Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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Easton, D. E.: SEE Deutsch et al., 2003. (detail)
Eaton, Jack D. (detail)
Archaeological survey of the Yucatan-Campeche coast.
Middle Amer. Res. Inst. Publ. 46(1).
Eberhardt, L. Lee (detail)
Censusing manatees: a report on the feasibility of using aerial surveys and mark and recapture techniques to conduct a population survey of the West Indian manatee.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 1: 1-18. 1 tab. 3 figs. Dec. 1982.
–Some copies have an early version of the cover & title page which incorrectly gives the author's name as Lee L. Eberhardt. See also Appendix 1.
  Recommends development of peduncle and other sorts of tags, and more extensive and sophisticated analysis of abundance data from warm-water refugia, in order to provide indices of population trends. These would serve as the basis for a census method, but an immediate state-wide census is not recommended. The population in Florida is assumed to be well in excess of the currently accepted figure of 1,000. Fig. 1 shows trends in counts at 6 refugia, 1977-81.
Eberhardt, L. Lee; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
Integration of manatee life-history data and population modeling. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 269-279. 3 tabs. 2 figs. Aug. 1995.
Eberhardt, L. Lee; Chapman, Douglas G.; Gilbert, J. R. (detail)
A review of marine mammal census methods.
Wildl. Monogr. 63: 1-46.
Eberhardt, L. Lee; Garrott, Robert A.; Becker, B. L. (detail)
Using trend indices for endangered species.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(3): 766-785. 8 figs. "July 1999" (mailed June 8, 1999).
–Concludes in regard to Florida manatees that previously-used multiple regression models overestimated the rate of change of the East Coast population as determined from three other sources (a covariance model, a non-linear model, and the rate estimated from reproductive and survival data) (766-767, 770-774, 781-783).
Ebner, Fritz; Graef, Walter (detail)
Die Fauna von Weitendorf.
Jahresber. Landesmus. Joanneum (Graz) 1976(6) (= n.s. 6): 157-183. 10 pls.
Ebrahim, Ameer; Olds, Andrew D.; Maxwell, Paul S.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Burfeind, Dana D.; Connolly, Rod M. (detail)
Herbivory in a subtropical seagrass ecosystem: separating the functional role of different grazers.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 511: 83-91. DOI: 10.3354/meps10901. Sept. 24, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Seagrass meadows provide many important ecosystem services, but they are threatened by human activities and are in decline globally. In particular, eutrophication arising from human activities promotes algal growth, which negatively affects seagrass. Herbivores consume algae and can, therefore, reduce eutrophication effects, but they may also consume seagrass. Little is known, however, about grazer-epiphyte-seagrass interactions in subtropical seagrass in the Indo-Pacific. We used a 5 wk exclusion experiment to quantify the influence of different grazers in seagrass (dominated by Zostera muelleri) in Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. Our results show that herbivory does indeed affect seagrass-epiphyte dynamics in this region and that different grazers can exert different effects in seagrass ecosystems. In particular, exclusion of small mesograzers (i.e. amphipods and juvenile shrimp) caused epiphyte biomass to increase by up to 233%. Exclusion of medium mesograzers (i.e. small fish and prawns) resulted in increases of up to 10% in seagrass cover, 53% in shoot height and 29% in shoot density. Large mesograzers (i.e. adult fish) and macrograzers (i.e. turtles and dugong) did not appear to play a role in the study system. These results demonstrate that mesograzers can be important in controlling epiphytic algae in subtropical Indo-Pacific seagrass, and show that different mesograzers can affect seagrass-epiphyte dynamics in different ways. It is critical that the functional effects of different herbivores be considered when implementing programs for seagrass conservation and restoration.
Edberg, E.: SEE Grubb et al., 1998. (detail)
Edelbrock, Joyce (detail)
Manatees, sirens of the sea.
Oceans 8(6): 66-69. Nov.-Dec. 1975.
Edinger, Tilly: SEE ALSO Buchholtz & Seyfarth, 1999. (detail)
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Von der Stellerschen Seekuh.
Ber. Senck. Naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt a. M.) 60: 221-225. 3 figs.
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Die Foramina parietalia der Säugetiere.
Zs. Anat. Entwicklungsges. 102(2/3): 266-289. 28 figs. Dec. 27, 1933.
–Sirs., 273-275.
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Über Gehirne tertiärer Sirenia Ägyptens und Mitteleuropas sowie der rezenten Seekühe.
Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., math.-natw. Abt. (n.s.) 20: 5-36.
–Edinger (1975) says in part concerning this item: "'Brain and endocranial cast in sirenians' (pp. 6-14) details the safely interpretable features of the latter, and warning of likely errors, e.g., the lack of petrosal bones can simulate an enormously broad cerebellum on endocasts.... 'New fossil material' (pp. 14-25) consists of six Protosiren, figs. 4-5; one fragment of Eosiren, fig. 6; three Halitherium, figs. 7a-c, 8, 9; three Rhytina, not figured. 'Paleoneurological contributions to ecology and phylogeny of the Sirenians' (pp. 25-30) and 'Summarizing remarks' (pp. 30-32) stress the almost basically unchanged character Eocene-to-Recent, and that the Eocene brain represents a type common to early subungulates, being, except for olfactory reduction, similar to that of Arsinoitherium, and that of Moeritherium...." To this annotation the editors of Edinger (1975) (q.v.) append a discussion of an unpublished endocast of Desmostylus.
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Two notes on the central nervous system of fossil Sirenia.
Bull. Fac. Sci. Fouad I Univ. (Cairo) 19: 43-58. 3 pls.
–Arabic summ. Edinger (1975) gives the following annotation: "I: A newly discovered "brain" of an old Protosiren, pp. 43-50, Pl. I (dorsal), Pl. II (frontal, reduced olfactory bulbs!), Pl. III; II: On the spinal cord of fossil Sirenia, pp. 51-57. As the lumen of the neural canal in the vertebral column of Recent, Pliocene, and Miocene Sirenia diminishes caudad from the brachial enlargement, its enlargement in the posterior dorsal vertebrae in Miocene, Oligocene, and Eocene forms indicates that a lumbar intumescence of the spinal cord was maintained during reduction of femur and pelvis."
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
The pituitary body in giant animals, fossil and living: a survey and a suggestion.
Quart. Rev. Biol. 17: 31-45.
–Considers endocasts of Hydrodamalis and other mammals to be less satisfactory than those of large ratite birds for studies of gigantism and brain size (38-41?).
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Die Paläoneurologie am Beginn einer neuen Phase.
