. (See R. V. Melville [1985] for the disposition of the name exunguis.) Also describes the trematode Amphistoma fabaceum n.gen.n.sp., likewise from the intestines of the Amazonian manatee (236, pl. 20).
Diesing, Carl Moritz (detail)
Systema helminthum... Vol. II.
Vienna, Wilhelm Braumüller: vi + 588.
–Vol. I (1850) lists Amphistomum fabaceum Diesing as a parasite of "Manatus exunguis" (403-404). Vol. II (1851) lists "Ascaris Rytinae Brandt" [new name], "Ascaris Dugonis Brandt" [new name], and Heterocheilus tunicatus Diesing as sir. parasites, the latter found in "Manatus exunguis" (190-191, 209, 502).
Diesing, Carl Moritz (detail)
Revision der Nematoden.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-natw. Kl. 42(28): 595-736. 1 pl.
–Includes Ascaris Halicoris, 662.
Dietz, Tim (detail)
The call of the siren: manatees and dugongs.
Golden (Colorado), Fulcrum Publishing: xii + 196. Illus.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and sir. research.
Dight, I. J.; Gladstone, W. (detail)
Torres Strait Baseline Study: pilot study final report, June 1993. Trace metal concentrations in sediments and selected marine biota as indicator organisms and food items in the diet of Torres Strait Islanders and coastal Papuans.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publ. 29: viii + 259. Illus.
Dilbone, R. P. (detail)
Mycosis in a manatee.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 147: 1095-1097.
Dilg, Carl (detail)
Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Morphologie und postembryonalen Entwicklung des Schädels bei Manatus inunguis Natt.
Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 39(1): 83-145. 1 fig. Pls. 8-13. Mar. 2, 1909.
–An Inaugural-Dissertation presented to the Universität Bern, Feb. 29, 1908, also published as a separate (Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann, 1909). The latter version includes a title-page, a dedication to Th. Studer (Dilg's professor), and two paragraphs of acknowledgements not published in Morph. Jahrb.
Dill, William A. (detail)
Some notes on the use of the manatee (Trichechus) for the control of aquatic weeds.
U.N. Food & Agric. Organization Fisheries Biology Tech. Paper No. 13: 1-6. Sept. 1961.
–Concludes that the present state of knowledge does not justify recommendation of the use of manatees for weed control. Quotes Allsopp (1960) in full (3-4).
Dimock, Anthony W. (detail)
The art of catching the manatee.
Century Mag. 73 (= n.s. 51): 848-853. 4 figs. Apr. 1907.
–Account of attempts to capture a Florida manatee for the New York Aquarium. See also C.H. Townsend (1907).
Dimock, Anthony W. (detail)
Big game hunting at sea: hunting the manatee.
Illus. London News (5)11: 333-334. figs.
–Account of the capture of an adult and baby T. manatus for the New York Aquarium.
Dimock, Anthony W. (detail)
Capturing a manatee.
Recreation 29: 163-168. Apr. 1909.
Dimock, Anthony W. (detail)
c. 1910?
Dick in the Everglades.
Peekamose (New York), A. W. Dimock. 32 figs.
Dimock, Anthony W.; Dimock, Julian A. (detail)
Florida enchantments.
London, Hodder & Stoughton: 1-318. Illus.
–Earlier ed.: New York, The Outing Publ. Co., 1908. Revised eds. (by A. W. Dimock; photographs by J. A. Dimock): Peekamose (New York), A. W. Dimock, 1915 (x + 338); New York, Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1926. Contains material republished from a variety of magazines.
  Chap. 3, "The capture of the manatee", is on pp. 29-59 of the 1908 ed., and on pp. 39-59 of the 1915 ed., with 7 figs. and a cover photo. It tells the story of capturing 3 manatees for the New York Aquarium and photographing a fourth. The first animal, a large, pregnant female, died in the course of capture; the other two captives survived for some time at the Aquarium (see also Townsend, 1907).
  A short article by Nina J. Root on the work of this father-and-son writer-photographer team appeared in Nat. Hist. 105(8): 78-81, Aug. 1996.
Dinesen, Zena (detail)
Management of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. In: J. G. Greenwood & N. J. Hall (eds.), Australian Coral Reef Society 75th Anniversary Conference, held at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, 2nd-6th October 1997: Proceedings.
Brisbane, Univ. of Queensland School of Marine Science (viii + 286 pp.): 67-76. Illus.
DiPerna, Paula (detail)
Manatee management: a question of freedom.
Calypso Log (Cousteau Society) 11(3): 16-17. 3 figs. Sept. 1984.
–Pop. acc. of a proposal (by Dr. Jesse White) to restock the Florida manatee population by large-scale captive breeding.
Divin, V. A. (detail)
Vtoraya Sibirsko-tikhookeanskaya ekspeditsiya i voprosy khozyaistvennavo osvoyeniya Dalnevo Vostoka. [The Second Siberia-Pacific Ocean Expedition and questions of the economic development of the Far East.]
Letopis Severa 2: 157-175.
–Sirs., 168-169.
Dixon, Harold L.: SEE Donovan et al., 1990. (detail)
Djedo, F.: SEE Silva et al., 1999. (detail)
Djunarlin: SEE Erftemeijer et al., 1993. (detail)
Dobbs, K.: SEE Eros et al., 2000. (detail)
Dobbs, K.; Fernandes, L.; Slegers, S.; Jago, B.; Thompson, L.; Hall, L.; Day, J.; Cameron, D.; Tanzer, J.; Macdonald, F.; Marsh, Helene D.; Coles, Robert (detail)
Incorporating dugong habitats into the marine protected area design for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Queensland, Australia.
Ocean & Coastal Management 51: 368-375.
Dobbs, Kirstin; Lawler, Ivan; Kwan, Donna (detail)
Dugongs in Australia and the Pacific. Chap. 11 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 99-105. 1 tab. 1 map.
Dockery, David T., III (detail)
Lesueur's Walnut Hills fossil shells.
Mississippi Geol. 2(3): 7-13. Illus.
–Publishes, for the first time, plates of Lower Oligocene fossils collected from the future site of Vicksburg, Miss., by Charles A. Lesueur in 1828. Included are possible sir. rib fragments. These plates were also reproduced by Dockery as Appendix II of Mississippi Bur. Geol. Bull. 123: 5-261, 1982 (see pp. 240-241).
Dodds, W. Jean: SEE Medway, Dodds et al., 1982. (detail)
Döderlein, Ludwig: SEE Steinmann & Döderlein, 1890. (detail)
Dodman, Tim (detail)
West African manatee: a flagship species for wetlands.
Wetlands 8: 18.
Dodman, Tim (detail)
Meeting to discuss the status of manatees in West Africa.
Fadama 1: 7.
Dodman, Tim; Ndiaye Mame Dagou, D.; Sarr Khady (eds.) (detail)
A preliminary conservation strategy for the West African manatee.
Nairobi & Dakar, UNEP & PRCM/Wetlands International.
Doig, Fiona; Dyson, Steve (detail)
Satellite tracking: a new direction for research.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 22(10): 437-441. 8 figs. Spring 1988.
–Pop. acc. of applications of the Argos tracking system, including studies of dugongs in Queensland (438-439). Includes 3 photos showing capture of a dugong by hoop-net (436-437).
Dolar, L. L.: SEE Leatherwood et al., 1992. (detail)
Dollfus, Robert Ph. (detail)
Trématodes récoltés au Congo Belge par le Professeur Paul Brien (mai-août 1937).
Ann. Mus. Congo Belge C (Zool.) (5)1(1): 1-136.
–Reports Zygocotyle sp. in the caecum of a Dugong from Djibouti (94-96).
Dollfus, Robert Ph. (detail)
Parasites. In: G. Petit, Ordre des siréniens. In: P.-P. Grassé (ed.), Traité de Zoologie.
Paris, Masson et Cie., 17(1): 981-983.
–Sir. parasites.
Dollman, Guy (detail)
Dugongs from Mafia Island and a manatee from Nigeria.
Nat. Hist. Mag. (London) 4(28): 117-125. 7 figs. Oct. 1933.
–Discussion of dugong teeth, natural history, and abundance in East Africa, and of distribution and hunting of T. senegalensis in Nigeria.
Dollman, Guy (detail)
On two dugongs from Mafia Island.
Proc. Linn. Soc. London 145: 16-17. Read Nov. 10, 1932.
–Comments on dugongs in general and on two skulls from Tanganyika sent by B. W. Savory.
Dollo, Louis (detail)
Le vol chez les vertébrés.
Rev. Quest. Sci. 26: 146-207, 410-485.
–Sirs., 188.
Dollo, Louis (detail)
Première note sur les siréniens de Boom (résumé).
Bull. (Proc.-verb.) Soc. Belge Géol. Pal. Hydrol. 3: 415-421. 2 figs. Session of Oct. 30, 1889.
–Abstr.: Dollo (1890). Describes Miosiren Kocki, n.gen.n.sp., from the Miocene of Belgium, and compares it briefly with other sirs.
Dollo, Louis (detail)
Sur un sirénien miocène de Boom.
Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 14(1): 65-66. Session of Oct. 24, 1889.
–Abstract of Dollo (1889b). The new generic name Miosiren is mentioned, but not the specific name.
Dollo, Louis (detail)
Sur la morphologie des côtes.
Bull. Sci. France Belgique 24: 113-129.
–Sirs., 118.
Dollo, Louis (detail)
Les céphalopodes déroulés et l'irréversibilité de l'évolution.
Bijdr. Dierk. (Amsterdam) 22 (Feestnum. Max Weber): 215-226. Pl. 7.
Domínguez-Tejo, H. M. (detail)
History and conservation status of the Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in Hispaniola.
Dominici, Stefano; Danise, Silvia; Benvenuti, Marco (detail)
Pliocene stratigraphic paleobiology in Tuscany and the fossil record of marine megafauna.
