Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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F

 
 
Fabian, H. (detail)
   
1933
Merkmale und Grenzen in der Domestikationsfrage am Gebiss.
Deutsch. Zahnheilkunde 84: [pp.?]
x
 
Fabricius, Otho (detail)
   
1780
Fauna Groenlandica, systematice sistens Animalia Groenlandiae occidentalis hactenus indagata, quoad nomen specificum, triviale, vernaculumque; synonyma auctorum plurium, descriptionem, locum, victum, generationum, mores, usum, capturamque singuli, prout detegendi occasio fuit, maximaque parte secundum proprias observationes....
Hafniae et Lipsiae [= Copenhagen & Leipzig], Impensis Ioanis Gottlob Rothe: xvi + 452. 1 pl.
–Allen 356. Reports a partial cranium of "Trichechus manatus" from Greenland (6). The natives applied the name Auvekaejak to both this animal and "Phoca ursina"; Fabricius took it to be identical with the species described by Steller. It may, however, actually have been T. manatus; see Domning (1978b: 138).
  Hinrich Rink, 1857, Grønland geographisk og statistisk beskrevet, vol. 2, has an appendix by Prof. J. Reinhardt ["List of Greenland's Mammals, Birds and Fishes"], which contains on pp. 6-8 a lengthy footnote concerning Fabricius' Auvekaejak or supposed manatee skull. Reinhardt dismisses the idea that it could be a seacow or even a mammal. He notes that Fabricius found it "in Sildefjorden [= the Herring Fiord] north of Friderichshaabs Coloni [= Frederikshaab /Paamiut] in a Bjergkløft [= mountain ravine]". Fabricius did not preserve the skull, but mentioned it again in his posthumous zoological manuscripts entitled Zoologiske Samlinger [=Zoological Collections], written in Copenhagen in the period 1808-1814, and kept in the Royal Library. There he says about the Auvekaejak: "the skull, which I found, was very shabby and looked much like that of a walrus (No. 82), except for the teeth which were many, long, narrow, placed forwards in a cluster [Klynge, which may be Reinhardt's word] at each side." (Summary and translation by Ella Hoch.) See copy of Rink at nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.FIG:006445420.
x
 
Fagone, Derek M.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Bolen, Meghan E. (detail)
   
2000
Sexual dimorphism in vestigial pelvic bones of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Florida Scientist 63(3): 177-181. 2 figs. Summer 2000.
–Examination of 65 male & 64 female pelvic bones showed that dimorphic features develop in ones from animals larger than 225 cm total body length, corresponding with the onset of sexual maturity in males. Those of males increase in size & weight faster than those of females. Pelvic bones of females longer than 300 cm decrease slightly in size & weight.
x
 
Fairbairn, P. W.; Haynes, Ann M. (detail)
   
1982
Jamaican surveys of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), sea turtles (Families Cheloniidae and Dermochelydae) and booby terns (Family Laridae).
U.N. Food & Agric. Organization Fisheries Rept. No. 278: 289-295.
–Monthly aerial surveys, 1981-82, showed manatees to be concentrated mainly on the south coast of Jamaica west of Kingston. A maximum of 13 individuals per month was counted.
x
 
Fairchild, David (detail)
   
1917
A new food mammal.
Jour. Heredity 8(8): 338-345. 5 figs.
–Rev.: Bull. Pan-Amer. Union 45: 241-246, Aug. 1917. Published anonymously. Gen. acc. of sirs. and of legends and sightings of mermaids; discusses economic uses of sirs., particularly the Florida manatee. The idea of domesticating manatees, "which is first expressed in this article," is credited to Alexander Graham Bell, who is quoted on pp. 342-343 and who instigated the author's study of the possibilities. Manatee domestication is considered preferable to the introduction of pygmy hippopotamuses into swamps of the southern U.S., as had been previously suggested. The yield of saleable meat per manatee carcass is estimated at 85%. A chemical analysis of manatee grass ("Cymodocea manatorum") is presented for comparison with four common kinds of animal fodder; it is found to be "almost identical chemically" to cow pea.
x
 
Fairholme, J. K. E. (detail)
   
1857
On the Australian dugong (Halicore australis).
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 24: 352-353. May 8, 1857.
–Account of dugongs, dugong hunting, and use of the meat, blubber, and oil at Moreton Bay, Queensland.
x
 
Faithful, Paul (detail)
   
1882
A "treasure of the deep," or the Halicore Australis, with personal reminiscences of sub-marine squatting in Queensland.
Nelson (New Zealand), Courtenay Smith: 1-16.
–May also exist in an earlier (1862) ed. (see E. Thorne, 1876: 251). A sprightly and entertaining account of a visit to Moreton Bay, Queensland, by a professional collector of natural history specimens, in which he relates his first encounter with the dugong (over 30 skeletons of which he later collected for various museums). Following several lengthy quotes from other writers describing the animal and its economic uses (5-7), he elaborately extols the virtues (especially the medicinal ones) of its meat, oil, and other products, and gives an informal description of the commercial dugong fishery operated by John Lionel Ching, including some details of how the oil was rendered and refined (13). Courtenay Smith just happened to be "sole consignee in New Zealand" for "Ching's Pure Dugong Oil" (10), and he published this charming little pamphlet essentially to promote this and other items (described here in six full-page advertisements) that he purveyed.
x
 
Falcón-Matos, Limarie; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Toyos-Gonzáles, Gian M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Meisner, René A.; Varela, René A. (detail)
   
2003
Evidence of a shark attack on a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Jour. Neotropical Mammalogy (Mastozoologia Neotropical) 10(1): 6-11. 1 fig. Jan.-June 2003.
–Spanish summ. Reports healed scars from a bite of a large shark (probably a tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier) on an adult female manatee that died of intestinal impaction and respiratory distress of uncertain relation to the shark bite. This is the first confirmed report of an ante-mortem shark attack on a manatee.
x
 
Falconer, Hugh (detail)
   
1868
On the fossil remains of Elephas melitensis, an extinct pigmy species of elephant; and of other Mammalia, &c. from the ossiferous caves of Malta. In: Charles Murchison (ed.), Palaeontological memoirs and notes of the late Hugh Falconer....
London, Robert Hardwicke (2 vols.): Vol. 2 (xiii + 675): 292-308. Pls. 11-14.
–In Appendix II of this article ("Extracts from Dr. Falconer's Note-Books", 301-307), item No. 6 ("Fossil Halitherium, from Malta", 304) consists of Falconer's notes written in the British Museum, Dec. 20, 1862. He found that a set of 3 teeth from Malta compare closely with Halitherium and not with the suid Listriodon. The editor adds that "This fossil was not obtained from the caves. It was purchased for Capt. Spratt from a collector, and was probably obtained from the Miocene deposits of Malta." See A.L. Adams (1879) for further discussion of this specimen.
 
 
Fanti, Federico; Forti, Paolo (detail)
   
2013
The sirenian fossil. Pp. 73-76 in: A. DeVivo & L. Piccini (eds.), The river of swallows: A brief guide to the environmental features of the Puerto Princesa Underground River – Philippines.
Treviso (Italy), La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche, 1-94. Illus. https://issuu.com/laventaesplorazionigeografiche/docs/theriverofswallowseng , May 2013.
–Reports a cluster of sir. ribs (shown in one photo) protruding from the Oligo-Miocene St. Paul Limestone in the Puerto Princesa Underground River cave system, Palawan, Philippines. This is the first report of fossil sirs. from the Philippines.
x
 
Farge, Émile (detail)
   
1871
Sur un fragment d'os d'Halitherium portant des traces d'incisions.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (2)28: 265-268. Pl. 2. Read Sept. 7, 1871.
–Describes a radius-ulna fragment with scars of shark teeth, and reports other occurrences of such scars on "Halitherium" bones from the Middle Miocene of France. At that time it was thought possible that such scars might be the work of humans, but Farge, while not ruling this out, considers the shark hypothesis the most likely one.
x
 
Farge, Émile (detail)
   
1872
Présentation d'un os d'halithérium incisé, des faluns de Chavagnes (Maine-et-Loire).
Bull. Soc. Anthrop. Paris (2)6: 412-416. Read Dec. 21, 1871.
–Text slightly abbreviated from Farge (1871), with some comments of members of the audience appended.
Faria, João Barbosa de: SEE Rondon & Faria, 1948. (detail)
x
 
Farmer, Martha; Bonaventura, Joseph (detail)
   
1977
Functional properties of the hemoglobin of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 17(4): 916. Fall 1977.
–Abstr. of Farmer et al. (1979a).
x
 
Farmer, Martha; Weber, Roy E.; Bonaventura, Joseph; Best, Robin Christopher; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1979a
Functional properties of hemoglobin and whole blood in an aquatic mammal, the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 62A: 231-238. 6 figs.
–Abstr.: Farmer & Bonaventura, 1977. Portuguese transl.: Farmer et al. (1979b). Reports that the blood has a low hematocrit and oxygen capacity compared to that of other diving mammals; the hemoglobin has low sensitivity to temperature, tends to dissociate into dimers, and has other exceptional characteristics.
n
 
Farmer, Martha; Weber, Roy E.; Bonaventura, Joseph; Best, Robin Christopher; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1979b
Propriedades funcionais de hemoglobina e sangue completo em um mamífero aquático, o peixe-boi amazônico (Trichechus inunguis).
Acta Amazonica 8(4), Supl.: 311-321. 6 figs. Dec. 1978 (publ. 1979).
–Engl. summ. Portuguese transl. of Farmer et al. (1979a).
 
 
Farrés, F. (detail)
   
1961
Enumeración de les especies halladas en el Eoceno de la comarca de Vich.
Ausa (Vich, Spain) No. 36: 3-28.
–Reports "Halitherium sp." at five Eocene localities (Taradell, Sant Julià de Vilatorta, Puiglagulla, Seva, and Roda de Ter).
 
 
Farrés, F. (detail)
   
1962
Historia de Taradell por el Dr. Miguel A. Saurina, pbro. Revisión de algunos datos geológicos.
Ausa (Vich, Spain) No. 39: 3-8.
–Mentions a vertebra and rib of "Halitherium sp." from the Eocene of Taradell.
 
 
Farrés, F.; Ramirez, R. (detail)
   
1959
Un sirènit fóssil a Taradell.
Taradell No. 134.
–Reports Eocene remains of "Halitherium sp." from Spain.
Farrington, Sandra L.: SEE Whitfield & Farrington, 1975. (detail)
 
 
Faulkner, Douglas (detail)
   
1983
Sunday divers.
Oceans 16(6): 25-31. 7 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1983.
–Pop. acc. of diving with manatees at Crystal River, Florida (25; photo of manatee, 26-27).
 
 
Faulkner, Douglas (detail)
   
1999
Sea nymphs.
American Windsurfer 6(5): 90-101. 12 figs. + illus. on contents page.
–A portfolio of color photographs of manatees at Crystal River, Florida.
 
 
Faulkner, Douglas (detail)
   
199?
In innocence.
Ocean Realm [vol.?]: 64-? Illus.
 
 
Faulkner, Douglas (detail)
   
2000
Of manatees and man.
Xlibris Corp. (publ. by the author): 1-101.
–From the back cover: "Douglas Faulkner decided to self publish the text Of Manatees and Man because his coffee table book of the same name was not being accepted for publication by the book publishers. The full color version was deemed too expensive, and its comprehensive text was considered too grim for a coffee table book. The manatees are facing extinction in Florida Waters. ... Faulkner believes the text is too important ... not to publish it as a book in itself: even if this abbreviated version ruins his chances for publishing a full format edition...."
  The book passionately deplores the threats to manatee survival in Florida, with particular attention to water quality decline at Crystal River.
 
 
Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Raimbault, M. (detail)
   
1993
L'exploitation des siréniens à travers le temps. In: J. Desse & F. Audoin-Rouzeau (eds.), XIIIe Rencontres Internationales d'Archéologie et d'Histoire d'Antibes. IVe Colloque International de l'Homme et l'Animal.
Juan-les-Pins, APDCA: 307-317.
 
 
Faust, Ingrid; with cooperation of Barthelmess, Klaus, and Stopp, Klaus (detail)
   
2002
Zoologische Einblattdrucke und Flugschriften vor 1800. Band IV. Wale, Sirenen, und Elefanten.
Stuttgart, Hiersemann Publs.: 1-402. 259 figs. 1 pl.
–Rev.: C. C. Kinze, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 19(4): 851-852, Oct. 2003. This work reproduces and discusses (on pp. 272-277) two 1565 broadsheets describing and illustrating a sea-monster that appeared and was killed at São Vicente, Brazil, in December 1564. One (Faust's no. 643), in Italian, was printed in Venice; the other (no. 644) is in German and was printed at Augsburg. These were also cited by Whitehead (1977, as his Anon. 1565b and 1565a, respectively), who also gives an Engl. transl. of no. 644. Faust et al. also include two other drawings (obviously derived from the above) that are found in MSS. by Aldrovandi and Gândavo, respectively. Whitehead (1977), however, has discussed these accounts and images and their bibliography at length, and shown that the animal in question was not a manatee (as assumed here) but likely a pinniped.
 In fact, the only true manatee illustrated by Faust et al. appears in a detail of gores from a Mercator globe of 1541, on which the sea east of the Lesser Antilles is decorated with a manatee redrawn from Oviedo, "1532" (actually 1535).
 
