Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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G

x
 
G. L. D. (= Duvernoy, Georges Louis?) (detail)
   
1804
Recherches d'anatomie comparée sur les dents, par l. C. Cuvier.
Bull. Sciences Soc. Philomathique Paris 3(82): 165-168 ("165*-169* [i.e., 265-269]", according to Allen). "Nivôse, an 12 de la République" (= Dec. 23, 1803-Jan. 21, 1804).
–Allen 521; he cites the author as "G.", the date as 1811 (the date of the completed volume), and the issue number, mistakenly, as 62. J. C. Smith 160; she ascribes this paper to G. Cuvier himself, rather than to "G.L.D.", the apparent rapporteur.
  P. 165: {"Dans le dugong, l'ivoire est homogène; il en est de même dans le narval, dont la défense est très-compacte."}
 
D
Gabuniya, L. K.; Vekua, A. K. (detail)
   
1974
Ob obraze zhizni i sistematicheskom polozhenii gigantskogo damana iz Kvabebi. [The mode of life and taxonomic position of the giant coney from Kvabebi.]
Soobshch. Akad. Nauk Gruz. SSR 73(2): 489-492.
–In Russian; Georgian & Engl. summs.
Gadow, Hans Friedrich: SEE ALSO Flower, W. H., 1885. (detail)
 
 
Gadow, Hans Friedrich (detail)
   
1898
A classification of Vertebrata, recent and extinct.
London, Adam & Charles Black: x + 82.
–Rev.: Nat. Sci. (London) 13: 340-341? Sirs., 43.
 
 
Gaeth, A. P.; Short, R. V.; Renfree, M. B. (detail)
   
1999
The developing renal, reproductive, and respiratory systems of the African elephant suggest an aquatic ancestry.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96(10): 5555-5558. Illus. May 11, 1999.
 
 
Gagnaison, Cyril; Vautier, Yannick; Proudhon, Benoit (detail)
   
2016
Un sirénien éocène dans les Pyrénées aragonaises: contexte géologique du site de Janovas (Huesca, Aragon, Espagne). [An Eocene sirenian in the Aragonese Pyrenees: geological context of the Janovas site (Huesca, Aragon, Spain).]
Revue de Paléobiologie (Geneva) 35(2): 447-457. 7 figs. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.269615. Dec. 2016.
–RÉSUMÉ: Le site paléontologique inédit de Janovas est décrit. Il se situe sur le flanc ouest de l'anticlinal de Boltaña dans les Pyrénées espagnoles (Huesca, Province d'Aragon). Le contexte stratigraphique place ce site au début du Lutétien et plus précisément au toit du dernier banc de calcaire marin de l'Unité des Calcaires de Boltaña (Formation de Guara). La principale découverte est un squelette en connexion anatomique presque complet d'un sirénien de la famille des ?Dugongidae indet. Ce fossile a été trouvé pris dans un debris flow en lien étroit avec la tectonique syn-sédimentaire locale. Ce contexte taphonomique si particulier et la qualité de conservation de ce type de fossile sont des nouveautés dans l'Eocène de l'anticlinal de Boltaña.
 ABSTRACT: The unpublished paleontological site of Janovas is described. It is located on the western flank of the Boltaña anticline in the Spanish Pyrenees (Huesca, Aragon Province). The site is stratigraphically located at the top of the Boltaña Limestones Unit (Guara Formation). Stratigraphic evidence dates the site as Early Lutetian. The main finding is a nearly complete sirenian (?Dugongidae indet.) skeleton in anatomical connection. This fossil was found in a debris flow created by the local syn-sedimentary tectonics. The very specific taphonomic context of the site together with the good quality of conservation of the fossil are unusual in the Eocene of the Boltaña anticline.
Gaimard, Joseph: SEE Quoy & Gaimard. (detail)
Gala, G.: SEE Bourlière et al., 1976. (detail)
Galantsev, V. P.: SEE ALSO Mukhametov & Galantsev, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Galantsev, V. P. (detail)
   
1986
[On certain functional, morphological adaptations in the venous system of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 331-337.
–In Russian.
 
 
Galantsev, V. P.; Kuz'min, D. A. (detail)
   
1989
Trends in development of adaptive characters in the venous system of hydro- and amphibiont mammals.
Zool. Zhur. 68(10): 107-117.
–In Russian; Engl. summ.
x
 
Galantsev, V. P.; Mukhametov, L. M. (detail)
   
1984
On functional and structural adaptations of cardiovascular system in the manatee Trichechus manatus.
Zhur. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 20(3): 288-293. 1 tab. 2 figs. May-June 1984.
–In Russian; Engl. summ. Engl. transl.: Jour. Evol. Biochem. Physiol. 20(3): 201-205, Jan. 1985. Page references in the Index are to this Engl. transl. Reports electrocardiographic observations of heart rhythms during diving in a captive adult T. manatus, and briefly describes the locations of major venous sinuses. Compares both sets of data with the conditions generally found in other diving mammals. Diving bradycardia was observed and was especially distinct just before surfacing. Cardiac arrhythmia was significant but highly variable.
Gale, N. B.: SEE Montgomery et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
Gales, Nicholas J.; McCauley, Robert D.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Holley, David K. (detail)
   
2004
Change in abundance of dugongs in Shark Bay, Ningaloo and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia: evidence for large-scale migration.
Wildlife Research 31: 283-290. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
x
 
Galis, Frietson (detail)
   
1999
Why do almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae? Developmental constraints, Hox genes, and cancer.
Jour. Exper. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 285(1): 19-26. 1 tab. 3 figs. Apr. 15, 1999.
–Suggests that reduction of number of cervical vertebrae in manatees and sloths is permitted by their low metabolic rates, which lower their susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage and cancer that might otherwise result from mutations in the Hox genes controlling vertebral number.
x
 
Gallagher, Michael D. (detail)
   
1976
The dugong Dugong dugon (Sirenia) at Bahrain, Persian (Arabian) Gulf.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 73(1): 211-212. "Apr. 1976" (publ. Dec. 22, 1976).
–See also errata in vol. 75(2): 558, "Aug. 1978" (publ. Feb. 2, 1979). Gives sighting and stranding records (1969-74) and notes on 7 skulls deposited in the British Museum; causes of death unknown. Mentions the Bahraini vernacular names baqarat al bahr and baqara seit.
x
 
Gallagher, William B.; Parris, David C.; Grandstaff, Barbara Smith; DeTample, Craig (detail)
   
1989
Quaternary mammals from the continental shelf off New Jersey.
Mosasaur: Jour. Delaware Valley Paleo. Soc. 4: 101-110. 1 tab. 7 figs.
–Reports a radius-ulna of Trichechus sp., possibly Pleistocene in age, dredged off New Jersey - evidently the northernmost known occurrence of a manatee in North America (107-108).
Gallivan, G. James: SEE ALSO Best et al., 1982. (detail)
x
 
Gallivan, G. James (detail)
   
1980
Hypoxia and hypercapnia in the respiratory control of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Physiol. Zool. 53(3): 254-261. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Portuguese transl.: Gallivan (1981). Measurements on three manatees indicate that carbon dioxide rather than oxygen is the important factor in the control of ventilation and diving.
n
 
Gallivan, G. James (detail)
   
1981
Hipoxia e hipercapnia no controle respiratório do peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis).
Acta Amazonica 11(4): 679-687. 1 tab. 6 figs. Dec. 1981.
–Engl. summ. Portuguese transl. of Gallivan (1980).
x
 
Gallivan, G. James; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1980
Metabolism and respiration of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Physiol. Zool. 53(3): 245-253. 2 tabs. 6 figs.
–Abstr.: Ciencia e Cultura 30(7): 508, 1978 (in Portuguese)? Portuguese transl.: Gallivan & Best (1981). Measurements on six manatees showed a low metabolic rate, breathing frequency, and minute ventilation, and high oxygen extraction and carbon dioxide output.
n
 
Gallivan, G. James; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1981
Metabolismo e respiração do peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis).
Acta Amazonica 11(1): 103-111. 2 tabs. 6 figs. Mar. 1981.
–Engl. summ. Portuguese transl. of Gallivan & Best (1980).
x
 
Gallivan, G. James; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1986
The influence of feeding and fasting on the metabolic rate and ventilation of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Physiol. Zool. 59(5): 552-557. 3 tabs. 1 fig. Sept.-Oct. 1986.
–Measurements on captive manatees fed grass (Brachiaria) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia) showed no increase in metabolic rate after feeding (= specific dynamic action), probably due to the slow rate of food passage through the digestive tract. Two weeks of fasting did not reduce metabolic rate, again because much of the weight loss during the fast was attributable to emptying of the gut. Also notes differences in chewing rates correlated with body size and diet.
x
 
Gallivan, G. James; Best, Robin Christopher; Kanwisher, John W. (detail)
   
1983
Temperature regulation in the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis.
Physiol. Zool. 56(2): 255-262. 4 figs. Apr. 1983.
–Summ.: New Scientist, Dec. 1, 1983: 654, 1 fig. Core temperatures of two animals were measured (with swallowed transmitters) at 35-36 C and varied with water temperature within the thermoneutral zone; below that zone (i.e., below 22-23 C) they were maintained, primarily by increase in activity. Their primary mechanism for thermoregulation seemed to be changes in peripheral circulation, aided by subcutaneous fat insulation. Speculates that cold-related mortality and limits to distribution in T. manatus may be due less to physiology than to nutritional status and food availability.
x
 
Gallivan, G. James; Kanwisher, John W.; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1986
Heart rates and gas exchange in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in relation to diving.
Jour. Compar. Physiol. B: Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. 156(3): 415-423. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–Electrocardiograms and respiratory gas measurements of unrestrained captive animals showed a constant heart rate (here defined as the "normal" rate) during dives, slight respiratory tachycardia, and marked (probably fright-induced) bradycardia when the manatees were forced to prolong their dives. Because their metabolism is low, it can remain aerobic during most dives, and changes in alveolar gas composition are slower than in other marine mammals. Metabolic acidosis is apparently compensated for by metabolic rather than respiratory alkalosis.
 
 
Gallo Reynoso, J. P. (detail)
   
1983
Notas sobre la distribución del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en las costas de Quintana Roo.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 53(1): 443-448.
 
 
Galobart, A.; Maroto, J.; Ros, J. (detail)
   
1992
Troballa d'un sireni de l'Eocè a la vall del Llèmena.
Quaderns C.E.C.B. Banyoles 1990-91: 85-94.
 
 
Galvano, Antonio [= Galvão] (detail)
   
1862
The discoveries of the world, from their first originall unto the yeare of our Lord 1555.... Now reprinted, with the original Portuguese text....
London, Hakluyt Society.
–First ed., Lisbon, 1563; first Engl. ed., London, 1601.
Gambaryan, P. P.: SEE ALSO Sukhanov et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Gambaryan, P. P.; Sukhanov, V. B. (detail)
   
1986
[Structure, functions and adaptive features of the skeletal musculature of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 188-305. Tabs. 4-14. Figs. 68-113.
–In Russian.
 
 
Gambaryan, S. P. (detail)
   
1986
[Anatomy of the kidney of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 338-341. Figs. 132-133.
–In Russian.
 
 
Gândavo, Pêro de Magalhães de (detail)
   
1576
Historia da provincia Sãcta Cruz a que vulgar mête chamamos Brasil ... dirigida ao muito illtre. sñor Dom Lionis pra governador que foy de Malaca & das mais partes do Sul na India.
Lisbon, Antonio Gonsalvez: 48 leaves.
–Facsimile repr. & Engl. transl.: New York, Cortes Society (2 vols.), 1922, repr. 1969. Also several other reprints; the original is exceedingly rare. Short description of the manatee, 28 recto (cap. viii?). See also Whitehead (1977: 173).
 
 
Gândavo, Pêro de Magalhães de (detail)
   
1965
Tratado do província do Brasil de Pêro de Magalhães de Gândavo.
Rio de Janeiro, Inst. Nacional de Livro: 1-340.
–Facsimile of the British Library's Sloane MS. 2026, with transcription, notes, index, and bibliography by Emmanuel Pereira Filho. Earlier publications of this work (in 1826, 1924, 1964, and, with Engl. transl., in 1922 ed. of Gândavo, 1576) were based on copies later and less reliable than the Sloane MS. (Whitehead, 1977: 173-174). Mentions Brazilian manatees in chaps. 4 (Ilhéus) and 7 (Espírito Santo).
x
 
Gann, Thomas William Francis (detail)
   
1911
Exploration carried on in British Honduras during 1908-9.
Univ. Liverpool Ann. Archaeol. Anthrop. 4(2-3): 72-87. Pls. 17-19. Oct. 1911.
–Reports manatee bones at a [Middle Classic Maya] archaeological site on Moho Cay, British Honduras; speculates that associated pottery rings were net sinkers used in manatee capture (78, 82).
 
 
Gann, Thomas William Francis (detail)
   
1918
The Maya Indians of southern Yucatan and northern British Honduras.
Bull. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 64.
–Manatees, 126.
 
 
Gann, Thomas William Francis (detail)
   
1925
Mystery cities: Exploration and adventure in Lubaantun.
London, Duckworth: 3-10, 13-252. Illus.
–Also publ. in New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1925.
 
 
Gann, Thomas William Francis (detail)
   
1926
Ancient cities and modern tribes: Exploration and adventure in Maya lands.
London, Duckworth: 1-256. Illus.
–Also publ. in New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1926. Description of manatee hunting techniques in Belize and Mexico, and protective legislation (25-29).
 
 
Gann, Thomas William Francis (detail)
   
1927
Maya cities: A record of exploration and adventure in Middle America.
London, Duckworth: 1-256. Illus.
–Also publ. in New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1928.
 
 
Gann, Thomas William Francis (detail)
   
1928
Discoveries and adventures in Central America.
London, Duckworth: 1-261. Illus.
–Also publ. in New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1929. Manatee remains at Moho Cay, British Honduras.
 
 
Gannon, Frank (detail)
   
1990
The last of the manatees?
Philip Morris Mag. 5(5): 22-25. 7 figs. + fig. on title page. Nov.-Dec. 1990 (publ. Nov. 15, 1990).
 
 
Gannon, Janet G.; Scolardi, Kerri M.; Reynolds, John E., III; Koelsch, Jessica Kadel; Kessenich, Teresa J. (detail)
   
2007
Habitat selection by manatees in Sarasota Bay, Florida.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(1): 133-143. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Jan. 2007.
Ganzawa, Y.: SEE Matsui & Ganzawa, 1987. (detail)
 
 
Garbin, Ed; Mann, Joseph A. (detail)
   
2010
Mass stabilization for environmentally sensitive projects in Florida.
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2201:62-69. DOI: 10.3141/2201-08. Dec. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: US-1 is a two-lane highway and the main route to and from the Florida Keys. A hurricane preparedness and public safety plan included the Florida Department of Transportation's replacement of the drawbridge over Jewfish Creek with a fixed bridge and widening of the roadway north of the bridge. Before construction, the widening program included mass stabilization to improve the soft underlying soils, which consisted of 5 ft of granular fill placed over 10 to 15 ft of soft organic silt overlying limestone. The bridge approach embankments reached up to 20 ft in height. Safety was critical because the work took place adjacent to an active highway. The entire project was environmentally sensitive and required attention to spoil controls because the work was performed adjacent to water and wildlife. In another environmentally sensitive area, a new two-lane bridge was planned for construction on driven piling over a waterway in Port Everglades, Florida. The subsurface consisted of 3 to 4 ft of sand followed by 8 to 10 ft of peat, then limestone. The peat layer was unsuitable to support the mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls planned for the abutments. A mass stabilization program was conducted to improve the bearing capacity and limit settlement and to ensure global stability of the MSE walls. Considerations included the existing condition of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbon and environmentally sensitive adjacent properties, including a manatee mating area. The mass stabilization construction methods and procedures, design considerations, quality control, equipment, and performance monitoring of these two environmentally sensitive bridge projects are discussed.
 
 
Garcés-Cuartas, Natalia; Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly (detail)
   
2019
Vibrissae growth rate of captive Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 35(4): 2 tabs. 4 figs. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12638. Jan. 2020; publ. online Aug. 5, 2019.
x
 
García Márquez, Gabriel (detail)
   
1989
Love in the time of cholera. Translated from the Spanish by Edith Grossman.
New York, Penguin Books: 1-348.
–Original ed.: El amor en los tiempos del cólera, Bogotá, Editorial Oveja Negra Ltda., 1985. First Engl. ed.: New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.
  A novel of Colombia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Alludes to manatees in the Rio Magdalena "that nursed their young at large maternal teats and startled the [steamboat] passengers with their woman's cries" (142; also 324, 336, 344), and cites a "legend that they were the only females in the animal kingdom that had no mates" (331). Also makes the more plausible assertions that by the 1920s the Rio Magdalena manatees had been "annihilated by the armored bullets of hunters for sport ... despite the laws prohibiting it" (331, 337), and that an orphaned manatee, "the last of its kind seen along the river", lived for years in a zoo at San Nicolás de las Barrancas (332).
Garcia, Frank A.: SEE Donovan et al., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Garcia, Kethia L Gonzalez; Iglesias, Olga Valdés; Laguna, Abilio; Martinez, Maylín Díaz; Lavaut, José Antonio González (detail)
   
2011
Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae).
Revista de Biologia Tropical 59(1): 465-472. 4 tables. March 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity) and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken. Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (known as DPPH method). The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyaninns, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt) obtained didn't show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes.
 
 
Garcia-Rios, V.; Gold-Bouchot, G. (detail)
   
2003
Trace metals in sediments from Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico.
Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 70(6): 1228-1234.
 
 
Garcia-Rodriguez, Angela I.; Bowen, B. W.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Mignucci Giannoni, Antonio A.; Marmontel, Miriam; Montoya Ospina, Ruby A.; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Rudin, M.; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
1998
Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?
Molecular Ecology 7(9): 1137-1149. 6 tabs. 2 figs. + cover photo. Sept. 1998.
 