Earth-Science Reviews 176: 1-34. 6 tabs. 11 figs. Publ. online Sept. 28, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Tuscany has a rich Pliocene record of marine megafauna (MM), including mysticetes, odontocetes, sirenians and seals among the mammals, and six orders of sharks among the elasmobranchs. This is reviewed with respect to paleogeography and sequence-stratigraphy in six different basins. Conditions at the ancient seafloor are explored by means of sedimentary facies analysis, taphonomy and multivariate techniques applied to a large quantitative dataset of benthic molluscs. MM is rare or absent in most basins during the Zanclean, except in one basin, and most abundant in Piacenzian deposits in all six basins. MM occurs preferentially in fine-grained, shelfal highstand-deposits of small-scale depositional sequences, or at condensed horizons of the maximum flooding interval. It is rare in shallow marine paleonvironments and nearly absent in bathyal paleosettings. Paleogeographic and paleoecological evidence and a comparison with modern patterns of marine upwelling suggest that a wedge of nutrient-rich waters sustained in the offshore during the Pliocene a high biomass of primary producers and a community of apex consumers and mesopredators, similarly to the modern northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with a species-richness higher than the modern and a more complex trophic structure. The highest MM diversity coincides with the mid-Piacenzian warm period, suggesting that facies control does not obscure a link between climate and diversity. We underline however that not all marine environments were suitable for marine mammal preservation. Buoyant carcasses were preferentially dismembered and destroyed in high-energy shallow waters, with the possible exception of delta front deposits, where sudden sediment input occasionally buried pristine carcasses. We hypothesise that carcasses sunken on the seafloor below the shelf break underwent destruction through the activity of a whale-fall biota of modern type, specialised in the consumption of decomposing tissues, both soft and mineralised. A taphonomic window was left between storm wave base and the shelf break. Here water pressure is high enough to prevent the formation of decomposing gases and the resurfacing of carcasses, while the lack of a specialised whale-fall biota slows down bone degradation with respect to deeper settings. Sedimentation rate was high enough to cover skeletal material before its complete destruction. An estimate of paleobathymetries based on multivariate techniques suggests that the preferential depth for the inclusion of MM in the fossil record was 30–300 m. The results are compared with major Mesozoic and Cenozoic MM records worldwide. Available evidence suggests that the late Neogene radiation of large whales, true ecosystem engineers, and their size increase, triggered the radiation of a bone-eating fauna that hampered, and hampers, MM preservation in the deep sea. Stratigraphic paleobiology and an ecosystem-level approach deliver useful insights to the nature of the fossil record.
  Metaxytherium subapenninum, 7-8, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24.
Domning, Daryl Paul: SEE ALSO Aranda-Manteca et al., 1994; Bajpai & Domning, 1997; Barnes et al., 1985; Bradley et al., 1983; Brandt, J. F., 1974; Buffrénil et al., 1990; Bullock et al., 1977, 1980, 1981; Delaney et al., 1985; Donovan et al., 1990; Farmer et al., 1979a, 1979b; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Gingerich et al., 1994; Goodwin et al., 1998; Haley, D., 1980; Hoffmann & Domning (eds.), 1998; Inuzuka et al., 1995; Ketten et al., 1992; Marine Mammal Commission, 1986; Muizon & Domning, 1985; Packard, Rathbun et al., 1984; Pervesler et al., 2000; Ray & Domning, 1986; Ray et al., 1994; Savage et al., 1994; Shikama & Domning, 1970; Takahashi et al., 1979, 1986; Thewissen & Domning, 1992; Toledo & Domning, 1991; Williams & Domning, 2004; Appendix 1, _Sirenews_. (detail)
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenians as guide fossils in West Coast Late Tertiary correlation - a prospectus. [Abstr.]
Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstrs. With Programs (Cordilleran Section, Riverside, Calif.) 3(2): 110-111. Feb. 1971 (read Mar. 27, 1971).
–Reviews known Pacific history of hydrodamalines and suggests their possible stratigraphic utility. The new combination Metaxytherium allisoni is used (110), and the Subfamily Hydrodamalinae is expanded in usage to include Miocene forms.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenian evolution in the North Pacific and the origin of Steller's sea cow.
Proc. 7th Ann. Conf. Biol. Sonar & Diving Mammals (Menlo Park, Calif., Stanford Research Institute): 217-220. Read Oct. 24, 1970.
–Proposes a hypothetical history of hydrodamaline evolution in response to cooling of climate. Suggests that the extermination of Hydrodamalis by aborigines influenced the development of North Pacific aboriginal whaling.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenians and desmostylians in West Coast Miocene stratigraphy.
Proc. Pacif. Coast Mioc. Biostrat. Symp. (47th Ann. Pacif. Sect. Convention, Soc. Econ. Paleont. Mineral., Bakersfield, Calif., Mar. 9-10, 1972): 146-149. 1 fig. Read Mar. 10, 1972.
–Abstr.: Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 57(2): 432, Feb. 1973. Summarizes geographic and stratigraphic distributions of North Pacific desmostylians and sirs., discusses their use in stratigraphy, and points out a discrepancy in southern California geological mapping.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Steller's sea cow and the origin of North Pacific aboriginal whaling.
Syesis 5: 187-189.
–Suggests that prehistoric human predation on Hydrodamalis not only led to the latter's extermination on the Asian and American mainlands, but also aided in the development of whaling technology by North Pacific natives.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil seacows of the Southeast.
Rocky Echoes (Jackson, Miss., Mississippi Gem & Mineral Soc.) 14(7): 7-9. Jan. 1974.
–Pop. acc. of the stratigraphic and geographic distribution of fossil sirs. in the southeastern USA and Caribbean.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Ecology and evolution of North Pacific sirenians. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 15(3): 824. Summer 1975 (read to Soc. Syst. Zool., Aug. 21, 1975).
–Abstr. of Domning (1977b). Proposes that Metaxytherium allisoni, a bottom-feeder, died out due to a decline of North Pacific seagrasses and competition with desmostylians; a surface-feeding dugongid lineage, in contrast, gave rise to the kelp-eating Hydrodamalis.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Observations on the myology of Dugong dugon (Müller).
Smithson. Contrib. Zool. No. 226: iii + 57. 2 tabs. 54 figs. Jan. 5, 1977.
–The skeletal muscles of a female Palauan dugong are described, illustrated (with maps of muscle attachments), and compared with other published descriptions of manatee and dugong musculature. Body measurements and data on skin thickness are also given, and the functional anatomy of the facial region, jaws, spine, and flippers is discussed. (For corrigenda, see Domning, 1978a: 56.) In overall body form, dugongs appear to be more specialized and efficient swimmers than manatees. The chief myological differences are in the shoulder region.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
An ecological model for Late Tertiary sirenian evolution in the North Pacific Ocean.
Syst. Zool. 25(4): 352-362. 5 figs. "Dec. 1976" (publ. Feb. 8, 1977; read Aug. 21, 1975).
–Abstr.: Domning (1975). Outlines a set of principles and postulates for interpreting sir. paleoecology; briefly describes the phyletic history of North Pacific sirs.; and summarizes the interpretations presented in detail in Domning (1978b) regarding their diet, functional anatomy, possible competition with desmostylians, evolutionary pattern, and the role of North Pacific paleogeographic and climatic change in their evolution.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Criar filhotes de peixe-boi pode ser um mal negócio para você e para o filhote de peixe-boi.
A Crítica (Manaus, Brasil), Aug. 7, 1977, Vida, p. 3. 3 figs.
–Feature in the Sunday magazine supplement of a Manaus newspaper. Condemns the practice, by wealthy citizens of Manaus, of buying orphaned T. inunguis calves as "pets", and describes the intensive efforts required to keep such animals alive and the history of such efforts at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
The myology of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer) (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Acta Amazonica 8(2), Supl. 1: 1-81. 8 tabs. 50 figs. June 1978.
–Portuguese summ. The skeletal muscles of several young Amazonian manatees are described, illustrated (with maps of muscle attachments), and compared with those of other sirs. The functional anatomy of the bristles of the upper lip, the nostrils, jaws, neck, and forelimb is discussed (57-71); a vector analysis of jaw mechanics is presented (57-67), as are data on muscle weights (67) and corrigenda to Domning, 1977a (56). Interspecific myological differences among manatees seem to be confined to the mm. rectus capitis lateralis and biceps brachii. The jaw apparatus is dominated by a very large temporalis muscle, which produces unresolved forces that are resisted at a joint between the mandible and the strong pterygoid process. T. inunguis is more specialized for surface-feeding and swimming than T. manatus.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenian evolution in the North Pacific Ocean.
Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 118: xi + 176. 27 tabs. 37 figs. 18 pls. Sept. 8, 1978.
–Summarizes all available information on sirs. from the North Pacific basin and describes all known sir. fossils from that region, listing (in an appendix) their locality data and associated faunas, and interprets their paleoecology, functional anatomy, and phylogeny. The contents of the former dugongid subfamily Halianassinae are redistributed between the Halitheriinae and the expanded and redefined Hydrodamalinae. Seven sir. species are recognized in the North Pacific, including one halitheriine (Dioplotherium allisoni, n.comb.; Middle Miocene) and six hydrodamalines: Dusisiren, n.gen., D. reinharti, n.sp. (Middle Miocene), D. Sp. B (new; Late Miocene), D. jordani, n.comb. (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene), D. Sp. D (new; Early Pliocene), Hydrodamalis cuestae, n.sp. (Middle-Late Pliocene), and H. gigas (Pleistocene-Recent). The hydrodamalines are interpreted to constitute a single, unbranching evolutionary lineage which progressively adapted to colder and more exposed habitats and a diet of kelp. Possible competitive interactions between North Pacific sirs. and desmostylians are also discussed. Reviews data on the historical distribution of H. gigas, and concludes that it was in fact exterminated ca. A.D. 1768. Includes (163-165) translations by George V. Shkurkin of two Russian eyewitness accounts of Hydrodamalis-hunting on Bering Island (by P. Yakovlev, 1754-55, and S. Cherepanov, 1759-60) which had not previously been published in English.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenia. Chap. 28 in: V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke (eds.), Evolution of African mammals.
Cambridge & London, Harvard Univ. Press (xiii + 641 pp.): 573-581. 1 fig.
–Reviews the sir. fossil record, emphasizing occurrences in Africa and Madagascar, and presents a simplified phylogeny of sirs. For update, see Domning et al., 2010.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Feeding position preference in manatees (Trichechus).
Jour. Mamm. 61(3): 544-547. 2 tabs. Aug. 20, 1980.
–Experiments comparing feeding behavior of captive T. inunguis and T. m. latirostris showed that both prefer to feed as low as possible in the water column. This is interpreted to mean that all sirs., due to their subterminal mouths and regardless of rostral deflection, find it more energetically efficient to feed lower in the water column. This in turn suggests a possible selective value for evolutionary changes in rostral deflection.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Distribution and status of manatees Trichechus spp. near the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil.