 
Fauvel, Albert Auguste (detail)
   
1909
Unpublished documents on the history of the Seychelles Islands anterior to 1810, together with a cartography enumerating 94 ancient maps and plans dating from 1501... and a bibliography of books and mss. concerning these islands.
Mahé (Seychelles), Govt. Printing Off.: xxxi + 517 + 5. Atlas.
x
 
Fawcett, Don Wayne (detail)
   
1942a
A comparative study of blood-vascular bundles in the Florida manatee (Trichechus latirostris) and in certain cetaceans and edentates.
Jour. Morph. 71(1): 105-133. 4 pls. July 1, 1942.
–Describes the structure of vascular bundles and their distribution in the body; speculates on their functions.
x
 
Fawcett, Don Wayne (detail)
   
1942b
The amedullary bones of the Florida manatee (Trichechus latirostris).
Amer. Jour. Anat. 71(2): 271-309. 1 fig. 9 pls. Sept. 15, 1942.
–Abstr.: Anat. Rec. 82(3): 410-411, Mar. 25, 1942. Describes the histology of the bones and thyroid gland; concludes that hypothyroidism may be the mechanism producing pachyostosis.
 
 
Fayer, Ronald; Morgan, Una; Upton, Steve J. (detail)
   
2000
Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification.
Intl. Jour. Parasitol. 30(12-13): 1305-1322. Nov. 2000.
 
 
Feeney, Kathy (detail)
   
2001
Manatees.
Minnetonka (Minnesota), NorthWord Books for Young Readers (Our Wild World): 1-47. Illus.
–Children's book.
 
 
Feichtinger, Iris; Fritz, Ingomar; Göhlich, Ursula B. (detail)
   
2021
Tiger shark feeding on sirenian – first fossil evidence from the middle Miocene of the Styrian Basin (Austria).
Historical Biology 7 pp. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2021.1906665 Publ. online Mar. 29, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Based on a shark-bitten partial skeleton of an immature sirenian (Metaxytherium cf. medium) from the middle Miocene of the Styrian Basin (Austria), we report on the oldest predator–prey interaction between tiger sharks and dugongs. The bite mark-bearing ribs and vertebrae are associated with seven teeth of Galeocerdo aduncus, which are otherwise rare in the fossil record of the Styrian Basin. The unique tooth morphology of the genus Galeocerdo is reflected by an unambiguous pattern of bite marks, which is repeatedly detected on one rib fragment. Similar bite marks were reproduced experimentally by using clay instead of bone. The obtained pattern is consistent with the observed bite marks on the sirenian rib fragment, which demonstrates that tiger sharks fed upon the Metaxytherium carcass. Furthermore, we also report on the first record of the angel shark Squatina sp. within the Styrian Basin.
 
 
Feijó Ramos, Maria Inês; Moraes dos Santos, Heloisa Maria; Ferreira da Costa, Sue Anne Regina; Toledo, Peter Mann de (detail)
   
2009
Catalogo de fosseis: Coleçao Paleontologico do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi.
Belem, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi: 1-172. Illus.
–Catalog of the Goeldi Museum's fossil collection, illustrated with color photos. Sirs. (all from the Miocene Pirabas Formation in Pará, Brazil), 148-155, 9 figs.
x
 
Feiler, Alfred (detail)
   
1999
Ausgestorbene Säugetiere, Typusexemplare und bemerkenswerte Lokalserien von Säugetieren aus der Sammlung des Staatlichen Museums für Tierkunde Dresden (Mammalia).
Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden 50(2)(21): 401-414. 1 tab. Sept. 24, 1999.
–Engl. summ. Lists the elements making up a partial composite skeleton of Hydrodamalis gigas which was obtained from St. Petersburg in 1890, captured by the Soviet army in 1945, and returned to Dresden in 1982.
 
 
Fekete, Zoltán (detail)
   
1935
Adatok a hárshegyi homokkő geológiájához. Beiträge zur Geologie des oligozänen Sandsteins der Umgebung von Budapest.
Földt. Közlöny 65(4-6): 126-150. Figs. 16-17. Apr.-June 1935.
–In Hungarian; German summ. Mentions Halitherium, 144.
 
 
Fellner, W.; Odell, D.K.; Corwin, A.; Davis, L.; Goonen, C.; Larkin, I.V.; Stamper, M.A. (detail)
   
2006
Behavioral responses of two rehabilitated West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): Before and after ex-situ behavioral extinction efforts.
Aquatic Mammals 32(1): 66-74.
Fellner, Wendi: SEE Colbert et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Fenart, R. (detail)
   
1963
Note sur l'étude du crâne de Halicore dugong par la méthode vestibulaire.
Mammalia 27(1): 92-98. 3 figs. Mar. 1963.
–Using the semicircular canals as reference points, the orientation of the skull is found to differ from that of most mammals chiefly in the anterior region of the face and mandible; the plane of the premaxillary masticating surface is almost vertical.
 
 
Fenchel, T. (detail)
   
1977
Aspects of the decomposition of seagrasses. In: C. P. McRoy & C. Helfferich (eds.), Seagrass ecosystems: a scientific perspective.
New York & Basel, Marcel Dekker: 123-145.
Ferguson, J. C.: SEE Reynolds & Ferguson, 1984. (detail)
x
 
Feriz, Hans (detail)
   
1967
Über eine prähistorische Tonplastik von Trichechus cf. inunguis (Sirenia) vom oberen Amazonas.
Zs. Säugetierk. 32(6): 373-374. 3 figs.
–Describes a small clay model of the head of a manatee found near the Rio Japurá in northwestern Brazil.
 
 
Fermin, Philippe (detail)
   
1769
Description générale, historique, géographique et physique de la colonie de Surinam, contenant ce qu'il y a de plus curieux & de plus remarquable, touchant sa situation, ses rivieres, ses forteresses; son gouvernement & sa police; avec les moeurs & les usages des habitants naturels du pas, & des Européens qui y sont établis; ainsi que des eclaircissements sur l'oeconomie générale des esclaves negres, sur les plantations & leurs produits, les arbres fruitiers, les plantes médécinales, & toutes les diverses especes d'animaux qu'on y trouve, &c. Enrichie de figures, & d'une carte topographique du païs.
Amsterdam, E. van Harrevelt (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xxiv + 252. Map; Vol. 2: 1-352. 3 pls.
–Allen 308. Contains two pages (2: 122-124) on the "Veau marin", which according to Allen are evidently a description of the common seal, but which also seem to confuse it with the manatee; the latter is otherwise not mentioned.
Fernand, V. S. V.: SEE ALSO Crusz & Fernand, 1954. (detail)
x
 
Fernand, V. S. V. (detail)
   
1951
The histology of the pituitary and the adrenal glands of the dugong. (Dugong Dugung).
Ceylon Jour. Med. Sci. (D) 8(2): 57-62. Pls. 1-2. June 1951.
–The dugong's pituitary is compared with those of T. manatus and T. inunguis; its adrenals are found to be small. Histochemical reactions are also discussed.
x
 
Fernand, V. S. V. (detail)
   
1953
The teeth of the dugong.
Ceylon Jour. Sci. (B) 25(2): 139-147. Pls. 28-30. Oct. 10, 1953.
–Notes that five to six cheek teeth are present; the tusks are thought to "serve no useful purpose"; jaw movement is probably lateral; the enamel is simple; the dentine is tubular (orthodentine); and the cementum is lamellar. Also describes vestigial incisors and the distribution of enamel on the teeth.
x
 
Fernandes, Adaucto de Alencar (detail)
   
1925
Terra verde.
Fortaleza (Brazil), Typ. Central: 1-322.
–Vivid account of harpooning pirarucu and manatee (263-267).
 
 
Fernandes, L.; Day, J.; Lewis, A.; Slegers, S.; Kerrigan, B.; Breen, D.; Cameron, D.; Jago, B.; Hall, J.; Lowe, D.; Innes, J.; Tanzer, J.; Chadwick, V.; Thompson, L.; Gorman, K.; Simmons, M.; Barnett, B.; Sampson, K.; De'ath, Glenn; Mapstone, B.; Marsh, Helene D.; Possingham, H.; Ball, I.; Ward, T.; Dobbs, K.; Zumend, J.; Slater, D.; Stapleton, K. (detail)
   
2005
Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: large-scale implementation of Theory on Marine Protected Areas.
Conserv. Biol. 19: 1733-1744.
 
 
Fernandes, M. (detail)
   
2000
Association of mammals with mangrove forest: a world wide review.
Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão 13: 83-108.
Fernandes, Peter J.: SEE Converse et al., 1994; Duignan et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Fernandez Badillo, A.; Guerrero, R.; Lord, R.; Ochoa, J.; Ulloa, G. (detail)
   
1988
Mamiferos en Venezuela. Lista y claves para su identificacion.
Maracay, Universidad Central de Venezuela: x + 185. Illus.
x
 
Fernandez, Stephanie; Jones, Sherman C. (detail)
   
1990
Manatee stranding on the coast of Texas.
Texas Jour. Sci. 42(1): 103. Feb. 1990.
–Reports a carcass of a male T. manatus washed ashore near Galveston in 1986; cause of death was undetermined.
Fernando, A. Bastian: SEE Silas & Fernando, 1985. (detail)
Ferrandini, M.: SEE Anglada et al., 1974. (detail)
 
 
Ferrante, J. A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Wellehan, J. F. X. (detail)
   
2018
Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 54(2): 283-294. doi:10.7589/2017-06-139. April 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-?; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-?; and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and ?-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida, US. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-? were significantly higher (P<0.05) in manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and ?-actin to be consistent between sites and identified ?-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.
Ferreira, Alexandre Rodriguez: SEE Rodriguez Ferreira, Alexandre. (detail)
Ferreira, L. C.: SEE Colares & Ferreira, 1987. (detail)
 
 
Ferreira, Paula Braga; Torres, Rodrigo A.; Garcia, José Eduardo (detail)
   
2011
Single nucleotide polymorphisms from cytochrome b gene as a useful protocol in forensic genetics against the illegal hunting of manatees: Trichechus manatus, Trichechus inunguis, Trichechus senegalensis, and Dugong dugon (Eutheria: Sirenia).
Zoologia 28(1): 133-138. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1590/S1984-46702011000100019. Feb. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The identification of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms is one of the most efficient methods for species differentiation. Genotyping of molecular markers using PCR/RFLP is a reliable, sensitive and inexpensive method for the detection of species specific mutations. The major causes of decline in Sirenia populations are accidental and intentional catches, collisions with boats and habitat loss. The goal of the present study was to identify, in silico, nucleotide mutations in the cytochrome b gene that can be used for the future development of forensic tools capable of using small tissue fragments to discriminate manatee meat from domesticated species meat commonly used as food sources (bovine, ovine, caprine and swine). DNA sequence alignments revealed two polymorphic sites distinguishing the manatee species from domestic species. The present study reinforced the power of cytochrome polymorphisms as powerful markers for species identification, which may be particularly useful for identifying vulnerable/endangered species. The data provided herein also suggest such mtDNA markers as important conservation tools for combating predatory manatee hunting for illegal meat trade in the Americas.
 