Experientia 6: 250-258. 4 figs.
–Engl. summ. From Edinger (1975): "...The 'new phase' is systematic preparation of endocasts from established ancestries, such as ... Eotherium (fig. 3c) to dugong."
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Objet et résultats de la paléoneurologie. [Abstr.]
Colloq. Internatl., Centre Natl. Rech. Sci. 60: 35-38.
–From Edinger (1975): "... mentions Proboscidea, Sirenia, and that a partly exposed Desmostylus brain resembles the sirenian type."
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Behavioral specialization reflected in brain morphology. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 138: 345-346.
–Gives examples from the Sirenia, Pterosauria, and Chiroptera.
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Neues aus der Paläoneurologie.
Paläont. Zs. 37: 8-9, 49-55.
–The brain of Desmostylus is said to be of sirenian type (51-52).
Edinger, Tilly (detail)
Paleoneurology 1804-1966: an annotated bibliography.
Advances Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 49(1-6): 1-258.
–Published posthumously. The annotation accompanying the citation of Edinger (1933b) (q.v.) includes a discussion, written by the bibliography's editors, of an unpublished cranial endocast of Desmostylus (50).
Edmonds, J. S.; Shibata, Y.; Prince, Robert I. T.; Preen, Anthony R.; Morita, M. (detail)
Elemental composition of a tusk of a dugong, Dugong dugon, from Exmouth, Western Australia.
Mar. Biol. 129(2): 203-214. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–X-ray fluorescence-imaging and analysis of acid-digested material from a tusk of a 55-year-old pregnant female dugong provided a record of fluctuations in barium, calcium, iron, lithium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, strontium, and zinc. These fluctuations are attributed to natural environmental changes and/or changes in the dugong's physiology with increasing age; elements usually regarded as pollutants or as affected by anthropogenic changes were not detected.
Edmonds, Virginia M.: SEE Marshall et al., 1998, 2000. (detail)
Eduardo, Salcedo L.; Yaptinchay, Arnel Andrew S. P.; and Lim, Theresa Mundita S. (detail)
Some helminth parasites of a sea cow (Dugong dugon, Muller, 1776) (Mammalia: Sirenia) in the Philippines.
Philippine Jour. Veter. Med. 35(1-2): 27-36. Illus. June-Dec. 1998.
Edwards (detail)
Guide to Florida.
–Same as Rambler (1875)? Sirs., 69.
Edwards, Alphonse Milne: SEE Milne-Edwards, Alphonse. (detail)
Edwards, Bryan (detail)
The history, civil and commercial, of the British colonies in the West Indies. Third edition, with considerable additions.
London, John Stockdale (3 vols.): Vol. 1: xxiv + xxiii + 576. Frontisp. 6 pls. 9 maps.
–Ed. 1, 1793, 2 vols. (= vols. 1-2 of this ed.?). Ed. 5, 1818-19, 5 vols. Describes the manatee and states that Indians in the West Indies used to catch it (as they caught fish and turtles) with remoras fastened to lines (1: 127).
Edwards, H. H.; Hostetler, J. A.; Stith, B. M.; et al. (detail)
Monitoring abundance of aggregated animals (Florida manatees) using an unmanned aerial system (UAS).
Sci. Repts. 11: 12920.
Edwards, Henri Milne: SEE Milne-Edwards, Henri. (detail)
Edwards, Holly H. (detail)
Potential impacts of climate change on warmwater megafauna: the Florida manatee example (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Climatic Change 121(4): 727-738. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0921-2. Dec. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Most discussions of impacts of Climate Change have focused on species from temperate or polar regions. Impacts to species inhabiting warm climates are often believed to be small relative to those of species living in cooler climates. However, it is evident that some tropical/sub-tropical species, including some marine megafauna, may face potentially serious consequences from a changing climate. For example, larger, warmer oceans may appear to benefit marine wildlife species like cold-sensitive Florida manatees; however, findings regarding the impact of global climate change (GCC) on estuaries and nearshore areas of Florida indicate that predicted impacts of climate change may be detrimental to endangered manatees. An examination of how projected impacts of climate change will affect threats to manatees and their habitat indicates that threats may be exacerbated. The most significant threats to the Florida manatee population, such as cold-stress, watercraft collisions, and harmful algal blooms, likely will increase. Habitat is likely to be degraded under future climate scenarios. Alterations to Florida's marine environment are ongoing, yet current manatee management plans do not consider the impacts of climate change. The ability of manatees to adapt to change will be influenced by the speed of change and the degree to which human activity impedes or alters it. To minimize impacts to species we must recognize the influence GCC may have on populations, and begin to identify and implement ways to slow or reverse negative impacts arising from it.
Edwards, Holly H.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; eds. (detail)
Aerial surveys of manatee distribution in Florida, 1984-2004.
Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish & Wildlife Research Institute, Technical Report TR-19: 1-273. Illus.
Edwards, Holly H.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Muller, R. G.; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Smith, A. J.; Barlas, M. E. (detail)
Influence of manatees' diving on their risk of collision with watercraft.
PLOS One 11(4): e0151450. 2 tabs. 5 figs. Apr. 6, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time–depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002–2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt) that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water's surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62–86%) were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m), illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (<0.91 m), over seagrass, at night, and while stationary or moving slowly; they were less likely to be within striking depth when ?50 m from a charted waterway. In shallow water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93–0.98) and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93–0.98) than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58–0.84). Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.
Edwards, Holly H.; Pollock, K. H.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Reynolds, John E., III; Powell, James A. (detail)
Estimation of detection probability in manatee aerial surveys at a winter aggregation site.
Jour. Wildl. Management 71(6): 2052-2060.
Edwards, Holly H.; Stone, Suzanne B. P.; Hines, Ellen M.; Gomez, Nicole Auil; Winning, Birgit E. (detail)
Documenting manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) presence at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, Central America and its conservation significance.
Caribbean Jour. Sci. 48(1): 71-75. 1 fig.
–ABSTRACT: Belize in Central America supports one of the largest populations of endangered Antillean manatees in the Caribbean. In 2012, a country–wide survey resulted in the highest count ever recorded (507 manatees). Manatee use of atolls has only been documented at Turneffe Atoll in Belize. Manatees in Belize, including those that use Turneffe, have been shown to be impacted by human activities including habitat degradation, entanglement in fishing gear, poaching, and watercraft. The atoll itself faces threats to its diversity and productivity. In 2002, the Oceanic Society began monitoring manatees on Turneffe to document numbers, distribution, and seasonality of use to facilitate the atoll's designation as a protected area. Since 2002, 52 sightings of manatees have been recorded at Turneffe, including cow/calf pairs, indicating it is an important part of the resource network used by the manatees. Protecting the atoll should be a priority for all working to protect manatees and Belize's natural resources.