Biol. Conserv. 19(2): 85-97. 3 figs. Jan. 1981.
–Concludes that the range of T. manatus in Brazil is disjunct (north and south of the Amazon), with T. inunguis occurring in the Amazon estuaries; the ranges of the two species are nearly or entirely mutually exclusive. Also provides notes on food plants, hunting and utilization, and conservation of manatees in the region.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Manatees of the Amazon.
Sea Frontiers 27(1): 18-23. 3 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1981.
–Notice: Oro-Bio (Mag. of Dental Res. Inst., Univ. of California, Los Angeles) 3(1): 1-2, 1 fig., Fall 1981. Pop. acc. of research on T. inunguis at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Manati Steller, 1774 and Trichechus exunguis (Natterer in Diesing, 1839) (Mammalia, Sirenia): proposal to place these names on the Official Indexes of Rejected and Invalid Names in Zoology.
Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 38(2): 130-133. Apr. 30, 1981.
–Also proposes placing Hydrodamalis Retzius, 1794 and H. gigas (Zimmermann, 1780) on the Official Lists of valid names. These proposals were accepted; see Opinion 1320 (R.V. Melville, 1985).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sea cows and sea grasses.
Paleobiology 7(4): 417-420. Dec. 17, 1981.
–Discusses the use of the sir. fossil record in constructing hypotheses about the evolution of marine and freshwater floras in the Caribbean, North Pacific, South America, and Mediterranean.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Commercial exploitation of manatees Trichechus in Brazil c. 1785-1973.
Biol. Conserv. 22(2): 101-126. 12 tabs. 1 fig. Feb. 1982.
–Compilation and analysis of published statistics on commerce in meat, lard, and hides of T. inunguis. Records of meat-hunting of T. manatus in Alagoas (in 1959) and Bahia (in 1964) are also noted.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Evolution of manatees: a speculative history.
Jour. Paleont. 56(3): 599-619. 9 figs. May 1982.
–Reviews all records of fossil trichechids and possible trichechids, and proposes an evolutionary scenario for the family, based on Tertiary changes in South American drainage patterns and the evolution of floating meadows. Reports new material of: Potamosiren sp., Miocene, Colombia (601-602); Ribodon limbatus, Miocene, Argentina (602-603); Ribodon sp., ?Pliocene, North Carolina (604); Trichechus sp., Plio-Pleistocene, Brazil (603-604) and Florida (604-605) and Pleistocene, Louisiana (605). Illustrates for the first time Funderburg's (1960) Pleistocene Trichechus from North Carolina (605). Discusses the homology of cheek teeth in Trichechus (607-608), the importance of a gramineous diet in the manatees' evolution of horizontal tooth replacement (609-612), possible trichechid-dugongid competition in the Caribbean (613-614), and the present adaptive status of manatees (615-616). Suggests that root hypsodonty in Dugong is recently evolved (614). Concludes that trichechids probably evolved in South America from a protosirenid ancestor, and adapted there to a diet of freshwater grasses by the evolution of supernumerary molars.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia from the Sahabi Formation.
Garyounis Scientific Bull. (Benghazi) Special Issue No. 4: 29-32. 2 figs.
–Reports Metaxytherium serresii from the Early Pliocene Sahabi Formation, Libya, and suggests that this species was dwarfed due to suboptimal conditions for seagrasses in the post-Messinian Mediterranean.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Marching teeth of the manatee.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 92(5): 8, 10-11. 1 fig. May 1983.
–Pop. acc. of tooth replacement, dental adaptation, and evolution of manatees and their possible competition with extinct Caribbean dugongids.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sea cow discovery.
Nature (London) 308(5959): 500. Apr. 5, 1984.
–Comments on V. Rich (1983), pointing out the potential importance of a supposedly associated Hydrodamalis skeleton found on Bering Island in view of the incomplete knowledge of the species' osteology.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sea cows of the Chesapeake Bay.
Bugeye Times (Calvert Marine Museum, Solomons, Maryland) 9(1): 5-6. 1 fig. Spring 1984.
–Pop. acc. of Metaxytherium calvertense and other fossil and Recent sirs. recorded from the Chesapeake area.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil sirenians from the Pamunkey River, Virginia. In: L. W. Ward & K. Krafft (eds.), Stratigraphy and paleontology of the outcropping Tertiary beds in the Pamunkey River region, central Virginia coastal plain.
Atlantic Coastal Plain Geol. Assoc. (Guidebook, 1984 Field Trip, Oct. 6-7, 1984): 224-225. 1 pl.
–Reports sir. remains resembling Metaxytherium calvertense from the Middle Miocene Calvert Formation on the Pamunkey River.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Potential biochronologic utility of European sirenians. [Abstr.]
Abstrs. VIIIth Congress, Regional Committee on Mediterranean Neogene Stratigraphy, Symposium on European Late Cenozoic Mineral Resources (Budapest, 15-22 Sept. 1985): 183.
–Points out that the European species of Halitherium and Metaxytherium appear to form an Oligocene-Pliocene sequence of chronospecies having potential use in stratigraphic correlation.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Habitat protection: the only hope.
Save the Manatee Club News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources & Florida Audubon Soc.), Dec. 1985: [2].
–Essay on the need to protect manatee habitat in Florida.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sea cow family reunion.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 96(4): 64, 66-71. 2 figs. Apr. 1987.
–Pop. acc. of the history of study, paleoecology, and evolution of the Sirenia of the North Pacific Ocean.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Halianassa studeri von Meyer, 1838 (Mammalia, Sirenia): proposed designation of a neotype, and proposed conservation of Halitherium Kaup, 1838 by designation of a type species.
Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 44(2): 122-125. June 1987.
–In order to suppress the name Halianassa studeri, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is asked to designate as its neotype the holotype of Pugmeodon schinzii, and to designate P. schinzii as type species of Halitherium, thereby making Halianassa studeri a junior objective synonym of Halitherium schinzii. The formal rejection of the names Halianassa and studeri is requested, as well as a ruling that the correct original spelling of Halytherium be deemed to be Halitherium. These proposals were accepted; see Opinion 1535 (ICZN, 1989).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
How long have manatees been in Florida?
Save the Manatee Club News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources & Florida Audubon Soc.), Aug. 1987: [1-2].
–Brief pop. acc. of the sir. fossil record in Florida, showing that (contrary to a current rumor) manatees were not recently introduced into the state. See also Domning (2005).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. I. Metaxytherium floridanum Hay, 1922.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 8(4): 395-426. 12 tabs. 12 figs. Dec. 14, 1988.
–Describes the history of study of fossil sirs. from the Bone Valley area, Polk and Hillsborough Cos., Florida; the geology and age of the Bone Valley deposits; the osteology of a large sample of M. floridanum from Bone Valley and a few specimens from elsewhere in Florida; and the phylogenetic relationships of the species. M. floridanum is considered to be Middle-Late Miocene in age, and a senior synonym of M. ossivallense. Reports of M. calvertense and "Hesperosiren" in the Bone Valley Formation actually pertain to M. floridanum.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Kelp evolution: a comment.
Paleobiology 15(1): 53-56. "Winter 1989" (mailed June 13, 1989).
–Comments on Estes & Steinberg (1988), arguing that kelps radiated prior to the Middle Miocene and were subject to intense marine-mammal herbivory from the Late Oligocene on. See also Estes & Steinberg (1989).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil sirenians from the Suwannee River, Florida and Georgia. In: G.S. Morgan (ed.), Miocene paleontology and stratigraphy of the Suwannee River basin of north Florida and south Georgia.
Southeastern Geol. Soc. Guidebook No. 30: 54-60. 2 figs. Oct. 7, 1989.
–Describes the discoveries, relationships, and probable feeding habits of "Halitherium" olseni, Dioplotherium manigaulti, and Metaxytherium sp. found in the Miocene of the Suwannee River basin. See also G. S. Morgan (1989).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. II. Dioplotherium manigaulti Cope, 1883.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 9(4): 415-428. 2 tabs. 6 figs. Dec. 19, 1989.
–Describes the history of study of fossil sirs. from the South Carolina phosphate beds; the age of beds in South Carolina and Florida yielding Dioplotherium; the osteology of available specimens of D. manigaulti, including a skull from the Lower Miocene of Florida; and the cladistic relationships of the species, which is formally referred to the Rytiodontinae together with Rytiodus and "Halitherium" olseni. Rytiodontines are hypothesized to have fed primarily on large seagrass rhizomes, and a similar adaptation is suggested for the ancestors of Dugong dugon.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. III. Xenosiren yucateca, gen. et sp. nov.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 9(4): 429-437. 1 tab. 7 figs. Dec. 19, 1989.
–Describes a partial skull from the Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene of Yucatan, Mexico; it is considered a rytiodontine and a direct descendant of Dioplotherium. Its cranial specializations are interpreted as adaptations for uprooting seagrass rhizomes using both jaws and tusks.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenian rhizivory studies. In: L. W. Lefebvre & J. A. Powell, Jr., Manatee grazing impacts on seagrasses in Hobe Sound and Jupiter Sound in southeast Florida during the winter of 1988-89.
NTIS Document No. PB 90-271883 (vi + 36): 34-36.
–Describes observations and experiments conducted to determine how thoroughly manatees can excavate and remove seagrass rhizomes, and how effective tusks of extinct dugongids might have been for this purpose. Results of experiments on the latter topic were published by Domning & Beatty (2007).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. IV. Corystosiren varguezi, gen. et sp. nov.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 10(3): 361-371. 1 tab. 4 figs. Sept. 20, 1990.
–Describes a skull from the Early Pliocene of Yucatan, and skull fragments and tusks from possibly correlative deposits in Florida. The new form is considered a rytiodontine and possible sister taxon of Rytiodus.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sexual and ontogenetic variation in the pelvic bones of Dugong dugon (Sirenia).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(3): 311-316. 2 figs. July 1991 (mailed Aug. 15, 1991).
–Describes variation in innominate bones of 41 male and 29 female dugongs from Queensland, and presents a key for assigning such bones to broad categories of sex, age, and sexual maturity.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
A new genus for Halitherium olseni Reinhart, 1976 (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Jour. Vert. Pal. 11(3): 398. Sept. 30, 1991.