 
Ferrer, A.; Rivas, B.; Boede, E.; Añez L.; Mujica, E.; Silva, C. (detail)
   
2017
Manatí [Manatee] Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758). Chapter I. pp. 36-41. In Ferrer, A.; Herrera, O.; Trujillo, F.; Mosquera-Guerra, F.; De la Cruz-Melo, G.; Les, D.; Boher, S.; Seijas, A.E.; Hernández, O.; & Usma, S. (eds.). Plan de acción de mamíferos acuáticos de Venezuela: delfines de agua dulce, nutrias y manatíes 2017–2027 [Plan of Action for the Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of Venezuela: freshwater dolphins, otters and manatees 2017-2027].
Caracas. 1-92.
Ferrer, Lourdes T.: SEE ALSO Estrada & Ferrer, 1987. (detail)
 
 
Ferrer, Lourdes T.; Estrada, Alberto R. (detail)
   
1988
Primer record de mortalidad del manati en aguas cubanas.
Misc. Zool. (Havana) No. 41: 1-2.
 
 
Ferrusquia-Villafranca, Ismael (detail)
   
1977
Distribution of Cenozoic vertebrate faunas in Middle America and problems of migration between North and South America. In: I. Ferrusquia-Villafranca (ed.), Conexiones terrestres entre Norte y Sudamerica....
Bol. Inst. Geol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México No. 101: 193-321.
–Spanish summ.
x
D
Ferrusquia-Villafranca, Ismael (detail)
   
1990
Biostratigraphy of the Mexican continental Miocene: Part I, introduction and the northwestern and central faunas.
Paleontologia Mexicana No. 56: 7-53. 7 tabs. 10 figs. 2 pls.
–Spanish summ. Describes a tooth fragment of Desmostylus hesperus from La Purísima (22-26), and mentions Desmostylus sp. at La Misión (15, 17), Baja California. The La Purísima occurrence is the southernmost known for Desmostylus.
Fertl, Dagmar C.: SEE Schiro & Fertl, 1995; Schiro et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Fertl, Dagmar; Fulling, G. L. (detail)
   
2007
Interactions between marine mammals and turtles.
Marine Turtle Newsletter No. 115: 4-8. 1 tab. 2 figs. Jan. 2007.
 
 
Fertl, Dagmar; Schiro, A. J.; Regan, G. T.; Beck, Cathy A.; Adimey, Nicole M.; Price-May, L.; Amos, A.; Worthy, Graham A. J.; Crossland, R. (detail)
   
2005
Manatee occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico, west of Florida.
Gulf & Caribbean Research 17: 69-94. 1 fig. 2 appendices.
Feugueur, L.: SEE Cailleux & Feugueur, 1947. (detail)
 
 
Fewkes, Jesse Walter (detail)
   
1907
The aborigines of Porto Rico and the neighboring islands.
25th Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1903-04: 3-220.
–Manatees, 48-50, 192-193.
Ficcarelli, Giovanni: SEE Azzaroli et al., 1982. (detail)
x
 
Fichter, George S. (detail)
   
1958
Strange "cows" of the sea.
Sci. Digest 43(1): 31-35. 1 fig. Jan. 1958.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees.
x
 
Fichter, Jürgen (detail)
   
1995
Katalog des publizierten Materials aus der paläontologischen Sammlung des Naturkundemuseums der Stadt Kassel.
Philippia 7/2: 129-157. 30 figs.
–Illustrates a lower ?third molar of Halitherium sp. (no. Sä 81) from the Upper Oligocene Kasseler Meeressand at Glimmerode, Hessen (154).
 
 
Fichter, Jürgen (detail)
   
1999
Die fossile Seekuh von Schauenburg-Hoof, Kreis Kassel: ein bemerkenswerter Wirbeltierfund aus dem Alttertiär Nordhessens.
Paläontologische Denkmäler in Hessen (Wiesbaden) 8: [1-14]. 12 figs.
–Describes the discovery of a partial sir. skeleton, probably Halitherium schinzii.
Fierstine, Harry L.: SEE Jefferson et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Fierstine, Harry L. (detail)
   
1999
Makaira sp., cf. M. nigricans Lacépède, 1802 (Teleostei: Perciformes: Istiophoridae) from the Late Miocene, Panama, and its probable use of the Panama Seaway.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 19(3): 430-437. 3 tabs. 3 figs. Sept. 1999.
–Notes the continuity in distribution of Metaxytherium crataegense between Maryland and Peru via the Central American Seaway (435).
 
 
Figueiredo, Heitor de (detail)
   
1913
1913-1914 Annuario de Manaos.
Lisbon, Typ. da "A Editora Limitada": 15 + 86 + 14 + 61 + 96 + 34.
–Manatees, part 4, pp. 44-47, 50-51.
x
 
Filhol, Henri (detail)
   
1878
Note sur la découverte d'un nouveau mammifère marin (Manatus coulombi) en Afrique, dans les carrières de Mokattam près du Caire.
Bull. Soc. Philomathique Paris (7)2: 124-125. Read Mar. 23, 1878.
–Describes a new Eocene species, based on 3 lower teeth. It is thought to resemble the modern manatee too closely to have belonged to a form as primitive as "Eotherium" aegyptiacum.
x
 
Finch, John (''I. Finch''?) (detail)
   
1833
Travels in the United States of America and Canada, containing some account of their scientific institutions, and a few notices of the geology and mineralogy of those countries. To which is added, an essay on the natural boundaries of empires.
London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman: 1-331.
–Mentions collecting "the first fossil bone of a manatus discovered in America" at the cliffs of Stratford, Virginia (229). See also R. Harlan (1825b), A.C. Dooley, Jr. (2005), and L.W. Ward (2005).
 
 
Findlay, K. P.; Cockcroft, Vic G.; Guissamulo, A. T. (detail)
   
2011
Dugong abundance and distribution in the Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique.
African Journal of Marine Science 33(3): 441-452. 3 tables. 6 figures. DOI:10.2989/1814232X.2011.637347. Nov. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Despite the distribution of dugongs Dugong dugon ranging across nearshore waters of the tropical and subtropical regions of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean, their distribution in the western Indian Ocean is highly fragmented and appears to be declining. The population of the Bazaruto Archipelago is believed to comprise the only viable population in the region. In all, 27 surveys were flown over the Bazaruto Bay area to define the distribution and estimate the abundance of the species in the area. A total of 9052 nautical miles of survey effort was flown during the surveys, from which there were 355 sightings of 760 dugongs. Two core areas of distribution were apparent within the surveyed area; a northern core area spread within the 10 m isobath between the Save River mouth and Ponta Bartolomeu Dias (21 degrees 24' S), and a southern core area aligned with the shallow sandbanks to the north and south of Santa Carolina Island. Group sizes recorded in the Bazaruto Archipelago were comparable to group sizes recorded in other regions where dugongs occur, although few large (>20) groups of dugongs were seen in this study. Line transect analyses of each survey showed dugong densities were considerably lower than densities recorded in surveys in Australian waters or in the Arabian Gulf, with a population estimate of 247 dugongs (CV = 34.1) when all surveys were considered, and 359 dugongs (CV = 38.2) when only the surveys that were carried out under adequate sighting conditions were included.
 
 
Fine, J. C. (detail)
   
1995
Manatees. Sanctuary food grasses menaced.
Oceanorama 24: 25-26. Illus. June 1995.
x
 
Finger, Jarvis (detail)
   
1987
More true tales of old St Helena.
Brisbane, Boolarong Publications. Illus.
–Includes a chapter on "The dugong factory on St Helena Island", briefly describing the early history of the dugong-oil industry in Queensland (3-5).
 
 
Finn, Frank (detail)
   
1929
Sterndale's Mammalia of India. A new and abriged edition, thoroughly revised and with an appendix on the Reptilia.
Calcutta & Simla, Thacker, Spink & Co.
–Sirs., 133-134.
 
 
Finnley, D. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1978a
West African manatee.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 3(6): 9.
 
 
Finnley, D. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1978b
Rare and endangered species broadly covered under Florida's conservation plan.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 3(11): 3, 5-6.
 
 
Finnley, D. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1978c
Service steps up manatee recovery efforts.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 3(11): 4.
 
 
Finnley, D. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1979a
West African manatee threatened.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 4(8): 6.
 
 
Finnley, D. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1979b
Manatee protection areas authorized.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 4(11): 4-5.
 
 
Finnley, D. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1980
Regulations to benefit manatees on Merritt Island, Chassahowitzka.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 5(2): 5. Illus.
 
 
Finsch, Otto (detail)
   
1901a
Der Dujong. Zoologisch-ethnographische Skizze einer untergehenden Sirene.
Samml. Gemeinverst. Wiss. Vortr. (Hamburg, Holtzendorff-Virchow) 359(= n.s. 15): 1-32.
 
 
Finsch, Otto (detail)
   
1901b
Der Dujong und sein Fang. Torresstrasse und Neuguinea.
Illus. Zeitung No. 3012: m. 4 Ill.
 
 
Fire, Spencer E.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Stolen, Megan; Durden, Wendy Noke; De Wit, Martine; Spellman, Ann C.; Wang, Zhihong (detail)
   
2015
Brevetoxin-associated mass mortality event of bottlenose dolphins and manatees along the east coast of Florida, USA.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 526: 241-251. 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.3354/meps11225. Apr. 22, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: A mass mortality of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris co-occurred with a severe bloom of the toxic algal species Karenia brevis along the eastern coast of Florida, USA, between October 2007 and January 2008. Brevetoxin (PbTx), a potent neurotoxin produced by this marine alga, was detected in 69 and 92% of the tested carcasses of manatees and dolphins, respectively, at concentrations similar to those reported for earlier mortality events along the west coast of Florida. Brevetoxin was also detected in fetal and neonate dolphins, providing evidence of maternal transfer of the toxin in wild populations. This study is the first to document a brevetoxin-associated marine mammal mortality event along the Atlantic coast of Florida. It also demonstrates that, despite the rarity of K. brevis blooms in this region, significant negative impacts to marine mammals inhabiting this region can occur.
 
 
Fischer von Waldheim, Gotthelf (detail)
   
1803
Das Nationalmuseum der Naturgeschichte zu Paris. Von seinem ersten Ursprunge bis zu seinem jetzigen Glanze geschildert.
Frankfurt am Main, Friedrich Esslinger (2 vols.): Vol. 2.
–Sirs., 353.
 
 
Fischer von Waldheim, Gotthelf (detail)
   
1813-14
Zoognosia tabulis synopticis illustrata. Ed. 3.
Moscow, Nicolai Sergeidis Vsevolozsky: 3 vols.
–Ed. 1, 1805; ed. 2, 1808. Sirs., vol. 1: 15, 19 (1813); vol. 3: 638-647 (1814).
 
 
Fischer, Johann Baptist (detail)
   
1829
Synopsis mammalium.
Stuttgart, Sumtibus J. G. Cottae: xlii + 528.
–Allen 741 (incl. Addenda, Emendanda et Index, 1830). Sirs., 501-504.
x
 
Fischer, Karlheinz (detail)
   
1982
Wirbeltierfunde aus dem marinen Mitteloligozän des Weisselsterbeckens (Bezirk Leipzig, DDR).
Wiss. Zs. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin, math.-nat. R. 31(3): 151-153.
–Russian, Engl., & French summs. Discusses remains of Halitherium schinzi from the fauna, and concludes that they are not taxonomically distinct from the West German and Belgian specimens of the species.
 
 
Fischer, Karlheinz; Krumbiegel, Günter (detail)
   
1982
Halitherium schinzi Kaup 1838 (Sirenia, Mammalia) aus dem marinen Mitteloligozän des Weisselsterbeckens (Bezirk Leipzig, DDR).
Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss. 7: 73-96. 2 tabs. 2 figs. 12 photos.
–Engl. & Russian summs.
Fischer, Martin S.: SEE ALSO Prothero et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Fischer, Martin S. (detail)
   
1986
Die Stellung der Schliefer (Hyracoidea) im phylogenetischen System der Eutheria.
Courier Forschungsinst. Senckenberg 84: 1-132. 2 tabs. 39 figs. Aug. 20, 1986.
x
 
Fischer, Martin S. (detail)
   
1988
Zur Anatomie des Gehörorganes der Seekuh (Trichechus manatus L.), (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Zs. Säugetierk. 53: 365-379. 6 figs.
–Engl. summ. Describes the soft parts of the ear region in specimens from Guyana and Florida. The external auditory meatus ends blindly and does not contact the tympanic membrane, which consists of unusual dense connective tissue. A large tympanic sac is present, but is part of the tympanic cavity and not homologous to the Eustachian sac of hyracoids and perissodactyls. Also discusses the functional anatomy of hearing in the manatee.
 
 
Fischer, Martin S. (detail)
   
1990
Un trait unique de l'oreille des éléphants et des siréniens (Mammalia): un paradoxe phylogénétique.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris (3)311(4): 157-162. 2 figs. Aug. 16, 1990.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Fischer, Martin S. (detail)
   
1991
Zur Morphologie und Evolution des Gehörorganes der Tethytheria (Proboscidea, Sirenia).
Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges. 84: 377.
x
 
Fischer, Martin S.; Tassy, Pascal (detail)
   
1993
The interrelation between Proboscidea, Sirenia, Hyracoidea, and Mesaxonia: the morphological evidence. In: F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, & M. C. McKenna (eds.), Mammal phylogeny. Vol. 2. Placentals.
New York, Springer-Verlag (321 pp.): 217-234. 3 tabs. 8 figs.
–Concludes that the Sirenia are the sister-group of the Proboscidea + Embrithopoda, and that the Desmostylia are the sister-group of a narrowly-defined Tethytheria including Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Embrithopoda.
x
 
Fischer, P. (detail)
   
1884
Cirrhipèdes de l'Archipel de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
Bull. Soc. Zool. France 9(6): 355-360.
–Reports the barnacle Platylepas bissexlobata on a dugong from New Caledonia (359). Notes that the museum in Bordeaux has several dugong skeletons and skulls from New Caledonia, and that dugongs are not rare there.
 
 
Fischer, P. H. (detail)
   
1959
Les animaux d'Australie.
Paris, Payot: 1-268.
 
 
Fischer, P. M. (detail)
   
1884
Ueber den Bau von Opisthotrema cochleare nov. genus nov. spec. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Trematoden.
Zs. Wiss. Zool. 40: 1-41. Pl. 1. Feb. 19, 1884.
–Reports trematodes from the tympanic cavity of the Philippine dugong.
 
 
Fischoeder, F. (detail)
   
1901
Die Paramphistomiden der Säugethiere.
Zool. Anz. 24: 367-375.
–Reports Chiorchis fabaceus from manatee cecum and colon.
 