Edwards, William Ellis (detail)
The Late-Pleistocene extinction and diminution in size of many mammalian species. In: P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright, Jr. (eds.), Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause.
New Haven & London, Yale Univ. Press (453 pp.): 141-154.
–P. 148: {"Even some local forms of sea mammals, like the Florida seal (Rouse, 1951) and the California Steller's sea cow (which survived in a refuge in the Bering Sea), were eventually exterminated. Such examples are significant, for the only sea mammals to become extinct in prehistoric times were unusually vulnerable to human hunters because of occasional sojourns on land or at least littoral habits."}
Edwards, William H. (detail)
A voyage up the River Amazon.
New York, D. Appleton & Co.: 1-256. Illus.
–Describes the external appearance of an Amazonian manatee and the hunting and use of manatees by Indians (187-188, 1 fig.). The skull was given to a Dr. Morton, who recognized it as a species distinct from the West Indian manatee. Also mentions a manatee in captivity in Pará (= Belém), and two taken to New York by a Captain Appleton. A British ed. (London, John Murray: 1-210, 1847) has the identical material on pp. 149-150 but lacks the fig.
Eger, O.: SEE Dexler & Eger, 1911. (detail)
Eggeling, H. (detail)
Zur Morphologie des Manubrium sterni.
Denkschr. Med.-natw. Ges. Jena 11 (Festschr. 70sten. Geburtstag Ernst Haeckel): 59-114. 43 figs. Pl. 6.
–Brief and not very informative comment on the shape and ossification of the manubrium in Halicore and Manatus (99).
Egnankou-Wadja, M.: SEE Nicole et al., 1994. (detail)
Eguchi, Kenichiro: SEE Inuzuka, N., 1989a. (detail)
Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried: SEE Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828-99. (detail)
Ehrenberg, Kurt (detail)
Bestimmung der Knochenreste von Friedberg nebst einigen Bemerkungen über dieselben.
Verh. Geol. Bundesanst. Wien 1927(4): 103-106. Apr. 1927.
Ehrlich, Franz Carl (detail)
Über die fossilen Säugethierreste aus den Tertiär-Ablagerungen der Umgebung der Provinzial-Hauptstadt Linz in Oberösterreich. [or?] Fossile Säugethierreste des Museums Francisco-Carolinum in Linz.
Ber. Mitt. Freunde Natw. Wien 4(2): 197-200. 4 figs.
Ehrlich, Franz Carl (detail)
Beiträge zur Palaeontologie und Geognosie von Oberösterreich und Salzburg.... I. Die fossilen Cetaceen-Reste aus den Tertiär-Ablagerungen bei Linz, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung jener der Halianassa Collinii H. v. M., und des dazu gehörigen, im August des Jahres 1854 aufgefundenen Rumpfskelettes.
Ber. Mus. Francisco-Carolinum Linz 15 (Suppl.?): 3-21. 6 figs. 2 pls.
–Review: Jahrb. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 7: 163, 1856?
Eichler, Roland; Albrecht, Helmut (detail)
Animals 13(5): 204-207. 7 figs. Sept. 1970.
–Pop. acc. of manatees at Crystal River, Florida.
Eichler, Roland; Albrecht, Helmut (detail)
Tonnenschwere Seekühe duldeten uns unter sich.
Das Tier (Frankfurt a. M.) No. 2.
Eichwald, Carl Eduard Ivanovich von (detail)
Die Urwelt Russlands, durch Abbildungen erläutert. Erstes Heft.
St. Petersburg, Journal de Saint-Pétersbourg (4 Hefte, 1840-48): 1-106. 4 pls.
–Reprinted from Schr. St. Petersburgischen Mineral. Ges. Sirs., 35, pl. 2.
Eichwald, Carl Eduard Ivanovich von (detail)
Paleontologiya Rossii. Opisanie molassovoi i namyvnoi formatsii Rossii, po obraztsam' khraniashchimsia v' Muze' Imperatorskoi Mediko-khirurgicheskoi Akademii.
St. Petersburg, Eduard Pratz. With Atlas.
–Sirs., 170-175; includes Dinotherium proavus, n.sp., Rhytine (Manatus) borealis, and Manatus maeoticus, n.sp. (174).
Eichwald, Carl Eduard Ivanovich von (detail)
Lethaea rossica; ou, Paléontologie de la Russie, décrite et figurée.... Troisième volume. Dernière période.
Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart: xix + 533 (1853); atlas: 14 pls. (1852).
–Mentions Rhytina, 342.
Eichwald, Carl Eduard Ivanovich von (detail)
Die Rhytina borealis und der Homocrinus dipentas in der Lethaea Rossica.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 39(1): 138-162. Pl. 8.
–Discusses Rhytina, 138-146.
Eichwald, Carl Eduard Ivanovich von (detail)
Die Lethaea Rossica und ihre Gegner.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou ?40(3): 220-227; 41(2): 311-373.
–Discusses Rhytina.
Eigeland, Karen A.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Trott, Darren J.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Blanshard, Wendy H.; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Martinez, Emilio; Merson, Samuel D.; Klieve, Athol V. (detail)
Bacterial community structure in the hindgut of wild and captive dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Aquatic Mammals 38(4): 402-411. 3 tabs. 1 fig. DOI:10.1578/AM.38.4.2012.402.
–ABSTRACT: Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are marine mammals that obtain nutrients through hindgut fermentation of seagrass, however, the microbes responsible have not been identified. This study used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing to profile hindgut bacterial communities in wild dugongs. Faecal samples obtained from 32 wild dugongs representing four size/maturity classes, and two captive dugongs fed on cos lettuce were screened using DGGE. Partial 16S rRNA gene profiles of hindgut bacteria from wild dugong calves and juveniles were grouped together and were different to those in subadults and adults. In captive dugongs, the absence of the dominant bacterial DNA bands identified in wild dugongs is probably dependent upon prevailing diet and other captive conditions such as the use of antibiotics. This study represents a first step in the characterisation of a novel microbial ecosystem -- the marine hindgut of Sirenia.
Eimer, Gustav Heinrich Theodor (detail)
Vergleichend-anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchungen über das Skelett der Wirbeltiere.
Leipzig, W. Engelmann: xi + 263. 66 figs.