–Names and diagnoses the new genus Crenatosiren, and creates the new combination C. olseni.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Why save the manatee? In: J. E. Reynolds, III & D. K. Odell, Manatees and dugongs.
New York, Facts on File (xiv + 192): 167-173. Oct. 1991.
–An essay based on ideas originally outlined by Domning in Sirenews No. 3: 1-4 (April 1985). Lists and discusses a graded series of reasons for protecting manatees and other endangered species and their habitats.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
[Letter to the editor.]
Nat. Hist. 102(9): 2. "Sept. 1993" (mailed Aug. 1993).
–Points out that Steller's sea cow and not the blaauwbock was the first "large-bodied mammalian species" to become extinct in historic times, contrary to a statement by S. J. Gould.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
West Indian tuskers.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 103(4): 72-73. 1 fig. Apr. 1994.
–Errata: Nat. Hist. 103(5): 6, May 1994. Pop. acc. of fossil dugongines and other sirs. in the Caribbean and their implications for the paleoecology and evolution of seagrass communities.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
A phylogenetic analysis of the Sirenia. In: A. Berta & T. A. Deméré (eds.), Contributions in marine mammal paleontology honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr.
Proc. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 29: 177-189. 2 tabs. 4 figs. May 1, 1994.
–Revs.: S. A. McLeod, Jour. Vert. Pal. 16(1): 183-185, Mar. 19, 1996; J. E. Heyning, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(2): 326-329, "Apr. 1996" (publ. Mar. 29, 1996). Presents the results of a cladistic analysis of 36 species and subspecies of sirs. using cranial and dental characters. Formally refers the subfamily Miosireninae to the Trichechidae, and introduces the name Trichechinae for the remaining trichechids. Dugong dugon is placed within the clade previously called the Rytiodontinae, and the senior name Dugonginae is extended to include this entire clade. A revised provisional classification of the Sirenia is presented.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
What do we know about the evolution of the dugong? In: Mermaid Symposium: First International Symposium on Dugong and Manatees. November 15-17, 1995, Toba, Mie, Japan. Abstracts.
Toba (Japan), Toba Aquarium: 23-24.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Bibliography and index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia.
Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. No. 80: iii + 611. Frontisp. July 25, 1996.
–The first publication of the present database. Lists approximately 4,590 titles alphabetically by author; many entries annotated. Covers the neobiology, paleobiology, and ethnobiology of the Sirenia and Desmostylia, 1494-1994. The index employs 1,059 subject headings and cross references, including all Linnean names and combinations ever used for sirs. and desmostylians, plus names of all reported sir. food plants and parasites. More than 40% of the main entries are fully indexed, and many others are partially indexed, yielding over 13,950 index entries, most of which are themselves annotated and include page references. Six appendices list serial publications devoted to the Sirenia, additional sources for the history of sirenology and sir. conservation, and coins and postage stamps depicting sirs., and provide a classification and synonymy of the Sirenia and Desmostylia, a summary of the nomenclature of the Recent sirs., and an alphabetical list of species-group names of sirs. and desmostylians.
  Only original nomenclatural acts appearing for the first time in this publication are indexed here. These comprise new synonymies of Halitherium schinzii lareolensis Pilleri with H. schinzii (Kaup) (385), of Metaxytherium riveroi Varona with M. crataegense (Simpson) (386), of M. krahuletzi excelsum Pilleri with M. krahuletzi Depéret (386), of M. catalaunicum Pilleri with M. medium (Desmarest) (387), and of Prototherium solei Pilleri and P. montserratense Pilleri with "P." intermedium Bizzotto (388); also emendation of the spelling of "Metaxytherium" kachchhense Bajpai, Singh, and Singh (386).
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Common patterns of evolution among ungulates evolving into marine mammals: examples from Cetacea and Sirenia. (Abstr.) In: J. E. Repetski (ed.), Sixth North American Paleontological Convention Abstracts of Papers. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. June 9-June 12, 1996.
Pal. Soc. Special Publ. No. 8: 105. Read June 12, 1996.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenia. Chap. 23 in: R. F. Kay, R. H. Madden, R. L. Cifelli, & J. J. Flynn (eds.), Vertebrate paleontology in the Neotropics: the Miocene fauna of La Venta, Colombia.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (xv + 592): 383-391. 4 figs.
–Spanish summ. Describes new sir. specimens from the Middle Miocene of Colombia, referring all the La Venta specimens (including the holotype of Metaxytherium ortegense Kellogg, 1966) to Potamosiren magdalenensis Reinhart, 1951. A Late Miocene tooth from the Río Acre (Brazil-Peru border) described by Frailey (1986) is interpreted as a fourth lower deciduous premolar of Ribodon. Potamosiren is considered ancestral to all other trichechines, and its thick molar enamel is interpreted as an adaptation to eating soft but increasingly abrasive aquatic plants.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. VI. Crenatosiren olseni (Reinhart, 1976).
Jour. Vert. Pal. 17(2): 397-412. 9 tabs. 9 figs. June 19, 1997.
–Redescribes the species on the basis of the holotype and new material from the Late Olig. of Florida and South and North Carolina. It is regarded as the most primitive member of the Dugonginae and the sister group of all other known dugongines. This subfamily evidently arose in the West Atlantic-Caribbean region during the Oligocene.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Marine mammals. In: F. F. Steininger, S. Iaccarino, & F. Cati (eds.), In search of the Paleogene/Neogene boundary. Part 3: The global stratotype section and point. The GSSP for the base of the Neogene (the Paleogene/Neogene boundary).
Giornale di Geologia (3)58(1/2): 177-180.
–Briefly discusses the biostratigraphic utility of the lineages of Cetacea, Pinnipedia, Sirenia, and Desmostylia that are known to have ranged across the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Considers the fossil records of these taxa to be insufficiently known for them to be used for more than crude stratigraphic correlations.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossils explained 24: Sirenians (seacows).
Geology Today 15(2): 75-79. 6 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1999.
–Gen. acc. of sirs. and their fossil record and evolutionary history.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Endangered species: the common denominator. Chap. 15 in: J. R. Twiss, Jr. & R. R. Reeves (eds.), Conservation and management of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (xi + 471 pp.): 332-341. Sept. 1999.
–Rev.: P. Shaughnessy, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16(4): 843, Oct. 3, 2000.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenians. In: R. Singer (ed.), Encyclopedia of paleontology. Vol. 2: M-Z.
Chicago & London, Fitzroy Dearborn Publs. (xiii + 689-1435): 1089-1090.
–Vol. 1 = pp. xix + 1-687. Short gen. acc. of sirs. and sir. evolution.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Oligocene Sirenia of the Caribbean region. Appendix 1 (p. 29) in: H. L. Dixon & S. K. Donovan. Report of a field meeting to the area around Browns Town, parish of St. Ann, north-central Jamaica, 21st February, 1998.... with appendices by Daryl P. Domning and Paul D. Taylor.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Jamaica 33: 24-30.
–Summarizes the Oligocene sir. taxa recorded from the wider Caribbean region, and reports Late Olig. rib frags. from the Browns Town Formation.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
The readaptation of Eocene sirenians to life in water. In: J.-M. Mazin, V. de Buffrénil, & P. Vignaud (eds.), Secondary adaptation of tetrapods to life in water.
Historical Biology (Special Issue) 14(1-2): 115-119. 1 fig.
–Describes in general terms the evolution of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic locomotor and diving adaptations in sirs., tracing the changes in gross body form exhibited by the four families and comparing them with convergent changes seen in contemporary cetaceans.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenians, seagrasses, and Cenozoic ecological change in the Caribbean. In: W. Miller III & S. E. Walker (eds.), Cenozoic palaeobiology: the last 65 million years of biotic stasis and change.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. (Special Issue) 166(1-2): 27-50. 2 figs. Feb. 1, 2001.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Evolution of the Sirenia and Desmostylia. In: J.-M. Mazin & V. de Buffrénil (eds.), Secondary adaptation of tetrapods to life in water.
Munich, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil (367 pp.): 151-168. 7 figs. Apr. 10, 2001?
–Review: B. L. Beatty, Jour. Vert. Pal. 23(2): 474-475, June 17, 2003.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
The earliest known fully quadrupedal sirenian.
Nature (London) 413(6856): 625-627. 2 figs. Oct. 11, 2001.
–Notices: New Scientist No. 2312: 27, Oct. 13, 2001; C. Reed, Geotimes 46(12): 8, 1 fig., Dec. 2001; C. Sagne, Universalia (Encyclopaedia Universalis France, Paris): 282, 1 fig., 2002; S. K. Donovan, Geology Today 18(2): 42, Mar./Apr. 2002; D. R. Prothero, Geotimes 47(7): 24, July 2002; Science Year (The World Book Annual Science Supplement) 2003: 245, 1 fig., 2002.
  Describes Pezosiren portelli n.gen. n.sp., a prorastomid from the early Middle Eocene of Jamaica.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Supposedly unique features of the desmostylian tibia are also found in other mammals.
Bull. Ashoro Mus. Pal. 2: 23-26. 1 tab. 1 fig. Mar. 30, 2001.
–Compares the tibiae of desmostylians with those of diverse fossil & Recent mammals, with regard to torsion of the tibia and tilt of the ankle joint relative to the axis of the tibial shaft. Concludes that desmostylians are not outside the range of variation in these characters seen in other mammals, and were probably adapted for slow ambulatory locomotion on land.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenia (dugongs and manatees). In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.
London, Macmillan.
–Also published online in Aug. 2000; online version revised in March 2004, March 2005, and March 2012.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
New "intermediate form" ties seacows firmly to land.
Repts. Natl. Center for Science Education (Berkeley, Cal.) 21(5-6): 38-42. 1 fig. "Sept.-Dec. 2001" [mailed Mar. 2002].
–Describes how Pezosiren portelli and other fossil sirs. demonstrate the fact of major evolutionary change in a group of mammals.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
The terrestrial posture of desmostylians. In: R.J. Emry (ed.), Cenozoic mammals of land and sea: tributes to the career of Clayton E. Ray.
Smithson. Contr. Paleobiol. 93: 99-111. 6 figs. Dec. 18, 2002.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Desmostylia. In: W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 319-322. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Ed. 2 (2009): pp. 307-310.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenian evolution. In: W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J.G.M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 1083-1086. 3 figs.