 
Fischoeder, F. (detail)
   
1902
Die Paramphistomiden der Säugetiere.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. Ökol. Geogr. Tiere 17: 485-660.
 
 
Fish, Frank E. (detail)
   
1993
Influence of hydrodynamic design and propulsive mode on mammalian swimming energetics.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 42: 79-101. 1 tab. 10 figs.
Fisher, J.: SEE Philip & Fisher, 1970. (detail)
 
 
Fisher, James; Simon, Noel; Vincent, Jack; et al. (detail)
   
1969
Wildlife in danger.
New York, Viking Press; London, Collins: 1-368.
–Discusses dugong distribution, population trends, uses, and legal protection (97-100).
 
 
Fitt, William (detail)
   
2020
Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris actively consume the sponge Chondrilla caribensis.
PeerJ 8: c8443. 12 pp. 1 tab. 4 figs. + online supplemental information. DOI 10.7717/peerj.8443 Jan. 22, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris Linnaeus 1758) actively selects and consumes the "chicken-liver" sponge Chondrilla caribensis. Manatees ate over 10% of C. caribensis on a sample dock, mostly from pylons that received no direct sunlight. Since manatees reportedly eat mostly seagrasses and algae, it was thought that the chlorophyll-a content of the symbiotic cyanobacteria in C. caribensis might be correlated to the amount eaten; however the correlation was not significant (P >0:05). C. caribensis has variable chemical defenses and round spherasters (spicules), but these do not appear to be effective deterrents to predation by manatees. This is the first direct evidence that manatees actively seek out and consume a sponge.
 
 
Fitter, R. (detail)
   
1968
Vanishing wild animals of the world.
London, Midland Bank Ltd. & Kaye & Ward Ltd.; New York, Franklin Watts, Inc.: 1-144.
 
 
Fitter, R. (detail)
   
1974
Most endangered mammals - an action program.
Oryx 12(4): 443-444.
–Proposes reserves for T. inunguis in Peru and Brazil, and suggests a survey of the Orinoco River.
 
 
Fitzgerald, Christopher (detail)
   
1988
On the trail of the West African manatee.
Topic (U.S. Information Agency) No. 178: 58-61. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of James A. Powell's research project in Ivory Coast.
 
 
Fitzgerald, Erich M. G. (detail)
   
2005
Holocene record of the dugong (Dugong dugon) from Victoria, southeast Australia.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 21(2): 355-361. 2 figs. Apr. 2005 (mailed Apr. 18, 2005).
 
 
Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Wells, Roderick T. (detail)
   
2013
Miocene sea cow (Sirenia) from Papua New Guinea sheds light on sirenian evolution in the Indo-Pacific.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 33(4): 956-963. 2 tabs. 8 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2013.753081 July 2013.
Fitzgerald, Shannon M.: SEE Bengtson & Fitzgerald, 1985. (detail)
 
 
Fitzinger, Leopold Joseph (detail)
   
1842
Bericht über die in dem Sandlagern von Linz aufgefundenen fossilen Reste eines urweltlichen Säugers, (Halitherium Cristolii).
Ber. Mus. Franc.-Carolinum Linz 6: 61-72. 1 pl.
 
 
Fitzinger, Leopold Joseph (detail)
   
1860-61
Wissenschaftlich-populäre Naturgeschichte der Säugethiere in ihren sämmtlichen Hauptformen. Nebst einer Einleitung in die Naturgeschichte überhaupt und in die Lehre von den Thieren insbesondere.
Vienna, Kaiserlich-königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei: 6 vols. + atlas. 125 pls.
–Reconstruction of Hydrodamalis, 6: 147, 161, fig. 238.
x
 
Fitzpatrick, Judith (detail)
   
1991
Home reef fisheries development: a report from Torres Strait.
Cultural Survival Quarterly 15(2): 18-20. 1 map.
–Mentions hunting and sharing of dugong and turtle meat on Mabuiag Island (19-20); notes that, as of the previous year, meat began to be shared among a smaller group of households than in the past, suggesting a breakdown of the sharing ethic.
x
 
Fiuza Lima, Francisco (detail)
   
1967
Criação de peixes e quelônios: cria e recria em lago natural.
Estado do Amazonas (Brazil), Edição do Setor de Relações Públicas da Secretaria de Produção (Série V - PRODAPAM, No. 3): 1-19. 12 figs.
–Prospectus for (unrealized) fish- and turtle-raising project to be established near Itacoatiara, Brazil. The account (17-18) of the manatee, suggested for inclusion in the scheme, features precisely stated but completely unsubstantiated data on its reproductive cycle.
 
 
Fix, John (detail)
   
1963
The beauty ... and the beasts.
All Florida Mag., Dec. 8, 1963: 4, 6. 1 fig.
 
 
Flacourt, Étienne de (detail)
   
1658
Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar.
Paris, G. de Lvyne (2 vols. in 1). 9 pls. 4 maps. 2 plans.
Flamm, Richard O.: SEE ALSO Weigle et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Flamm, Richard O.; Braunsberger, Karin (detail)
   
2014
Applying marketing to conservation: a case study on encouraging boater reporting of watercraft collisions with Florida manatees.
Ocean & Coastal Management 96: 20-28. 1 tab. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.026. Aug. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: We illustrate how the application of a traditional marketing approach can be used to address conservation problems. The conservation challenge at hand relates to the low number of reported boat strikes of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), an endangered marine mammal that inhabits coastal Florida. Our objective was to assess why boaters do or do not call the authorities after their boat strikes a manatee and what can be done to increase the rate of reporting. Results of our online survey indicated that over 90% of subjects expressed a willingness to call the authorities if they strike a manatee with their boat. However, this self-reported sentiment has not resulted in frequent calls to the authorities by boaters involved in a collision with a manatee since records have been kept. The outcome of subsequent personal in-depth interviews suggested that most boaters do not know who to call or do not have the proper contact number. Based on our findings, we suggest the implementation of a decal to be positioned in a vessel's cockpit displaying the proper number to call to report a manatee incident. We also recommend including numbers for other marine emergencies on the decal. We discuss barriers to success that need to be considered and caution as to potential market failures.
 
 
Flamm, Richard O.; Owen, Edward C. G.; Owen, C. F. W.; Wells, Randall S.; Nowacek, Douglas P. (detail)
   
2000
Aerial videogrammetry from a tethered airship to assess manatee life-stage structure.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16(3): 617-630. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
 
 
Flamm, Richard O.; Ward, Leslie I.; Weigle, Bradley L. (detail)
   
2000
Applying a variable-shape spatial filter to map relative abundance of manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Landscape Ecology 16: 279-288.
 
 
Flamm, Richard O.; Weigle, B.L.; Wright, I.E.; Ross, M.; Aglietti, S. (detail)
   
2005
Estimation of manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) places and movement corridors using telemetry data.
Ecological Applications 15(4): 1405-1426.
 
 
Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot, III; Harmak, Craig (detail)
   
2013
Improving conservation of florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): conceptualization and contributions toward a regional warm-water network management strategy for sustainable winter habitat.
Environmental Management 51(1): 154-166. 3 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9985-4. Jan. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.
Flanigan, W. F., Jr.: SEE Lowell & Flanigan, 1980. (detail)
x
 
Flannery, Tim (detail)
   
1988
Stuffed & pickled: treasures from the historic Australian Museum mammal collection.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 22(10): 458-462. 5 figs. Spring 1988.
–Calls attention to a partial skeleton of Hydrodamalis gigas from Bering Island in the Australian Museum, Sydney, received by exchange from Sweden in the 19th century (462).
x
 
Fleagle, John G.; Bown, Thomas M.; Obradovich, John D.; Simons, Elwyn L. (detail)
   
1986
How old are the Fayum primates? In: J. G. Else & P. C. Lee (eds.), Primate evolution (Proc. 10th Congr. Internatl. Primatol. Soc., Vol. 1).
Cambridge Univ. Press: 1-17. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–Mentions a sir. skull from the Early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation, intermediate in morphology between Eotheroides libycum and Halitherium schinzii (8-9).
x
 
Fleischer, Gerald (detail)
   
1971
Über Schwingungsmessungen am Skelett des Mittelohres von Halicore (Sirenia).
Zs. Säugetierk. 36(6): 350-360. 6 figs. Dec. 1971.
–Engl. summ. Describes experiments demonstrating that the ossicular chain of the middle ear is well insulated from vibrations of the periotic and tympanic, and that its own vibrations are damped to 2-4 KHz.
 
 
Fleischer, Gerald (detail)
   
1973
Studien am Skelett des Gehörorganes der Säugetiere, einschliesslich des Menschen.
Säugetierk. Mitt. 21(2-3): 131-239. 128 figs. July 1973.
x
 
Fleischer, Gerald (detail)
   
1976
Über die Verankerung des Stapes im Ohr der Cetacea und Sirenia.
Zs. Säugetierk. 41(5): 304-317. 12 figs.
–Engl. summ. The attachment area of the ligament joining the stapes to the oval window was found to be small relative to the weight of the stapes in forms adapted to receive low frequencies (Sirenia and Mysticeti), in contrast to the Odontoceti.
 
 
Fleischer, Gerald (detail)
   
1978
Evolutionary principles of the mammalian middle ear.
Advances Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 55(3): 1-70. Illus.
 
 
Fleming, John (detail)
   
1822
The philosophy of zoology; or a general view of the structure, functions, and classification of animals.
Edinburgh, Archibald Constable & Co.; London, Hurst, Robinson & Co.: 2 vols. (vol. 1: lii + 432, 5 pls.; vol. 2: 1-618).
–Recognizes a group called "Apoda", comprising the "Herbivora" and "Cetacea"; none of these is assigned an explicit rank. The "Herbivora" comprise Manatus, Halicora (unjustified emendation of Halicore Illiger), and Rytina (2:203-204). Repeats in a footnote Stewart's (1817) report of a manatee stranded in Scotland in 1785; see also the following item.
x
 
Fleming, John (detail)
   
1828
A history of British animals.
Edinburgh, Bell & Bradfute; London, Duncan: xxiii + 565.
–Ed. 2 (London, Duncan & Malcolm, 1842) identical. Gives account of a "Manatus borealis" stranded at Newhaven, near Leith, Scotland, in 1785, fide Stewart, 1817 (29). Fleming confounds Trichechus and Hydrodamalis in his description, also mentioning Fabricius' specimen, but then goes on (30) to distinguish "Manatus" from "Rytina". Also recounts (30) the story of a "mermaid" captured in 1823; the source is cited as Edinburgh Magazine, Sept. 1823: 346, but the incident is evidently the same one described in Anon. (1829).
x
 
Fletemeyer, John (detail)
   
1982
Blimps, blips and dredging.
Sea Frontiers 28(5): 296-299. 4 figs. Sept.-Oct. 1982.
–Pop. acc. of the use of color-enhanced sonar for monitoring manatees near dredges at Port Everglades, Florida, in the winter of 1981-82.
x
 
Flewelling, Leanne J.; Naar, Jerome P.; Abbott, Jay P.; Baden, Daniel G.; Barros, Nélio B.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine D.; Hammond, Daniel G.; Haubold, Elsa M.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Henry, Michael S.; Jacocks, Henry M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Pierce, Richard H.; Pitchford, Thomas D.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Scott, Paula S.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Truby, Earnest W.; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Landsberg, Jan H. (detail)
   
2005
Red tides and marine mammal mortalities.
Nature 435(7043): 755-756. 2 figs.
 
 
Flinders, Matthew (detail)
   
1814
A voyage to Terra Australis. Vols. I & II.
London, G. & W. Nicol.
–Mentions dugongs in Moreton Bay, Australia.
 
 
Flint, Mark; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2017
Assessing welfare in the wild and in captivity. Chap. 21 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 381-393. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Assessing the welfare of wild populations of sirenians has required a "generalist" approach. The outcome has been a subjective decision as to whether what the observers are witnessing in an individual or group of animals is normal and whether that has positive or negative consequences. The understanding of sirenian welfare requirements, and a decision process for whether to support and maintain their natural habitats or to try to replicate it in a meaningful way in an artificial captive setting, is still in its early developmental stages and has dynamic qualities that are in need of urgent attention. In this chapter we use the knowledge and observations presented throughout the chapters on sirenians to outline a proposed standard approach for assessing welfare in individuals in wild populations, as well as guidelines for assessing captive groups of dugongs and manatees. In the wild, the suitability of the habitat and human impact on it, the limitations of carrying capacity, the dynamics of ecosystems, and the effects that the immediate environment will have on the known resident populations are examined. In captivity, we use the foundation of the Five Freedoms, based on experience derived from other captive species, and we combine this with experience from rehabilitating manatees in Europe and the United States and, more recently, dugongs in the Indo-Pacific, to identify requirements and to help us to assess the unique needs of these species when held in facilities. We present considerations and approaches to (1) holistically assess captive facilities and to assess the well-being of the individuals held in the facility, (2) derive a guideline for standard captive assessment, (3) determine if adequate welfare needs for the animals are being met, and (4) help to provide guidance on whether an animal is suitable for release after rehabilitation.
 