–Sirs., 259.
Eisenberg, John F.: SEE ALSO Brownell & Ralls, 1981. (detail)
Eisenberg, John F. (detail)
Mammals of the Neotropics. The northern Neotropics. Vol. 1. Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana.
Chicago & London, Univ. Chicago Press: x + 449. Illus.
Eisentraut, Martin (detail)
Das Gaumenfaltenmuster der Säugetiere und seine Bedeutung für stammesgeschichtliche und taxonomische Untersuchungen.
Bonner Zool. Monogr. 8: 5-214.
–Engl. summ. Sirs., 157-159, 210.
Eisentraut, Martin (detail)
Das Gaumenfaltenmuster bei Schliefern, Elefanten und Sirenen.
Bonner Zool. Beitr. 35(1-3): 29-37.
–Engl. summ.
Eiser, Pam (detail)
Dugong Dugong dugon. In: M. Kennedy (ed.), Australia's endangered species: the extinction dilemma.
Brookvale (Australia), Simon & Schuster (192 pp.).
–Gen. acc. of dugongs in Australia; m28; 73, 2 figs.
Eisvogl, Gerd (detail)
Makrofossilien des Mainzer Beckens: eine Ergänzung.
Aufschluss 24(5): 194-195. May 1973.
Eizirik, Eduardo: SEE O'Brien et al., 2001. (detail)
Ekman, Sven (detail)
Indo-Westpazifik und Atlanto-Ostpazifik, eine tiergeographische Studie.
Zoogeogr. 2: 320-374. 11 figs.
El Bizri, H. R.; Morcatty, T. Q.; Valsecchi, J.; Mayor, P.; Ribeiro, J. E. S.; Vasconcelos Neto, C. F. A.; Oliveira, J. S.; Furtado, K. M.; Ferreira, U. C.; Miranda, C. F. S.; Silva, C. H.; Lopes, V. L.; Lopes, G. P.; Florindo, C. C. F.; Chagas, R. C.; Nijman, V.; Fa, J. E. (detail)
Urban wild meat consumption and trade in central Amazonia.
Conservation Biology 34(2): 438-448.
El-Domiaty, N. A.: SEE Hilmy et al., 1979. (detail)
El-Khashab, Baher (detail)
Review of the early Tertiary eutherian faunas of African mammals in Fayum Province, Egypt.
Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4: 95-114.
Eldredge, L. G. (detail)
Annotated checklist of the marine mammals of Micronesia.
Micronesica 24(2): 217-230.
–Reviews reports of dugongs from Yap, Guam, and Palau (224-225).
Eldredge, L. G. (detail)
The marine reptiles and mammals of Guam.
Micronesica 35-36: 653-660. June 2003.
–Records dugong sightings at Guam in 1975 and 1985 (657).
Elera, Casto de (detail)
Catalogo sistematico de toda la fauna de Filipinas.
Manila, Colegio de Santo Tomas.
–Dugong, 29-32.
Elera, Casto de (detail)
Contribucion a la fauna filipina.
Manila, Colegio de Santo Tomas.
–Dugong, 204-218.
Elias, Peter M.; Menon, Gopinathan K.; Grayson, Stephen; Brown, Barbara E.; Rehfeld, S. Jerry (detail)
Avian sebokeratocytes and marine mammal lipokeratinocytes: structural, lipid biochemical, and functional considerations.
Amer. Jour. Anat. 180(2): 161-177. 5 tabs. 15 figs.
–Birds, cetaceans, and manatees, in contrast to terrestrial mammals, were found to have abundant intracellular lipid droplets in the epidermis, but manatees (in contrast to cetaceans) lack these in the stratum corneum and resemble terrestrial mammals in replacing glycolipids with ceramides in the stratum corneum. The manatee studied is said to have been T. manatus, but since the sample was apparently obtained from the California Academy of Sciences, it may have been T. inunguis.
Ellerman, John Reeves; Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (detail)
Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals, 1758 to 1946.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: 1-810. 1 map.
–Synonymy of Dugong dugon, 337. In later eds.: 1953: 324; 1965: 337?
Ellerman, John Reeves; Morrison-Scott, T. C. S.; Hayman, R. W. (detail)
Southern African mammals, 1758-1951: a reclassification.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: 1-363. Maps.
Elliot, Charles N. (Ed.) (detail)
Fading trails: the story of endangered American wildlife.
New York, Macmillan Co.
–Sirs., 88-97.
Elliott, Daniel Giraud (detail)
A synopsis of the mammals of North America and the adjacent seas.
Publ. Field Columbian Mus. 45, Zool. Ser. 2: xv + 471. 94 figs. 49 pls. Mar. 6, 1901.
–Gives diagnoses and photographs of skulls of Hydrodamalis gigas (5, pl. 1) and Manatus latirostris (5-6, pl. 2). The same material is repeated on p. 477 in "A list of the land and sea mammals of North America north of Mexico, Supplement to the Synopsis", which follows the above on pp. 473-522.
Elliott, Daniel Giraud (detail)
The land and sea mammals of Middle America and the West Indies.
Publ. Field Columbian Mus. 95, _Zool. Ser._ 4(1): xxi + 439 + xlix. 140 figs. 41 pls. Aug. 2, 1904.
–Sirs., 35-37.
Elliott, Daniel Giraud (detail)
A catalogue of the collection of mammals in the Field Columbian Museum.
Publ. Field Columbian Mus. 115, Zool. Ser. 8: viii + 694. 92 figs.
–Lists (with synonymies) four T. manatus collected at Izabal, Guatemala, two from Florida, and one Dugong australis from Australia (29-30).
Elliott, Heather; Thomas, Annette; Ladds, P. W.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
A fatal case of salmonellosis in a dugong.
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 17(2): 203-208. 3 figs. Apr. 1981.
–Describes the captive conditions, illness, and histopathology of the small intestine and liver of a female dugong calf that died at the Cairns Oceanarium, Australia, in 1978. Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Salmonella lohbruegge were isolated, with death ascribed to the latter.
Elliott, Henry Wood (detail)
A monograph of the Pribylov Group, or the seal-islands of Alaska.
Washington, Govt. Printing Off.: 1-176. 29 pls. 14 maps.
–Quote from Nordenskiöld, 110-111.
Elliott, Murray A. (detail)
Distribution and status of the dugong in Northern Territory waters. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 57-66. 1 fig.
–Aerial surveys of the Northern Territory coast of Australia showed that dugongs are widely distributed but not particularly abundant. Aboriginal hunting and incidental netting seem to have only minor impacts. More detailed studies are needed.