–Ed. 2 (2009): pp. 1016-1019, 4 figs. Ed. 3 (2018): pp. 856-859, 4 figs.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenia. In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. Ed. 9.
Apr. 16, 2002.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. VII. Pleistocene Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 25(3): 685-701. 4 tabs. 8 figs.[0685:FSOTWA]2.0.CO;2 Sept. 30, 2005.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Sirenia. Chap. 36 in: C.M. Janis, G.F. Gunnell, & M.D. Uhen (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America. Vol. 2: Small mammals, xenarthrans, and marine mammals.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press (viii + 795): 629-638. 3 figs. June 12, 2008.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Desmostylia. Chap. 37 in: C.M. Janis, G.F. Gunnell, & M.D. Uhen (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America. Vol. 2: Small mammals, xenarthrans, and marine mammals.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press (viii + 795): 639-644. 3 figs. June 12, 2008.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
The early years of the Amazonian manatee project at INPA, Manaus, Brazil.
Aquatic Mammals 38(2): 204-222. 11 figs.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Order Sirenia – Dugongs, Manatees. In: J. Kingdon, D. Happold, M. Hoffmann, T. Butynski, M. Happold, & J. Kalina (eds.), Mammals of Africa. Volume I. Introductory Chapters and Afrotheria.
London, Bloomsbury Publishing: 201-202. 3 figs. Feb. 2013.
–Introduction to the sir. chapter; subsequent parts of the chapter (pp. 203-212) are by J. E. Reynolds III, H. Marsh, P. Dutton, and J. A. Powell, Jr. Illustrations include sketches by J. Kingdon.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia (Mammalia) of the Miocene Chesapeake Group, Eastern United States. In S. J. Godfrey (ed.), The geology and vertebrate paleontology of Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, USA.
Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology No. 100: 241-265. 3 tabs. 9 figs.
Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Case 3829 – Halitherium Kaup, 1838 and Halitherium schinzii (Kaup, 1838) (Mammalia, Sirenia): proposed conservation of current usage by designation of a neotype for Halitherium schinzii.
Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 78: 167-174. Dec. 30, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: The purpose of this application, under Article 75.5 of the Code, is to conserve the current usage of the generic name Halitherium Kaup, 1838 and the specifc name of its type species, Pugmeodon schinzii Kaup, 1838 (currently Halitherium schinzii), for a taxon of fossil sirenian from Europe by designating a neotype for this nominal species. This is in response to a recent contention that, as nomina dubia, these two names are inapplicable to the two sympatric species of this genus purported to occur around the type locality of H. schinzii in the Mainz Basin and elsewhere in Europe. The existing holotype is an isolated premolar that is not unambiguously determinable to species, but the name Halitherium schinzii has been used in a substantial body of literature extending over nearly two centuries, to the near exclusion of other names, and without taxonomic ambiguity because of reference to other specimens than the type. The desired ends can be attained without sacrifcing stability of nomenclature by designating the most suitable reference specimen as the neotype of Pugmeodon schinzii Kaup, 1838 under the plenary power and continuing to use the name Kaupitherium bronni (Krauss, 1858), with its own, different name-bearing type, for the other species.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Buffrénil, Vivian de (detail)
Hydrostasis in the Sirenia: quantitative data and functional interpretations.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(4): 331-368. 5 tabs. 18 figs. Oct. 1991.
–Analyzes the distribution of skeletal mass in T. m. latirostris and the positions of the centers of gravity and buoyancy in T. inunguis, concluding that increased volume and density of bones (= "pachyosteosclerosis", a term introduced here) do indeed serve in sirs. as ballast to maintain horizontal trim and neutral buoyancy. The design and position of the lungs also seem to serve this purpose. Selection for maintenance of trim and maximization of turning moments of the flippers may help account, respectively, for loss of hind limbs and shortening of the neck. The gross anatomy of a sir. (T. inunguis) is illustrated in serial cross sections for the first time. Summarizes the distribution of pachyosteosclerosis in various fossil sirs., and concludes that this condition is fully adaptive and in no sense "pathological".
Domning, Daryl Paul; Clark, James M. (detail)
Jamaican Tertiary marine Vertebrata. In: R. M. Wright & E. Robinson (eds.), Biostratigraphy of Jamaica.
Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 182: 413-415. Dec. 1993.
–Reviews the occurrences of Prorastomus sirenoides in Early and Middle Eocene rocks of Jamaica (414).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Deméré, Thomas A. (detail)
New material of Hydrodamalis cuestae (Mammalia: Dugongidae) from the Miocene and Pliocene of San Diego County, California.
Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 20(12): 169-188. 4 tabs. 7 figs. Nov. 20, 1984.
–Reviews the geology and biostratigraphy of the San Mateo and San Diego Formations, and describes new cranial and postcranial specimens of H. cuestae from both; confirms the supposed abnormality of the holotype and the large size of the species in the southern part of its range.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Frye, Fredric L. (detail)
Pathology of two fossil sea cows (Mammalia: Sirenia).
PaleoBios (Berkeley, Univ. Calif. Mus. Pal.) No. 18: 1-4. 2 pls. July 10, 1975.
–Reprinted in a bound vol. of the early issues of PaleoBios, 1980. Describes fractures, osteomyelitis, and ossifying spondylosis in Metaxytherium jordani and osteitis deformans or osteitis fibrosa in Hydrodamalis n.sp. from California.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
Summary of taxa and distribution of Sirenia in the North Pacific Ocean.
The Island Arc 3(4): 506-512. "Dec. 1994" (publ. Nov. 1995).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
Protosiren smithae, new species (Mammalia, Sirenia), from the late Middle Eocene of Wadi Hitan, Egypt.
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 29(3): 69-87. 3 tabs. 11 figs. Nov. 30, 1994.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Hayek, Lee-Ann C. (detail)
Horizontal tooth replacement in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Mammalia (Paris) 48(1): 105-127. 7 tabs. 7 figs. Mar. 5, 1984.
–French summ. Analysis of tooth-loss data from captive manatees indicates rates of tooth movement on the order of 1 mm/month. The rates vary directly with food (especially grass) consumption, and are probably controlled by the mechanical stress of chewing. The replacement process seems adapted to a diet that is both tough and abrasive, and does not work as well when (as in Florida manatees) these two factors are decoupled.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Hayek, Lee-Ann C. (detail)
Interspecific and intraspecific morphological variation in manatees (Sirenia: Trichechus).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(2): 87-144. 7 tabs. 4 figs. . Apr. 1986.
–Discusses the external and internal characteristics of the living manatee species, with an extensive statistical analysis of measurements and qualitative features of the skull and mandible. No significant sexual dimorphism was found (97). Salient ontogenetic changes in the skull are briefly noted (97-99). The subspecies T. m. manatus and T. m. latirostris are found to be morphologically distinguishable and taxonomically valid; the vernacular name "Antillean manatee" is proposed for the former (125). Cold weather in the northern Gulf of Mexico and strong currents in the Straits of Florida are suggested as causes of the apparent genetic isolation of Florida manatees. Alleged subspecies of T. senegalensis are considered to be baseless (126). Detailed diagnoses are given for all the species and subspecies (126-130). The functional significance of diagnostic cranial differences is discussed (130-131). Cladistic analysis suggests that T. manatus and T. senegalensis are each other's closest relatives (132-136); the senegalensis-like features of a Pleistocene skull from South Carolina illustrate the general primitiveness of the African species.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Magor, Diana Marion (detail)
Taxa de substituição horizontal de dentes no peixe-boi.
Acta Amazonica 7(3): 435-438. Sept. 1977.
–Preliminary report on tooth replacement in T. inunguis. Toothrow movement, initiated by weaning, is on the order of 1 mm/month in captive animals and is directly proportional to intake of solid food.
  The cover of this issue depicts Domning bottle-feeding a manatee calf.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Myrick, Albert C., Jr. (detail)
Tetracycline marking and the possible layering rate of bone in an Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis). In: W. F. Perrin & A. C. Myrick, Jr. (eds.), Age determination of toothed whales and sirenians.
Repts. Internatl. Whaling Comm., _ Special Issue 3: 203-207. 3 figs.
–The successful marking of a rib, using a 7.1-8.5 mg/kg dosage of Terramycin, suggests a periosteal bone deposition rate of one layer per year. Layering in ribs and mandibles of T. manatus is also discussed.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Pervesler, Peter (detail)
The osteology and relationships of Metaxytherium krahuletzi Depéret, 1895 (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 553: 1-89. 19 tabs. Frontisp. 10 figs. 20 pls. Mar. 20, 2001.
–German summ.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
The earliest sirenian (Mammalia: Dugongidae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(4): 263-276. 1 tab. 6 figs. Oct. 1986.
–A partial skull and mandible from the Early Miocene Nye Mudstone in Oregon is referred to Halitheriinae gen. et sp. indet. The possible entry of sirs. into the North Pacific in the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene is discussed in terms of climate and paleogeography (273-274).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Thomas, Herbert (detail)
Metaxytherium serresii (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Early Pliocene of Libya and France: a reevaluation of its morphology, phyletic position, and biostratigraphic and paleoecological significance. In: N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, & D. D. Boaz (eds.), Neogene paleontology and geology of Sahabi.
New York, Alan R. Liss (xv + 401 pp.): 205-232. 12 tabs. 13 figs.
–Arabic, French, and German summs. Reviews the history of the name Metaxytherium serresii (206-207); summarizes the record of Metaxytherium in Europe (207-209); describes the material of M. serresii from Sahabi, Libya (209-223); presents a cladistic analysis of European Halitherium and Metaxytherium (223-228); and reviews the stratigraphic context of M. serresii at Montpellier, France (228-229). Concludes that H. christolii, M. krahuletzi, M. medium, M. serresii, and M. forestii form a single lineage, probably derived from H. schinzii. The small size of M. serresii is attributed to dwarfing caused by poor nutrition, due in turn to reduced diversity, quality, and/or quantity of seagrasses in the post-Messinian Mediterranean.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Aguilera, Orangel A. (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. VIII. Nanosiren garciae, gen. et sp. nov. and Nanosiren sanchezi, sp. nov.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 28(2): 479-500. 8 tabs. 16 figs. June 12, 2008.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
A new name for the 'Stanford skeleton' of Paleoparadoxia (Mammalia, Desmostylia).