 
Floquet, Marc; Floquet, Nicole; Guiomar, Myette; Marchand, Didier; Lamotte, Didier (detail)
   
2007
Le gisement fossilifère à dugongs (siréniens) du synclinal de Taulanne: hécatombes, tsunamites/tempestites, enfouissement. In: Trois gisements fossilifères phares de la Réserve Géologique de Haute Provence:
57-83. Figs. 36-51.
Flora, Mark: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Flores-Cascante, Lavinia; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth; Auil, Nicole (detail)
   
2013
Diet items of manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in three priority sites for the species in Mexico and Belize.
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 5: 25-36. 3 tabs. 2 figs. Dec. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are herbivorous mammals with opportunistic habits that feed on approximately 60 species of plants. The focus of this paper was to identify diet elements of the manatee by fecal analysis in two sites in Mexico (Jonuta, Tabasco and Bahía de la Ascensión, Quintana Roo) and one site in Belize (Southern Lagoon). Samples were obtained from wild manatees and captive manatees temporarily captured for health assessment and sampling during 2004-2006. A total of 24 samples were analyzed. Diet components were assessed by microhistological analysis of feces. Items were separated and compared with bibliography and histological collections. Samples were also analyzed to detect invertebrates. Vegetal species found included Thalassia testudinum, Rhizophora mangle, Halodule wrightii, Ruppia sp. and Panicum sp., the latter confirmed for the first time for Mexico. No evidence of invertebrates was found in the samples. Relative importance of vegetal species consumed by manatees coincides with the findings reported for other areas in the Americas. Further systematic sampling efforts are needed in areaswhere manatee diet items are unknown.
Florida Power and Light Company: SEE ALSO Fritz, D., 1980; Van Meter, Victoria Brook; Wilcox, J. Ross. (detail)
 
 
Florida Power and Light Company (detail)
   
1980
Boaters' guide to manatees: the gentle giants. Featuring maps of manatee sanctuaries in Florida.
Miami, Florida Power & Light Co.: [2] + 18. 4 figs. 14 maps.
–Distributed free by the company as a public service. Ed. 1, 1 printing (50,000 copies, 1980). Ed. 2, 3 printings (22,000, 18,500, 1982; 20,000, 1983). Ed. 3, 4 printings (7,500, 15,000, 10,000, 1984; 10,000, 1985). Ed. 4, 1 printing (21,000, 1985). Ed. 5, 1 printing (15,000, 1986). Ed. 6, 1 printing (15,000, 1987). Ed. 7, 1 printing (25,000, 1988). Ed. 8, 1 printing (20,300, 1989). Total, 249,300 copies. Superseded by a set of maps published by Teall & Morrow.
  Ed. 5: [3] + 29. 8 figs. 24 maps. Ed. 6: Boaters' guide to manatees. Featuring maps of manatee protection zones in Florida. [3] + 29. 8 figs. 25 maps.
 
 
Flot, Léon (detail)
   
1885a
Note sur l'Halitherium schinzi.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)13: 439-441. 1 fig.
 
 
Flot, Léon (detail)
   
1885b
[Halitherium schinzi from Montmorency, near Paris.]
Naturaliste 3: 79.
 
 
Flot, Léon (detail)
   
1886
Description de Halitherium fossile Gervais.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)14: 483-518. Pls. 26-28.
–Describes the osteology of the Miocene species now known as Metaxytherium medium.
x
 
Flot, Léon (detail)
   
1887
Note sur le Prohalicore Dubaleni.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)15: 134-138. Pl. 1. Read Nov. 8, 1886; publ. with proceedings of Dec. 6, 1886 (see p. 11).
–Describes Prohalicore Dubaleni, n.gen.n.sp., from the Helvetian (Miocene) "carrières d'Odon", near Tartas (Landes, France); it is thought to be ancestral to Halicore by way of Felsinotherium. Briefly reviews other fossil sirs.; Rhytina is phyletically derived from Crassitherium, manatees and dugongs from Halitherium. Metaxytherium Lovisati is thought synonymous with Halitherium fossile. Also illustrates (138, pl. 1, fig. 7) a putative "new species" of Halitherium represented by two upper molars from the "Calcaire Grossier de Bazas (?)", a Lutetian (Middle Eocene) deposit.
 
 
Flower, Stanley Smyth (detail)
   
1900
On the mammalia of Siam and the Malay Peninsula.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1900(2): 306-376. Aug. 1900.
 
 
Flower, Stanley Smyth (detail)
   
1932
Notes on the Recent mammals of Egypt, with a list of the species recorded from that kingdom.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1932(2): 369-450. 2 tabs. July 8, 1932 (read Mar. 15, 1932).
–Reports that dugongs are rare on the Red Sea coast, and never found farther north than 25° N (445).
 
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1864
Note on the number of the cervical vertebrae in the Sirenia.
Nat. Hist. Rev. (n.s.) 4: 259-264.
 
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1870
An introduction to the osteology of the Mammalia: being the substance of the course of lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1870.
London, Macmillan & Co.: xi + 344. Illus.
–Ed. 3: Flower (1885).
x
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1874
Description of the skull of a species of Halitherium (H. canhami) from the Red Crag of Suffolk.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 30: 1-7. Pl. 1.
–Abstr.: Nature (London) 9: 13, 1873? Notice: R. Smith (1879). Description and discussion of H. canhami, n.sp., the first known fossil sirenian from England.
 
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1876
Hunterian lectures on the relations of extinct to existing Mammalia. [?Part 5: Sirenia.]
Nature (London) 13: 409-410.
x
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1881
Notes on the habits of the manatee.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881(2): 453-456. Aug. 1881 (read Apr. 5, 1881).
–Reviews literature on terrestrial locomotion by sirs. and expresses disbelief. Quotes accounts of the trapping of manatees on land in West Africa, and of a native society requiring capture of a manatee for admission. Accompanied by Crane's (1881) description of two captive manatees at Brighton.
x
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1884
On the arrangement of the orders and families of existing Mammalia.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1883(2): 178-186. Read Apr. 17, 1883.
–Considers sirs. not closely related to any other order (181); recognizes two families, Manatidae and Halicoridae (184).
 
 
Flower, William Henry (detail)
   
1885
An introduction to the osteology of the Mammalia. Ed. 3 (revised with the assistance of Hans Gadow).
London, Macmillan & Co.: xi + 382. 134 figs.
–German ed.: Leipzig, Engelmann, 1888.
 
 
Flower, William Henry; Garson, J. G. (detail)
   
1884
Catalogue of the specimens illustrating the osteology and dentition of vertebrated animals, Recent and extinct, contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.... Part II. Class Mammalia, other than man.
London, J. & A. Churchill (3 vols., 1884-1907): Vol. ?2: xliii + 779.
–Reports rib and vertebra fragments of Eocene "Halitherium" from Sanderville [= Sandersville], Georgia, presented by Sir Charles Lyell in 1868 (527). These specimens were apparently destroyed in World War II (Domning, Morgan & Ray, 1982: 12).
x
 
Flower, William Henry; Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1891
An introduction to the study of mammals, living and extinct.
London, Adam & Charles Black: xvi + 763. 357 figs.
–General survey of the habits and anatomy of Recent and fossil sirs. (212-225).
x
D
Floyd, D. N.; Miller, Theophile H.; Berry, William B. N. (detail)
   
1958
Miocene paleoecology in the Burkeville area, Newton County, Texas.
Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Socs. 8: 157-165. 2 pls. Oct. 1958.
–Reports "teeth of a sea cow and a ray and some bone fragments of turtles, catfish, and bony pikes ... associated with the valves of Ostrea normalis.... Sea cows and rays lived near the oysters and fed on them" (160-161). This Late Miocene "sea cow" was the "?Desmostylus" reported by Stenzel et al. (1944). Reinhart (1976: 286-287) identified the tooth fragments as proboscidean.
x
 
Fondi, R.; Pacini, P. (detail)
   
1974
Nuovi resti di sirenide dal Pliocene antico della Provincia di Siena.
Palaeontogr. Ital. 67(= n.s. 37): 37-53. 1 fig. Pls. 43-46.
–Describes new material of Metaxytherium forestii; synonymizes Felsinotherium with Metaxytherium; refers Ennouchi's (1954) specimen to M. forestii; concludes that this species was contemporaneous with M. serresii; and reports a scar possibly made by a shark tooth on an ulna of M. forestii.
Fonseca, Gustavo A. B. da: SEE Sousa-Lima et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Font i Sagué, N. (detail)
   
1926
Curs de geologica dinámica i estratigráfica aplicada a Catalunya. Ed. 2.
Barcelona.
–Sirs., 316.
 
 
Fontaneda, Hernando de Escalante (detail)
   
1854
Memoria de las cosas y costa y Indios de la Florida. In: Buckingham Smith (translator), Letter of Hernando de Soto, and memoir of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda.
Washington, privately printed: 1-67. 1 map.
–Other eds.: Documentos Inéditos 5: 532-548, Madrid, 1866; French transl. in Ternaux-Compans, Voyages 20: 9-42, Paris, 1841. Written circa 1575.
 
 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (F.A.O.), Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research (detail)
   
1978-82
Mammals in the seas.
Rome, F.A.O.: 4 vols.
–For sir. material, see especially vol. 1: 6, 136-138, 184 (1978); vol. 2: 137-151 (1979); vol. 4: 511-524 (1982). The material in vol. 4 is cited here as Ligon (1982) and Barnett & Johns (1982).
 
 
Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Vinar, Tomas; Alfoeldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A. (detail)
   
2015
Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals.
Nature Genetics 47(3): 272–275. 5 figs. DOI:10.1038/ng.3198. Mar. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.
 
 
Ford, Corey (detail)
   
1966
Where the sea breaks its back: the epic story of a pioneer naturalist and the discovery of Alaska.
Boston & Toronto, Little, Brown & Co.: x + 206.
–Bering's 1741 voyage and Steller's discovery of the sea cow.
 
D
Fordyce, R. Ewan (detail)
   
1985
Marine mammal evolution in the southwest Pacific. [Abstr.] In: R. Cooper (ed.), Hornibrook Symposium. Extended abstracts.
Rec. New Zealand Geol. Surv. 9: 47-49.
 
D
Fordyce, R. Ewan (detail)
   
2002
Fossil record [pp. 453-471, 15 figs.]. Fossil sites [pp. 471-482, 9 figs.]. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 453-482. 24 figs.
–In the Fossil Record article, fig. 15E (skull of Behemotops katsuiei) is mislabeled as Desmostylus. The Fossil Sites article includes discussions of selected localities, among which sirs. and/or desmostylians figure in the Eoc. of Egypt, Mioc. of the Chesapeake Bay, Mioc. of Sharktooth Hill, California, Mio-Plioc. of Peru, and Plio-Pleistocene of San Diego.
Forrester, Donald J.: SEE ALSO Beck & Forrester, 1988; Cardeilhac et al., 1981; Dailey et al., 1988; Odell et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Forrester, Donald J. (detail)
   
1992
Parasites and diseases of wild mammals in Florida.
Gainesville, Univ. Press of Florida: 1-479. Tabs. 91 figs.
x
 
Forrester, Donald J.; Black, D. J.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1979
Parasites of manatees. [Abstr.]
Abstrs. 10th Ann. Conf. & Workshop, Internatl. Assoc. Aquat. Animal Medicine (St. Augustine, Fla., Apr. 22-26, 1979): 5.
–Reports Opisthotrema cochleotrema, Chiorchis fabaceus, Plicatolabia hagenbecki, and Microphallidae spp. from 48 Florida manatees stranded between Oct. 1974 and Feb. 1979.
x
 
Forrester, Donald J.; White, Franklin H.; Woodard, J. C.; Thompson, N. P. (detail)
   
1975
Intussusception in a Florida manatee.
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 11(4): 566-568. Oct. 1975.
–Reports pathological findings on a manatee which died from ingesting a fishhook and line; includes bacteriological and pesticide residue analyses and data on distribution of Chiorchis fabaceus in the gut.
 
 
Forsten, Ann; Youngman, Phillip M. (detail)
   
1982
Hydrodamalis gigas.
Mamm. Species (Amer. Soc. Mammalogists) No. 165: 1-3. 2 figs. May 25, 1982.
Forster, Johann Reinhold: SEE ALSO Beniowski, M. A. von, 1790. (detail)
 
 
Forster, Johann Reinhold (detail)
   
1795
Faunula Indica id est Catalogus animalium Indiae Orientalis quae hactenus naturae curiosis innotuerunt; concinnatus a Joanne Latham ... et Hugone Davies....
Halae ad Salam (= Halle an der Saale), impensis Joannis Jacobi Gebaueri: 1-38.
–Allen 437. Engl. transl. in T. Pennant (ed.), Indian Zoology, ed. 2, London, R. T. Faulder, 1790. Lists Trichechus Manatus and Trichechus Dugong in the order Cete (5).
Forsythe, Steven E.: SEE Gerstein et al., 1999. (detail)
Fortelius, Mikael: SEE ALSO Janis & Fortelius, 1988. (detail)
x
D
Fortelius, Mikael (detail)
   
1985
Ungulate cheek teeth: developmental, functional, and evolutionary interrelations.
Acta Zool. Fennica No. 180: 1-76. 15 tabs. 43 figs. Sept. 15, 1985.
–Discusses the functional significance of some aspects of tooth replacement and tooth structure in Trichechus, Dugong, and Desmostylus (11, 52-53, 57, 65, 73).
 