 
Garcia-Rodriguez, Angela I.; Moraga-Amador, D.; Farmerie, W. G.; McGuire, Peter M.; King, T. L. (detail)
   
2000
Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA markers in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and their application in selected sirenian species.
Molec. Ecol. 9: 2161-2163.
Gard, Leonard Meade, Jr.: SEE ALSO Szabo & Gard, 1975; Whitmore & Gard, 1977. (detail)
 
 
Gard, Leonard Meade, Jr. (detail)
   
1977
Geologic history. In: M. L. Merritt & R. G. Fuller (eds.), The environment of Amchitka Island, Alaska.
Tech. Inform. Center, Energy Res. & Devel. Admin. (NTIS Document No. TID-26712): 13-34.
x
 
Gard, Leonard Meade, Jr.; Szabo, B. J. (detail)
   
1971
Age of the Pleistocene deposits at South Bight, Amchitka Island, Alaska. [Abstr.]
Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstrs. With Progams 3(7): 577. Publ. Oct. 1971; read Nov. 1, 1971.
–Records the occurrence of Hydrodamalis gigas in an interglacial (?Sangamon-equivalent) beach deposit, with radiometric dates of 135,000 ± 12,000 and >122,000 years B.P.
x
D
Gard, Leonard Meade, Jr.; Lewis, G. E.; Whitmore, Frank Clifford, Jr. (detail)
   
1972
Steller's sea cow in Pleistocene interglacial beach deposits on Amchitka, Aleutian Islands.
Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 83(3): 867-869. Mar. 1972.
–Describes the circumstances of discovery of a partial skeleton of a juvenile Hydrodamalis at South Bight, Amchitka, and reviews other North Pacific records of Hydrodamalis and the Aleutian occurrence of Cornwallius.
 
 
Gardiner, J. S. (detail)
   
1907
Description of the expedition.
Trans. Linn. Soc. London (2)12: 1-55, 111-175.
Gardner, Blair R.: SEE Elliott et al., 1979; Heinsohn et al., 1978, 1979b; Marsh et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Garfield, G. (detail)
   
1964
Nature's living herbicide.
Outdoor America 29(11): 9.
 
 
Garibaldi, L. (detail)
   
1968
Great munching manatees!
Anchor 2(7): 30-32.
–Pop. acc. of a wounded T. inunguis at Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco.
Garnett, Stephen: SEE Heinsohn et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Garrigue, Claire; Patenaude, Nathalie; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Distribution and abundance of the dugong in New Caledonia, southwest Pacific.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 24(1): 81-90. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Jan. 2008.
 
 
Garrod, Alfred Henry (detail)
   
1877
Notes on the manatee (Manatus americanus) recently living in the Society's gardens.
Trans. Zool. Soc. London 10, part 3(1): 137-145. Pls. 28-30. Oct. 1, 1877 (read Nov. 16, 1875).
–Notice: Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1875(4): 529, 567, Apr. 1876. Repr. in volume of Garrod's collected works (London, R. H. Porter, 1881)?
Garrott, Robert A.: SEE ALSO Craig et al., 1997; Eberhardt et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Garrott, Robert A.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Cary, John R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1995
Assessment of trends in sizes of manatee populations at several Florida aggregation sites. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 34-55. 8 tabs. 14 figs. 2 apps. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 15-16).
x
 
Garrott, Robert A.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Cary, John R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Reynolds, John E., III; Rose, Patrick M.; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1994
Trends in counts of Florida manatees at winter aggregation sites.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 58(4): 642-654. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Oct. 1994.
–Analyzes data from aerial surveys, 1977-1992, and correlates manatee numbers with temperature covariates. Results indicate an increase in the counts at east-coast aggregation sites, but this may not reflect a real population trend.
Garson, J. G.: SEE Flower & Garson, 1884. (detail)
Gaskin, David E.: SEE Ketten et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Bauer, Gordon B.; Mann, David A.; Boerner, Katharine; Denum, Laura; Frances, Candice; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2017
Detection of hydrodynamic stimuli by the postcranial body of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comp. Physiol. A 203: 111–120. 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI 10.1007/s00359-016-1142-8. Publ. online Feb. 13, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Manatees live in shallow, frequently turbid waters. The sensory means by which they navigate in these conditions are unknown. Poor visual acuity, lack of echolocation, and modest chemosensation suggest that other modalities play an important role. Rich innervation of sensory hairs that cover the entire body and enlarged somatosensory areas of the brain suggest that tactile senses are good candidates. Previous tests of detection of underwater vibratory stimuli indicated that they use passive movement of the hairs to detect particle displacements in the vicinity of a micron or less for frequencies from 10 to 150 Hz. In the current study, hydrodynamic stimuli were created by a sinusoidally oscillating sphere that generated a dipole field at frequencies from 5 to 150 Hz. Go/no-go tests of manatee postcranial mechanoreception of hydrodynamic stimuli indicated excellent sensitivity but about an order of magnitude less than the facial region. When the vibrissae were trimmed, detection thresholds were elevated, suggesting that the vibrissae were an important means by which detection occurred. Manatees were also highly accurate in two-choice directional discrimination: greater than 90% correct at all frequencies tested. We hypothesize that manatees utilize vibrissae as a three-dimensional array to detect and localize low-frequency hydrodynamic stimuli.
 
 
Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Bauer, Gordon B.; Reep, Roger L.; Dziuk, Kimberly; Read, LaToshia; Mann, David A. (detail)
   
2013
Detection of hydrodynamic stimuli by the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comp. Physiol. A - Neuroethology Sensory Neural & Behav. Physiol. 199(6): 441-450. 4 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00359-013-0822-x. May 10, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees inhabit the coastal and inland waters of the peninsular state. They have little difficulty navigating the turbid waterways, which often contain obstacles that they must circumnavigate. Anatomical and behavioral research suggests that the vibrissae and associated follicle–sinus complexes that manatees possess over their entire body form a sensory array system for detecting hydrodynamic stimuli analogous to the lateral line system of fish. This is consistent with data highlighting that manatees are tactile specialists, evidenced by their specialized facial morphology and use of their vibrissae during feeding and active investigation/manipulation of objects. Two Florida manatees were tested in a go/no-go procedure using a staircase method to assess their ability to detect low-frequency water movement. Hydrodynamic vibrations were created by a sinusoidally oscillating sphere that generated a dipole field at frequencies from 5 to 150 Hz, which are below the apparent functional hearing limit of the manatee. The manatees detected particle displacement of less than 1??m for frequencies of 15–150 Hz and of less than a nanometer at 150 Hz. Restricting the facial vibrissae with various size mesh openings indicated that the specialized sensory hairs played an important role in the manatee's exquisite tactile sensitivity.
 
 
Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Bauer, Gordon Bruce; Reep, Roger Lyons; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Read, LaToshia; Mann, David A. (detail)
   
2012
Audiogram and auditory critical ratios of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Exper. Biol. 215(9): 1442-1447. DOI:10.1242/jeb.089201. May 2012.
–There is also a comment on this article by Kathryn Knight on p. i of this issue.
 ABSTRACT: Manatees inhabit turbid, shallow-water environments and have been shown to have poor visual acuity. Previous studies on hearing have demonstrated that manatees possess good hearing and sound localization abilities. The goals of this research were to determine the hearing abilities of two captive subjects and measure critical ratios to understand the capacity of manatees to detect tonal signals, such as manatee vocalizations, in the presence of noise. This study was also undertaken to better understand individual variability, which has been encountered during behavioral research with manatees. Two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were tested in a go/no-go paradigm using a modified staircase method, with incorporated 'catch' trials at a 1: 1 ratio, to assess their ability to detect single-frequency tonal stimuli. The behavioral audiograms indicated that the manatees' auditory frequency detection for tonal stimuli ranged from 0.25 to 90.5 kHz, with peak sensitivity extending from 8 to 32 kHz. Critical ratios, thresholds for tone detection in the presence of background masking noise, were determined with one-octave wide noise bands, 7-12 dB (spectrum level) above the thresholds determined for the audiogram under quiet conditions. Manatees appear to have quite low critical ratios, especially at 8 kHz, where the ratio was 18.3 dB for one manatee. This suggests that manatee hearing is sensitive in the presence of background noise and that they may have relatively narrow filters in the tested frequency range.
 
 
Gatt, Michael (detail)
   
2006
Il-Ġeoloġija u I-Paleontoloġija tal-Gżejjer Maltin – II.
Malta, Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza (2 vols.): Vol. 2: viii + 267-470. Figs. 21 pls.
–In Maltese. (Vol. 1: x + 1-264. Figs. 24 pls.) Sirs., 2: 344-345, 1 fig. Discusses Maltese records of Halitherium schinzi and Metaxytherium (?); illustrates 3 rib frags. referred to the latter.
 
 
Gaudry, Albert (detail)
   
1878
Les enchaînements du monde animal dans les temps géologiques.... Vol. 1. Mammifères tertiaires.
Paris (entire work: 3 vols., 1878-90): Vol. 1: 1-295. 312 figs.
–Abstr.: La Nature (Paris) 6(2): 214-219, figs. 1-6; 243-246, figs. 1-8; 266-270, figs. 1-2? Revs.: Geol. Mag. (2)5: 221-227?; Arch. Zool. Expér. 8: 67-77, pls. 5-8, 1879?; Nature (London) 18: 537-538?; Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)6: 151-154. Sumatran dugong (37, fig. 28).
x
 
Gaudry, Albert (detail)
   
1884
Sur un sirénien d'espèce nouvelle trouvé dans le bassin de Paris.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)12(6): 372-375. Pl. 17. May 1884 (read Apr. 7, 1884).
–Abstrs.: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 98: 777-778?; La Nature (Paris) 12(1): 303?; Naturaliste 2: 474? Describes Halitherium Chouqueti, n.sp., based on 14 ribs from Oligocene deposits southwest of Paris. These are said to resemble, and were associated with, ribs of H. schinzii, but are more massive.
 
 
Gaudry, Albert (detail)
   
1885
[Remark on Halitherium.]
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)13: 441.
 
 
Gaudry, Albert (detail)
   
1887
[Correction of note on Halitherium in Italy.]
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)15: 11.
 
 
Gaudry, Michael J.; Jastroch, Martin; Treberg, Jason R.; Hofreiter, Michael; Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Starrett, James; Wales, Nathan; Signore, Anthony V.; Springer, Mark S.; Campbell, Kevin L. (detail)
   
2017
Inactivation of thermogenic UCP1 as a historical contingency in multiple placental mammal clades.
Science Advances 3: e1602878 (14 pp.). 4 figs. + online supplementary materials. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602878 July 12, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and is widely accepted to have played a key thermoregulatory role in small-bodied and neonatal placental mammals that enabled the exploitation of cold environments. We map ucp1 sequences from 133 mammals onto a species tree constructed from a ~51-kb sequence alignment and show that inactivating mutations have occurred in at least 8 of the 18 traditional placental orders, thereby challenging the physiological importance of UCP1 across Placentalia. Selection and timetree analyses further reveal that ucp1 inactivations temporally correspond with strong secondary reductions in metabolic intensity in xenarthrans and pangolins, or in six other lineages coincided with a ~30 million–year episode of global cooling in the Paleogene that promoted sharp increases in body mass and cladogenesis evident in the fossil record. Our findings also demonstrate that members of various lineages (for example, cetaceans, horses, woolly mammoths, Steller's sea cows) evolved extreme cold hardiness in the absence of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. Finally, we identify ucp1 inactivation as a historical contingency that is linked to the current low species diversity of clades lacking functional UCP1, thus providing the first evidence for species selection related to the presence or absence of a single gene product.
 
 
Gaul, Simon; Bendig, Paul; Olbrich, Daniel; Rosenfelder, Natalie; Ruff, Paulina; Gaus, Caroline; Mueller, Jochen F.; Vetter, Walter (detail)
   
2011
Identification of the natural product 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-1-methylpyrrole in Pacific biota, passive samplers and seagrass from Queensland, Australia.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 62(11): 2463-2468. 1 tab. 4 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.08.022. Nov. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Halogenated natural products (HNPs) are frequently detected in marine organisms. High HNP concentrations have previously been found in marine mammals from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including in the blubber of herbivorous dugongs (Dugong dugon). To identify the source of HNPs we initially focused on the analysis of Australian seagrass (Halophila ovalis) which serves as the principal food source for dugongs. GC/MS analysis of the seagrass indicated the presence of several organobromine compounds. One compound was identified as 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-1-methylpyrrole (TBMP) by synthesis. Subsequent analysis of semipermeable membrane devices demonstrated that the photo-sensitive TBMP is widespread in the Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). The detection of larger TBMP concentrations in fish fillets from Chile and traces in mussels from New Zealand indicated that this potential HNP may be distributed throughout the Southern Pacific Ocean.
 
 
Gaumer, George F. (detail)
   
1917
Monografia de los mamíferos de Yucatán.
Mexico City, Dept. de Talleres Graficos de la Secretaria de Fomento: xxxviii + 331. 57 pls. 1 map.
–Manatees, 29-30.
 
 
Gaupp, Ernst (detail)
   
1913
Die Reichertsche Theorie (Hammer-, Amboss- und Kieferfrage).
Arch. Anal. Physiol. 1912, Suppl.-Band: xiii + 416. 149 figs.
–Abstr.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 18(3): 55-67? Sirs., 125.
Gaus, C.: SEE Vetter et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Gaus, Caroline; Papke, Olaf; Blanchard, Wendy; Haynes, David; Connell, Des W.; Mueller, Jochen F. (detail)
   
2001
Bioaccumulation and pathways of PCDDs in the lower trophic marine system.
Organohalogen Compounds 52: 95-98.
Gawel, M. J.: SEE Randall et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Gebhardt, F. A. M. Walter (detail)
   
1901
Über funktionell wichtige Anordnungsweisen der gröberen und feineren Bauelemente des Wirbeltierknochens.
Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Org. 11: 383-498, 8 figs., pls. 15-19; 12: 1-52, 167-223, 15 figs.
–Dugong bone histology.
 
 
Gegenbaur, Carl (detail)
   
1898
Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere mit Berücksichtigung der Wirbellosen. 1ter Band. Einleitung, Integument, Skeletsystem, Muskelsystem, Nervensystem und Sinnesorgane.
Leipzig, W. Engelmann (2 vols., 1898-1901): xiv + 978. 619 figs.
Geiling, Eugene Maximilian Karl: SEE ALSO Oldham et al., 1938. (detail)
 
 
Geiling, Eugene Maximilian Karl (detail)
   
1940
Comparative anatomy and pharmacology of the pituitary gland.
Iowa City, State University of Iowa, College of Medicine (Paul Reed Rockwood Lecture): 1-28. Illus.
–Pituitary and hypophysis of T. manatus.
Geist, Otto William: SEE Murie, O.J., 1937. (detail)
 
 
Gelineo, S. (detail)
   
1964
Organ systems in adaptation: the temperature regulating system. In: Adaptation to the environment (Handbook of Physiology 4).
Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co.: 259-282. Illus.
Genoways, Hugh H.: SEE ALSO McLaren et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Genoways, Hugh H.; Jones, J. Knox, Jr. (detail)
   
1975
Annotated checklist of mammals of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. 4. Carnivora, Sirenia, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla.
Occas. Pap. Mus. Texas Tech. Univ. No. 26: 1-22. 1 fig.
 
 
Genschow, Joachim (detail)
   
1934
Über den Bau und die Entwicklung des Geruchsorganes der Sirenen.
Zs. Wiss. Biol. Abt. A: Zs. Morph. Ökol. Tiere (Berlin) 28(4): 402-444. 28 figs.
George, A. S.: SEE Burbridge & George, 1978. (detail)
 
 
George, J. C. (detail)
   
1974
This fragile menagerie hangs by a thread.
Natl. Wildlife 12(3): 6-14.
–Single photograph of T. manatus.
Geptner, Vladimir Georgievich: SEE Heptner, Vladimir Georgievich. (detail)
x
 
Geraads, Denis (detail)
   
1989
Vertébrés fossiles du miocène supérieur du Djebel Krechem el Artsouma (Tunisie centrale). Comparaisons biostratigraphiques.
Géobios 22(6): 777-801. 1 tab. 4 figs. 2 pls. Dec. 1989.
–Engl. summ. Describes a lower second molar of Metaxytherium sp. from Tunisia and compares it with M. medium and M. serresii (781, 791, pl. 2). Suggests that these animals lived in estuaries or rivers, and that the Sahabi fauna from Libya is latest Miocene rather than early Pliocene.
Geraci, Joseph R.: SEE ALSO Duignan et al., 1995; Medway & Geraci, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Geraci, Joseph R. (detail)
   
1986
Marine mammals (Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Sirenia). Introduction and identification [and] Husbandry. In: M. F. Fowler (ed.), Zoo and wild animal medicine. 2nd. revised ed.
Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders (xxiv + 1127): 750-760. Illus.
–The Husbandry chapter begins on p. 757.
 
 
Geraci, Joseph R.; Lounsbury, Valerie J. (detail)
   
1993
Marine mammals ashore: a field guide for strandings.
Texas A&M Univ. Sea Grant College Program: xi + 305. Illus.
 
 
Geraci, Joseph R.; St. Aubin, David J. (detail)
   
1987
Effects of parasites on marine mammals. In: M. J. Howell (ed.), Parasitology - quo vadit? Proc. 6th Internatl. Congr. Parasitology, Canberra, 1986 (xviii + 741).
Internatl. Jour. Parasitology 17(2): 407-414.
 
 
Geraci, Joseph R.; Sweeney, J. C. (detail)
   
1978
Clinical techniques: marine mammals (Cetacea, Pinnipedia and Sirenia). In: M. F. Fowler (ed.), Zoo and wildlife medicine.
Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co.: 587-588.
x
 
Gerber, Leah R. (detail)
   
1998
Seeking a rational approach to setting conservation priorities for marine mammals,
Integrative Biology [Vol. ?]: 90-98. 2 tabs. 3 figs. https://www.academia.edu/7233073/Seekingarationalapproachtosettingconservationprioritiesformarinemammals?emailworkcard=thumbnail
–Mainly discusses humpback whales, but includes a brief general account of Steller's sea cow, with an interesting drawing of the animal feeding on kelp (90-91, Fig. 1); also lists the four living species of sirs. among threatened marine mammals (m91-92, Table 1).
 