Jour. Vert. Pal. 27(3): 748-751. 2 figs. Sept. 12, 2007.
–Names Paleoparadoxia repenningi, n.sp.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Beatty, Brian Lee (detail)
Use of tusks in feeding by dugongid sirenians: observations and tests of hypotheses. In: J.S. Reidenberg & J.T. Laitman (eds.), Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.
Anat. Rec. 290(6): 523-538. 1 tab. 6 figs. 10.1002/ar.20540 June 2007 (Mailed week of May 21, 2007).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Beatty, Brian Lee (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. XII. Stegosiren macei, gen. et sp. nov.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 39(3): e1650369 (13 pages). 3 tabs. 8 figs. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1650369. "May 2019" (publ. online Sept. 13, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Stegosiren macei, a new genus and species of halitheriine dugongid from the mid-Oligocene of South Carolina, U.S.A. (Ashley and Chandler Bridge formations, late Rupelian–late Chattian), represents a stage of halitheriine evolution more derived than that of the Old World early Oligocene Eosiren imenti and Halitherium schinzii, but slightly less derived than the West Atlantic late Oligocene Metaxytherium albifontanum. It is more comparable in stage of evolution to its early Oligocene contemporaries Caribosiren turneri and Priscosiren atlantica and may be a sister taxon of these two. It is distinguished autapomorphically from all other sirenians by a notably broadened frontal roof and a thickened anterior tip of the frontal, which formed a butt joint with the premaxilla. Analogous (independently evolved) joints in several other sirenians (principally dugongines) are correlated with enlarged upper tusks thought to be used for excavating seagrass rhizomes. This suggests that large tusks also may have been present (although not preserved) in Stegosiren, which is only the second halitheriine in which such a feature has been observed. Stegosiren macei brings to at least seven the number of potentially sympatric sirenian species lineages known from the West Atlantic-Caribbean Oligocene (six or more from South Carolina alone). This extraordinary sirenian diversity, unmatched elsewhere in the world, poses problems for ecomorphology and feeding-niche partitioning.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Gingerich, Philip D.; Simons, Elwyn L.; Ankel-Simons, Friderun A. (detail)
A new Early Oligocene dugongid (Mammalia, Sirenia) from Fayum Province, Egypt.
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 29(4): 89-108. 3 tabs. 7 figs. Nov. 30, 1994.
–Describes Eosiren imenti, n.sp.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Heal, Geoffrey J.; Sorbi, Silvia (detail)
Libysiren sickenbergi, gen. et sp. nov.: a new sirenian (Mammalia, Protosirenidae) from the middle Eocene of Libya.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 37(2): 4 tabs. 16 figs. + online supplementary material. Published online Apr. 28, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Fossil sirenian specimens collected in 1964 by the late R. J. G. Savage's expeditions in north-central Libya are described. They come from early middle Eocene (lower Lutetian, 47.8–43.6 Ma) deposits at the locality of Bu el Haderait and represent a new genus and species, Libysiren sickenbergi. This animal is the largest known protosirenid, and the largest Eocene sirenian known to date (condylobasal length >420 mm). Its dental formula was apparently, with five premolar loci as in all other Eocene sirenians, but the teeth are mostly not preserved. Its postcranial skeleton is unknown except for the atlas, a thoracic vertebra, and rib fragments. Stable isotopes indicate a mostly seagrass diet and a habitat of fully marine salinity. The Protosirenidae presently comprise the genera Protosiren, Ashokia, and Libysiren, with their interrelationships unresolved. Together, they are most parsimoniously regarded as a paraphyletic group basal to both Trichechidae and Dugongidae. However, as more of their morphology and diversity are revealed, they may prove to be more closely allied to the former and may shed crucial light on the still-mysterious origins of the trichechids (manatees).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Morgan, Gary Scott; Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
North American Eocene sea cows (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. No. 52: iii + 69. 3 tabs. 34 figs. Sept. 3, 1982.
–Briefly reviews the worldwide Eocene sir. record, and reports in detail on the 22 known New World Eocene localities (1-17). New specimens from Florida (18-39) and North Carolina (39-59) are described, compared with other sirs., and referred to Protosiren sp. New records of Pleistocene Trichechus manatus from the Waccasassa River, Florida (18), and of Protosiren n.sp. from the Late Eocene of Egypt (55-56, 59), are also reported. The primitive sir. dental formula is confirmed to have been, and the significance of this for eutherian phylogeny is pointed out (59-60). The pan-Tethyan distribution of Eocene sirs. and its biostratigraphic potential, the possible sequence of sir. adaptive radiations (60-61), and the probable seagrass diet of Eocene sirs. (61-62) are discussed; concludes that the distribution of fossil sirs. is a more reliable guide to the past presence of seagrasses than are the distributions of Foraminifera or other organisms.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Pervesler, Peter (detail)
The sirenian Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Dugongidae) in the Badenian (Middle Miocene) of Central Europe.
Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences 105(3): 125-160. 10 tabs. 11 figs. "2012" (publ. Spring 2013).
–German summ.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Pyenson, Nicholas D. (detail)
"Snagging" teeth and premolar homologies in Paleoparadoxiidae (Mammalia: Desmostylia).
Jour. Vert. Pal. 28(3): 923-927. 4 figs. Sept. 12, 2008.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Ray, Clayton Edward; McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
Two new Oligocene desmostylians and a discussion of tethytherian systematics.
Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. No. 59: iii + 56. 23 figs. May 28, 1986.
–Describes Behemotops, n.gen. (6), B. proteus (6) and B. emlongi (23), n.spp. from Washington and Oregon, respectively, as the most primitive known desmostylians. Reviews at length the history of desmostylian and tethytherian systematics, and presents a cladistic analysis of the Tethytheria (36-38), concluding that the Desmostylia and Proboscidea are sister-groups whose next closest relatives are the Sirenia. Moeritherium, Anthracobune, and Minchenella are also discussed in detail (38-45); the latter is considered a possible ancestor of both Proboscidea and Desmostylia. Desmostylians are regarded as herbivores that fed intertidally and subtidally (47-48).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Rice, Dale W.; Shoshani, Jeheskel; Hoffmann, Robert S. (detail)
Order Sirenia. In: J. H. Honacki, K. E. Kinman, & J. W. Koeppl (eds.), Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference.
Lawrence (Kansas), Allen Press & Assoc. Systematics Colls. (ix + 694 pp.): 305-306.
–Ed. 2: see D. E. Wilson (1993). Gives very brief nomenclatural and distributional notes on the Recent sirs., citing their current conservation status under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and their International Species Inventory System (ISIS) numbers.
Domning, Daryl Paul; Sorbi, Silvia (detail)
Rytiodus heali, sp. nov., a new sirenian (Mammalia: Dugonginae) from the Miocene of Libya.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31(6): 1338-1355. 1 tab. 13 figs. "Nov. 2011" (publ. online Nov. 8, 2011; mailed Dec. 29, 2011).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Thomason, James; Corbett, Debra G. (detail)
Steller's sea cow in the Aleutian Islands.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(4): 976-983. 2 figs. Oct. 2007.
–See also Turner, L.M. (2008).
Domning, Daryl Paul; Zalmout, Iyad Saleh; Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
Sirenia. Chap. 14 in: L. Werdelin & W. J. Sanders (eds.), Cenozoic mammals of Africa.
Berkeley, Univ. of California Press (xxi + 986): 147-160. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Updates Domning, 1978c.
Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred Bennett; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je (detail)
Seroepidemiology of TmPV-1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 47(3): 673-684. 5 tabs. 2 figs. + cover photo. July 2011.
Donati, Annabelle (detail)
I wonder if sea cows give milk: and other neat facts about unusual animals.
Racine (Wisconsin), Western Publishing Co., Inc.: 1-32. Illus.
–Children's book, including a cover illustration and one other illustration of manatees on a 2-page spread, with a brief but accurate text on manatees and other sirs. (8-9).
Donder, Vic de (detail)
Le chant de la sirène.
Paris, Gallimard (Coll. Découvertes Gallimard no. 152).
Donder, Vic De; Gomez-Passamar, Nadine; Guiomar, Myette; Goubet, Pierre (detail)
Sirènes et siréniens.
BT Magazine Documentaire (Cannes, Publications de l'École Moderne Française) 1106: 2-37. Illus. Mar. 1999.
Dong, Jinhai; Song, Guangze; Wang, Guangjie (detail)
Preliminary study on anatomy and histology of larynx, trachea and lung of Dugong dugon.
Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 23(4): 433-437. 1 tab. 2 figs. 2 pls. July 1992.
–In Chinese; Engl. summ.
Donndorff, Johann August (detail)
Zoologische Beyträge zur XIII. Ausgabe des Linnéischen Natursystems.... Erster Band. Die Säugthiere.
Leipzig, Weidmannschen Buchhandlung: xx + 840.
–Allen 424. Vol. 2 (birds) publ. 1794-95. "Trichechus Manatus", including all the then-known species of sirs., 128-131.
Donovan, Stephen K.: SEE ALSO Miller & Donovan, 1996; Domning, 2001c. (detail)
Donovan, Stephen K.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Garcia, Frank A.; Dixon, Harold L. (detail)
A bone bed in the Eocene of Jamaica.
Jour. Paleont. 64(4): 660-662. 1 tab. 3 figs. "July 1990" (publ. Sept. 1990).
–Describes an exposure of the early Middle Eocene Chapelton Formation at Dump, near Christiana, Manchester Parish, which yielded a new specimen of Prorastomus sirenoides as well as other fossil vertebrates. This specimen, a partial skeleton, was the first specimen of Prorastomus collected in situ.
Donovan, Stephen K.; Portell, Roger W.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Contrasting patterns and mechanisms of extinction during the Eocene-Oligocene transition in Jamaica. Chap. 8 in: W. Renema (ed.), Biogeography, time, and place: distributions, barriers, and islands.
Dordrecht, Springer (xii + 414): 247-273. 9 figs.
Pezosiren portelli and other sirs.; 248, 259-261, 265.
Dooley, Alton C., Jr. (detail)
Miocene vertebrate fossils from the Potomac River, Westmoreland County, Virginia. In: L.W. Ward & A.C. Dooley, Jr. (eds.), Geology and paleontology of the Stratford Hall Plantation and Westmoreland State Park. 35th Annual Virginia Geological Field Conference September 23-25, 2005.