 
Forth, Gregory (detail)
   
2021
Rare Animals as cryptids and supernaturals: the case of dugongs on Flores Island.
Anthrozoös 34(1): 61–76. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2021.1878681 Feb. 10, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Expanding on recent anthropological writing on cryptozoology, this paper demonstrates how animals perceived as both rare and cosmologically anomalous can be usefully compared with cryptids, "mystery" animals not currently recognized by scientific zoology. The case is advanced with reference to the dugong (Dugong dugon) as experienced by the Lio people of the eastern Indonesian island of Flores, who credit these large sea mammals with supernatural properties even while otherwise recognizing them as physical or natural creatures. Lio describe the seldom seen animals as half human and half fish and, as detailed in a widely known myth, descendants of a human female. Their human quality finds expression in dugongs' retaining or regaining human form, particularly in dreams, and in numerous magical uses made of dugong body parts, most of which are explicitly rationalized with reference to the animal's human origin. But while the spiritual or supernatural character of dugongs reflects their derivation from a human, Lio otherwise treat the animals as a kind of "fish," and most people will consume dugong flesh – a duality that finds further expression in the variety of names Lio give to dugongs. Combined with their unusual morphology and behavior (displaying numerous features of land mammals while living exclusively in the sea), it is the rarity of dugongs – understood as a quality of remaining "hidden" from all humans except those who are privileged to encounter one – that explains both their supernatural quality and their close similarity to cryptids. Accordingly, the paper aims to advance an anthropological study of rarity, conceived as a quality of not being regularly accessible to the perception of ordinary humans, as a factor connecting certain empirical animals both to spiritual beings and to the usual subjects of cryptozoology.
x
 
Fouda, Moustafa M. (detail)
   
1988
Status of some endangered marine animals and marine parks in the Egyptian Red Sea.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985) 1: 503-504. Oct. 1988.
–Briefly discusses Dugong dugon tabernaculi and considers it "extremely rare" in the Red Sea (503).
 
 
Fountain, Paul (detail)
   
1914
The River Amazon from its sources to the sea.
London, Constable & Co.: xi + 321.
–Brief account of manatees in the Amazon basin (302-304).
 
 
Fournier, R. C. (detail)
   
1994
Siren of the sea.
Asian Diver Mag. 3(1): 59-63.
–Pop. acc. of Philippine dugongs.
 
 
Fowler, M. F. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1978
Zoo and wildlife medicine.
Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co.
–Ed. 2: see Geraci (1986), Medway & Geraci (1986). Sirs., 550-604.
 
 
Fox, A. (detail)
   
1989
Crystal River's gentle giants.
Aquatics 11(2): 16, 18. Illus.
 
 
Fox, R. B. (detail)
   
1970
The Tabon Caves: archeological explorations and excavations on Palawan Islands, Philippines.
Monogr. Natl. Mus. No. 1.
 
 
Fox, Rodney (detail)
   
1991
The sea beyond the outback.
Natl. Geogr. 179(1): 42-73. Illus. Jan. 1991.
–Brief pop. acc. of dugongs at Shark Bay, Australia, with one underwater photo (48, 55-56).
 
 
Fraas, Eberhard (detail)
   
1904
Neue Zeuglodonten aus dem unteren Mitteleocän vom Mokattam bei Cairo.
Geol. Pal. Abh. (2)6(whole no. 10?): 197-220. 3 pls.
–Repr.: Mitt. Nat.-Kab. Stuttgart 27: 1-24, 3 pls.? Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 5: 374?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (2)10(3): 185-186?; Jour. Geol. 17: 183? Review: Nature (London) 70: 543-544?
 
 
Fraas, Eberhard (detail)
   
1905
Reptilien und Säugetiere in ihren Anpassungserscheinungen an das marine Leben.
Jahresh. Ver. Naturk. Württemberg 61: 347-386. 5 figs.
–Abstrs.: Ann. Soc. Zool. Belgique 40: xcvii-cxvi?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (2)11(3): 155? Sirs., 378.
 
 
Fraas, Oscar (detail)
   
1867
Aus dem Orient. Geologische Beobachtungen am Nil, auf der Sinai-Halbinsel und in Syrien.
Stuttgart, Ebner & Seubert: viii + 222. Figs. 4 pls.
x
 
Frailey, Carl D. (detail)
   
1986
Late Miocene and Holocene mammals, exclusive of the Notoungulata, of the Río Acre region, western Amazonia.
Contr. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County No. 374: 1-46. 7 tabs. 32 figs. May 15, 1986.
–Describes a lower molar of ?Ribodon associated with a Huayquerian (Late Miocene) fauna from the Río Acre on the Peru-Brazil border (5, 34-35).
Francis, Charles M.: SEE Payne & Francis, 1994. (detail)
 
 
Francis, Charles M. (detail)
   
2001
A photographic guide to mammals of South-east Asia including Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, Bali and Borneo.
–Dugong, 91, 2 figs.
 
 
Francis, Francis (detail)
   
1879
Manatee at the Brighton Aquarium.
Field 53(1368): 301. Mar. 15, 1879.
–A short paragraph reporting the manatee's arrival.
Francis, J.: SEE Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
Francis-Floyd, Ruth: SEE ALSO Cardeilhac et al., 1984; White & Francis-Floyd; White et al. (detail)
 
 
Francis-Floyd, Ruth; White, Jesse R.; Chen, C. L.; Cardeilhac, Paul T.; Cichra, C. E. (detail)
   
1991
Serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in captive manatees, Trichechus manatus.
Jour. Aquatic Anim. Health 3(1): 70-73.
x
 
Frankel, Josh (detail)
   
2007
Twilight of the sea cow.
[Berkeley (California), publ. by the author]: [1-44]. Illus.
–Small-format graphic "comic book" depicting the life of Steller's seacow and its hunting and killing by the Bering expedition. Comprises 43 pp. of drawings without text and 1 page of explanatory text. The simple drawings tell the story with accuracy and eloquence.
 
 
Franklin, K. J. (detail)
   
1948
Cardiovascular studies.
Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publs.
–Manatee heart described.
 
 
Frankovich, Thomas A.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Theriot, Edward C.; Stacy, Nicole I. (detail)
   
2018
Epizoic and apochlorotic Tursiocola species (Bacillariophyta) from the Skin of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Protist 169(4): 539-568. doi: 10.1016/j.protis.2018.04.002. Publ. online Apr. 16, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Until now only one group of diatoms, the Bacillariaceae, was known to contain heterotrophic representatives. We show that a second group, represented by species in the genus Tursiocola, has undergone evolutionary loss of photosynthesis within the Bacillariophyta. Heterotrophy was evidenced by the presence of only apochlorotic cells in live and motile specimens. Three species of Tursiocola (T. bondei sp. nov., T. alata sp. nov., and T. gracilis sp. nov.), of which at least two are apochlorotic, are described as new to science from the skin of Florida manatees. T. ziemanii and T. varicopulifera were also observed to be apochlorotic. A new morphological feature termed a "fastigium" was observed on some Tursiocola spp. and is described as an extension of the mantle margin at the valve apex that overhangs the apex and extends towards the valve face. The presence of greatly elevated marginal ridges on the valve face of T. alata sp. nov. is a newly observed morphological character within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses using ribosomal RNA sequences indicate that Tursiocola is monophyletic, though morphological character analysis suggests paraphyly as species of the closely related Epiphalaina genus are embedded within a larger Tursiocola clade.
 
 
Frankovich, Thomas A.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Stacy, Nicole I. (detail)
   
2015
Three new species of Tursiocola (Bacillariophyta) from the skin of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Phytotaxa 204(1): 33-48. 2 tabs. 71 figs. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.204.1.3. Mar. 27, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Three new species of Tursiocola are described from the skin of the West Indian manatee bringing the total number of known species in the genus to seven. The range of morphological diversity within the genus is greatly expanded. The number of poroid rows on the copulae is no longer a valid characteristic for the separation of Tursiocola from the ceticolous genus Epiphalaina. The presence of a butterfly-like structure in the central area of the former is at present the best criterion for separating the 2 genera. The 3 new Tursiocola species accounted for nearly 90% of all diatom valves on the manatee skin. No other diatom taxa previously described as new from the skin of cetaceans were present on the manatee.
 
 
Frantzius, Alexander von (detail)
   
1869
Die Säugethiere Costarica's, ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der geographischen Verbreitung der Säugethiere America's.
Arch. Naturgesch. 35(1): 247-325.
–Spanish transl.: Frantzius (1881). Manatee and its former hunting by Mosquito Indians, 304.
 
 
Frantzius, Alexander von (detail)
   
1881
Los mamiferos de Costa-Rica. Contribucion al conocimiento de la extension geográfica de los mamíferos de América.... Traduccion del aleman por D. R. Cortéz. In: L. Fernandez (ed.), Coleccion de documentos para la historia de Costa-Rica.
San José de Costa-Rica (4 vols.): Vol. 1.
–Transl. of Frantzius (1869). Manatee, 423.
 
 
Franzini, André M.; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da (detail)
   
2013
What do local people know about Amazonian manatees? Traditional ecological knowledge of Trichechus inunguis in the Oil Province of Urucu, AM, Brazil.
Natureza & Conservação (Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation) 11(1): 75-80. 1 tab. 3 figs. Supplementary material at abeco.org.br. July 2013.
–ABSTRACT: During 2005-2007, a series of interviews were carried out with the riverside populations of the Oil Province of Urucu (AM, Brasil). The main goal of this work was to characterize the knowledge of the inhabitants of this area regarding the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) (listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List). Interviews were conducted with 74 local inhabitants from 33 communities. Between 2004 and 2007, 20 poached or entangled Amazonian manatees were reported in the area. Poaching with harpoon is the principal cause of mortality, but manatees are also incidentally caught in fishing nets. Interviewers described details of manatee hunting techniques in the area. The trade of manatee meat, although currently forbidden by Brazilian laws, still occurs in the area. Data obtained from the interviews suggest a dietary preference of the manatee for at least 29 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. The interviewed fishermen showed a sound knowledge of Amazonian manatee biology and behavior. This information may be important to assist future conservation plans in the Amazon.
Fraser, G. D.: SEE Drewes et al., 1961. (detail)
Fraser, I. R.: SEE Hill et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Frassetto, Fabio (detail)
   
1915
Lo scheletro degli arti nell'uomo e nei vertebrati. Filogenesi ed ontogenesi.
Bologna, Libreria editrice Licinio Cappelli: 1-163. 95 figs.
–Sirs., 21.
 
 
Frazier, J. (detail)
   
1989
Sea cow; the last mermaid.
The India Magazine 9(3): 20-21, 23-25, 27.
x
 
Frazier, J. G.; Mundkur, Taej (detail)
   
1991
Dugong Dugong dugon Muller in the Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87(3): 368-379. 7 tabs. 2 figs. "Dec. 1990" (publ. Feb. 20, 1991).
–Summarizes dugong records from India and the Gulf of Kutch, gives local common names, and describes a male calf killed in a gillnet, emphasizing: external measurements, skin thickness and characteristics, hair density and distribution, flipper callosities (suggested to be vestigial nails), number of phalanges, measurements and weights of organs and gut contents, food plants, and intestinal trematodes. Concludes that the Gulf may harbor a sizable resident dugong population.
 
 
Frazier, John; Bertram, George Colin Lawder; Evans, Peter G. H. (detail)
   
1987
Turtles and marine mammals. In: A. J. Edwards & S. M. Mead (eds.), Key environments: Red Sea.
Oxford, Pergamon Press: 288-314.
 
 
Frechkop, Serge (detail)
   
1934
Notes sur les mammifères. 16. Les mammifères rapportés, en 1932, de l'Extrême-Orient par S.A.R. le Prince Léopold de Belgique.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 10(14): 1-37. 3 figs. 1 pl.
–Dugong skull and dentition.
Freeland, W. J.: SEE Bayliss & Freeland, 1989; Marsh, Freeland et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Freeman, Jerry; Quintero, Hector (detail)
   
1990
The distribution of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico: 1988-1989.
NTIS Document No. PB 91-137240: iv + 38. 5 tabs. 3 figs. Nov. 30, 1990.
 