 
Gerhardt, Ulr. (detail)
   
1911
Zur Morphologie der Säugetierniere.
Verh. D. Zool. Ges. Leipzig 20-21: 260-272.
 
 
Gerlach, Trevor J.; De Wit, Martine; Landolfi, Jennifer A. (detail)
   
2012
Diaphragmatic hernia and right-sided heart enlargement in a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 48(4): 1102-1104. DOI: 10.7589/2011-12-344. Oct. 1, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Postmortem evaluation of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) revealed cold stress lesions and previous watercraft trauma that included broken ribs, a diaphragmatic hernia, an enlarged vena cava, and right-sided cardiomegaly. We discuss these findings and present a possible pathogenesis for the cardiomegaly.
 
 
Gerlach, Trevor J.; Estrada, Amara H.; Sosa, Ivan S.; Powell, Melanie; Lamb, Kenneth E.; Ball, Ray L.; de Wit, Martine; Walsh, Mike T. (detail)
   
2015
Establishment of echocardiographic parameters of clinically healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE 46 (2):205-212. 5 tables. 4 figures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2014-0071R1.1. JUN 2015.
–ABSTRACT: A standardized echocardiographic technique was recently established for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). There are no available published data on normal echocardiographic parameters in any Sirenian species. The purpose of this study was to report reference parameters for various echocardiographic measurements. These parameters are intended to serve as a comparison for future research into the prevalence of cardiac diseases in the manatee and to aid in diagnosing animals with suspected cardiac disease in rehabilitation facilities. Annual health assessments of free-ranging manatees in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, and pre-release health assessments of rehabilitated manatees at Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo permitted comparison of echocardiographic measurements in adult (n = 14), subadult (n = 7), and calf (n = 8) animals under manual restraint.
 
 
Gerlach, Trevor J.; Estrada, Amara H.; Sosa, Ivan S.; Powell, Melanie; Maisenbacher, Herbert W.; De Wit, Martine; Ball, Ray L.; Walsh, Michael T. (detail)
   
2013a
Echocardiographic evaluation of clinically healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(2): 295-301. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2012-0109R.1. June 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Antemortem studies pertaining to the manatee cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems are limited despite reports of cardiac disease in postmortem specimens. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for echocardiography in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Because of their unique anatomy, a ventral approach was employed by use of an echocardiography table designed specifically for this study. Fourteen clinically healthy, free-ranging and captive Florida manatees underwent echocardiography between the fall of 2011 and winter of 2012. Eight females and six males of various age categories were included in the study. Clear visualization of all valves and chambers was accomplished, and length and width measurements of the left atrium, peak aortic flow velocity, and ejection fraction percentage were calculated in most animals. Abnormalities observed during the study included atrioventricular regurgitation and severe right-atrial enlargement. Based on the results of this study, echocardiography in the Florida manatee is possible, which has both clinical and research implications in larger epidemiologic studies evaluating diseases of the cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular systems.
 
 
Gerlach, Trevor J.; Sadler, Valerie M.; Ball, Ray L. (detail)
   
2013b
Conservative management of pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum in two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(4): 996-1001. 3 figs. DOI:10.1638/2012-0136R3.1. Dec. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Two distressed Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were reported to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The first animal was determined to be an abandoned, emaciated calf. The second animal was a nursing calf that had sustained watercraft-related trauma. Both animals were captured and transported to Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo, where diagnostic evaluations, including physical examinations, blood work, computed tomography (CT), and radiographs were performed. Radiograph and CT scans identified the presence of free air within the pleural and abdominal cavities of both animals. Based on the lack of substantial findings in the first animal and a rapid resolution of clinical signs in the second animal, both animals were managed conservatively. This report documents simultaneous pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum, the associated clinical and diagnostic findings, and conservative medical management of these conditions in the Florida manatee.
 
 
Gernant, Robert E.; Gibson, Thomas G.; Whitmore, Frank Clifford, Jr. (detail)
   
1971
Environmental history of Maryland Miocene.
Maryland Geol. Surv. Guidebook No. 3: 1-58.
Géroudet, Paul: SEE Simon & Géroudet, 1970. (detail)
Gerstein, Edmund R.: SEE ALSO Patton & Gerstein, 1992. (detail)
x
 
Gerstein, Edmund R. (detail)
   
1994
The manatee mind: discrimination training for sensory perception testing of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Marine Mammals: Public Display and Research 1(1): 10-21. 3 figs. Spring 1994.
–Preliminary description of hearing experiments on Florida manatees at the Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, and the South FLorida Museum, Bradenton, with observations on visual and tactile perception, aggressive and sexual behavior, training techniques, rates of learning, memory, and "gamesmanship" in interactions with trainers. Concludes that manatees can understand discrimination tasks and demonstrate complex associated learning and long-term memory, on a par with dolphins and pinnipeds.
 
 
Gerstein, Edmund R. (detail)
   
2002
Manatees, bioacoustics and boats.
Amer. Scientist 90(2): 154-163. ?? figs. + photo on contents page. Mar.-Apr. 2002.
x
 
Gerstein, Edmund R.; Gerstein, Laura; Forsythe, Steven E.; Blue, Joseph E. (detail)
   
1999
The underwater audiogram of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 105(6): 3575-3587. 2 tabs. 7 figs. June 1999.
–Behavioral experiments on two captive adult Florida manatees produced a U-shaped audiogram with auditory thresholds at 0.4 and 46 kHz and maximum sensitivity between 6 and 20 kHz. Detection thresholds of possible vibrotactile origin were measured at 0.015-0.2 kHz. Sensitivity falls 20 dB per octave below 0.8 kHz and approximately 40 dB per octave above 26 kHz. The audiogram demonstrates a wider range of hearing and greater sensitivity than was suggested by evoked-potential and anatomical studies. Inadequate sensitivity at low frequencies may contribute to manatees' inability to avoid collisions with motorboats. Use of high-frequency directional acoustic beacons on boats is suggested as a remedy.
Gerstein, Laura: SEE Gerstein, Edmund R. (detail)
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1835
Dugong, Halicore. In: Guérin, Dict. Pittoresque d'Hist. Nat. Phénom. Nat.
2 (livr. 155): 595-596.
–Allen 850. Publ. 1836? Halicore indicus.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1836
Lamantin, Manatus. In: Guérin, Dict. Pittoresque d'Hist. Nat. Phénom. Nat.
4 (livr. 282): 331-333.
–Allen 894.
x
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1846
Observations sur diverses espèces de mammifères fossiles du midi de la France.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (3)5: 248-265. May 1846.
–Discusses mammal classification, placing the Sirenia among the ungulates along with the Proboscidea (250-251), and mentions a rib fragment of Metaxytherium from Montpellier, France (264).
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1847a
La zoologie de la France. In: Patria. La France ancienne et moderne, morale et matérielle, ou collection encyclopédique.
Paris: 1 (1512 columns): 493-596. Figs. 162-255.
–Mentions Metaxytherium, 517.
x
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1847b
Observations sur les mammifères fossiles du midi de la France.... Deuxième partie.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (3)8: 203-224. Oct. 1847.
–Continuation of Gervais (1846). Consists mostly of "VII. Sur les Mammifères voisins des Dugongs, que l'on a nommés Halitherium, Metaxytherium, etc." (203-221). Summarizes previous work on fossil sirs., and presents a comprehensive list of their European occurrences (203-210). Describes the skull and dentition of the "Halitherium" from Montpellier (210-217), which he names H. Serresii, n.sp. [= Metaxytherium serresii] (221). Compares Toxodon with Halitherium and the modern dugong, concluding that this South American notoungulate is (unlike the proboscidean Dinotherium) a sir. (218-219, 221). Concludes that Halianassa, Metaxytherium, and other genera are synonyms of Halitherium; presents a diagnosis of the latter genus; and recognizes several species for which he coins the new combinations Halitherium fossilis [= Metaxytherium medium], H. Guettardi [= H. schinzii], and H. Brocchii [= M. subapenninum] (221).
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1849-50
Sur la répartition des mammifères fossiles entre les différents étages tertiaires qui concourent à former le sol de la France.
Mém. Sect. Sci., Acad. Sci. Lettres Montpellier 1(1): 203-219 (1849); 1(2): 399-413 (1850).
–Abstrs.: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 28: 546-552?, 28(21): 643-647, May 1849; L'Institut 17(807): 194-198, June 20, 1849; Rev. Mag. Zool. (Paris) 1849: 223-224? The Montpellier publication also exists in another version, with identical text, but reset with slightly different typeface and pagination (1(1): 203-220). Sirs., 216-219, 405-406, 409.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1852
Zoologie et paléontologie françaises (animaux vertébrés) ou nouvelles recherches sur les animaux vivants et fossiles de la France....
Paris, Arthus Bertrand (3 vols., title-pages dated 1848-52): Vol. 1 (text): viii + 271; Vol. 2 (explication des plânches); Vol. 3 (atlas): 45 pls.
–Rev.: Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. 26: 233-240, 1854? Ed. 2: Gervais (1859). Sirs., 1: 141-145, 199; pls. 4-6, 41. Recognizes Halitherium Serresii, H. fossile, H. Beaumontii [n.comb.], H. Guettardi, H. dubium [n.comb.], and Trachytherium Raulinii as valid species.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1853
Sur la comparaison des membres chez les animaux vertébrés.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) (3)20: 21-69.
–Sirs., 35.
x
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1855a
Animaux nouveaux ou rares recueillis pendant l'expédition dans les parties centrales de l'Amérique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro à Lima, et de Lima au Para, pendant les années 1843 a 1847, sous la direction du Comte Francis de Castelnau.... Mammifères.
Paris, P. Bertrand: 1-116. 20 pls.
–Gives general description of a skeleton of "Manatus australis" from Pebas, Colombia (114-115); argues for the domestication of manatees (116); and quotes Castelnau's account of manatee predation by jaguars (116).
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1855b
Histoire naturelle des mammifères, avec l'indication de leurs moeurs, et de leurs rapports avec les arts, le commerce et l'agriculture. II. Carnivores, proboscidiens, jumentés, bisulques, édentés, marsupiaux, monotrèmes, phoques, sirénides et cétacés.
Paris, L. Curmer (entire work: 2 vols., 1854-55): Vol. 2: 1-344. 286 figs. 40 pls.
–Sirs., 2: 308-313.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1859
Zoologie et paléontologie françaises. Nouvelles recherches sur les animaux vertébrés dont on trouve les ossements enfouis dans le sol de la France et sur leur comparaison avec les espèces propres aux autres régions du globe. Ed. 2.
Paris, Arthus Bertrand: viii + 544. figs. Atlas, pp. i-xii + 84 pls.
–Ed. 1: Gervais (1852). Sirs., 276-283, pls. 4-6, 41.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1869a
Haliterium fossile à Léognan.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 27, Proc.-verb., xxi-xxii.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1869b
Zoologie et paléontologie générales. Nouvelles recherches sur les animaux vertébrés vivants et fossiles.
Paris, Arthus Bertrand (2 séries, 1867/69-76): 1. sér.: vii + 263. 50 pls. (1862-69).
–Sirs., "1: 184", fide Freund (1950); confused with Gervais (1859)?
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1872a
Travaux récents sur les sirénides vivants et fossiles (analyse des publications de MM. Van Beneden, E. Lartet, Delfortrie, Capellini, etc.).
Jour. Zool. (Paris) 1: 332-353. 4 figs. Pls. 18-19.
–Same as S. Swayne, 1872; correct authorship to be determined.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1872b
Coup d'oeil sur les mammifères fossiles de l'Italie.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (2)29: 92-103.
–Abstrs.: Jour. Zool. (Paris) 1: 211-233?; L'Institut 1873: 222-224?
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul (detail)
   
1874
Remarques sur les formes cérébrales propres aux thalassothériens.
Jour. Zool. (Paris) 3: 570-583. Pl. 19.
–Sirs., 578.
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul; Serres, Marcel de (detail)
   
1846
Sur les mammifères dont on a trouvé les restes fossiles dans la caverne de Lunel-Viel et dans les sables de Montpellier.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (3)5: 266-271. May 1846.
–Abstr.: Rev. Mag. Zool. (Paris) 1846: 78?
 
 
Gervais, François Louis Paul; Serres, Marcel de (detail)
   
1847
Sur les mammifères fossiles des sables marins tertiaires de Montpellier.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 24: 799-801.
–Abstrs.: Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (3)8: 224-226?; Rev. Mag. Zool. (Paris) 1847: 174?
 
 
Gesner, Conrad (detail)
   
1556?
De piscibvs et aqvatilibvs omnibus libelli III. noui....
[Tiguri, 1556?]: 1-280.
–Or 1558 ed., Allen 14? Or 1563? Sirs., 213 or 253 (in 1587 ed.?). A woodcut in the 1558 ed., based on the verbal account of remora fishing by P. Martyr (1511), shows natives using a remora to catch what may be a manatee (see also P. Budker, The life of sharks, N.Y., Columbia Univ. Press: 156, 1971).
 
 
Gesner, Conrad (detail)
   
1558
Historiae animalium liber IIII. qui est de piscium & aquatilium animantium natura. Cum iconibus singulorum ad vivum expressis fere omnib. DCCVI ....
Zurich, Christof Froschover: 1-1297. Illus.
–A woodcut of remora fishing (483) possibly shows a manatee, according to Whitehead (1977); see also "?Cyprinus rarus & monstrosus" (373).
 
 
Gesner, Conrad (detail)
   
1560
Nomenclator aquatilium animalium. Icones animalium aquatilium in mari & dulcibus aquis degentium, plus quam DCC. cum nomenclaturis singulorum Latinis, Grecis, Italicis, Hispanicus, Gallicis, Germanicis, Anglicis, alijsq, interdum, per certos ordines digestae.
Zurich, Christof Froschover: 1-374. Illus.
–Whitehead (1977: 168) says that this work "gives, without much conviction, animals called 'Vaccae marinae' from 'Oceano Septemtrionali', but the woodcut shows, emerging from the waves, the head of a very Swiss cow!"
Gettinger, R.: SEE Ralph et al., 1985. (detail)
x
 
Gewalt, Wolfgang (detail)
   
1968
Unsere Sirene - eine Amazonas-Seekuh (Trichechus m. manatus L.) im Duisburger Tierpark.
Freunde des Kölner Zoo 10(4): 123-125. 4 figs. Winter 1967/68.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and not-very-informative account of the captive manatee in Duisburg. Briefly mentions others kept in Germany (124), and the attempt of a steamship captain in the Red Sea to rescue what he thought were shipwrecked sailors but were actually seacows (123).
 
D
Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Domning, Daryl Paul; Tassy, Pascal (detail)
   
2005
Paenungulata (Sirenia, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, and relatives). Chap. 7 in: K.D. Rose & J.D. Archibald (eds.), The rise of placental mammals: origins and relationships of the major extant clades.
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press (xi + 259): 84-105. 8 tabs. 9 figs.
Ghim, Shin-je: SEE Bossart et al., 2002; Bossart, Meisner et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Ghim, Shin-je; Joh, Joongho; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzmán, Antonio L.; Falcón-Matos, Limarie; Alsina-Guerrero, Mayela M.; Rodríguez-Villanueva, Marinelly; Jenson, Alfred Bennett; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2014
Genital papillomatosis associated with two novel mucosotropic papillomaviruses from a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mammals 40(2): 195-200. 5 figs. DOI 10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.195.
x
 
Giacone, Antonio (detail)
   
1965
Gramática dicionários e fraseologia da lingua Dahceié ou Tucano.
Belém, Univ. do Pará: 1-207.
–Tucano name for the manatee given on p. 170: {"Peixe boi = uaí-uehquê"}
x
 
Giacone, Antonio (detail)
   
n.d.
Pequena gramática e dicionário da lingua Tucana.
Manaus, Missão Salesiana do Rio Negro - Amazonas: 1-61.
–Tucano name for the manatee given on p. 54: {"Peixe-boi - Uekque-uaí"}
x
 
Gibbes, Robert Wilson (detail)
   
1849
New species of fossil Myliobates, from the Eocene of South Carolina, and new fossils from the Cretaceous, Eocene, and Pliocene of South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi.
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 2: 193-194. Aug. 17, 1849.
–Includes in list of fossils from "Eocene of South Carolina and Mississippi" on p. 193: {"Rib and vertebrae of Manatus."} These were probably from South Carolina but probably not Eocene; see Gibbes (1850).
x
 
Gibbes, Robert Wilson (detail)
   
1850
Remarks on the fossil Equus.
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 3: 66-68.
–States (67) that Equus and Manatus remains were found in situ in Eocene marl from the plantation of John A. Ramsay on the Ashley River, South Carolina; but F. S. Holmes pointed out (68-69) that the marl surface has holes filled with younger material and fossils.
x
 
Gibbon, Lardner (detail)
   
1854
Exploration of the valley of the Amazon, made under direction of the Navy Department, by Wm. Lewis Herndon and Lardner Gibbon.... Part II.
Washington, A. O. P. Nicholson: xi + 339. Illus.
–See also Herndon (1853). On the Madeira River between Crato and Porto de Mataurá, Oct. 12, 1852 (p. 309): {"We are told the fish called 'peixe boi,' (bull-fish,) of the Madeira, is the same as the 'vaca-marina,' (sea-cow,) of the Ucayali, though comparatively there are few taken."}
 
 
Gibbs, Melissa; Futral, Tiffany; Mallinger, Megan; Martin, Desiree; Ross, Monica (detail)
   
2010
Disturbance of the Florida manatee by an invasive catfish.
Southeastern Naturalist 9(4): 635-648. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1656/058.009.0401.
–ABSTRACT: During the winter, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) depends on long periods of rest in comparatively warm thermal refuges to help conserve energy and maintain stable body temperatures. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Vermiculated Suckermouth Sailfin Catfish) has been observed attached to, and grazing algae from, Florida manatees in Volusia Blue Spring. We hypothesized that the disturbance caused by grazing armored catfish would significantly alter Florida manatee behavior. Analyses of 6 hours of underwater video of Florida manatee behavior, with and without attached armored catfish, revealed that during each observation period, Florida manatees with attached catfish demonstrated significantly higher activity levels and numbers of active behaviors. Increased Florida manatee activity caused by the armored catfish may compound the impact of other known threat effects.
Gibbs, Philip: SEE Kemper et al., 1994. (detail)
x
 
Gibson, James R. (detail)
   
1969
Feeding the Russian fur trade: provisionment of the Okhotsk seaboard and the Kamchatka Peninsula 1639-1856.
Madison, Milwaukee, & London, Univ. Wisconsin Press: xix + 337. 17 tabs. 10 figs. 10 maps.
–Mentions the use of Hydrodamalis for provisionment (29, 30, 48, 51-52, 54) and boat construction (31).
 