Elliott, Murray A.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Gardner, Blair R. (detail)
Dugongs in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Environ. Conserv. 6(4): 277. 2 figs. Apr. 1979.
Ellis, Richard (detail)
Aquagenesis: the origin and evolution of life in the sea.
New York, Viking Penguin: xiv + 304. Illus.
Elsner, Robert (detail)
Cardiovascular adjustments to diving. In: H. T. Andersen (ed.), The biology of marine mammals.
New York & London, Academic Press (475 pp.): 117-145. 25 figs.
–Sirs., 103?, 140-143.
Elsner, Robert (detail)
Living in water: solutions to physiological problems. Chap. 3 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 73-116. 14 figs.
Emin-Lima, R.; Costa, A. F.; Attademo, F. L. N.; Hauser-Davis, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; Siciliano, S. (detail)
Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) inhabiting an equatorial metropolis: historical records and mating activity near Belém, northern Brazil.
Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia 31(2): 1-7.
Emin-Lima, Renata; Rodrigues, Angélica Lúcia Figueiredo; Sousa, Maura Elisabeth Moares de; Arcoverde, Danilo Leal; Santos, Gabriel Melo Alves; Martins, Bruna Maria Lima; Júnior, José de Sousa e Silva; Siciliano, Salvatore (detail)
Os Mamíferos aquáticos associados aos manguezais da costa norte Brasileira. Aquatic mammals associated with mangroves of the Northern Brazilian coast. In: Leila Maria Pessôa, William Corrêa Tavares, & Salvatore Siciliano (eds.), Mamíferos de restingas e Manguezais do Brasil.
Sociedade Brasileira de Mastozoologia, Série Livros 1; Museu Nacional, Série Livros 39: 45-57. 3 figs.
–TM, 46, 52-53. TI: 52-53.
Emmons, Ebenezer (detail)
Agriculture of the eastern counties; together with descriptions of the fossils of the marl beds. In: Report of the North-Carolina Geological Survey.
Raleigh, H. D. Turner: xvi + 314. >256 figs.
–Repr. in part, 1969, Bulls. of Amer. Paleontology 56(249): 57-230, with new index. Describes and illustrates a fragment of an Eocene sir. rib from Craven County, North Carolina, misidentifying it as a sperm whale tooth (212, fig. 34). This entire report, including the illustration, are reproduced in Domning, Morgan & Ray (1982: 16-17).
Emmons, Ebenezer (detail)
Manual of geology, designed for the use of colleges and academies.
Philadelphia, Sower, Barnes & Co.: xii + 13-290. 218 figs.
–Reproduces (213, fig. 181) the illustration of the sir. rib fragment from Emmons (1858).
Engbring, John: SEE Rathbun et al., 1988. (detail)
Engel, Stefan (detail)
Rudimentary mammalian lungs.
Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 100: 95-114. 19 figs.
–The alveolar structure of the dugong lung is compared with those of crocodilians and monotremes; concludes that the dugong's structure is the most primitive among living mammals (102-104, 106, 111-114).
Engel, Stefan (detail)
The respiratory tissue of dugong (Halicore Dugong).
Anat. Anz. 106: 90-100. 14 figs.
–Reports that the lung tissue consists only of small, poorly differentiated vesicles, not of acini; these arise laterally from bronchioli. This is considered unique and perhaps primitive among mammals.
Engel, Stefan (detail)
The air-passages of the dugong lung.
Acta Anat. 48(1-2): 95-107. 17 figs.
–Describes the histology and microscopic anatomy of the air-conducting tubules, which differ in arrangement from the typical mammalian bronchial tree.
Engle, Earl Theron (detail)
The copulation plug and the accessory genital glands of mammals.
Jour. Mamm. 7(2): 119-126. 1 tab. May 1926.
–Quotes Riha (1911) regarding the dugong (122).
Enlow, Donald H.; Brown, Sidney O. (detail)
A comparative histological study of fossil and Recent bone tissues. Part III.
Texas Jour. Sci. 10(2): 187-230. Pls. 28-40. June 1958.
–Comments on the fine structure of sirenian bone, represented by "The rib of an unidentified Pleistocene manatee" and the "Femur" (!) of a Pliocene "Manatee" (198-199, pl. 34). The source, true age, and true identity of these specimens are unknown.
Ennouchi, Emile (detail)
Un sirénien, Felsinotherium cf. serresi, à Dar bel Hamri.
Serv. Géol. du Maroc, Notes et Mém. No. 121 (Notes, vol. 9): 77-82. 3 figs.
–Describes a skullcap fragment and a lower second molar from the Pliocene of Morocco. Also gives a gen. acc. of sirs., emphasizing their pelvis reduction and their phylogeny according to Depéret & Roman (1920).
Epstein, Robert (detail)
Cruising with the manatees on Florida's Crystal River.
Trailer Boats 22: 56.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and where to see them.
Erbe, C. (detail)
Underwater noise of small personal watercraft (jet skis).
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 133(4): EL326-EL330.
Erdbrink, Dirk Peter Bosscha; Van Bree, Peter J. H. (detail)
Fossil axial skeletal walrus material from the North Sea and the estuary of the Schelde, and a fossil sirenian rib (Mammalia, Carnivora; Sirenia).
Beaufortia 49(2): 11-20. 4 tabs. 5 figs. July 9, 1999.
–Describes and illustrates an indeterminate sir. rib fragment dredged from the western Schelde estuary, The Netherlands (17-20).
Erdman, Donald S. (detail)
Marine mammals from Puerto Rico to Antigua.
Jour. Mamm. 51(3): 636-639. Aug. 28, 1970.
–Reports two sighting records (1961, 1963) of T. manatus in Puerto Rican waters; the species is said to be absent from the Virgin Islands (638).
Erftemeijer, Paul L. A.; Djunarlin; Moka, Willem (detail)
Stomach content analysis of a dugong (Dugong dugon) from South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Austral. Jour. Mar. Freshwater Res. 44(1): 229-233. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Most of the stomach contents of a female dugong (71.5% of the total dry weight) consisted of roots and rhizomes of small seagrasses (Halophila, Halodule, Cymodocea), but the leaf fraction was dominated by Enhalus (50%). Rhizome material of large seagrasses (Enhalus, Thalassia) was absent; sediment was neglible.
Ernst, Adolfo (detail)
Estudios sobre la flora y fauna de Venezuela.
Caracas, Imprenta Federal: 211-330.