Virginia Mus. Nat. Hist. Guidebook No. 5: 23-42?
–Fossil of "manatus" collected by John Finch (1833) at Stratford Hall, Virginia, not in Maryland as stated by Harlan (1825b) (32).
Dophin, Yannicke (detail)
Mise en évidence d'une structure prismatique dans l'émail d'un reptile archosaurien actuel: Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin).
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. II: Mec.-Phys., Chim., Sci. Terre, Sci. Univ. 298(20): 911-914. Illus. May 1984.
–Engl. summ. Mention of Metaxytherium.
Doran, Alban H. G. (detail)
Morphology of the mammalian ossicula auditûs.
Trans. Linn. Soc. London (2)1: 371-497. Pls. 58-64.
–Sirs., 464-470, pl. 63.
Doran, Alban H. G. (detail)
On the auditory ossicles of Rhytina stelleri.
Jour. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.) 17: 366-370. 3 figs. Read Dec. 20, 1883.
–Compares the ossicles of Rhytina with those of Halicore and Manatus.
Dorantes de Carranza, Baltasar (detail)
Sumaria relación de las cosas de la Nueva España, con noticia individual de los descendientes legítimos de los conquistadores y primeros pobladores españoles.
Mexico, Impr. del Museo Nacional: viii + 491.
–Written in 1604. The manatee material (pp. 136ff.) is copied from Gómara and Las Casas, with and without acknowledgment, respectively (reprinted by Durand, 1983: 69-70, 90).
Dorozynski, A. (detail)
Les sirènes de Colomb.
Quebec Sci. 12(9): 7. 2 figs.
Dosch, Friedrich (detail)
Bau und Entwicklung des Integuments der Sirenen.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 53(= n.s. 46)(4): 805-854. 15 figs. Oct. 4, 1915.
–Engl. transl.: Natl. Research Council of Canada Tech. Transl. No. 1626, 1973, by D. A. Sinclair.
Dougherty, M. M.: SEE Miller et al., 2001. (detail)
Douglas, Sue (detail)
Florida's manatee mystery: scientists puzzle over a sudden die-off.
Defenders 57(4): 12-15. 6 figs. + back cover illus. Aug. 1982.
Douglas, Sue (detail)
To save a vanishing Floridian.
Oceans 15(6): 8-15. Cover illus. + 7 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1982.
Douvillé, H. (detail)
La Peninsule Ibérique. A. Espagne.
–Sirs., 104.
Douzery, Emmanuel: SEE Lavergne et al., 1996. (detail)
Downing, John A.: SEE Silva & Downing, 1995. (detail)
Drasche, R. von (detail)
Revision der in der Nematoden-Sammlung des k. k. zoologischen Hofcabinetes befindlichen Original-Exemplare Diesing's und Molin's.
Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 33: 107-118.
–Redescription of Heterocheilus tunicatus.
Drewes, Harald; Fraser, G. D.; Snyder, G. L.; Barnett, H. F., Jr. (detail)
Geology of Unalaska Island and adjacent insular shelf, Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1028-S: 583-676. 3 tabs. Figs. 81-103. Pls. 75-78.
–Considers remains of ?Cornwallius and Mya cf. truncata from Unalaska to be indicative of a cool shallow-water environment in the Late Oligocene or Early Miocene (606-607, 667).
Driscoll, C. P. (detail)
Legislation, regulation, and conservation of wild marine mammals.
Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 214(8): 1187-1191. Apr. 15, 1999.
Drummond de Mello, Daniela Magalhães; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
Serum biochemical analytes in captive Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
Veterinary Clinical Pathology 40(1): 74-77. 1 tab. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00297.x March 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Background: Establishment of reference values for serum biochemical analytes is important for monitoring health and physiological status of captive animals.
 Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and report ranges for serum biochemical analytes in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
 Methods: Blood samples were collected from 24 healthy captive Amazonian manatees that comprised a mixture of adults, subadults, and calves and males and females; serum analytes were measured and analyzed using a dry reagent bench-top chemical analyzer. Comparisons were made between sexes and with previously published values of closely related species.
 Results: Medians and ranges (minimum–maximum) of values for the analytes were: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 151 (111–278) U/L (n=20); creatine kinase, 144 (76–315) U/L (n=11); alanine aminotransferase, 10 (2–28) U/L (n=18); aspartate aminotransferase, 14 (5–28) U/L (n=21); ?-glutamyltransferase, 47 (36–73) U/L (n=21); amylase, 1428 (1010–1874) U/L (n=21); alkaline phosphatase, 73 (36–141) U/L (n=19); total protein, 6.8 (6.2–8.0) g/dL (n=24); albumin, 3.3 (2.6–4.1) g/dL (n=21); cholesterol, 188 (101–399) mg/dL (n=21); triglycerides, 126 (60–236) mg/dL (n=21); glucose, 47 (22–69) mg/dL (n=21); urea, 43 (21–69) mg/dL (n=21); uric acid, 1.1 (0.5–1.8) mg/dL (n=22); creatinine, 2.2 (1.5–3.3) mg/dL (n=22); total bilirubin, 0.2 (0.2–2.0) mg/dL (n=21); calcium, 12.7 (10.2–18.6) mg/dL (n=24); iron, 282 (207–457) ?g/dL (n=13); and magnesium, 6.9 (4.3–8.9) mg/dL (n=20). With the exception of LDH, no differences were observed between sexes.
 Conclusions: The ranges obtained in this study provide important preliminary estimates for concentrations and activities of serum analytes in Amazonian manatees until a larger reference interval study can be conducted.
Du Bocage, J. V. Barbosa (detail)
Mammifères d'Angola et du Congo.
Jour. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Lisboa (2)2(5): 1-32.
–Sirs., 29-30.
Du Bus, Bernard-Amé-Léonard, Vicomte (detail)
Note sur une découverte paléontologique faite à Boom.
Bull. Acad. Sci. Belgique (2)26: 20.
–Mention of Halitherium, Belgium. See also T. Lefèvre (1889).
Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni (detail)
[Descriptions of new species of mammals discovered in western equatorial Africa.]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 7: 358-367. Read Nov. 7, 1860.
–Tentatively proposes the new specific name Manatus Oweni, which "probably" is synonymous with M. Vogelii, if the latter be valid(!). Gives the vernacular name manga from the "Camma country", with a short description and measurements of a manatee that lacked nails; notes that the species eats leaves fallen from the banks and aquatic grass, and avoids salt water (367). See also J.E. Gray (1862).
Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni (detail)
Explorations & adventures in equatorial Africa; with accounts of the manners and customs of the people, and of the chace of the gorilla, crocodile, leopard, elephant, hippopotamus, and other animals.
London, John Murray: xviii + 479. Illus. 1 map.
–Lists "Manatus Oweni" among "Species Discovered by F. [sic] B. Du Chaillu" (471). See also J.E. Gray (1861).
Duarte, Carlos A.: SEE Hemminga & Duarte, 2000. (detail)
Dubois, Alain (detail)
Miscellanea nomenclatorica batrachologica (XVIII).
Alytes 8(3-4): 107-120. 4 figs.
–In French; Engl. summ. Traces the convoluted origins of the names Siren lacertina and Siren bartholini (both coined by Linnaeus' sudent Oesterdam, 1766), and the connection of the latter name with Trichechus (109, 117). It stems ultimately from a manatee from the "sea of Brazil" dissected by P. Paw (P. Pavius) in Leiden; fig. 4 reproduces a plate from Bartholin (1654: 189) showing its forelimb and manus skeleton and a rib, doubtless of a West Indian manatee.
Dubois, Thierry: SEE Jacquet et al., 1989. (detail)
Dubrovo, Irina Aleksandrovna: SEE ALSO Sinel'nikova et al., 1985. (detail)
Dubrovo, Irina Aleksandrovna; Sinel'nikova, Valentina Nikolayevna (detail)
Desmostilidy neogena Kamchatki. [Neogene desmostylids of Kamchatka.]
Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (Earth Sci. Sects.) 199(3): 670-673. 2 figs. Aug. 1971 (presented June 5, 1970).
–This serial is also published in Engl. by the Amer. Geol. Inst. Describes Desmostylus hesperus teeth from deposits in Kamchatka considered Miocene in age on the basis of the Desmostylus and molluscs. Considers all other species of Desmostylus, as well as Kronokotherium, synonyms of D. hesperus.
Dudich, E., Jr.: SEE Detre et al., 1971. (detail)
Due, Tananarive: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Duerden, J. E. (detail)
The marine resources of the British West Indies.
West Indian Bull. (Imper. Dept. Agric. for the West Indies) 2: 121-127.
–Manatee, 125, 127.
Duff, Robert (detail)
British Guiana: being notes on a few of its natural productions, industrial occupations, and social institutions.
Glasgow, T. Murray & Son: viii + 394. Illus.
–Sirs., 135-139.
Duffield, D. A.: SEE Cornell et al., 1982; White et al., 1976, 1977. (detail)
Duffy, Noel: SEE Duignan et al., 1995. (detail)
Dufresne, John: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Dugong Network Okinawa (detail)
For the protection of dugongs offshore Okinawa (material).
Ginowan (Okinawa), Dugong Network Okinawa: 1-38 + separate unbound 24-page Appendix. "July 2000" [publ. Aug. 14, 2000]; Appendix publ. Aug. 25, 2000.
–Compilation of articles, resolution, news clippings, and stranding data relating to dugongs in Okinawa.
Duguy, R.: SEE ALSO Van Bree & Duguy, 1977. (detail)
Duguy, R.; Cyrus, J.-L. (detail)
Catalogue des mammifères marins conservés au Muséum de Marseille.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseille 36: 37-39.
Duguy, R.; Defretin, R. (detail)
Catalogue des collections de mammifères marins du Musée d'Histoire Naturelle de Lille.
Ann. Soc. Sci. Nat. Charente-Marit. 6(6): 475-481.
Duhamel du Monceau, Henri Louis (detail)
Traité général des pêches, et histoire des poissons qu'elles fournissent, tant pour la subsistance des hommes, que pour plusieurs autres usages qui ont rapport aux arts et au commerce.
Paris, Veuve Desaint: Vol. 4 (Dixieme Section): 1-73. 15 pls.