 
Gibson, James R. (detail)
   
1999
De Bestiis Marinis: Steller's sea cow and Russian expansion from Siberia to America, 1741-1768. In: N.N. Bolchovitinov (ed.), Russkaya Amerika 1799-1867.
Moscow, Ross. Akad. Nauk, Inst. Vseobshchei Istorii, Tsentr Severoamerikanskich Issledovaniy: 24-44.
–German transl.: in E. Donnert, Europa in der frühen Neuzeit: Festschrift für Günter Mühlpfordt. Band 6: Mittel-, Nord- und Osteuropa. Cologne, Böhlau Verlag, 2002: 963-977. 1 fig.
Gibson, Thomas G.: SEE Gernant et al., 1971. (detail)
 
 
Gibson-Hill, C. A. (detail)
   
1950
The dugong.
Malayan Nature Jour. 5(1): 25-29. 2 figs.
–Distribution, population trends, and habits of the dugong in Malaysia.
Gicca, Diderot: SEE Campbell & Gicca, 1978. (detail)
 
 
Giebel, Christoph Gottfried Andreas (detail)
   
1847
Fauna der Vorwelt mit steter Berücksichtigung der lebenden Thiere.... Erster Band: Wirbelthiere. Erster Abtheilung: Säugethiere.
Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus (entire work: 3 vols. in 5, 1847-56): Vol. 1: xi + 283.
–Sirs., 226-232.
 
 
Giebel, Christoph Gottfried Andreas (detail)
   
1855
Odontographie. Vergleichende Darstellung des Zahnsystemes der lebenden und fossilen Wirbelthiere.
Leipzig, Ambrosius Abel: xx + 129. 52 pls.
–Sirs. (including Dinotherium), 83-84, pls. 35-37.
 
 
Giebel, Christoph Gottfried Andreas (detail)
   
1883
Säugethiere: Mammalia. In: H. G. Bronn, Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs.
Leipzig & Heidelberg, C. F. Winter'sche Verlagshandlung (1874-1900): 6(5): 1-576. Pls. 1-92.
–See also W. Leche (1887).
Giffin, Emily B.: SEE ALSO Buchholtz, Emily A. (detail)
x
 
Giffin, Emily B.; Gillett, Michelle (detail)
   
1996
Neurological and osteological definitions of cervical vertebrae in mammals.
Brain Behav. Evol. 47(4): 214-218. 3 figs.
–Concludes from dissections of T. manatus cervical nerves that the presence of only six cervical vertebrae in manatees reflects a developmentally early reorganization of predetermined cervical mesoderm into fewer segments, rather than ontogenetic elimination of a vertebra without corresponding reduction of spinal root number. The relationship of the limb and its innervation to the cervical-thoracic boundary has not been altered.
Giffney, Siriol: SEE Marsh & Giffney, 1999. (detail)
x
 
Gijzen, A. (detail)
   
1953
Une perte sensible.
Zoo (Antwerp) 18: 89. 1 fig.
–Notice of the death, from infection, of a T. senegalensis after five years in captivity.
x
 
Gijzen, A. (detail)
   
1958
Palmares de nos raretes zoologiques.
Zoo (Antwerp) 24(1): 6-38. Illus.
–Brief account of the zoo's attempts to keep T. senegalensis in captivity, with a photo of one specimen (26).
 
 
Gijzen, A. (detail)
   
1963
Au cours de huit années de séjour au Zoo, Huka notre lamantin n'a fait que croître et prospérer.
Zoo (Antwerp) 28: 194. 1 pl.
Gilbert, J. R.: SEE Eberhardt et al., 1979. (detail)
 
 
Gilbrook, Michael J. (detail)
   
1990
Potential contributions of Regional Planning Council Geographic Information Systems to manatee management. In: J. E. Reynolds, III & K. D. Haddad (eds.), Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 39-44. 2 tabs. Dec. 1990.
 
 
Gilii, Filippo Salvadore (detail)
   
1780
Saggio di storia Americana, o sia storia naturale, civile, e sacra de regni, e delle provincie Spanuole di terra-ferma nell'America Meridionale.
Roma, L. Perego erede Salvioni (4 vols., 1780-84).
–Allen 363. Manatee, 1: 84, fig. 1.
x
 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas (detail)
   
1872a
Arrangement of the families of mammals [pp. 1-42]. [Followed by] Synoptical tables of characters of the sub-divisions of mammals, with a catalogue of the genera [pp. 43-98].
Smithson. Misc. Coll. 11(1)(230): vi + 98. Nov. 1872.
–Introduces the following new superfamily and family names in his classification: Halicoroidea (13), Manatoidea (14), Trichechoidea (91), and Trichechidae (14). Summarizes sir. characters (48-49) and provides a key to the families (91) and a list of the genera (91-92). The Halicoroidea include the Halitheriidae, Halicoridae, and Rhytinidae; the Manatoidea or Trichechoidea (Gill uses these terms inconsistently and interchangeably) include only the Trichechidae.
x
 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas (detail)
   
1872b
On the characteristics of the primary groups of the class of mammals.
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 20: 284-306.
–Extract: Amer. Naturalist 5: 526-533, 1871? Gives a brief diagnosis of the Order Sirenia (300-301).
x
 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas (detail)
   
1873
On the affinities of the sirenians.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 25(2): 262-273.
–Concludes that the Cetacea and Sirenia are closer to each other than either is to any other order, and that they share a common aquatic ancestor. Also provides a genealogical tree of the sir. families.
 
 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas (detail)
   
1882
Scientific and popular views of nature contrasted. A lecture delivered in the National Museum, March 11th, 1882.
U.S. Natl. Mus. Saturday Lectures No. 1: 1-24.
–?Sir. tail flukes, 10-11.
 
 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas (detail)
   
1907
Systematic zoology: its progress and purpose.
Science (n.s.) 26: 489-505.
–Sirs., 494.
 
 
Gill, William (detail)
   
1981
Manatee found in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 6(1): 6-7. Jan. 1981.
 
 
Gill, William Wyatt (detail)
   
1875
The dugong.
Leisure Hour 24: 823.
 
 
Gill, William Wyatt (detail)
   
1876
Life in the southern isles; or, scenes and incidents in the South Pacific and New Guinea.
London, The Religious Tract Society: viii + 360. Illus.
–Dugong, 298-302.
 
 
Gillespie, Alison; Nurgess, E.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Owen, Helen (detail)
   
2011
Small intestinal volvulus in a free-ranging female dugong (Dugong dugon).
Australian Veter. Jour. 89(7): 276-278. July 2011.
 
 
Gillet, S.; Théobold, N. (detail)
   
1936
Les sables marins de l'Oligocène du Haut-Rhin.
Bull. Serv. Carte Geol. Alsace-Lorraine 3: 37-76. 1 pl.
–Report of Halitherium schinzii, 69.
Gillett, Michelle: SEE Giffin & Gillett, 1996. (detail)
Gingerich, Philip D.: SEE ALSO Domning & Gingerich, 1994; Domning et al., 1994; Wells & Gingerich, 1983; Zalmout et al., 2003. (detail)
x
 
Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
   
1992
Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments.
Univ. Michigan Papers on Paleontology No. 30: ix + 84. 2 tabs. 56 figs. June 30, 1992.
–Describes in detail the history of study and geologic context of marine mammal fossils from the Middle and Late Eocene of the Mokattam Hills and Fayum and the Oligocene of the Fayum. Attempts to specify the localities and horizons from which all the fossil marine mammal types were collected. Recognizes Eotheroides aegyptiacum, Protosiren fraasi, and Eosiren libyca as valid species, and suggests that the other nominal species of fossil sirs. from Egypt are synonyms of these.
 
D
Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
   
2005
Aquatic adaptation and swimming mode inferred from skeletal proportions in the Miocene desmostylian Desmostylus.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 12(1/2): 183-???. June 2005.
 
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Arif, Muhammad; Bhatti, M. Akram; Clyde, William C. (detail)
   
1998
Middle Eocene stratigraphy and marine mammals (Mammalia: Cetacea and Sirenia) of the Sulaiman Range, Pakistan. In: K. C. Beard & M. R. Dawson (eds.), Dawn of the Age of Mammals in Asia.
Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 34: 239-259. Illus. Jan. 29, 1998.
x
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Arif, Muhammad; Bhatti, M. Akram; Anwar, Mohammad; Sanders, William J. (detail)
   
1997
Basilosaurus drazindai and Basiloterus hussaini, new Archaeoceti (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Middle Eocene Drazinda Formation, with a revised interpretation of ages of whale-bearing strata in the Kirthar Group of the Sulaiman Range, Punjab (Pakistan).
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 30(2): 55-81. 14 figs. Oct. 1, 1997.
–Includes a brief report of six new partial skeletons of Protosiren sattaensis found in the Drazinda Formation (57, 69, 71, 75).
 
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Arif, Muhammad; Bhatti, M. Akram; Raza, Hilal A.; Raza, S. Mahmood (detail)
   
1995
Protosiren and Babiacetus (Mammalia, Sirenia and Cetacea) from the Middle Eocene Drazinda Formation, Sulaiman Range, Punjab (Pakistan).
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 29(12): 331-357. 2 tabs. 15 figs. Nov. 30, 1995.
–Describes Protosiren sattaensis, n.sp.
 
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Cappetta, Henri (detail)
   
2014
A new archaeocete and other marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from Lower Middle Eocene phosphate deposits of Togo.
Jour. Paleo. 88(1): 109-129. 3 tabs. 16 figs. Jan. 2014.
 
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Blane, Caroline E.; Uhen, Mark David (detail)
   
1994
Cranial morphology of Protosiren fraasi (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Middle Eocene of Egypt: a new study using computed tomography.
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 29(2): 41-67. 2 tabs. 8 figs. Nov. 30, 1994.
x
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Raza, S. Mahmood; Arif, Muhammad; Anwar, Mohammad; Zhou, Xiaoyuan (detail)
   
1993
Partial skeletons of Indocetus ramani (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the lower Middle Eocene Domanda Shale in the Sulaiman Range of Punjab (Pakistan).
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 28(16): 393-416. 4 tabs. 14 figs. Sept. 30, 1993.
–The pelvis referred to Protosiren fraasi by Sahni & Mishra (1975) is here reidentified as the cetacean Indocetus ramani (410-411).
x
D
Gingerich, Philip D.; Russell, Donald E.; Wells, Neil A. (detail)
   
1990
Astragalus of Anthracobune (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the Early-Middle Eocene of Kashmir.
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 28(3): 71-77. 3 figs. Dec. 14, 1990.
–Compares astragalar characters of Anthracobune with those of other proboscideans and desmostylians, and suggests that both desmostylians and sirs. could be derived from anthracobunid proboscideans.
 
 
Gingerich, Philip D.; Ul-Haq, Munir; Khan, Intizar Hussain; Zalmout, Iyad S. (detail)
   
2001
Eocene stratigraphy and archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) of Drug Lahar in the Eastern Sulaiman Range, Balochistan (Pakistan).
Contrib. Mus. Paleont. Univ. Michigan 30(11): 269-319. 12 tabs. 24 figs. Dec. 31, 2001.
–ABSTRACT: Field work in autumn 1999 was concentrated in marine middle and upper Eocene strata of Dabh Nala, a tributary of Drug Lahar, on the eastern flank of the Sulaiman Range, Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Objectives included:(1) recovery of better specimens of previously-known archaeocete whales; (2) recovery of new archaeocetes from new stratigraphic intervals; (3) comparison of Eocene formations here with those studied elsewhere in Balochistan and Punjab; and (4) better documentation of local and regional sea level cycles for refined correlation to eustasy on a global scale.
  Ten stratigraphic intervals within the Habib Rahi and Domanda formations are now known to yield archaeocetes. These come from three distinct cycles of sea level rise and fall. Interpretation in the context of planktonic foraminifera1 and nannoplankton age control for a virtually continuous Baska-Habib RahiDomanda-Pir Koh-Drazinda stratigraphic section shows that the Habib Rahi through Domanda cycles match the global pattern of sea level change for the Lutetian. Archaeocete-bearing strata of the Harudi Formation in Kutch (India) are early Bartonian rather than Lutetian, and correlative with the Pir Koh flooding event in Pakistan.
  New archaeocete specimens described here include the first record of the remingtonocetid Andrewsiphius sloani, new combination, from the upper Domanda Formation (late Lutetian in age); a new species of Remingtonocetus, R. domandaensis, based on a partial skull, a dentary with most teeth, and associated postcranials, from the middle Domanda Formation (middle Lutetian); and a new genus and species of protocetid, Qaisracetus arifi, based on a partial skull and unusually complete articulated axial skeleton from the upper Domanda Formation (late Lutetian).
  Protosiren sattaensis, 281, 318.
x
 
Ginsburg, Léonard (detail)
   
1970
Les mammifères des faluns helvétiens du Nord de la Loire.
C.R. Somm. Séances Soc. Géol. France 1970(6): 189-190. Séance of June 1, 1970.
–Includes Halianassa cuvieri in faunal list; considers it lower Helvetian (Miocene).
 
 
Ginsburg, Léonard; Janvier, Philippe (detail)
   
1970
Présence de sables helvétiens d'origine fluviatile sous les faluns du bassin de Noyant-sous-le-Lude (Maine-et-Loire).
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (2)42(2): 440-447.
–Reports an association of Metaxytherium cuvieri with land mammals.
x
 
Ginsburg, Léonard; Janvier, Philippe (detail)
   
1971
Les mammifères marins des faluns miocènes de la Touraine et de l'Anjou.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (3)22, Sci. de la Terre 6: 161-195. 23 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1971.
–Reviews the synonymy, history of study, occurrences, anatomy, and relationships of Metaxytherium medium, with illustrations of upper molars and a summary of the dimensions of 234 teeth (161, 182-191).
 
 
Ginsburg, Léonard; Janvier, Philippe (detail)
   
1975
Les mammiferes marins des faluns de la Touraine et de l'Anjou: gisement et paléobiologie.
Bull. Soc. Etud. Sci. Angers 9(n.s.): 73-79.
x
 
Ginsburg, Léonard; Janvier, Philippe; Mornand, J.; Pouit, D. (detail)
   
1979
Découverte d'un faune de mammifères terrestres d'âge vallésien dans le falun miocène de Doué-la-Fontaine (Maine-et-Loire).
C.R. Somm. Séances Soc. Géol. France 1979(5-6): 223-227. Séance of Dec. 18, 1979.
–Reports teeth of Metaxytherium medium (224); considers the falun of Doué no older than lower Vallesian (Middle Mioc.) (226).
Gipe, T.: SEE Barile et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Girard, Charles (detail)
   
1852
On the classification of Mammalia.
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 6: 319-335. 2 figs. Read Aug. 1851.
 
 
Giraud-Sauveur, D.; Miloche, M. (detail)
   
1968
Sur la structure particuliére des os de l'oreille moyenne des cétacés odontocetes.
Jour. Microsc. (Paris) 7(7): 1093-1098. 1 pl.
–Crystallography of ear ossicles of T. senegalensis.
Gissendanner, Elton J.: SEE Appendix 1: _Florida Conservation News_, Nov. 1979. (detail)
x
 
Gistel, Johannes (detail)
   
1848
Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs. Für höhere Schulen.
Stuttgart, Hoffman'sche Verlags-Buchhandlung: xvi + 216.
–Classification of sirs. (= "Familie Halicorea"), with brief descriptions of the taxa; includes Halipaedisca (new name for Manatus) and "H. americanus"; Halicore cetacea; and Rytina stelleri (83).
 
 
Gistel, Johannes; Bromme, Traugott (detail)
   
1850
Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller drei Reiche, für Lehrer und Lernende, für Schule und Haus.
Stuttgart, Hoffmann'sche Verlags-Buchhandlung: 1-1037. Illus.
–Mentions Halipaedisca, 273.
Gladstone, W.: SEE Dight & Gladstone, 1994. (detail)
 
 
Glaessner, M. F. (detail)
   
1931
Neue Zähne von Menschenaffen aus dem Miocän des Wiener Beckens.
Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 46: [pp.?]
–Mentions Metaxytherium sp., 15.
 
 
Glanville, R. R. (detail)
   
1930
Agricultural survey of existing and potential rice lands - the swamp areas of the Little Scarcies, Great Scarcies, Port Loko and Rokel Rivers.
Freetown (Sierra Leone), Govt. Printer.
–Manatees in Great and Little Scarcies Rivers.
 
 
Glas, J.-E. (detail)
   
1962
Studies on the ultrastructure of dental enamel. 6. Crystal chemistry of shark's teeth.
Odontologisk Revy (Lund) 13(4): 315-326. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Mention of T. senegalensis.
 
 
Glaser, Karen; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2003
Mysterious manatees.
Gainesville, Univ. Press of Florida: xii + 188. 51 pls.
–Extensive text by Reynolds on manatee biology and conservation (3-114), accompanying "Introduction to the Photographs" (117-128) and a portfolio of black-and-white, soft-focus underwater photos of Florida manatees at Crystal River (129-180), both by Glaser.
 
 
Glazebrook, Rozanne (detail)
   
1979
Mermaid at Cairns.
Wildlife in Australia 16(2): 4-5. 1 fig. Winter 1979.
–Pop. acc. of a young dugong in captivity.
 
 
Gleiss, G. W. (detail)
   
1967
Chronik des Zoologischen Gartens, Breslau.
Wedel.
 
 
Gloger, Constantin Wilhelm Lambert (detail)
   
1842
Gemeinnütziges Hand- und Hilfsbuch der Naturgeschichte. Für gebildete Leser aller Stände, besonders für die reifere Jugend und ihre Lehrer.... Erster Band....
Breslau, Aug. Schulz & Comp.: xxxxiv + 495.
–Coins the generic name Halibutherium (= Halitherium?).
 