Ernst, Adolfo (detail)
La Exposición Nacional de Venezuela en 1883. Grupo III: Productos animales, Clase 2a. In: Adolfo Ernst, Obras completas, Vol. 3.
Caracas, Ediciones de la Presidencia de la República (706 pp.): 290.
–Mentions specimens of manatee hide from "Guayana" included in the exhibit.
Ernst, Carl H. (detail)
Skull key to adult mammals of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. II. Marine mammals.
Chesapeake Science 18(1): 84-87. 3 figs. Mar. 1977.
–Includes T. manatus in the key (84, 86).
Eros, Carole: SEE ALSO Marsh et al., 1999. (detail)
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin (detail)
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 64: v + 74. 2 tabs. 20 figs.
–"First Edition." For second ed., see Eros et al. (2007).
Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene D.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, M.; Lemm, S.; Pears, R.; Bowater, R. (detail)
Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon), second edition.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 85: 1-98.
–First ed.: Eros et al. (2000).
Erxleben, Johann Christian Polycarp (detail)
Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates cvm synonymia et historia animalivm. Classis I Mammalia.
Lipsiae [= Leipzig], Impensis Weygandianis: xlviii + 636.
–Allen 341. Recognizes Trichechus manatus (including all manatees plus Hydrodamalis), 596-599; T. Dugung, 599; and "The Sea Ape", 600. Gives extensive lists of pre-Linnaean and vernacular names for these forms.
Eschmeyer, Paul H.: SEE Scott & Eschmeyer, 1981. (detail)
Esenowo, Imeh Kokoete; Akpan, U. Akaninyene; Egwali, E. C. (detail)
The behavioural and morphometric features of West African manatee: Trichechus senegalensis in a semi-wild environment.
Jour. of Biodiversity & Endangered Species 2(3): 1-4. 4 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.4172/2332-2543.1000129. May 27, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The behavioural and morphometric features of West African manatee; Trichechus senegalensis, in a semi-wild environment was studied from July 1st 2008 to November 30th 2008. Surface water was measured to determine the physico-chemical parameters of the stream. Mean values of surface water temperature of 26.56 ± 1.08oC; pH, 6.47 ± 0.25; Free carbon dioxide, 8.83 ± 1.44 mg/L; total alkalinity, 10.35 ± 1.85 mg/L; Dissolved Oxygen, 7.35 ± 1.42 mg/L and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 2.41 ± 0.47 mg/L were within stipulated ranged as safe for aquatic organism. Eleven macrophytes belonging to eight families were fed to the manatee daily. The morphometric measurement showed total length 192 cm, standard length 152 cm, body weight 265 kg, fluke width 36 cm, flipper length 36 cm, head length 34 cm, girth at umbilicus 120 cm, girth at genital pore 82 cm, girth at anus 64 cm. The results indicate that the semi-wild environment provides favourable conditions for the survival of the manatee.
Espasandín, J. Otero (detail)
Gigantes marinos. Ed. 2.
Buenos Aires, Editorial Atlantida, S.A. (Coleccion Oro de Cultura General No. 6): 1-162. Illus. July 20, 1945.
–Gen. acc. of the living sirs. (33-42).
Espinoza Marín, Carlos; Jiménez Pérez, Ignacio (detail)
Conociendo al manatí. Ed. 2.
San José (Costa Rica), Impresora Tica: [1-16]. Illus. June 2000.
–Print run of this ed.: 2000 copies. Cartoon coloring book for children, describing the natural history of West Indian manatees and other sirs.
Esquemeling, John: SEE Exquemelin, Alexandre Olivier. (detail)
Essman, Richard A.: SEE Bazzini et al. (detail)
Estacio da Silveira, Simão (detail)
Relação summaria das cousas do Maranhão. In: Cândido Mendes de Almeida, Memorias para a historia do extincto Estado do Maranhão cujo territorio comprehende hoje as provincias do Maranhão, Piauhy, Grão-Pará e Amazonas.... Tomo Segundo.
Rio de Janeiro, Nova Typogr. de J. Paulo Hildebrandt (lxxii + 556 + viii): 1-31.
–Brief account of the use of manatees for food and the medicinal use of their bones (26-27). Acuña's account of the manatee is reprinted in the same volume (84-85; not indexed here).
Estes, James A.: SEE ALSO Simenstad et al., 1978. (detail)
Estes, James A.; Steinberg, Peter D. (detail)
Predation, herbivory, and kelp evolution.
Paleobiology 14(1): 19-36. 1 tab. 1 fig. Winter 1988.
–Briefly reviews the history of North Pacific sirs. and desmostylians, arguing that the Late Miocene appearance of sirs. adapted to kelp-eating supports the hypothesis that kelps did not become abundant or diverse until that time (21-22). See also Domning (1989a).
Estes, James A.; Steinberg, Peter D. (detail)
Response to Domning [1989a].
Paleobiology 15(1): 57-60. "Winter 1989" (mailed June 13, 1989).
–Defends a late Cenozoic date for the adaptive radiation of kelps, and points out limitations on the likely roles of sirs. and desmostylians as kelp herbivores.
Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F. (detail)
Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113(4): 880-885. 4 figs. Jan. 26, 2016 (publ. online Oct. 26, 2015).
–ABSTRACT: The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species.
Estevens, Mário (detail)
Mamíferos marinhos do Neogénico de Portugal. Distribuição geográfica e estratigráfica.
Comunicações. Actas do V Congresso Nacional de Geologia (Lisbon, Inst. Geol. e Min. & Soc. Geol. de Portugal) 84(1): A161-A164. 1 fig.
–Engl. summ. Engl. abstr.: 6th Intl. Conf. on Paleoceanography, Lisbon: 105-106, 1998. Summarizes the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of sirs. in the Mioc. & Plioc. of Portugal, listing names of localities but not taxa. Notes that the sirs. occur in deposits representing shallower, warmer, and more protected waters than the cetaceans.
Estevens, Mário (detail)
Miocene marine mammals from Portugal: paleogeographical and paleoecological significance.
Ciências da Terra (Lisbon) No. 14: 323-334. 6 figs.
–Portuguese summ. An updated version of Estevens (1998). Presents geological maps and a correlation chart of marine mammal localities, and describes the dramatic shift in abundance from sirs. to cetaceans after the Langhian, due to a shift to deeper- and colder-water deposition.
Estevens, Mário (detail)
Mamíferos marinhos do Miocénico da península de Setúbal.
Ciências da Terra (Lisbon) No. esp. 5: A60-A63.
–Engl. summ.