 
Freess, Wolfgang B. (detail)
   
1991
Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig.
Altenburger Naturwiss. Forsch. 6: 1-74. Illus.
–Mentions Halitherium schinzii.
Freitas, J. F. Teixeira de: SEE Travassos et al., 1969. (detail)
x
 
Freudenthal, Matthew (detail)
   
1969
Fossiele zeekoeien in het Eoceen van Taulanne.
Experimenteel Geologisch Onderwijs 1969/70: 64-65.
–Engl. transl.: NTIS Document No. TT 78-53287, 1979. Account of the collection of several skulls and skeletons of Eocene sirs. in France.
Freund, Ludwig: SEE ALSO Dexler & Freund. (detail)
x
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1904
Die Osteologie der Halicoreflosse.
Zs. Wiss. Zool. 77(3): 363-397. 4 figs. Pls. 14-15.
–Abstr.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 10(3): 116-117? Study of the morphology, ontogeny, variation, and function of the manus of the dugong and other sirs., based on literature review and examination (with x-rays) of Torres Strait dugong specimens.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1905
Das Sternum von Halicore dugong.
Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 8: 425-438. 1 fig. Pls. 28-29.
x
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1907
Sirenen in Gefangenschaft.
Zool. Beob. 48(3): 65-73. Mar. 1907.
–Review of published accounts of manatees kept in captivity.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1908a
Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Schädels von Halicore dugong Erxl. In: R. W. Semon (ed.), Zoologische Forschungsreisen in Australien und dem Malayischen Archipel, Vol. 4.
Denkschr. Med.-natw. Ges. Jena 7(2): 557-626. 50 figs.
x
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1908b
Der Nasenknorpel der Sirenen.
Verh. Ges. Deutsch. Naturf. Ärzte (meeting at Dresden, Sept. 15-21, 1907) 79 (2. Teil, 1. Hälfte): 254-256.
–Abstr. of portions of Freund (1908a) relating to the cartilages of the nasal region.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1908c
Die Anpassung der Säugetiere ans Wasserleben.
Lotos 56(10): 324-325. Dec. 1908 (read Oct. 27, 1908).
–Lists morphological adaptations generally observed in aquatic mammals; sirs. mentioned only in passing.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1911a
Zur Morphologie des harten Gaumens der Säugethiere.
Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 13: 377-394. 4 figs. 1 pl.
–Abstr.: Verh. Internatl. Zool.-Congr. (Graz, or Jena, 1910?) 8: 557-558, 1912? Sirs., 377.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1911b
Zur Morphologie des Nasenknorpels.
Passow-Schäfers Beitr. Ohr. Nas. Rach. 4: 414-438.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1912a
Ueber die Testikondie und das Ligamentum latum der männlichen Säuger.
Verh. Internatl. Zool.-Congr. (Jena, 1910) 8: 541-548.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1912b
Der eigenartige Bau der Sirenenniere.
Verh. Internatl. Zool.-Congr. (Jena, 1910) 8: 548-557.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1913
Neues über Sirenen. (Sammelreferat.)
Naturwissenschaften (Berlin) 1: 258-261. 2 figs.
x
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1914a
Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sirenen.
Morph. Jahrb. (Leipzig) 49(3): 353-388. 22 figs. Pl. 16.
–Continuation of Freund (1908a); covers the ontogeny of the postcranial skeleton in the dugong embryo.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1914b
Neues über die Skelettentwicklung bei den Sirenen.
Verh. Ges. Deutsch. Naturf. Ärzte 85 (2. Teil, 1. Hälfte): 706. 1 pl.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1926
Erweiterung der Hirnventrikel (Hydrencephalon) und Rassenbildung.
Zs. Tierzücht. Züchtungsbiol. Tierernährung 6(3): 513-520.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1928
Bemerkungen über den Bau der Säugerpenis.
Zool. Anz. 75(5/6): 140-142.
 
 
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1930
Beiträge zur Morphologie des Urogenitalsystems der Säugetiere. I. und II.... II. Der weibliche Urogenitalapparat von Manatus.
Zs. Wiss. Biol., Abt. A, Zs. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 17(3): 417-440. 8 figs.
–Part I (pp. 417-424) deals with the male UG system of the rhinoceros; pp. 424-440 and figs. 6-8 concern the manatee.
x
D
Freund, Ludwig (detail)
   
1950
A bibliography of the mammalian order Sirenia.
Vĕstnik Československé Spolek Zool. (= _Mem. Czech. Zool. Soc_., Prague) 14: 161-181.
–Lists 409 titles alphabetically by author; no annotations or index.
 
 
Freundt de Castro, Eurico (detail)
   
1963
Nächtliche Jagd auf Sirenen (Trichechus manatus inunguis).
Natur. Zweimonatsschrift (Stuttgart, Deutscher Naturkundeverein) 71: 166-170.
x
 
Frey, Robert W.; Voorhies, Michael R.; Howard, James D. (detail)
   
1975
Estuaries of the Georgia coast, U.S.A.: sedimentology and biology. VIII. Fossil and Recent skeletal remains in Georgia estuaries.
Senckenbergiana Maritima 7: 257-295. 4 tabs. 1 fig. 3 pls. Dec. 22, 1975.
–German summ. Records the occurrence of "fragmentary ribs of a sea cow comparable to Trichechus manatus" (281-282) at Turtle River, Georgia; in Pl. 3, however, such rib fragments are said to be "of probable Miocene age".
x
 
Frey, Roland (detail)
   
1991
Zur Ursache des Hoden-Descensus (descensus testiculorum) bei Säugetieren: Die Galoppunfähigkeit der Testiconda. Teil II. (On the cause of the mammalian descent of testes (descensus testiculorum): Testiconda unable to perform galloping mode of locomotion. Part II.)
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Anat. Ontog. Tiere 121(4): 277-330. Figs. 8-11.
–Describes sir. skeletal and muscular anatomy (278-283), and compares sir. testicular anatomy and locomotion with that of other mammals, on the assumption that the sir. form of testicondy is primitive for mammals.
x
 
Frey, Roland (detail)
   
1994a
Der Zusammenhang zwischen Lokomotionsweise, Begattungsstellung und Penislänge bei Säugetieren. I. Testiconda (Mammalia mit intraabdominaler Hodenlage).
Zs. Zool. Syst. Evol.-forsch. 32(2): 137-155. 11 figs. June 1994.
–Engl. summ. Argues that venter-to-venter copulation and a relatively long penis in sirs. and cetaceans are necessitated by their relatively short and rigid lumbar region and enlarged tail (137, 152-153).
 
 
Frey, Roland (detail)
   
1994b
Der Zusammenhang zwischen Lokomotionsweise, Begattungsstellung und Penislänge bei Säugetieren. II. Testiphaena.... [The connection between type of locomotion, mating location, and penis length in mammals: II. Testiphaena (mammals with extraabdominal testicular position).]
Zs. Zool. Syst. Evol.-forsch. 32(3): 163-179.
 
 
Friaes, P. (detail)
   
1997
O extermínio do peixe-boi. 2nd ed., revised.
Belém, New Graphic, 1-113.
 
 
Friant, Madeleine (detail)
   
1947
Recherches sur le fémur des Phocidae [principalement effectuées à l'aide des matériaux du bassin tertiaire d'Anvers (Musée royal d'Histoire naturelle de Belgique)].
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 22(2): 1-51. 20 figs. 4 pls.
x
 
Friant, Madeleine (detail)
   
1954a
Les principales caractéristiques du cerveau des ordres actuels d'ongulés (Ungulata sensu lato): Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Sirenia.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 239(16): 1004-1006. Oct. 18, 1954.
–Summarizes brain characteristics of sirs. (1005-1006).
x
 
Friant, Madeleine (detail)
   
1954b
Le cerveau du lamantin (Manatus inunguis Natterer).
Vierteljahresschrift Naturf. Ges. Zürich 99(2): 129-135. 6 figs. June 30, 1954.
–Describes the gross anatomy of the brain of the Amazonian manatee, comparing it with those of other living and fossil sirs. Comparisons with other animals are made by means of the "coefficients of cephalization" proposed by Dubois and Anthony.
 
 
Friant, Madeleine (detail)
   
1957-58
Morphologie et développement du cerveau des mammifères euthériens. III. Série des ongulés.
Ann. Soc. Zool. Belgique 88: 321-367. 40 figs.
x
 
Friedman-Rudovsky, Jean (detail)
   
2013
Marine studies show potential for U.S.-Cuban collaboration.
Science 341(6145): 446-447. 1 fig. Aug. 2, 2013.
–Discusses collaborative work on manatees by Cuban biologists and James A. Powell's group of researchers in Florida (447).
 
 
Friedrich, Hermann (detail)
   
1966
Hautstücke der Stellerschen Seekuh Rhytina gigas Zimmermann 1780 im Übersee-Museum.
Veröff. Überseemus. Bremen, Ser. A, 3(5): 265-267. 2 figs. Nov. 20, 1966.
 
 
Frisch, Johann Leonhard (detail)
   
1775
Das Natur-system der vierfuessigen Thiere in Tabellen, darinnen alle Ordnungen, ....
Glogau.
–"Manati", 23. The nomenclature is non-binominal and non-Linnaean.
Fritsche, A. E.: SEE Squires & Fritsche, 1978. (detail)
 
 
Fritz, Debbie (detail)
   
1980
Florida's manatee: an educator's guide.
Florida Audubon Soc. & Florida Dept. Nat. Resources: 1-64. 25 figs.
–Subsequent revised eds., 1982, 1983, 1984; distributed free by the Florida Power & Light Co. Superseded by Delaney et al. (1986). Includes (among other information and references) natural history data (11-17), the text of Florida's Manatee Sanctuary Act of 1978 (19-21), maps of manatee protection zones in the state (22-35), and suggested activities and quizzes for secondary-school students (56-64). The 1984 ed. (40 unnumbered pages; illus.) omits most of the earlier text and maps and includes more student activities and puzzles.
x
 
Frobenius, Leo (detail)
   
1913
The voice of Africa, being an account of the travels of the German Inner African Exploration Expedition in the years 1910-1912.... Tr[ansl]. by Rudolf Blind.
London, Hutchinson & Co. (2 vols.). 200 figs. 70 pls. 4 maps. Vol. 1: xxiii + 349.
–Brief account of the manatee in Yoruban mythology, and of religious observances in manatee hunting (1:199).
Frohlich, Richard Kipp: SEE Packard, Frohlich et al., 1984, 1985; Packard et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Frost, M. D. (detail)
   
1977
Wildlife management in Belize: program status and problems.
Wildl. Soc. Bull. 5: 48-51.
 
 
Frost, O. W. (detail)
   
1986
Steller's sea cow.
Alaska Fish & Game 1986(1)?: 8-9, 20-21. Jan.-Feb. 1986.
Frye, Fredric L.: SEE ALSO Domning & Frye, 1975; Loughman et al., 1970. (detail)
x
 
Frye, Fredric L.; Herald, Earl S. (detail)
   
1969
Osteomyelitis in a manatee.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 155(7): 1073-1076. 5 figs. Oct. 1, 1969.
–Describes the treatment and medication given for an infected harpoon wound to a young male T. inunguis from Colombia, captive at Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, California.
 
 
Fryer, J. C. F. (detail)
   
1910
Bird and Denis Islands, Seychelles.
Trans. Linn. Soc. London (2)14: 15-20.
 
 
Fuchs, Herman (detail)
   
1959
Sziréna-lelet Erdélyből (Ein Sirenenfund aus Siebenbürgen).
Földt. Közlöny 89(3): 326-328. 1 fig.
–In Hungarian; German summ.
x
 
Fuchs, Herman (detail)
   
1970
Schädelfragment einer Sirene aus dem Eozän von Cluj, SR Rumänien.
Geologie 19(10): 1185-1190. 3 figs. 1 pl.
–Romanian, Engl., & Russian summs. Describes a skull roof of "?Halitherium sp." thought to represent a new species or a new genus ancestral to Halitherium, and compares it with other species of Halitherium and with Sirenavus.
 
 
Fuchs, Herman (detail)
   
1971
Contribuţiila cunoaşterea răspîndirii stratigrafice şi geografice a sirenidelor în Bazinul Transilvaniei. [On the stratigraphic and geographic distribution of Oligocene Sirenia in the Transylvanian Basin.]
Bul. Soc. Şti. Geol. R. S. România 13: 195-200. 3 pls.
–In Romanian; Engl. & Russian summs. Reports Oligocene rib fragments.
x
 
Fuchs, Herman (detail)
   
1973
Contribuţiuni la cunoaşterea sirenidelor fosile din Bazinul Transilvaniei (IV) Asupra unui fragment de humerus din Cheia Baciului (Cluj). (Contributions à l'étude des siréniens fossiles du bassin de la Transylvanie (IV) Sur un fragment d'humérus de Cheia Baciului (Cluj).)
Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Ser. Geol.-Min. 18(2): 71-77. 1 fig.
–In Romanian; Russian & French summs. Describes the proximal end of a humerus from the Priabonian (Late Eocene) of Romania which resembles those of Eotheroides and Halitherium.
 
 
Fuchs, Herman (detail)
   
1975
[Publication in Cluj, Romania, for a hundred years relating to geology and paleontology in retrospect.]
Földt. Közlöny 105(1): 89-91.
–In Hungarian. Halitherium.
 