 
Glover, Thomas (detail)
   
1676
An account of Virginia.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 11(126): 625-626. June 20, 1676.
–See W.L. McAtee (1950).
Glover, Timothy D.: SEE Marsh, Heinsohn & Glover, 1984; Marsh & Glover, 1981. (detail)
Gluckman, Casey J.: SEE Reynolds & Gluckman, 1988. (detail)
Gluckman, David: SEE ALSO Marine Mammal Commission, 1986. (detail)
x
 
Gluckman, David (detail)
   
1983a
Review of laws and educational programs preventing harm to manatees due to waterborne activities. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 233-252. 5 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Reviews federal and state laws regarding the "taking" of manatees, and makes recommendations for their application and strengthening; outlines existing educational programs and possible ways of funding them.
x
 
Gluckman, David (detail)
   
1983b
Legal review regarding water quality and aquatic weed control in manatee habitat. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 253-273. 7 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Discusses federal, state, and local regulations and regulating procedures, and recommends ways of dealing with herbicide spraying programs that pose hazards to manatees.
x
 
Gluckman, David (detail)
   
1983c
Review of land acquisition programs suitable for protection of manatee habitat. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 274-301. 6 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Describes available federal, state, and local acquisition programs, recommends legal changes in some of them, and suggests specific habitat acquisitions in Taylor, Levy, Citrus, and Hernando Counties, Florida.
x
 
Gluckman, David (detail)
   
1983d
Impact of the National Environmental Policy Act on preservation and protection of manatees. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 317-320. Dec. 1983.
–Discusses this 1970 federal act's requirement that Environmental Impact Statements be prepared in advance of "major federal actions", and points out that, although this act lacks provisions for preventing potential harm identified by this process, other laws can and should be used to do so.
x
 
Gluckman, David; Hamann, Richard (detail)
   
1983
Annotated list of laws and regulations relevant to protection of West Indian manatees and their habitat. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 174-184. Dec. 1983.
–Includes 15 federal acts, 4 articles of the Florida Constitution, and 30 Florida statutes.
 
 
Gmelin, D. (detail)
   
1892
Zur Morphologie der Papilla vallata und foliata.
Arch. Mikr. Anat. 40: 1-28. 1 pl.
–Sirs., 18.
 
 
Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1788
Caroli a Linné, ... Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata.
Lipsiae [= Leipzig], Impensis Georg. Emanuel. Beer: 1-500.
–Allen 405. The (posthumous) thirteenth ed. of Linnaeus' Systema Naturae. Trichechus Dugong and T. Manatus australis (= T. manatus + T. senegalensis), 60; T. M. borealis (= Hydrodamalis gigas), 61.
Godina, Giovanni: SEE Amprino & Godina, 1947. (detail)
Godman, F. D.: SEE Murie, J., 1880. (detail)
 
 
Godman, John Davidson (detail)
   
1828
American natural history. Vol. III. Part I. Mastology.
Philadelphia, Carey, Lea & Carey: 1-264.
–Allen 711. Ed. 2, 1831 (Allen 760); text identical. Sirs., 39-55.
x
 
Goebel, Ad. (detail)
   
1862
Chemische Untersuchung der Rippen der Rhytina.
Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (3)5: 188-193. May 16, 1862 (read Apr. 18, 1862).
–Chemical analysis of a rib of Hydrodamalis revealed no differences from bone of other mammals. The preservation of collagen ("Knorpel"), capillaries, and probable fat cells is also noted (189-190).
Goedert, James L.: SEE Barnes & Goedert, 1996, 2001. (detail)
 
 
Goeje, C. H. de (detail)
   
1928
The Arawak language of Guiana.
Amsterdam.
–Origins of the name "manati", 30, 259.
x
 
Goeldi, Emil August (detail)
   
1893
Os mammiferos do Brasil.
Rio de Janeiro, Alves & C. (Monographias Brasileiras No. 1): iii + 181.
–Lists the Family Manatidae under Cetacea (13); notes the distribution of "Manatus americanus (latirostris)" and "M. inunguis" in Brazil; briefly describes their habits, economic and medicinal uses, and hunting, and an attempt to bring a young M. americanus to London (119-121). A dairy cow was brought along to nourish it, but the manatee died of cold en route. Notes that "manati" is an indigenous name (165).
 
 
Goeldi, Emil August (detail)
   
1897
Brasilianische Reptilien.
Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 10: 640-676.
x
 
Goeldi, Emil August; Hagmann, Gottfried (detail)
   
1904
Prodromo de um catalogo critico, commentado da collecção de mammiferos no Museu do Pará (1894-1903).
Bol. Mus. Goeldi (Mus. Paraense) Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 4(1): 38-106, 119-122. Feb. 1904.
–Records four skeletons of Manatus inunguis in the collection, from various localities from Iquitos (Peru) to the mouth of the Amazon, and one living specimen from the Rio Purús captive since Sept. 1902. All the skeletons have 14 pairs of ribs and lack nails on the digits (89-90).
 
 
Goering, Anton (detail)
   
1892-93
Vom tropischen Tieflande zum ewigen Schnee. Eine malerische Schilderung des schönsten Tropenlandes Venezuela.
Leipzig.
–Manatee illustration, reproduced by Matthies (1994).
x
 
Goes, Peter (detail)
   
2020
Floder. En verdensomsejling.
Forlaget Forlæns.
–In Danish (transl. from 2018 Dutch edition; original title: Rivieren: een reis langs zeeën, meren en rivieren, Lannoo Publishers.). Children's book, illustrated with drawings of rivers, seas, and their inhabitants. P. 60: {"The West African manatee is found in coastal seas, rivers and lakes. Manatees (sea cows) were in earlier times often regarded to be mermaids."}
 
 
Goettert, Liesel (detail)
   
1966
Verhaltensweisen einer Seekuh.
Natw. Rundschau 19(5): 202.
–Abstr. of J. Kinzer (1966).
 
 
Gohar, H. A. F. (detail)
   
1944
[Dugong captured in the Red Sea.]
Ann. Rept. Marine Biol. Station, Fac. Sci. Fouad I Univ. (Cairo), 1942-1943: 34-36.
x
 
Gohar, H. A. F. (detail)
   
1957
The Red Sea dugong.
Publ. Marine Biol. Station Al-Ghardaqa Red Sea No. 9: 3-49. 1 tab. 17 figs. 3 pls.
–A careful and detailed account, based on 16 specimens, emphasizing external morphology, skin, and hair (6-15), the masticating plates (16-23), the tongue (24-29), the external genitalia (30-35), and internal parasites (43-45, 48). Defends the functional importance of the "vestigial" lower incisor alveoli as sites of anchorage for the masticating plate (21-22). Regards the Red Sea population as a valid subspecies, Dugong dugong [sic] tabernaculi (35-40). Describes (perhaps on the basis of information from fishermen?) a very unlikely-sounding mode of grazing, in which dugongs purportedly uproot seagrasses with the flippers, stack them in heaps, and then return to consume them in the same order (42)! Argues that dugongs may well have contributed to mermaid legends (46-47).
Göhlich, Ursula B.: SEE Darga et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Gol'din, Pavel; Kovalchuk, Oleksandr M.; Krakhmalnaya, Tatiana (detail)
   
2019
The first record of Sirenia (Mammalia) from the early Oligocene of the Paratethys.
Historical Biology 31(10): 1373-1378. 10.1080/08912963.2018.1454444 Publ. online Mar. 23, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Sirenians have been extensively recorded from the Mediterranean and west European localities but there are only few finds to the east of it, from the area covered by the Paratethys. For the early Oligocene, to our knowledge, there are no published records of sirenians from inner seas of the Old World. Here we report a specimen of Dugongidae indet., consisting of two partial vertebrae and 12 fragments of ribs, collected in a manganese ore mine in Ukraine and dated as the earliest Oligocene (33–32 Ma). The specimens, as preserved, did not differ in morphology and size from 'Halitherium schinzii' and therefore can belong to Kaupitherium, at present the single early Oligocene genus recorded from Europe. However, its vertebral and rib anatomy is not specific for Kaupitherium, so we identify it only by family level. The marks of scavenging on a rib possibly are due to gastropod or bivalve mollusks. The sea, as suggested from biotic data, had a temperate or subtropical climate, relatively cold waters and high diversity of pelagic and deep-water habitats. Thus, the onset of the Oligocene was a period when sirenians could enter temperate inner Eurasian waters, a marginal area in their worldwide dispersal.
Gold-Bouchot, G.: SEE Noreno-B. et al., 1998. (detail)
x
 
Golder, F. A. (detail)
   
1922
Bering's voyages: an account of the efforts of the Russians to determine the relation of Asia and America.... Volume I: The log books and official reports of the first and second expeditions 1725-1730 and 1733-1742 with a chart of the second voyage by Ellsworth P. Bertholf.
Amer. Geogr. Soc. Research Series No. 1: x + 371. 15 figs. 1 pl.
–Vol. 2 (1925) is listed here as G. W. Steller (1925). This vol. contains brief comments on Steller's sea cow from Kharlam Yushin's journal (237), a description of the hunting technique from Sofron Khitrov's journal (238), and further brief remarks by Sven Waxell (279). All were officers of Bering's second expedition and hence eyewitnesses. Also contains a valuable bibliographic essay and annotated bibliography on Bering's expeditions and related topics (349-371).
 
 
Goldfuss, Georg August (detail)
   
1820
Handbuch der Zoologie.... Zweite Abtheilung. In the series: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen. Von Dr. G[otthilf]. H[einrich von]. Schubert. Dritter Theil. Zweite Abtheilung.
Nürnberg, Johann Leonhard Schrag: xxiv + 510.
–Allen 588. Sirs., 336-339.
x
 
Goldman, Edward A. (detail)
   
1920
Mammals of Panama.
Smithson. Misc. Coll. 69(5): 1-309. 39 pls. 1 map. Apr. 26, 1920.
–Records and distribution of T. manatus in Panama (68-71). Quotes Dampier at length (69-71) on the habits of the manatee and the Moskito Indians' techniques of harpooning it.
x
 
Goldsmith, Paul (detail)
   
1986
Undomesticated animals and plants. Fish. In: A. Hansen & D. E. McMillan (eds.), Food in sub-Saharan Africa.
Boulder (Colorado), Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. (410 pp.): 229-238.
–States that the Bajuni people of East Africa use remoras to catch dugongs and sea turtles (231).
Goldstein, E.: SEE Pilson & Goldstein, 1972?. (detail)
Golley, F. B.: SEE Caldwell & Golley, 1965. (detail)
Golpe Posse, J. M.: SEE Crusafont-Pairó & Golpe Posse, 1975. (detail)
 
 
Gómara, Francisco López de (detail)
   
1554
La historia general delas Indias, con todos los descubrimientos, y cosas notables que han acaescido enellas, dende que se ganeron hasta agora, .... Añadiose de nueuo la descripcion y traça delas Indias, con una tabla alphabetica delas prouincias, islas, puereos, ciudades, y nombres de conquistadores y varones principales que alla han passado.
Antwerp, Iuan Steelsio: ff. 1-287.
–Allen 9. Publ. earlier at Saragossa, 1552-53. Manati, chap. 31, ff. 37-38 (reprinted in Durand, 1983: 46-47).
 
 
Gómara, Francisco López de (detail)
   
1606
Histoire generalle des Indes occidentales, et terres neuues, qui iusques à present ont esté descouuertes. Augmentee en ceste cinquiesme edition de la description de la nouuelle Espagne, & de la grande ville de Mexicque, autrement nommee, Tenuctilan. Composee en Espagnol par François Lopez de Gomara, & traduite en François par le S. de Genillé Marr. Fumée.
Paris, Michel Sonnius: ff. 4, 1-485 + 19.
–Allen 40. Manati, chap. 31, f. 41 (2 pages).
 
 
Gómara, Francisco López de (detail)
   
1749
Historia de las Indias. In: Historiadores primitivos de las Indias occidentales, que juntó, traduxo en parte, y facò à luz, ilustrados con eruditas notas, y copiosos indices, el ilustrissimo Señor D. Andres Gonzalez Barcia, del Consejo, y camara de S. M. Divididos en tres tomos. Tomo I[-III].
Madrid (3 vols.).
–Allen 248. Manati, 2: chap. 31, p. 25. External characters and habits, one half page.
x
 
Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Marangoni, Pauline; Šumbera, Radim; Tafforeau, Paul; Wendelen, Wim; Viriot, Laurent (detail)
   
2011
Continuous dental replacement in a hyper-chisel tooth digging rodent.
PNAS 1109615108: 1-5. 4 figs. Supplementary material: 5 pp. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Describes horizonal replacement of hypsodont teeth in the silvery mole-rat (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), comparing it with TM, TS, and other mammals (1-5).
Gomes, L.: SEE Silva et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Gómez Lépiz, Alexander (detail)
   
2011
CEBADO DE MANATÍES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS) ENVIDA LIBRE SEGÚN EXPERIMENTOS DE PREFERENCIA COMO BASE PARA LA CAPTURA MEDIANTE LA TÉCNICA DE ENCIERRO-TRAMPA, PARQUE NACIONAL TORTUGUERO, LIMÓN COSTA RICA
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 2: 109-117. 1 tab. 1 fig. Dec. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: This study determined the preference of the manatees for some food resources, which constitute their diet in the region. The preference of the herbivore is typically shown through the "cafeteria feeding trials" technique: the animals are left to choose freely among the plants available for them. In order to evaluate the preference of the manatees through this technique, plants normally consumed by the manatee were offered(Paspalum repens, Urochloa mutica, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Eichhornia crassipes) in the study area, next to other vegetables normally consumed by humans, which are usually offered at a Zoo as part of their diet. Of all the plants offered, the grass P. repens was the preferred plant, which was successfully used to evaluate the preliminary structure lock up-trap where the manatees entered. The preference for this plant could be attributed to characteristics that were not evaluated for this study, such as palatability, microelements, and/or texture.
 RESUMEN: Este estudio determinó la preferencia del manatí por algunos recursos alimenticios que constituyen su dieta en la región. La preferencia alimenticia en un herbívoro es abordada mediante "experimentos de restaurante", al dejar que los animales escojan libremente entre los alimentos ofrecidos. Con este propósitose proporcionaron las principales plantas consumidas por el manatí (Paspalum repens, Urochloa mutica, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Eichhornia crassipes) en el área de estudio, junto a otras plantas de consumo humano que son proporcionadas en los zoológicos como parte de su dieta (manzanas, zanahorias, lechugas y mangos). De todas las plantas ofrecidas, el pasto P. repens fue la planta preferida y se utilizó para evaluar con éxito una estructura preliminar de encierro-trampa en donde los manatíes ingresaron. La preferencia por esta planta podría estar relacionada con características que no fueron evaluadas durante la presente investigación como: palatabilidad, microelementos, textura.
x
 
Gómez Llueca, Federico (detail)
   
1919
El Mioceno marino de Muro (Mallorca).
Trab. Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. (Madrid), Ser. Geol. No. 25: 1-75. 19 figs. 17 pls.
–Describes DP/5-M/3 and caudal vertebra of Metaxytherium Cuvieri from the Helvetian of Mallorca (54-59, 61, 64, pls. 16-17).
x
 
Gomez, Edgardo D. (detail)
   
1983
Sea cows on stamps of the world.
Bio-Philately (Biology Unit, Amer. Topical Assoc.) 32(2): 121.
–Expands D. N. Riemer's (1982) list of sir. stamps to 28.
 
 
Gómez, Guillermo (detail)
   
1998
Dos sirénidos del eoceno en la formación Belsué-Atarés.
Serrablo 28(110): 1 p. Dec. 1998.
–Briefly mentions (without description) two sir. occurrences from the Middle or Late Eocene of northern Spain: a tusk from Oroel, and a mandible and other fragments from Guara.
x
 
Gómez-Alba Ruiz, Julio (detail)
   
1997
Catálogo razonado de los vertebrados fósiles de España del Museo de Geología de Barcelona (1882-1982).
Treballs del Museu de Geología de Barcelona 6: 1-289. 10 tabs. 7 figs. 25 pls. Dec. 1997.
–Cites Miocene occurrences of Metaxytherium sp., alias "Halitherium fossile" (23, 45, 57, 61, 171-172, 174-175, 227), and an Eocene occurrence of Prototherium sp. (114), in Spain.
 