Estevens, Mário (detail)
Mamíferos marinhos do Miocénico de Lisboa.
Ciências da Terra (Lisbon) No. esp. 5: A64-A67.
–Engl. summ.
Estevens, Mário (detail)
Evolução das faunas de mamíferos marinhos do Neogénico de Portugal: correlações paleoambientais e paleobiogeográficas.
VII Congresso Nacional de Geologia, 29 June-13 July 2006, Evora (Portugal): 713-716.
–Engl. summ.
Estrada, Alberto R.: SEE ALSO Ferrer & Estrada, 1988. (detail)
Estrada, Alberto R.; Ferrer, Lourdes T. (detail)
Distribución del manatí antillano, Trichechus manatus (Mammalia: Sirenia), en Cuba. I. Región occidental.
Poeyana (Inst. Zool. Acad. Cienc. Cuba) No. 354: 1-12. 4 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 24, 1987.
–Engl. summ. A questionnaire survey of fishermen identified several areas in western Cuba where manatees were abundant, having seemingly increased in numbers as a result of the prohibition of hunting. Their habits and habitats resemble those reported elsewhere in the Caribbean.
Etheridge, Kay; Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Kochman, Howard I. (detail)
Consumption of aquatic plants by the West Indian manatee.
Jour. Aquatic Plant Manage. 23(1): 21-25. 6 tabs.
–Feeding experiments (using Hydrilla and Vallisneria) and measurements of chewing rates in wild and captive Florida manatees indicated that adults can eat about 7.1% of body weight per day in wet weight of Hydrilla in 5 hours of chewing time. At this rate the manatees wintering at Crystal River fall short of controlling the growth of Hydrilla there by at least an order of magnitude, and manatees in general appear inefficient and impractical as a means of aquatic weed control.
Etheridge, R., Jr. (detail)
Curator's report for 1899.
Australian Mus. (Rept. Trustees) 1899: 3-7 (Appendix 1).
–Records the donation of fossil vertebrae of Halicore dugong from "the Gold-bearing drift" on Woodlark Is., Papua New Guinea (7; also 24). Molnar (1982: 680) gives the catalog number of this material as AM F5795.
Etheridge, R., Jr. (detail)
The further discovery of dugong bones on the coast of New South Wales.
Rec. Austral. Mus. 6: 17-19. Pl. 4.
–Summarizes occurrences of dugongs in New South Wales, including finds in Aboriginal kitchen middens.
Etheridge, R., Jr.; David, T. W. Edgeworth; Grimshaw, J. W. (detail)
On the occurrence of a submerged forest, with remains of the dugong, at Shea's Creek, near Sydney.
Jour. Proc. Roy. Soc. New South Wales 30: 158-185. Pls. 8-11 + 10A & 11A. Read Aug. 5, 1896.
–Describes a partial dugong skeleton, showing marks of butchering, found in Quaternary deposits in a canal excavation at Botany Bay (170-174, 178-180, pls. 8-11A). Discusses the occurrence of dugongs in New South Wales and mentions one caught in Broken Bay ca. 1894 (172). The Botany Bay subfossil occurrence was restudied by Haworth et al. (2004).
Evans, Clifford: SEE Meggers & Evans, 1957. (detail)
Evans, J. M.; Wilkie, A. C.; Burkhardt, J. (detail)
Beneath the straw: In defense of participatory adaptive management.
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22(2): 169-180. DOI: 10.1007/s10806-008-9135-4. April 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Our recent paper advocating adaptive management of invasive nonnative species (INS) in Kings Bay, Florida received detailed responses from both Daniel Simberloff, a prominent invasion biologist, and Mark Sagoff, a prominent critic of invasion biology. Simberloff offers several significant lines of criticism that compel detailed rebuttals, and, as such, most of this reply is dedicated to this purpose. Ultimately, we find it quite significant that Simberloff, despite his other stated objections to our paper, apparently agrees with our argument that proposals for alternative management of established INS (i.e., alternatives to minimization/eradication) should not be rejected on an a?priori basis. We argue that more specific development and application of adaptive approaches toward INS management, whether in Kings Bay or other appropriate case studies, would be facilitated if ecosystem managers and invasion biologists follow Simberloff's lead on this key point. While Sagoff largely shares (and, indeed, served as a primary source for developing) our general arguments that challenge common moral and scientific assumptions associated with invasion biology, he does question our suggestion that participatory adaptive management provides an appropriate framework for approaching environmental problems in which science and politics are inherently entangled. We attempt to answer this criticism through a brief sketch of what participatory adaptive management might look like for Kings Bay and how such an approach would differ from past management approaches.
Evans, Peter G. H.: SEE Frazier et al., 1987. (detail)
Evans, William E. (detail)
Vocalization among marine mammals. In: W. N. Tavolga (ed.), Marine bio-acoustics. Vol. 2. Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Marine Bio-Acoustics held at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, April 13-15, 1966.
Oxford, Pergamon Press (xxi + 353): 159-186. 1 tab. 12 figs.
–Manatee vocalizations, 159, 161, 169 (based on Schevill & Watkins, 1965).
Evans, William E.; Bastian, Jarvis (detail)
Marine mammal communication: social and ecological factors. In: H. T. Andersen (ed.), The biology of marine mammals.
New York & London, Academic Press (475 pp.): 425-475. 18 figs.
–Sirs., 443-444, 465-466.
Evans, William E.; Herald, Earl S. (detail)
Underwater calls of a captive Amazon manatee, Trichechus inunguis.
Jour. Mamm. 51(4): 820-823. 3 figs. Nov. 1970.
–Compares sound spectrographs of the manatee at Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, with reports of Florida manatee vocalizations.
Evermann, Barton Warren (detail)
A skeleton of Steller's sea cow.
Science 21(522): 59. Feb. 3, 1893.
–Brief account of the collection of a skeleton for the U.S. National Museum on Bering Island in 1892. See also L. Stejneger (1893).
Evermann, Barton Warren (detail)
General report on the investigations in Porto Rico of the United States Fish Commission steamer Fish Hawk in 1899.
Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 20: 1-26.
–P. 25: {"The only marine mammal known from Porto Rico is the manatee (probably Trichechus latirostris), and it is of very rare occurrence, owing no doubt, to the absence of broad sluggish rivers in which it finds its favorite environment."}
Evermann, Barton Warren (detail)
Bull. Scripps Inst. Biol. Res. 9: 30.
–Note on the discovery and extermination of Steller's sea cow.
Evermann, Barton Warren (detail)
Why not save the marine mammals of the Pacific?