–Allen 370. Entire work authored by H. L. Duhamel du Monceau & L. H. de La Marre: Traité général des pesches [sic], ..., Paris, Saillant & Nyon, & Desaint, 4 vols., 1769-82. The name of De La Marre appears only on title-page of part I, section 1 (1769). This work is rejected for nomenclatural purposes because the author did not apply the principles of binominal nomenclature (ICZN Opinion 859).
  Manatee, Article VIII ("Du Lamentin"), 56-59, pl. 13. This account is chiefly remarkable for the report that a female manatee and calf were once stranded by a storm on the coast of Haute-Normandie, half a league from Dieppe (56-57). The local fishermen are said to have been unacquainted with this species, although Duhamel later goes on to say that fishermen from Dieppe and Dunkerque used to sail to the Amazon River to hunt manatees, which they preserved and transported to the Antilles to sell. He gives a detailed account of the techniques of capturing manatees and salting or drying their flesh. Finally, he mentions a reported manatee occurrence in the St. Lawrence River in Canada, but seems uncertain of its veracity; he notes that his Canadian informants did not know the name "Lamentin", but allowed that manatees there might be known by some other name (59).
Duignan, Pádraig J.; House, Carol; Walsh, Michael T.; Campbell, Terry; Bossart, Gregory D.; Duffy, Noel; Fernandes, Peter J.; Rima, Bert K.; Wright, Scott D.; Geraci, Joseph R. (detail)
Morbillivirus infection in manatees.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 11(4): 441-451. 1 tab. 1 fig. Oct. 26, 1995.
Duke, K. L.: SEE Mossman & Duke, 1973. (detail)
Duke-Elder, S. (Ed.) (detail)
System of ophthalmology. Vol. 1. The eye in evolution.
London, Henry Kempton.
–Sirs., 446, 472-473, 480, 493-496, 502-503.
Dukeman, Angela K.: SEE Kadel, Dukeman & Patton, 1991. (detail)
Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Pinnegar, John K.; Reynolds, John D. (detail)
Holocene extinctions in the sea. Chap. 6 in: S. T. Turvey (ed.), Holocene extinctions.
Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press: 129-000. Illus.
–Brief comments on overexploitation of HG, DD, and TM; 137, 145.
Duméril, André Marie Constant: SEE ALSO Cuvier, G., 1800-05. (detail)
Duméril, André Marie Constant (detail)
Zoologie analytique, ou méthode naturelle de classification des animaux, rendue plus facile à l'aide de tableaux synoptiques.
Paris, Allais: xxxii + 344.
–Allen 478. "XIIIe. Famille, Amphibies" [= Pinnipedia + Sirenia], including Dugong and Manatus, 26-27.
Duméril, André Marie Constant (detail)
Communication sur le même sujet [Dinotherium giganteum].
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 4(12): 427. Read Mar. 20, 1836.
–?Abstr.: L'Institut 5: 94? Comment on de Blainville (1837).
Dumont D'Urville, J.: SEE Pucheran & Jacquinot, 1853; Quoy & Gaimard, 1830. (detail)
Dumont, Maitena; Laurin, Michel; Jacques, Florian; Pellé, Eric; Dabin, Willy; Buffrénil, Vivian de (detail)
Inner architecture of vertebral centra in terrestrial and aquatic mammals: a two-dimensional comparative study.
Jour. Morphol. 274(5): 570-584. Illus. + online supporting information. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20122 May 2013 (publ. online Feb. 8, 2013).
–ABSTRACT: Inner vertebral architecture is poorly known, except in human and laboratory animals. In order to document this topic at a broad comparative level, a 2D-histomorphometric study of vertebral centra was conducted in a sample of 98 therian mammal species, spanning most of the size range and representing the main locomotor adaptations known in therian taxa. Eleven variables relative to the development and geometry of trabecular networks were extracted from CT scan mid-sagittal sections. Phylogeny-informed statistical tests were used to reveal the respective influences of phylogeny, size, and locomotion adaptations on mammalian vertebral structure. The use of random taxon reshuffling and squared change parsimony reveals that 9 of the 11 characteristics (the two exceptions are total sectional area and structural polarization) contain a phylogenetic signal. Linear discriminant analyses suggest that the sampled taxa can be arranged into three categories with respect to locomotion mode: a) terrestrial + flying + digging + amphibious forms, b) coastal oscillatory aquatic taxa, and c) pelagic oscillatory aquatic forms represented by oceanic cetaceans. Pairwise comparison tests and linear regressions show that, when specific size increases, the length of trabecular network (Tt.Tb.Le), as well as trabecular proliferation in total sections (Pr.Tb.Tt), increase with positive allometry. This process occurs in all locomotion categories but is particularly pronounced in pelagic oscillators. Conversely, mean trabecular width has a lesser increase with size in pelagic oscillators. Trabecular orientation is not influenced by size. All tests were corrected for multiple testing. By using six structural variables or indices, locomotion mode can be predicted with a 97.4% success rate for terrestrial forms, 66.7% for coastal oscillatory, and 81.3% for pelagic oscillatory. The possible functional meaning of these results and their potential use for paleobiological inference of locomotion in extinct taxa are discussed.
Duncan, J. F. (detail)
Capt. Parkinson's manatee.
Forest & Stream 71(16): 611-612. Oct. 17, 1908.
–Account of a male manatee, "between twelve and fifteen feet long and estimated to weigh between fifteen hundred and two thousand pounds," which was caught at Ocean View, Virginia, but escaped. (See also Anon., 1908a.)
Dunigan, D. D.: SEE Sweat et al., 2001. (detail)
Dupon, J. F. (detail)
Recueil de documents pour servir à l'histoire de Rodrigues.
Port-Louis, R. Coquet.
Dupuy, André R. (detail)
Le Parc national des Oiseaux du Djoudj (République du Sénégal).
Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 34(3): 774-781. 7 figs. 1 map.
–Notes that T. senegalensis is "very rare" in the park, sometimes ascending small rivers at the flood stage (780).
Dupuy, André R. (detail)
Premier inventaire des mammifères du Parc national de Basse Casamance (Sénégal).
Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 35(1): 186-197.
Dupuy, André R.; Maigret, J. (detail)
Les mammifères marins des côtes du Sénégal. 1. Bilan des observations signalées entre 1960 et 1976.
Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 38(4): 921-928. 4 figs.
Dupuy, André R.; Maigret, J. (detail)
Les mammifères marins des côtes du Sénégal. 2. Observations signalées en 1977.
Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 40(2): 457-465.
Dupuy, André R.; Verschuren, J. (detail)
Wildlife and parks in Senegal.
Oryx 14(1): 36-46. 10 figs.
–Discusses T. senegalensis in Djoudj National Park, 41-43.
Durand, José (detail)
Ocaso de sirenas; manatíes en el siglo XVI.
México, Tezontle: 1-129. Illus.
–Ed. 2: Ocaso de sirenas: esplendor de manatíes, México, Edit. Fondo de Cultura Económica, May 1983: 1-239, illus. Comparison and discussion of the early accounts of manatees. The expanded 1983 ed. is notable for its annotated reproductions of illustrations of manatees by Oviedo, Hernández, Clusius, Rochefort, du Tertre, Exquemelin, Guzmán, Labat, Gumilla, Buffon, Caulín, Pennant, Home, Cuvier, Stannius, and Wislocki; of dugongs by Leguat, Renard, Camper, Home, and Cuvier; of Hydrodamalis by Plenisner and Brandt; and of hippos and "mermaids" by Tachard, Leguat, Valentyn, and Renard.
Durand, José (detail)
Manatí, mato, manato.
Nueva Revista de Filología Española (México) 4: 274-276.
Duret, Laurent: SEE Graur et al., 1997. (detail)
Durham, J. Wyatt (detail)
Megascopic paleontology and marine stratigraphy. In: The 1940 E. W. Scripps cruise to the Gulf of California, Part 2.
Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 43: 1-216.
Durham, J. Wyatt; Allison, Edwin C. (detail)
The geologic history of Baja California and its marine faunas. In: Symposium: The biogeography of Baja California and adjacent seas. Part 1: Geologic history.
Syst. Zool. 9: 47-91.
Dutton, T. P.: SEE Tinley et al., 1976. (detail)
Dutton, T. P. (detail)
Mermaids in distress.
African Wildlife 51(6): 22-23.
Duvall, David: SEE Mackay-Sim et al., 1985. (detail)
Duvaucel: SEE Diard & Duvaucel. (detail)
Duvernoy, Georges-Louis (detail)
Plusieurs notes sur quelques ossemens fossiles de l'Alsace et du Jura.
Mém. Soc. Mus. Hist. Nat. Strasbourg 2, Mém. GG: 1-12. 1 pl. Read Aug. 4, 1835.
–Allen 847. The first note, "I. Sur un cétacé fossile, voisin des dugongs et des lamantins, trouvé à Roedersdorf, dans le Département du Haut-Rhin" (1-9, pl.), describes a headless skeleton from the "calcaire grossier" (age?).
Duvernoy, Georges-Louis (detail)
Tableaux des ordres, des familles et des genres de mammifères, adoptés pour le cours de zoologie de la Faculté des Sciences.
Mém. Soc. Mus. Hist. Nat. Strasbourg 2, Mém. KK: 1-10. 5 unnumbered tabs.
–Allen 846. "Ordre XIV. Amphibies trirèmes.... Fam. des Lamantins" comprises Manatus americanus, Halicore Dugung, and Rytina or St[ellerus]. borealis (8, tab. 4); the table includes diagnoses in hierarchical form.
Duvernoy, Georges-Louis (detail)
Sur le squelette d'un cétacé fossile découvert dans une carrière de Roedersdorf, village du département du Haut-Rhin.
L'Institut 3(126): 326-327. Oct. 7, 1835.
–Allen 848. Abstr., Froriep's Notizen 46: 275-277? Probably a summary of Duvernoy (1835a).
Dybas, Cheryl Lyn (detail)
Harmful algal blooms: biosensors provide new ways of detecting and monitoring growing threat in coastal waters.
Bioscience 53(10): 918-923.
Dybowski, Benedikt (detail)
Notice sur la différence sexuelle entre les crânes de la Rhytina stelleri.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1883(1): 72-73. June 1883 (read Feb. 20, 1883).
–Mentions several supposed points of difference, due mainly to the more robust build of the presumed male. The Aleuts are said to distinguish the male skulls by the term "Byk" (bull).
Dyson, Steve: SEE Doig & Dyson, 1988. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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