 
Gomez-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Lesher-Gordillo, Julia Maria; Olivera-Gomez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert K.; Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Raymundo; Castañón-Nájera, Guillermo; Jimenez-Dominguez, Darwin; Romo-Lopez, Armando; Delgado-Estrella. Alberto (detail)
   
2018
Genetic diversity and structure from Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the southern Gulf of México: comparison between connected and isolated populations.
Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-10. doi:10.1177/1940082918795560. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Jan. 1, 2019; publ. online Aug. 31, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is listed as endangered species in the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aims of this research were to survey on the possible regional genetic structure in the southern Gulf of Mexico and to compare genetic status of a landlocked population in Laguna de las Ilusiones (IL) with individuals from localities with no barriers to displacement and breed (open population [OP]). We analyzed 45 manatee skin samples collected from different locations in Tabasco (n?=?38, including 19 from IL), Veracruz (n?=?3), Campeche (n?=?2), and Chiapas (n?=?2). The genomic DNA was isolated and PCR amplifications were performed for each sample using 28 microsatellite loci, previously designed for West Indian manatees and described as polymorphic for this species. Two clusters (k?=?2) were identified by STRUCTURE. The analysis of both a priori populations (IL and OP) indicate that the global values of FST and RST (FST=0.049, RST=0.077) were significant. The HE for IL was 0.38?±?0.03 and for OP was 0.49?±?0.01. The average number of alleles NA for IL was 2.21?±?0.09 and for OP was 2.32?±?0.09. The overall inbreeding coefficient was FIS=?0.013 for analyzed populations. Genetic diversity was low. The IL population had slightly lower genetic diversity compared with OP, which could be explained by isolation of that small group, so conservation plans for IL should be considered as priority.
Gomez-Eichelmann, M. Carmen: SEE Solis et al., 2001. (detail)
Gomez-Passamar, Nadine: SEE Donder et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Gonçalves, Lopes (detail)
   
1904
The Amazon: historical, chorographical and statistical outline up to the year 1903.... First Edition.
New York, Hugo J. Hanf: 1-117 (Portuguese text); 1-112 (Engl. text). Tabs.
–Mention of "manatus americanus", 37 (Port. text), 34 (Engl. text). Statistics on production of manatee meat and mixira in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, tabs. 1, 6, 17, 18.
x
 
Gondim, Joaquim (detail)
   
1938
Etnografia indígena (estudos realizados em várias regiões do Amazonas, no periodo de 1921 a 1926). Volume I.
Ceará (Brazil), Editora Fortaleza: 1-69. Illus.
–The Pirahan tribe's name for the manatee is given on p. 12 as piráriên.
Gonzales Bermudez, Fernando M.: SEE Sokolov, V. E. (ed.), 1986. (detail)
Gonzáles, Anastasio Alfaro: SEE Alfaro Gonzáles, Anastasio. (detail)
 
 
Gonzalez, Rafael; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Beck, Cathy; Kern, William H.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M. (detail)
   
2021
Nematode epibionts on skin of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Scientific Reports 11(1211): 3 figs. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79879-7 Jan. 13, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: A survey for the presence of nematodes on the skin of the native Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris from Crystal River, Florida was conducted during annual manatee health assessments. A putative isolate of Cutidiplogaster manati (Diplogastridae) and two other nematodes belonging to the same family were recovered from mid-dorsal tail skin-scrapings from all sampled winter-collected healthy wild adult manatees during two successive years (2018–2019). Qualitative abundance estimates of these three species of diplogastrid nematodes suggest that an average wild Florida manatee adult might possess between 30,000 and 120,000 nematodes on its tail dorsum and that the entire body dorsum including the tail might possess 160,000–640,000 nematodes in roughly equal ratios. Attempts to culture these nematodes on a variety of different culture media were unsuccessful but examination of the mouth (stomatal) morphology suggests specialized feeding on microbes such as diatoms or predation on other nematodes. No skin lesions were observed during the 2018–2019 samplings suggesting that under normal conditions these nematodes are highly specialized free-living epibionts of the skin that are tightly bound to this niche and horizontally transferred between individual manatees in an analogous fashion to human skin mites (Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis). Molecular phylogenetic inferences using sequences of near full length SSU and D2–D3 expansion segments of LSU rRNA genes revealed a putative new morphospecies in Cutidiplogaster sister to C. manati that was monophyletic with several named Mononchoides species, and another putative new morphospecies that formed a clade with several undescribed species similar in appearance to Mononchoides as well as Tylopharyx, Eudiplogasterium, Paroigolaimella and Sachsia.
 
 
Gonzalez-Socoloske, D.; Olivera-Gomez, L. (detail)
   
2012
Gentle giants in dark waters: using side-scan sonar for manatee research.
The Open Remote Sensing Journal 5(1): 1-14.
 
 
Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel; Olivera-Gómez, Leon D. (detail)
   
2019
Food choice by a wild free-renging Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Tabasco, Mexico.
Jour. of Marine Animals and Their Environment 11(1): 19-32.
 
 
Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel; Olivera-Gómez, Leon D.; Reid, James P.; Espinoza-Marin, Carlos; Ruiz, Kherson E.; Glander, Kenneth E (detail)
   
2015
First successful capture and satellite tracking of a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Panama: feasibility of capture and telemetry techniques.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 10(1): 52-57. 1 table. 1 figure. DOI:10.5597/lajam00194. Sep. 16, 2015.
–ABSTRACT- It is currently unknown how important the Central American countries south of Belize are as a link between manatee populations in the north (Belize and Mexico) and populations in South America. Therefore, apart from knowing where manatees are found, it is important to understand how manatees are using these habitats and if they are moving between countries or distinct population centers. Here we report the results of a multi-national and multiinstitutional collaboration resulting in the first successful capture and satellite tracking of a West Indian manatee in southern Central America.
 
 
Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel; Olivera-Gómez, Léon David (detail)
   
2012
Gentle giants in dark waters: using side-scan sonar for manatee research.
Open Remote Sensing Jour. 5: 1-14.
 
 
Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel; Olivera-Gómez, Léon David; Ford, Robert E. (detail)
   
2009
Detection of free-ranging West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus using side-scan sonar.
Endang. Species Res. 8: 249-257. 4 tabs. 2 figs. Oct. 2009.
 
 
González-Socoloske, Daniel; Taylor, Cynthia R.; Rendon Thompson, Olivia R. (detail)
   
2014
Distribution and conservation status of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Honduras.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 9(2): 123-131. 3 tabs. 2 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00176 Publ. online Jan. 27, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, is among the most threatened mammals in Honduras, yet the last published study is from 1980. Since then, the North Coast of Honduras has experienced rapid population growth and land cover change possibly causing habitat loss for manatees. We conducted aerial, boat, and interview surveys between 2005-2007 along the northern and remote eastern coasts of Honduras to assess the current status and distribution of manatees. In addition, we compiled all available data on manatee mortality from museum specimens, unpublished reports, and interviews to determine current threats. We averaged 1.2 manatee sightings per survey hour during six flights along the North Coast in March-April 2006 during 14.4 aerial survey hours. Sightings were mainly clustered in Cuero y Salado Wildlife Refuge (CSWR) and Rios Chapagua and Aguan, which we identify as important conservation areas. Our total and average sightings per survey hour in CSWR were much lower than those reported in 1979-80, in spite of the area being protected since 1987. Our interviews indicate that manatees are still present on the eastern coast (La Mosquitia), however we observed none during 14.5 survey hours in June 2005 and April 2007. The major cause of known mortality from 1970-2007, based on 26 records, was due to entanglement in fishnets. Despite local and federal protection, manatees are still poached and opportunistically caught in fishnets. While some efforts have been made by local NGOs to raise public awareness for manatees, a national conservation program is highly recommended to centralize and coordinate efforts.
 RESUMEN: El manatí antillano, Trichechus manatus manatus, es uno de los mamíferos más amenazados en Honduras, sin embargo, el último estudio publicado data de 1980. Desde entonces, la Costa Norte de Honduras ha experimentado un crecimiento rápido de población humana y cambios en el uso de suelo probablemente causando pérdida de hábitat para los manatíes. Realizamos muestreos aéreos y en lancha y también entrevistas entre 2005-2007 en la Costa Norte y en la remota costa del este de Honduras para evaluar el estado actual y la distribución de manatíes. Además, recopilamos todos los datos disponibles sobre mortalidad de manatíes mediante ejemplares en museos, reportes no publicados y entrevistas, para determinar las amenazas actuales. Realizamos seis muestreos aéreos de la Costa Norte entre marzo y abril del 2006, en los cuales registramos un promedio de 1.2 avistamientos por hora en un total de 14.4 horas de muestreos. Los avistamientos se ubicaron principalmente en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Cuero y Salado (CSWR) y en los Ríos Chapagua y Aguan, que identi?camos como importantes áreas de conservación. Los avistamientos totales y promedio por hora de muestreos en CSWR fueron mucho menores que los reportados en 1979-1980, a pesar de que esta área está protegida desde 1987. Nuestras entrevistas indican que los manatíes aún están presentes en la costa este (La Mosquitia), sin embargo, no se observó ningún manatí durante 14.5 horas de muestreos en junio 2005 y abril 2007. La mayor causa de mortalidad entre 1970 y 2007, basado en 26 reportes, se debió a que manatíes quedaban atrapados en redes de pesca. Si bien se han hecho algunos esfuerzos por parte de ONGs locales para incrementar el conocimiento del público en cuanto a los manatíes, se recomienda fuertemente que se desarrolle un programa de conservación nacional que centralice y coordine esfuerzos.
 
 
Goode, Erica (detail)
   
2007
Smarter than they look.
Natl. Wildlife Mag. 45(3): 31-35. Apr./May 2007.
 
 
Goodman, Daniel (detail)
   
2004
Methods for joint inference from multiple data sources for improved estimates of population size and survival rates.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 401-423. 9 tabs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
Goodman, Morris: SEE Czelusniak et al., 1990; De Jong et al.; Kleinschmidt et al., 1986; Miyamoto & Goodman, 1986; Shoshani et al. (detail)
 
 
Goodrich, E. S. (detail)
   
1914
Metameric segmentation and homology.
Quart. Jour. Micros. Sci. 59: 227-250.
 
 
Goodwin, George G. (detail)
   
1942
Mammals of Honduras.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 79(2): 107-195. May 29, 1942.
–Gen. acc. of T. manatus (187); no specimens from Honduras cited.
x
 
Goodwin, George G. (detail)
   
1946a
The end of the great northern sea cow.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 55(2): 56-61. 5 figs. Feb. 1946.
–Detailed pop. acc. of Bering's voyage, the Bering Island fauna, and the sea cow, with excerpts from Steller's account. The artist's rendition of Hydrodamalis, though inaccurate in other respects, at least has the unusual merit of showing the forelimb as hook-shaped rather than flipperlike.
x
 
Goodwin, George G. (detail)
   
1946b
Mammals of Costa Rica.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 87(5): 271-473. 50 figs. Pl. 17. 1 map. Dec. 31, 1946.
–Gen. acc. of sirs. and T. manatus, citing Costa Rican records from Frantzius (444-445).
 
 
Goodwin, George G. (detail)
   
1949
Whales, porpoises and sea cows. Part II. Toothed whales, porpoises, and sea cows or manatees.
Audubon Nature Bull., Ser. 19, No. 10: 1-4. 6 figs.
–Manatee, 4.
 
 
Goodwin, H. A.; Goodwin, J. M. (detail)
   
1973
List of mammals which have become extinct or are possibly extinct since 1600.
IUCN Occas. Pap. 8: 1-21.
Goodwin, J. M.: SEE Goodwin, H. A., & Goodwin, J. M., 1973. (detail)
x
 
Goodwin, Mark B.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Lipps, Jere H.; Benjamini, Chaim (detail)
   
1998
The first record of an Eocene (Lutetian) marine mammal from Israel.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 18(4): 813-815. 2 figs. Dec. 28, 1998.
–Describes a caudal vertebra thought to represent either a prorastomid sirenian or a primitive cetacean, of probable early Middle Eocene age, collected from the Horsha Formation in the Negev Desert of Israel.
 
 
Goodwin, R.; Thompson, P. (detail)
   
1991
Florida takes steps to make its waterways safer for manatees and boaters.
Florida Nat. 64(3): 11-12. Illus.
Gopalakrishnan, V.: SEE Jhingran & Gopalakrishnan, 1974. (detail)
Gordon, Bernard: SEE Gordon, Esther, & Gordon, Bernard, 1977. (detail)
 
 
Gordon, Esther; Gordon, Bernard (detail)
   
1977
Once there was a giant sea cow.
Henry Z. Walck.
–Children's book on Hydrodamalis.
 
 
Gorgas, M. (detail)
   
1971
Der zoologische Garten von Rangun.
Zs. Kölner Zoo 14(1): 25-32.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Gorry, J. D. (detail)
   
1963
Studies in the comparative anatomy of the ganglion basale of Meynert (Mammalia).
Acta Anat. 55(1-2): 51-104.
–Compares 35 species, including sirs.
 
 
Gorzelany, Jay F. (detail)
   
2004
Evaluation of boater compliance with manatee speed zones along the Gulf Coast of Florida.
Coastal Management 32: 215-226. 2 tabs. 9 figs.
 
 
Gorzelany, Jay F.; Koelsch, Jessica K. (detail)
   
1995
Characterization of manatee habitat in the vicinity of Sarasota Bay, Florida [abstr.].
Florida Scientist 58, Suppl. 1: 8-9.
 
 
Gosse, Philip Henry (detail)
   
1860-61
The romance of natural history. Ser. 1 and 2.
London.
–Many eds., 1841-1903.
x
 
Gosse, Philip Henry; Hill, Richard (detail)
   
1851
A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica.
London, Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans: [v]-xxiv + 508. Frontisp. 7 pls.
–Additional notice by Gosse in Hardwicke's Science-Gossip 12(136): 88, 1876. Observations of manatees in Jamaica (341-346, 348-349) and Haiti (346-347), with measurements, details of appearance, and past prices in Jamaican meat markets. Quotes Purchas on a tame manatee once kept by natives of Hispaniola (347-348).
Goto, Doji: SEE Kaneko & Goto, 1992. (detail)
Goto, Hidehiko: SEE Kimura, Sato, & Goto, 1978. (detail)
 
 
Goto, Masakazu; Ito, Chisato; Yahaya, Mohammed Sani; Wakai, Yoshihito; Asano, Shiro; Oka, Yukari; Ogawa, Satoru; Furuta, Masami; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
2004b
Characteristics of microbial fermentation and potential digestibility of fiber in the hindgut of dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Mar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol. 37(2): 99-107. 3 tabs. 2 figs. June 2004.
 
 
Goto, Masakazu; Ito, Chisato; Yahaya, Mohammed Sani; Wakamura, K.; Asano, Shiro; Wakai, Yoshihito; Oka, Yukari; Furuta, Masami; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
2004a
Effects of age, body size and season on food consumption and digestion of captive dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Mar. Fresh. Behav. Physiol. 37(2): 89-97. June 2004.
 
D
Goto, Masatoshi; Kuga, Naoyuki (detail)
   
1984
Fossil elasmobranchs occurred with desmostylians in Japan.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 45-49. 1 tab. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. See also T. Kamei (1984).
 
 
Gottlieb, Hedwig (detail)
   
1914
Die Antiklinie der Wirbelsäule der Säugetiere.
Morph. Jahrb. 49: 179-220. 2 figs. Pls. 8-11.
–Sirs., 190, 210.
Goubet, Pierre: SEE Donder et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Gould, John (detail)
   
1863
The mammals of Australia.
London, printed for the author by Taylor & Francis (3 vols. + atlas, 1845-63).
–Dugongs, 1: xxxix-xxxx.
Gouy, Manolo: SEE Graur et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Grace et al. (detail)
   
2021
Testing a global standard for measuring species recovery and assessing conservation success.
Conservation Biology 2021: 1-17. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13756
Graef, Walter: SEE Ebner & Graef, 1977. (detail)
Graham, Bob: SEE Appendix 1: _Florida Conservation News_, Nov. 1979. (detail)
 
 
Graham, Frank, Jr. (detail)
   
1979
A new hand in wildlife business.
Audubon 81(3): 94-113. May 1979.
–Mention of T. manatus.
 
 
Graham, Mark; Round, Philip D. (detail)
   
1994
Thailand's vanishing flora and fauna.
Bangkok, Finance One Public Company Ltd.: 1-247. Illus. April 1994.
–Dugong, 25, 196, 214, 216, 218.
x
 
Graham, Samuel Cecil (detail)
   
1909
Captive sea cow and 'gator.
Forest & Stream 72(11): 413. 2 figs. Mar. 13, 1909.
–Pop. acc. of a manatee kept by Mr. S. Hendry in a private garden at Indian River, Florida; mentions high manatee mortality "in the unprecedented cold" of Dec. 1894-Feb. 1895.
 
 
Grainger, D. (detail)
   
1978
Animals in peril. A guide to the endangered animals of Canada and the United States.
Toronto, Pagurian Press Ltd.: 1-192. Illus.
 
 
Gramigna, Pierparide; Guido, Adriano; Mastandrea, Adelaide; Russo, Franco (detail)
   
2008
The paleontological site of Cessaniti: a window on a coastal marine environment of seven million years ago (southern Calabria, Italy).
Geologica Romana 41: 25-34. 14 figs.
–Italian summ.
 ABSTRACT: The paleontological site of Cessaniti is situated in the inland of Vibo Valentia area and it is famous for the excellent preservation and relevance of its fossil content together with the wonderful panoramas of Tyrrhenian sea. The locality is well known since nineteenth century for the richness of the fauna and flora preserved in the sediments. The fossil assemblages contain invertebrate (corals, bivalve, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoids such as Clypeaster ssp., benthic and planktonic foraminifers) and vertebrate faunas (proboscideans, rhinoceroses, giraffids, bovids, sirenids, marine turtles and fish remains). Unfortunately the access to the outcrops is strongly limited due to their locations in cultivated quarries. The fossils are preserved in calcarenites which now days are loose through diagenetic processes. This makes the fossil collection quite easy due to the low degree of cementation. The succession is constituted of a paralic system that evolves toward an open marine environment recording the Tortonian transgression. The fossils of Cessaniti site bear a relevant role in earth science research particularly in phylogenetic studies and paleogeographic reconstructions; they have also great importance for the popular scientific divulgation and museology.
 
 
Gramling, Carolyn (detail)
   
2011
Toothsome sleuths of ancient oceans.
Earth 56(7): 23. 2 figs. July 2011.
–ABSTRACT: About 50 million years ago, a group of marine mammals called sirenians - manatees, sea cows and dugongs - swam serenely in the greenhouse gas-heated warm waters of the Eocene epoch. Greenhouse gas concentrations were five times higher than today, and global temperatures were as much as 12 degrees Celsius warmer. It may also have been considerably wetter - but data on that part of the climate have been hard to come by. Now, a new study suggests the teeth of ancient manatees can provide a window into the hydrologic cycle of the Eocene.
 
 
Grandidier, Alfred; Grandidier, Guillaume (detail)
   
1928
Histoire, physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar. Tome 4. Ethnographie de Madagascar.
Paris, Impr. Nationale: 4 vols.
–Sirs., 4: 245, fn. 1.
x
 
Grandin, Greg (detail)
   
2009
Fordlandia: the rise and fall of Henry Ford's forgotten jungle city.
New York, Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt & Co.: xiv + 416.
–P. 283 has a photo of an Amazonian manatee probably collected in the 1930s in Fordlândia on the right bank of the Tapajós River, Brazil, perhaps representing the southernmost record of the species on that river (fide S. M. Vaz, Sirenews No. 54, p. 14, 2010).
Grandjean, P.: SEE Lecuyer et al., 1996. (detail)
Grandstaff, Barbara Smith: SEE Gallagher et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Grant, C. W. (detail)
   
1840
Memoir to illustrate a geological map of Cutch.
Trans. Geol. Soc. London (2)5(2): 289-326. Pls. 20-26.
–?Reprinted: Madras Jour. Lit. Sci. 12: 309-371? Reports sir. rib fragments, probably from rocks of the Chattian-Aquitanian Aida Stage. According to Sahni & Mishra (1975: 35), this was the first record of fossil sirs. in India.
 