 
Fuchs, Herman Brassói (detail)
   
1988
[Contribution to the knowledge of fossil sirenians from the Transylvanian basin (Romania): VI. Forearm bones from the Upper Eocene of Klausenburg (Cluj - Napoca).]
Földt. Közlöny 118(1): 49-60. 5 pls.
–In Hungarian; Hungarian, German, & Russian summs. This Herman Fuchs is the same as the author of the 1959-1975 references cited above; he began to use "Brassói Fuchs" as a surname late in life.
 
 
Fuchs, Herman Brassói (detail)
   
1990
Adatok az Erdélyi-medence ásatag szirénjeinek ismeretéhez (VII.): Szirénfogak Kolozsvár (Cluj, Románia) környékéről. (Einige Angaben zur Kenntnis von fossilen Sirenen (VII). Sirenenzähne aus der Umgebung von Cluj (Klausenburg, Rumänien).)
Földtani Közlöny 120(1-2): 89-92. 1 pl.
–In Hungarian; German & Russian summs. Describes three sir. tusks from the Late Eocene of Romania.
x
 
Fuchs, Hugo L. (detail)
   
1908
Über das Vorkommen selbständiger knöcherner Epiphysen bei Sauropsiden.
Anat. Anz. 32(14): 352-360. 4 figs. Apr. 16, 1908.
–Quotes from von Zittel the statement that sirs. and monotremes lack vertebral epiphyses (353).
x
 
Fuchs, Theodor (detail)
   
1868
Die Tertiärbildungen der Umgebung von Eggenburg.
Jb. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 18(4): 584-598. 1 fig. Pl. 16. Oct.-Dec. 1868.
–Mentions ribs of "Halitherium" (i.e., Metaxytherium krahuletzi) found in the Schinder-Graben locality at Eggenburg, Austria (591).
 
 
Fuchs, Werner (detail)
   
1977
Einige Beiträge zur Tertiär- und Quartärstratigraphie Ober- und Niederösterreichs.
Verh. Geol. Bundesanst. Wien 1977(3): 231-241.
–Mentions fossil sir. ribs from Austria (238).
 
 
Fuentes y Guzmán, Francisco Antonio de (detail)
   
1932-33
Recordación florida; discurso historial y demostración natural, material, militar y política del reyno de Guatemala....
Guatemala, Tipografia Nacional: 3 vols. Illus.
–Also a Madrid ed., 1882-83, lacking pt. I, lib. 17. Seventeenth-century account of Guatemala. Gives a crude fig. of a manatee, after Clusius (reproduced by Durand, 1983: 170-171).
 
 
Fuentes, M. M. P. B, Beatty, B; Delean, S; Grayson, J; Lavender, S; Logan, M; Marsh, H. (detail)
   
2016
Spatial and temporal variation in the effects of climatic variables on dugong calf production.
PLoS One 11960 1-14. PONE-D-15-52097R1
 
 
Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Cleguer, Christophe; Liebsch, Nikolai; Bedford, Guy; Amber, David; Hankin, Charlie; McCarthy, Phillip; Shimada, Takahiro; Whap, Terrence; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2013
Adapting dugong catching techniques to different cultural and environmental settings.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(1): 159-166. 2 figs. Jan. 2013.
 
 
Fuentes-Buxó, R.; Fuentes-Buxó, A. (detail)
   
2016
Troballa de restes de sireni al Lutecià (Eocè mitjà) de Santa Brígida (Amer, La Selva, Girona).
Treballs del Museu de Geologia de Barcelona 22: 19-24. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–-In Catalan. ABSTRACT: Finding of sirenian remains in the Lutetian (Middle Eocene) of Santa Brígida (Amer, La Selva, Girona). The finding of fossil bones in the surroundings of the Santa Brígida hermitage (Amer municipality, comarca of La Selva, Girona province, Catalonia) is reported. The fossils are included in hard rock and have not been recovered. They have been identified as belonging to an indeterminate Sirenia. The outcrop is located in the Lower to Middle Lutetian (Middle Eocene) Tavertet Formation (also known as Girona Fm.). Thus, the finding corresponds to the oldest sirenian remains of Western Europe.
  RESUM: Es dona a conèixer la troballa d'ossos fòssils als voltants de l'ermita de Santa Brígida (Amer, La Selva, Girona). Els fòssils estan inclosos en roca dura i no han estat extrets. S'han identificat com pertanyents a un Sirenia indeterminat. L'aflorament correspon a la Formació Tavertet (també coneguda com Fm. Girona) del Lutecià inferior a mitjà (Eocè mitjà). Així, la troballa correspon a les restes més antigues de sireni conegudes a Europa Occidental.
 
 
Führer von Haimendorff, Christoph (= Fürer-Haimendorff, Christoph von) (detail)
   
1612
Itinerarium Ægypti, Arabiæ, Palæstinæ, Syriæ, aliarumque regionum orientalium....
Nuremberg, Abraham Wagenmann: 1-118. Illus.
–German transl.: Nuremberg, W. Endters, 1646. Original account written ca. 1565? Said by G. G. Simpson (1930a) to be "the earliest modern and unequivocal first-hand reference to the dugong.'
Fuiman, L. A.: SEE Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
Fujie, Tsutomu: SEE Uozumi et al., 1966. (detail)
 
D
Fujii, Hirotoshi (detail)
   
1953
On the Desmostylus-bearing formation in the Furukawa Uryu coal mine, Uryu district, Ishikari province, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 59(695): 400-401. Illus.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Fujii, S. (detail)
   
1961
Miocene deposits at Akebi, Toyama Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 67: 401.
 
D
Fujii, S.; Mori, G. (detail)
   
1964
Miocene turtles from Akebi, Shimoniikawa-gun, Toyama Prefecture, Japan.
Mem. Geol. Geogr. Toyama Pref. No. 4: 95-97.
 
D
Fujimoto, H.; Sakamoto, O. (detail)
   
1978
A preliminary report on Paleoparadoxia sp. discovered from the Tertiary system of the Chichibu basin, central Japan.
Bull. Chichibu Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 18: 1-10. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
 
D
Fujita, Kazuo; Ogose, Sunao (detail)
   
1951
On the locality of the Desmostylus specimen found at Togari, Gifu Prefecture.
Geology as a Hobby (Shumi-no-Chigaku) 5(1): 16-22. 2 figs.
Fujita, T.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
Fujita, Tamio: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
D
Fujiwara, Shin-ichi (detail)
   
2009
Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals.
Jour. Morph. 270: 1107-1121. 4 tabs. 8 figs.
–Concludes that Desmostylus had more upright forelimbs than Ashoroa or Paleoparadoxia.
 
D
Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R. (detail)
   
2012
Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods.
Proc. Roy. Soc. B 279: 2561-2570. 2 tabs. 3 figs. + 50 pp. of electronic Supplementary Material. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0190 Publ. online Feb. 22, 2012.
–Concludes that desmostylians were "upright/sagittally locomoting taxa", rather than sprawling.
 
D
Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Inuzuka, Norihisa; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro (detail)
   
2009
Relationship between scapular position and structural strength of rib cage in quadruped animals.
Jour. Morph. 270: 1084-1094. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Concludes that the scapula of Paleoparadoxia media was oriented like that of other quadrupedal mammals, not in the position suggested by a "herpetiform" or sprawling reconstruction.
Fukusawa, Hitoshi: SEE Kimura et al., 1995. (detail)
Fukushima, Minoru: SEE Miyazaki et al. (detail)
x
 
Fuller, James (detail)
   
2014
Only in the Caribbean.
Zing Caribbean (Liat Caribbean Airline) No. 23: 48-53. 10 figs. Apr.-June 2014.
–Pop. acc. of 10 Caribbean animals (West Indian manatee, 51, 1 fig.).
x
 
Funaioli, U.; Simonetta, A. M. (detail)
   
1966
The mammalian fauna of the Somali Republic: status and conservation problems.
Monitore Zool. Ital. (Suppl.) 74: 285-347. 23 maps. Dec. 20, 1966.
–Gives vernacular names (gel magno, geber magno, n'guva) and localities, and briefly mentions the rainy-season occurrence and problems of conservation of dugongs in the Somali Republic (317).
Funderburg, John B.: SEE ALSO Smith et al., 1960. (detail)
x
 
Funderburg, John B. (detail)
   
1960
Fossil manatee from North Carolina.
Jour. Mamm. 41(4): 521. Nov. 11, 1960.
–Reviews records of Recent manatees in North Carolina, and reports a mandible from a Wisconsinian (Pleistocene) coquina deposit. This specimen was illustrated by Domning (1982b: fig. 7).
 
 
Furlow, Leonard T. (detail)
   
1976
Saving our "mermaids".
The Ensign (U.S. Power Squadrons), Jan. 1976: 24. 1 fig.
 
 
Furman, J. (detail)
   
1940?
Tachash.
Tarbiz 12 (1940-41): 218-229. 1 fig.
–In Hebrew. A discussion of the identification of the animal called tachash in the Bible (q.v.), with a critique of Aharoni (1937).
Furuhata, Kitao: SEE Aoki et al., 1938. (detail)
Furusawa, Hitoshi: SEE ALSO Domning & Furusawa, 1995; Kimura et al., 1995; Shinohara et al., 1985; Takikawa Sea Cow Geological Investigation Group, 1984. (detail)
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1984
Discovery of a juvenile sirenian rib from the Lower Pliocene in the Sorachi River, Takikawa City, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 90(5): 345-347. 4 figs. May 1984.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1987
[Sirenian fossils from Japan.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 49-50. 1 tab. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1988
A new species of hydrodamaline Sirenia from Hokkaido, Japan.
Takikawa City (Japan), Takikawa Mus. of Art & Nat. Hist.: 1-73. 4 tabs. 31 figs. 6 pls.
–Japanese transl.: Furusawa (1989). Describes Hydrodamalis spissus, n.sp. (sic; emended to H. spissa by Furusawa, 1990).
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1989
[Study of the Takikawa sea cow: a message from 5 million years ago.]
Takikawa City (Japan), Takikawa Mus. of Art & Nat. Hist.: 1-81. 4 tabs. Frontisp. 33 figs. 6 pls. Mar. 31, 1989.
–Japanese transl. of Furusawa (1988), with an added frontispiece and two new figures.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1990
Scenario of the sirenian evolution in the North Pacific Ocean.
Prof. Akira Kasugai Memorial Vol.: 97-104. 4 figs. Mar. 1990.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1994
The survey and subjects of North Pacific sirenian evolution from the view point of paleobiogeography.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collaboration in Japan 43: 99-110. 3 figs. July 1994.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1995
Steller's sea-cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) in the Bering Island, Kamschatka.
Fossils (Pal. Soc. Japan) No. 58: 1-9. 1 tab. 6 figs. June 30, 1995.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1996
New material of sirenian fossil from the upper Miocene of Numata-cho, Hokkaido, Japan.
Fossils No. 60: 1-11. 3 tabs. 10 figs. June 30, 1996.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Reports a partial postcranial skeleton of Dusisiren sp. from the Mashike Formation, Shintotsukawa Group.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
2004
A phylogeny of the North Pacific Sirenia (Dugongidae: Hydrodamalinae) based on a comparative study of endocranial casts.
Pal. Research 8(2): 91-98. 1 tab. 4 figs. 2 appendices. June 30, 2004.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
2005
Evolution of the North Pacific Sirenia (Hydrodamalinae) and their paleoenvironment.
Fossils (Palaeontological Soc. Japan) No. 77: 29-33. 1 tab. 3 figs. Mar. 2005.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
2013
Consideration of the enlargement of body size in Sirenia.
Jour. Fossil Research 45(2): 55-60. 5 figs. Feb. 2013.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Relates the increase in body size and loss of functional teeth in the Hydrodamalinae to climatic cooling and consequent changes in marine vegetation.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1982
Discovery of new species of Sirenia from the Lower Pliocene in the Sorachi River, Takikawa City, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 88(10): 849-852. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–In Japanese. Reports a partial skeleton of Hydrodamalis sp.; the "new species" is not named here but is H. spissa Furusawa, 1988.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1995
Sirenian fossils (Hydrodamalis) from Early Pliocene of Hombetsu and Early Pleistocene of Kuromatsunai, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 49(4): 298-301. 4 figs. July 1995.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi; Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
1994
Steller's sea-cow (Sirenia: Hydrodamalis gigas) from the Middle Pleistocene Mandano Formation of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan.
Fossils No. 56: 26-32. 1 tab. 4 figs. June 1994.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi; Numata Fossil Research Group (detail)
   
1990
Discovery and significance of the Takikawa sea cow (Hydrodamalis spissa) from Numata-cho, Uryu-gun, Hokkaido, Japan.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 44(4)(229): 224-228. 4 figs. July 1990.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Furusawa, Hitoshi; Maeda, Toshitsugu; Yamashita, Shigeru; Sagayama, Tsumoru; Igarashi, Yaeko; Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1993
Geologic age and paleoenvironment of marine mammal fossils from Numata-cho, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 47(2)(245): 133-145. 3 tabs. 5 figs. Mar. 1993.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
Furuta, Masami: SEE Marshall et al., 2003. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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