Bull. Pan-Pacific Union (n.s.) No. 34: 12-16. Aug. 1922.
–"An advance paper prepared for the First Pan-Pacific Commercial Conference." Briefly recounts and deplores the extermination of Steller's sea cow (15-16).
Ewan, Joseph Andorfer; Ewan, Nesta Dunn (detail)
Benjamin Smith Barton: naturalist and physician in Jeffersonian America. (V.C. Hollowell, E.P. Duggan, & M.R. Crosby, eds.)
St. Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden Press:
–Reproduces (fig. 65, p. 1038) watercolors of a dugong skull and mandible (lateral and anterior views), compared with those of a walrus, found in the Barton papers at the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. They are exact copies (by Cornelius Tiebout?) of the two views of the skull in Buffon & Daubenton (1765: pl. 56), said to be "the earliest illustration of the dugong skull."
Ewel, Katherine Carter: SEE Lomolino & Ewel, 1984. (detail)
Ewing, Ruth Y.: SEE Bossart et al., 1998, 2002. (detail)
Exner, R.; Routil, R. (detail)
Die Kephalisation der Wirbeltiere.
Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 62: 25-56.
–Describes a new endocast of Hydrodamalis having a volume of 1700 cc (54).
Exquemelin, Alexandre Olivier (detail)
Histoire des avanturiers flibustiers qui se sont signalez dans les Indes. Contenant ce qu'ils y ont fait de remarquable, avec la vie, les moeurs & les coutumes des boucaniers, & des habitans de S. Domingue & de la Tortue; une description exacte de ces lieux; et un etat des offices tant ecclésiastiques que séculieres, & ce que les plus grandes princes de l'Europe y possèdent. Le tout enrichi de cartes géographiques & de figures en taille-douce.... Nouvelle edition corrigée & augmentée de l'histoire des pirates anglois depuis leur etablissement dans l'Isle de la Providence jusqu'à présent.
Trevoux, par la Compagnie (4 vols.): Vol. 1: 1-394. Pls. 1 map.
–Allen 227. The engraved title page is dated 1743. Anatomie du Lamentin, 372-376, 1 fig. Allen says "This is an original account (at least written in the first person and evidently from observation) of the external characters and internal structure of the Manatee, its habits, capture, etc., with an (apparently) original figure. The figure, like Labat's, represents an old Manatee with a young one in her arms; the figure is more artistic than Labat's, and has the head of the young one directed forward instead of backward." The plate facing p. 373 also gives a figure of a manatee, together with three forms of harpoon used in capturing turtles and manatees. The material not included in earlier eds. (see Exquemelin, 1678) was, in Allen's view, probably added by the translator from one or more of the sources mentioned by him in his preface. However, according to Durand (1983: 133-135, 168-169), who gives a Spanish transl. of the text and reproduces the fig., this expanded account of the manatee dates mostly from the 1686 French ed. (pt. I, cap. xi), which Allen did not see.
  A later French ed. (Lyon, Benoit & Joseph Duplain, 1774 [4 vols.]; Allen 329) is textually the same as the above, and likewise has the manatee material in vol. 1: 372-376.
Exquemelin, Alexandre Olivier (''John Esquemeling'') (detail)
De Americaensche Zee Roovers. Behelsende een pertinente en waerachtige Beschrijving van alle de voornaemste Roveryen, en onmenschlijcke wreedheden, die de Engelse en Franse Rovers, tegens de Spanjaerden in America, gepleeght hebben. Verdeelt in drie deelen: Het Eerste Deel verhandelt hoe de Franse op Hispanjola gekomen zijn, de aerdt van 't Landt, Inwoonders, en hun manier van leven aldaer. Het Tweede Deel, de opkomst van de Rovers, hun regel en leven onder malkander, nevens verscheyde Roveryen aen de Spanjaerden gepleeght. Het Derde 't verbranden van der Stadt Panama, door d'Engelsche en Franse Rovers gedaen, nevens het geen de Schrijver op sijn Reys voorgevallen is. Hier achter is bygevoeght, een korte verhandeling van de Macht en Rijkdommen die de Koninck van Spanje, Karel de Tweede, in America heeft, nevens des selfs Inkomsten en Regering aldaer. Als mede een kort begrijp van alle de voornaemste Plaetsen in het selve Gewest, onder Christen Potentaten behoorende.
Amsterdam, Jan ten Hoorn: 1-186. 4 portraits. 6 pls. 2 maps.
–Allen 114; title and the following comment from J. Sabin, Bibliotheca Americana, no. 23468: "First edition, of extreme rarity. Perhaps no book in any language was ever the parent of so many imitations, and the source of so many fictions, as this, the original of the buccaneers of America.... 'There is certainly no other book of that time which experienced a popularity similar to that of the "Buccaniers of America," which was, in the ten years following its publication, translated into most of the European languages; and there is a fact most curious in the literary history of all times, that the original was certainly unknown to all translators but one. They were all inclined to take the Spanish edition for the original; nay, even the learned editors of Mr. Grenville's catalogue seem doubtful whether the Dutch edition existed in print, or in MS. only.'"
  Later eds.: German, Nürnberg, 1679; Dutch, Amsterdam, 1700 ("very much altered"); Spanish, 1681 ("translated from the [first] Dutch") and later eds.; French, Paris, 1686 (2 vols., "of extreme rarity", "from the English") and (by the same publishers) 1688; three English versions (one said to be an abridgement), transl. from the Spanish, appeared in 1684; etc. See also those cited below. In the first and subsequent Engl. eds., the author's name appears as "John Esquemeling." An 1893 ed. (London, Swan Sonnenschein & Co.) was republished (New York, Dover) in 1967. The U.S. Naval Institute (Annapolis, Md.) brought out a new ed. in 1993.
  Material on manatees is found on the following pages in these eds.: Spanish, 1681: 294-295 (reprinted in Durand, 1983: 132-133); Spanish, 1682: 438-440; Dutch, 1700: Deel 1, 131-132; Engl., 1704: 160-162; Engl., 1771: vol. 1, 209-210; Engl., 1893 & 1967: 243-244 (the reference to "manitas" on p. 250 should perhaps also read "manatis"). None of these eds. includes a figure of the animal. The accounts of the manatee in the 1744 and 1774 French eds. (see below), and apparently also the 1686 French ed. (see Durand, 1983: 133), are entirely different from those in the Spanish, Dutch, and Engl. eds. just cited; besides being twice as long, and containing much new matter, there is an (apparently) original figure.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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