 
Grant, Rebecca J.; Kelley, Karen L.; Maruniak, James E.; Garcia-Maruniak; Alejandra; Barrett, Tom; Manire, Charles A.; Romero, Carlos H. (detail)
   
2010
Expression from baculovirus and serological reactivity of the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus.
Veterinary Microbiology 143(2-4): 384-388. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.019. July 14, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The nucleocapsid (N) protein of dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was expressed from a baculovirus (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus) vector and shown by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis to be about 57 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fully assembled nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) exhibiting the typical helical herringbone morphology. These NLPs were approximately 20-22 nm in diameter and varied in length from 50 to 100 nm. Purified DMV-N protein was used as antigen in an indirect ELISA (iELISA) and shown to react with rabbit and human antisera to measles virus (MV) and dog sera with antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV). The iELISA was used for the demonstration of morbillivirus antibodies in the serum of cetaceans and manatees, showing potential as a serological tool for the mass screening of morbillivirus antibodies in marine mammals.
 
 
Gratiolet, L. (detail)
   
1901
Note sur les lamantins du Niger.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 1901(6): 248-250.
 
 
Graur, Dan; Gouy, Manolo; Duret, Laurent (detail)
   
1997
Evolutionary affinities of the Order Perissodactyla and the phylogenetic status of the superordinal taxa Ungulata and Altungulata.
Molec. Phylog. Evol. 7(2): 195-200. Apr. 1997.
 
 
Grauwiler, Jules (detail)
   
1965
Herz und Kreislauf der Säugetiere.
Basel, Birkhauser Verlag: 1-191. Illus.
Graves, Brent M.: SEE Mackay-Sim et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Gray, Brian A.; Zori, Robert T.; McGuire, Peter M.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2002
A first generation cytogenetic ideogram for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) based on multiple chromosome banding techniques.
Hereditas 137(3): 215-223. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Gray, F.; Zann, Leon (eds.) (detail)
   
1988
Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: x + 196. Illus.
–Includes an Executive Summary; 14 papers (7 of which, by A. Smith, Davis, Bradley, Prince, Marsh, Baldwin, and G. Anderson, respectively, are cited in this bibliography); and excerpts compiled by the eds. from oral presentations and discussions by Aboriginal and Islander representatives (42-53). These latter excerpts include numerous interesting items of dugong lore. Concludes with recommendations, summary, and list of participants (188-196).
 
 
Gray, Jane (detail)
   
1988
Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 62(1-4): 1-214. Jan. 1988.
x
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1821
On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals.
London Med. Reposit. 15(88): 296-310. Apr. 1, 1821? [_fide_ Husar]
–Includes and diagnoses, in his classification of the Class Cetaceae, Order Herbivorae (309), the families Manatidae (new family, comprising Manatus or Trichechus Manatus) and Dugongidae (new family, comprising Dugongidus [new genus] or Trichechus Dugong).
x
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1825
An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia into tribes and families, with a list of the genera apparently appertaining to each tribe.
Ann. Philos. 26 (= n.s. 10)(5): 337-344. Nov. 1825.
–Tentatively includes in the Order Cetae the Family Manatidae with genus Manatus (340, 344), and the (new) Family Halicoridae with genera Halicora (sic) and Stellerus (341, 344).
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1827
Mammalia. In: E. Griffith (ed.), The animal kingdom with its organization by the Baron Cuvier.
London, G. B. Whittaker.
–Dugong, 379-386.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1830-35
Illustrations of Indian zoology; chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke.
London, Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. & Richter: 2 vols. 202 pls.
–Depicts Halicore dugung, 2: pl. 23.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1843
List of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: xxviii + 216.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1850
Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Cetacea.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: xii + 153. 8 pls.
–Sirs., 139-144.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1857
Observations on the species of the genus Manatus.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 25: 59-61. Read Apr. 28, 1857.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1861
Zoological notes on perusing Mr. Du Chaillu's "Adventures in Equatorial Africa".
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)8: 60-65. July 1861.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1862
Observations on Mr. Du Chaillu's paper on "The new species of mammals" discovered by him in western Equatorial Africa.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1861(3): 273-278. Apr. 1862.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1864
On the Cetacea which have been observed in the seas surrounding the British Isles.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864(2): 195-248. 24 figs. Nov. 1864 (read May 24, 1864).
–Agrees that Stewart's (1801) animal was a manatee (247-248).
x
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1865
On the species of manatees (Manatus), and on the difficulty of distinguishing such species by osteological characters.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)15(86): 130-139. Feb. 1865.
–Reviews in detail the osteological material described by earlier authors, and concludes from study of the available samples that M. senegalensis and M. americanus are distinct and the only species existing in West Africa and the Caribbean, respectively.
 
 
Gray, John Edward (detail)
   
1866
Catalogue of seals and whales in the British Museum. Ed. 2.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: viii + 402. 101 figs.
–Sirs., 356-366.
 
 
Gray, W. B. (detail)
   
1960
Creatures of the sea.
New York, Wilfred Funk Inc.: 1-216.
–Capture of a Florida manatee for exhibition (24-27, 156-165, 202-209).
Grayson, Stephen: SEE Elias et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Grech, A.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2007
Prioritising areas for dugong conservation in a marine protected area using a spatially explicit population model.
Applied GIS 3(2): 1-14.
 
 
Grech, A.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.
Conserv. Biol. 22: 711-720.
 
 
Grech, A.; Marsh, Helene D.; Coles, Robert (detail)
   
2008
Using spatial risk assessment to evaluate and address the problem of marine mammal bycatch. [?OR:] A spatial assessment of the risk to a mobile marine mammal from bycatch.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems 18: 1127-1139. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.943
 
 
Grech, A.; Sheppard, J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2011
Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments.
PLoS ONE 6(3): e17993. 8 pp.
Gree, Charles R., Jr.: SEE Richardson et al., 1995. (detail)
 
D
Green, H. L. H. H. (detail)
   
1937
The development and morphology of the teeth of Ornithorhynchus.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (B) 228: 367-420. 14 figs. 18 pls.
x
 
Green, Lynda (detail)
   
2014
Mollee Manatee visits the Reindeer People.
Bloomington (Indiana), Archway Publishing: viii + 35. Illus. Mar. 4, 2014.
–Children's book, describing the visit of the author and her toy manatee to a group of nomadic reindeer herders in Mongolia to share knowledge and concern for animals and the global environment.
Greene, H. Gary: SEE Addicott & Greene, 1974. (detail)
Greenwell, J. Richard: SEE ALSO Wagner et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Greenwell, J. Richard (detail)
   
1985
The ri: zoology and folklore (response to Sibert, Ellis, and Britton).
Cryptozoology 3: 151-154. Apr. 1985.
–Responds to comments on the "ri" of New Ireland, leaning toward its identification as Neophocaena or some other small cetacean. Also discusses the possible sir. or cetacean origins of mermaid legends.
x
 
Greenwell, J. Richard (detail)
   
1987
Ri-evaluation (comment on Williams [1986]).
Cryptozoology 5: 140-144. Apr. 1987.
–Reviews the history of the controversy over the "ri" of New Ireland, and praises the study of T. R. Williams (1986) as "the first time that a mythified animal such as a 'mermaid' has been located first-hand and identified zoologically" - in this case, as a dugong.
 
 
Greenwood, Alex D.; Lee, Fred; Capelli, Cristian; DeSalle, Robert; Tikhonov, Alexei; Marx, Preston A.; MacPhee, Ross D. E. (detail)
   
2001
Evolution of endogenous retrovirus-like elements of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and its relatives.
Molec. Biol. Evol. 18(5): 840-847.
 
 
Gregor, Hans-Joachim; Kuhn, Reinhard; Storch, Diethard H. (detail)
   
2000
Gedanken zur taxonomisch-systematischen Stellung von Deinotherium auf Grund anatomisch-morphologischer Gegebenheiten.
Documenta Naturae 130: 1-141. 7 tabs. 43 figs. 6 pls.
–Concludes that deinotheres are not proboscideans, but rather a group of tethytheres more closely related to sirs.
 
 
Gregorová, Ruzena; Zágoršek, Kamil (detail)
   
2008
Zpráva o nálezu Žebra sirény (rád Sirenia) z neogenních sedimentu lokality Bulhary (okres Breclav, Česká republika). Preliminary report of the discovery of a sirenian rib (Order Sirenia) from the Neogene sediments at Bulhary locality (Breclav District, Czech Republic).
Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. Geol. 93(1-2): 225-228. 1 fig.
–Engl. summ. Reports the first sir. fossil from Badenian (Middle Mioc.) sediments in the Moravian part of the Vienna Basin.
x
 
Gregory, Joseph T. (detail)
   
1941
The rostrum of Felsinotherium ossivalense.
Geol. Surv. Florida Geol. Bull. No. 22: 27-47. 2 figs. 2 pls.
–Describes a previously lost partial skull from Bone Valley, Florida, photographs of which had been published by Simpson (1932a: 452, fig. 12).
 
 
Gregory, William King (detail)
   
1910
The orders of mammals.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 27: 1-524. 32 figs. Feb. 1910.
–Revs.: Nature (London) 84: 216?; Amer. Jour. Sci. (4)30: 88? Abstr.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 16(3): 50. Sirs., 78, 82, 406-409, 423, 430, 452.
 
 
Gregory, William King (detail)
   
1920
Studies in comparative myology and osteology: No. IV. - A review of the evolution of the lacrymal bone of vertebrates with special reference to that of mammals.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 42(2): 95-263. 3 tabs. 196 figs. Pl. 17. Dec. 4, 1920.
–Abstr.: Sci. Prog. 16: 213. Sirs., 184, 245.
 
D
Gregory, William King (detail)
   
1951
Evolution emerging: A survey of changing patterns from primeval life to man.
New York, Macmillan (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xxvi + 736 (text); Vol. 2: viii + 1013 (illustrations).
–Sirs., 1: 426-428; 2: 800-803.
x
 
Grekov, V. I. (detail)
   
1958
Novye isvestiya o geograficheskom rasprostranenii vymersheĭ morskoĭ korovy (Hydrodamalis stelleri). [New information on the geographic distribution of the extinct sea cow (Hydrodamalis stelleri).]
Izvest. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geogr. 1958(2): 95-100. 1 fig.
–Discusses earlier studies of the topic, and quotes eighteenth-century testimony by Kul'kov and Shalaurov attesting to the presence of sea cows in the Near Islands and on the north coast of Siberia, respectively.
 
 
Grevé, Carl A. (detail)
   
1897
Die geographische Verbreitung der jetzt lebenden Sirenia, nebst einer Übersicht der ausgestorbenen Arten.
Zool. Garten 38(2): 51-60.
 
 
Grevé, Carl A. (detail)
   
1905
Was wir über Stellers Seekuh wissen.
Korresblt. Naturf. Ver. Riga 48: 145-156. 4 figs. 1 map.
–See also Anon. (1911).
 
 
Grew, Nehemiah (detail)
   
1681
Musaeum Regalis Societatis. Or a catalogue & description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society and preserved at Gresham Colledge.... Whereunto is subjoyned the comparative anatomy of stomachs and guts.
London, printed for the author by W. Rawlins: 386 + 42. 31 pls.
–Allen 120. Sirs., etc., 81-103.
 
 
Gribble, Neil A.; McPherson, G.; Lane, Baden (detail)
   
1998
Effect of the Queensland Shark Control Program on non-target species: whale, dugong, turtle and dolphin: a review.
Marine & Freshwater Res. 49(7): 645-651.
x
 
Griebel, Ulrike; Schmid, Axel (detail)
   
1996
Color vision in the manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Vision Res. 36(17): 2747-2757. 4 tabs. 3 figs. Sept. 1996.
–Antillean manatees at the Nuremberg Zoo showed the ability, in air, to distinguish blue and green from a series of grays, but failed to distinguish red and blue-green from certain shades of gray, and could not tell UV-reflecting from UV-absorbing white targets. This shows that they possess color vision that is most likely dichromatic, in agreement with the known presence of two types of cone cells in the manatee retina.
 
 
Griebel, Ulrike; Schmid, Axel (detail)
   
1997
Brightness discrimination ability in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Exper. Biol. 200(11): 1587-1592.
 
 
Griffith, Edward; et al. (detail)
   
1827-34
The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed.
London, Geo. B. Whittaker: 15 vols. Illus.
–No. 751 in J. C. Smith, Georges Cuvier: an annotated bibliography of his published works, Smithsonian Inst. Press, 1993; see also Smith 752. The Mammalia constitute vols. 1-4 (1827). Includes Manatus senegalensis.
x
 
Grigione, M. M. (detail)
   
1996
Observations on the status and distribution of the West African manatee in Cameroon.
Afr. Jour. Ecol. 34(2): 189-195. 1 tab. 4 figs. June 1996.
–French summ. Presents results of a 1989 boat and interview survey, and concludes that manatee density is "high" in some areas. Hunting is not common except by Nigerians; Cameroonians variously claim fear of manatees, dislike of their meat, or lack of the proper equipment as reasons for not hunting them, rather than legal prohibition. Vegetation in areas of manatee abundance reportedly consists largely of emergent or overhanging rather than submerged plants (191).
 
 
Grigorescu, Dan (detail)
   
1967
Asupra prezentei unor fragmente scheletice de sirenide din Paleogenul de la Albesti-Muscel. (La présence de quelques fragments squelettiques de siréniens au Paléogène d'Albesti-Muscel.)
Anal. Univ. Bucuresti, Ser. Stiint. Nat. (Geol.-Geogr.) 16(1): 73-78. 2 pls.
–In Romanian; French & Russian summs. Reports remains "cf. Halitherium" from Ypresian-lower Lutetian (Eocene) deposits in southeastern Romania.
 
 
Grillet, Jean; Bechamel, Francis (detail)
   
1698
Voyages and discoveries in South-America.... The third from Cayenne into Guiana, in search of the Lake of Parima, reputed the richest place in the world. By M. Grillet and Bechamel.... [pt. iii.] A journal of the travels of John Grillet, and Francis Bechamel into Gviana, in the year, 1674. In order to discover the great Lake of Parima and the many cities said to be situated on its banks, and reputed the richest in the world.
London, Samuel Buckley: viii + 190 + 79 + 68 [= pt. iii]. 2 maps.
–Allen 143. See also Acuña (1698). Harpooning and export of manatee, 63.
x
 
Grimes, David; Becnel, Tom (detail)
   
2003
Florida curiosities: quirky characters, roadside oddities & other offbeat stuff.
Guilford (Connecticut), Globe Pequot Press (Curiosities Series): 1-198. Illus.
–Contains a short pop. acc. of Snooty the captive manatee at Bradenton's South Florida Museum (75-77, 1 fig.).
Grimod, Ivana: SEE Angelici et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Grimwood, Ian R. (detail)
   
1968
Endangered mammals in Peru.
Oryx 9(6): 411-421. Pls. 8-10. Dec. 1968.
–Summ. of Grimwood (1969). T. inunguis, 418.
x
 
Grimwood, Ian R. (detail)
   
1969
Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals: 1968.
Amer. Comm. Internatl. Wild Life Protect. & New York Zool. Soc., Spec. Publ. No. 21: 1-89. Illus.
–Summ.: Grimwood (1968). Describes the distribution of T. inunguis in Peru, noting its severe depletion by hunting and its persistence in the proposed Rio Samiria and Rio Pacaya preserves. Reports that two traders brought 10,000 kg of dried manatee meat from the Rio Putumayo in 1958 (61).
Grinnell, S. W.: SEE Irving et al., 1941. (detail)
 
 
Grive, J. (detail)
   
1964
Considérée comme éteinte au 18e siècle, la rhytine vivrait encore.
Nature (Paris) No. 3348: 152-153. 1 fig.
–Discusses the possible survival of Hydrodamalis.
 
 
Gromova, Vera Isaakovna (detail)
   
1950
Opredelitel' mlekopitayushchikh SSSR po kostyam skeleta. Vypusk 1. Opredelitel' pokrupnym trubchatym kostyam. Tekst i al'bom risunkov. [Key to the mammals of the USSR based on skeletal bones. Issue 1. Key based on the large tubular bones. Text and album of drawings.]
Tr. Kom. Izuch. Chetvertichn. Perioda 9(1A): 1-240 (text), 9(1B): 1-108 (album).
–Includes Hydrodamalis stelleri.
 
 
Grossman, Charles J.; Hamilton, Richard E.; De Wit, Martine; Johnson, Jeff; Faul, Robert; Herbert, Steven; Tierney, Dennis; Buot, Max; Latham, Michelle L.; Boivin, Gregory (detail)
   
2014
The vocalization mechanism of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences 14(2):127-149. 6 tabs. 6 figs. DOI:10.3844/ojbssp.2014.127.149.
–ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which Florida manatees produce vocalizations is unknown. Anatomically, the laryngeal region in manatees lacks clearly defined vocal folds. Initially we developed a method to visualize the entire manatee upper respiratory system. We then forced air through fresh necropsied manatee larynxes and generated artificial vocalizations which closely duplicated the normal vocalizations produced by live manatees, both in fundamental frequency and structure of harmonics. Here we report that sound is generated in the larynx when air vibrates bilateral strips of tissue embedded in the lateral laryngeal walls which are in close approximation anteriorly but which diverge posteriorly. We propose that these strips of tissue are the modified vocal folds containing ligaments and we support this through histological stained sections and because they are connected anteriorly to the posterior side of the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly with the arytenoidal cartilages. We also suggest that these vocalizations are then modified within the resonance cavities in the frontal area of the head and the air used to generate these vocalizations also causes a transient deformation of this region before being conserved and returned to the lungs.
 
 
Grossman, Charles J.; Hamilton, Richard; Close-Jacob, Lisa; De Wit, Martine; Werwa, Jeffery (detail)
   
2011
Silicone modeling of the interior spaces of hollow organs: use in dog and manatee respiratory tract and in a beef heart.
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences 11(1): 7-7. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Problem statement: The mechanism by which the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) vocalizes remains unknown because the manatee larynx does not contain true vocal cords. Since sound can be generated when air passes through a narrow respiratory structure we needed to visualize the internal anatomy of manatee respiratory tract to locate any candidate regions for study. Approach: To visualize the internal anatomy of upper and lower manatee respiratory tract we have developed a rapid but accurate method of modeling these structures using liquid silicone. We first tested this technique on the respiratory structure of a cadaver dog and then applied it to two small manatees which had died through natural causes. Incisions were made in the trachea of both dog and manatees and commercially available liquid silicone was then forced into the upper and lower respiratory tracts used a slightly modified common automobile grease gun. The animals were then refrigerated overnight and the silicone was allowed to cure for a period of 24 h. Results: In dog, we removed cured silicone model by applying mild force to it after surgically opening the nasal cavity. In the manatees some dissection was necessary for release of mold from the upper nasal cavity, but only mild force was necessary with no dissection to release silicone model from the lower tract. Because the models created exhibited great accuracy and fine structure, including presence of tertiary bronchi in the manatee respiratory tract, we realized that the technique was applicable for use in other hollow organs. We applied this method to the visualization of internal structure of a fresh beef heart and were pleased with the accuracy and detail of model produced. Conclusion: We suggest that this technique can be adopted for three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure and volume estimation of many hollow organs in a wide variety of organisms with both minimal effort and cost.
x
 
Grubb, Peter; Jones, Theo Simpson; Davies, A. G.; Edberg, E.; Starin, E. D.; Hill, J. E. (detail)
   
1998
Mammals of Ghana, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.
St. Ives, Trendrine Press: vi + 265. 18 maps + 499 maps in appendices.
–Discusses the habits, distribution, and utilization of T. senegalensis, with separate notes on each of the three countries (138-139; maps GH 135, SL 100, GM 61).
 
 
Grube, E. (detail)
   
1873
Über die pflanzenfressenden Cetaceen.
50. Jahresber. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Kult. (1872) 1873: 49-51.
Grubel da Silva, Kleber: SEE ALSO Pinto de Lima et al., 1992a, 1992b. (detail)
 
 
Grubel da Silva, Kleber; Paludo, Danielle; Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de; Pinto de Lima, Régis; Soavinski, Ricardo José (detail)
   
1992
Distribuição e ocorrência do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus) no estuário do Rio Mamanguape, Paraíba - Brasil.
Peixe-Boi 1(1): 6-18. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Grubel da Silva, Kleber; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de; Kohler, Maria Cláudia M. (detail)
   
1992
Alimentação, crescimento e comportamento em cativeiro de um filhote órfão de peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758).
Peixe-Boi 1(1): 33-41. 2 tabs.
 
 
Gruchet, H. (detail)
   
1973
La capture d'un dugong dans le canal de Mozambique.
Info-Nature No. 9: 46-48.
x
 
Gruvel, A. (detail)
   
1903
Revision des Cirrhipèdes appartenant à la collection du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle.... Operculés.
Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. (4)5: 95-170. 4 pls.
–Describes a barnacle, "Chelonobia" [properly Chelonibia] manati, n.sp., from the skin of a Manatus senegalensis from the Congo (116-120, pls. 2, 4).
 
 
Gruvel, A. (detail)
   
1921
Exposé d'un voeu pour la creation de reserves de tortues marines et dugongs sur les côtes de Madagascar.
Commn. Soc. Nat. Acclimation France.
 
 
Gruvel, A. (detail)
   
1922
Voeu pour la protection des tortues marines et des dugongs de Madagascar. Sur les longoustes et les langoustes et les huitres perlieres de Madagascar.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Acclimation France No. 4: 74-76. Apr. 1922.
Grzimek, Bernhard: SEE Thenius et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Guazzo, Marco (detail)
   
1552
Historie ... de le cose degne di memoria, cosi in mare come in terra nel mondo svccesse del MDXXIIII sino a l'anno MDLII. Nvovamente reviste, et con somma diligenza corrette aggiunte, e ristampate.
Venice, Gabriel Giolito di Ferrarii: 1-734.
–First ed., Venice, Zoppino, 1540. Mentions a dead "sirena" (680-682; Spanish transl. in Durand, 1983: 109-111).
 
 
Gudernatsch, J. F. (detail)
   
1908a
Zur Anatomie und Histologie des Verdauungstraktes von Halicore Dugong Erxl. .... I. Mundhöhle.
Morph. Jahrb. 37(4): 586-613. 19 figs. Pl. 14. Jan. 7, 1908.
–Abstr.: Amer. Naturalist 41(490): 665, 1907?
x
 
Gudernatsch, J. F. (detail)
   
1908b
Manatus latirostris Harl. Biologische und morphologische Beiträge.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. 27(3): 225-236. 3 figs. Pl. 9.
–Describes the external anatomy, behavior, care, and pathology of Florida manatees kept at the New York Aquarium.
 
 
Gudernatsch, J. F. (detail)
   
1909
Zur Anatomie und Histologie des Verdauungstraktes der Sirenia. II. Die Zunge von Manatus latirostris Harl.
Morph. Jahrb. 40: 184-194. 3 figs. 1 pl.
Guérin, Claude: SEE Faure et al., 1993; Jousse & Guérin, 2003; Prieur & Guérin, 1991. (detail)
 
 
Guérin-Méneville, Félix-Édouard (detail)
   
1829-44
Iconographie du Règne Animal de G. Cuvier; ou représentation d'après nature de l'une des espèces les plus remarquables, et souvent non encore figurées, de chaque genre d'animaux. Avec un text descriptif mis au courant de la science. Ouvrage pouvant servir d'atlas à tous les traités de zoologie.
Paris & London, J. B. Baillière: 3 vols. + atlas.
–No. 802 in J. C. Smith, Georges Cuvier: an annotated bibliography of his published works, Smithsonian Inst. Press, 1993. Depicts Manatus americanus and Halicore dugung, pl. 46.
 
 
Guérin-Méneville, Félix-Édouard (detail)
   
1841
[Remarks concerning de Blainville's report of a memoir by de Christol on Metaxytherium, etc.]
Rev. Mag. Zool. (Paris) 1841: 86-91.
–See Blainville, H.M.D. de (1841).
 
 
Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D.; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2016
Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 120: 189–194. 2 figs. doi: 10.3354/dao03019. Aug. 9, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death.
Guerrero, R.: SEE Fernandez Badillo et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Guettard, Jean-Étienne (detail)
   
1768
Mémoires sur differentes parties des sciences et arts. Tome 1.
Paris, L. Prault: cxxvi + 439. Pls.
–Discusses a fossil "vache marine" (7, pls. 6, 8), later dubbed Manatus guettardi by de Blainville (1844) (= Halitherium schinzii).
 
 
Guevara Porras, Paloma Ladrón de; Guzmán-Blas, Marlen; Hernández-Nava, José (detail)
   
2019
Actualización de datos sobre la distribución del manatí (Trichechus manatus manatus) en los sistemas fluvio-lagunares que conectan con la laguna de Términos, Campeche, a través de la participación comunitaria. [Data update on the distribution of the manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the fluvio-lagoon systems that connect with the Términos Lagoon, Campeche, through community participation.]
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 90: 1-10. 3 tabs. 3 figs. e902433.
–RESUMEN: El manatí (Trichechus manatus manatus) es un mamífero acuático que está en peligro de extinción. Una población importante de esta especie se encuentra en los sistemas fluvio-lagunares que conectan con la laguna de Términos, Campeche, en donde también hay una gran actividad humana que afecta negativamente al manatí. Por lo anterior, desde 2011 en el Área Natural Protegida Laguna de Términos se inició el proceso de involucramiento de la población local en la conservación y registro del manatí. De 2011 a 2016 se hicieron 99 talleres de educación ambiental y participación social a los que asistieron 2,679 personas. La población local realizó 67 avistamientos de manatíes, principalmente en la laguna de Atasta y los ríos Candelaria y Palizada. En 56.7% de los casos, los avistamientos correspondieron a 1 individuo y 14.9% a 2 individuos. A través de la participación ciudadana se obtuvo una base de datos que permitió actualizar la información sobre la distribución espacial y temporal del manatí, que de otra forma se hubiera perdido. Se logró establecer una cultura de conservación del manatí y contar con insumos para implementar un programa de conservación y manejo en el Área Natural Protegida Laguna de Términos.
  ABSTRACT: The manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an aquatic mammal that is in danger of extinction. An important population of this species is found in the fluvio-lagoon systems that connect with the Términos Lagoon, Campeche where there is also a great human activity that negatively affects the manatee. Therefore, since 2011, in the Términos Lagoon Natural Protected Area, the process of involving the local population in the conservation and recording of the manatee began. From 2011 to 2016, 99 environmental education and social participation workshops were held and attended by 2,679 people. The local population made 67 sightings of manatees, mainly in the Atasta Lagoon and the Candelaria and Palizada Rivers. In 56.7% of the cases, the sightings corresponded to a single individual and 14.9% to 2 individuals. Through citizen participation, a database was obtained that made it possible to update the information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the manatee that would otherwise have been lost. We managed to establish a manatee conservation culture and have inputs to implement their conservation and management program in the Términos Lagoon Natural Protected Area.
 
 
Guevara Porras, Paloma Ladron; Morales Vela, Benjamin; Olivera Gomez, Leon David (detail)
   
2019
El manati, una especie bajo amenaza de extincion. In: Jorge Urbán Ramirez (ed.), Mamíferos Marinos en Mexico.
Ciencia (Acad. Mexicana de Ciencias) 70(3): 38-47. July-Sept. 2019.
 
 
Guido, Adriano; Marra, Antonella Cinzia; Mastandrea, Adelaide; Tosti, Fabio; Russo, Franco (detail)
   
2011
Micromorphological, geochemical, and diagenetic characterization of sirenian ribs preserved in the Late Miocene paleontological site of Cessaniti (southern Calabria, Italy).
Facies 57(1): 179-190. 9 figs. "Jan. 2011" (publ. online Dec. 21, 2011).
–ABSTRACT: The site of Cessaniti (Vibo Valentia, Italy) has been well known since the 19th century for the richness and good preservation of its Miocene fauna and flora. The sedimentary succession of the site represents a paralic system that evolved toward an open-marine environment recording the Tortonian transgression. The fossil assemblage contains rich invertebrate (corals, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoids, benthic and planktonic foraminifers) and vertebrate faunas (proboscideans, rhinoceroses, giraffds, bovids, sirenids, marine turtles, and fish remains). The fossils recovered at the Cessaniti site have a relevant role in phylogenetic studies and paleogeographic reconstructions of Late Miocene environments of the southern Italy. This research is focused on the microstructure and preservation state of the fossil bones. Samples of Metaxytherium sp. bones have been analyzed to understand the diagenetic profile of the bone assemblages that characterizes the taphonomic history of the Cessaniti site. The analyses provided a comprehensive account of how bone mineral (bioapatite) has been altered and demonstrated that the post-burial processes did not significantly affect the micromorphological and biogeochemical features of the bones. The excellent preservation state of the bones strengthens the importance of the Cessaniti site for studies of the Mediterranean Miocene vertebrate fauna.
x
 
Guimarães, João Joaquim da Silva (detail)
   
1854
Diccionario da lingua geral dos Indios do Brasil, ....
Bahia, Typ. de Camillo de Lellis Masson & Ca.: [v] + 59.
–Name for the manatee in lingua geral given on p. 45: {"Peixe boi, Goarabâ."}
 
 
Guimarães, M. A. B. V. (detail)
   
2001
A aplicação de tecnicas de reproducão assistida em animais silvestres mantidos em cativeiro.
Rev. Brasil. Reprod. Animal 25(2): 116-117. Apr.-June 2001.
Guiomar, Myette: SEE Donder et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Guise, R. E. (detail)
   
1899
On the tribes inhabiting the mouth of the Wanigela River, New Guinea.
Jour. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain & Ireland 28(= n.s. 1): 205-219. Read [by T. V. Holmes] Nov. 8, 1898.
 
 
Guissamulo, Almeida (detail)
   
1997
Class Mammalia - marine mammals. In: M. D. Richmond (ed.), A guide to the seashores of eastern Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands.
Stockholm, SIDA/Dept. for Research Cooperation, SAREC (448 pp.): 384-389. Illus.
 
 
Gulliver, G. (detail)
   
1878
Measurements of the red blood corpuscles of the American manatee (M. latirostris) and Beluga leucas.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)2: 172-174.
 
 
Gumilla, Joseph (detail)
   
1745
El Orinoco ilustrado, y defendido, historia natural, civil, y geographica de este gran rio, y de sus caudolosas vertientes: govierno, usos, y costumbres de los Indios sus habitadores, con neuvas, y utiles noticias de animales, arboles, frutos, aceytes, refinas, yervas, y raices medicinales; y sobre todo, se hallaràn convetsiones muy singulares à N. Santa Fé, y casos de mucha edificacion.... Segunda impresion, revista y augmentada por su mismo autor, y dividida en dos partes.
Madrid, Manuel Fernandez (2 vols.): Vol. 1: 1-403. Pls. 1 map.
–Allen 231. First ed., Madrid, 1741. Various later eds. Manati, 1, chap. 21: 225-228 or 319-327?, pl. 2 (reproduced in Durand, 1983: 91-96, 175). Gives an interesting description of the morphology, behavior, and hunting of Trichechus manatus in the Orinoco region. Gumilla's account is particularly noteworthy for his eyewitness observation of a female manatee with twin fetuses; this was the first, and for over two centuries the only, evidence of twinning in sirenians.
 
 
Gumilla, Joseph (detail)
   
1758
Histoire naturelle, civile et geographique de L'Orenoque. Et des principales riviéres qui s'y jettent. Dans laquelle on traite du gouvernement, des usages & des coûtumes des Indiens qui l'habitent, des animaux, des arbres des fruits, des résines, des herbes & des racines médicinales qui naissent dans le païs. On y a joint le détail de plusieurs conversions remarquables & édifiantes.... Traduite de l'Espagnol sur la seconde edition, par M. Eidous....
Avignon, Veuve de F. Girard; Marseille, D. Sibié & Jean Mossi (3 vols.).
–Allen 278. Transl. of Gumilla (1745). Manati, 2, chap. 21: 43-55.
 
 
Gumilla, Joseph (detail)
   
1791
Historia natural, civil y geografica de las naciones situadas en las riveras del Rio Orinoco.... Nueva impresion: mucho mas correcta que las anteriores, y adornada con ocho láminas finas, que manifiestan las costumbres y ritos de aquellos Americanos. Corregido por el P. Ignacio Obregón....
Barcelona, Impr. de Carlos Gibert y Tutó (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xvi + 360. Pls. 1 map. Vol. 2: 1-352.
–Allen 416. Manati, 1, chap. 21: 281-289.
 
 
Gundlach, Juan (detail)
   
1866
Revista y catalogo de los mamiferos cubanos.
Repert. Fisico-nat. de Cuba 2(2): 56.
 
 
Gundlach, Juan (detail)
   
1877
Contribucion à la mamalogia Cubana.
Havana, Impr. G. Montiel y Comp.: 1-53.
–Also publ. in Ann. Real Acad. Cienc. Méd. Fís. Nat. Habana, 1877. Engl. transl.: Gundlach (1895). Mention of Manatus, 49-50.
x
 
Gundlach, Juan (detail)
   
1895
Notes on Cuban mammals.
Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. New York No. 7: 13-20.
–Abridged transl. of Gundlach (1877). P. 20:
 {"I have not observed or seen the maritime mammals. There have been observed: ... 2. Manatus - Manati; lives in different localities."}
x
 
Gunter, Gordon (detail)
   
1941a
Occurrence of the manatee in the United States, with records from Texas.
Jour. Mamm. 22(1): 60-64. Feb. 14, 1941.
–Reviews miscellaneous records of manatees from Texas, Louisiana, and northern Mexico, and comments on their tooth-row structure, bone density, temperature tolerance, and distribution. Concludes that manatees in Texas are strays from Mexico and that a temperature barrier prevents a northward extension of their range.
x
 
Gunter, Gordon (detail)
   
1941b
The manatee, a rare Texas mammal.
Proc. Texas Acad. Sci. 24: 12-13.
–Essentially an abstr. of Gunter (1941a).
x
 
Gunter, Gordon (detail)
   
1942
Further miscellaneous notes on American manatees.
Jour. Mamm. 23(1): 89-90. Feb. 14, 1942.
–Discusses specimens from Texas, Florida, and elsewhere, and their temperature tolerance and distribution.
 
 
Gunter, Gordon (detail)
   
1944
Texas manatees.
Texas Game & Fish. 2(9): 9, 11. Aug. 1944.
x
 
Gunter, Gordon (detail)
   
1954
Mammals of the Gulf of Mexico. In: P. S. Galtsoff (coordinator), Gulf of Mexico, its origin, waters, and marine life.
Fishery Bull. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Vol. 55 (= Fishery Bull. 89): 543-551.
–Account of the distribution and habits of T. manatus (543-545). Includes an excerpt from an unpubl. MS. by C. M. Scammon on two captive Florida manatees observed at Key West in 1880 (544-545).
x
 
Gunter, Gordon; Corcoran, Gerald (detail)
   
1981
Mississippi manatees.
Gulf Res. Rept. 7(1): 97-99.
–Argues against recognition of the separate subspecies T. m. manatus and T. m. latirostris; summarizes manatee records on the northern Gulf Coast and reports new Mississippi occurrences in 1979 and 1980 (the first reports from this state).
x
 
Gunter, Gordon; Perry, Allison (detail)
   
1983
A 1981 sighting of Trichechus manatus in Mississippi.
Jour. Mamm. 64(3): 513. Aug. 18, 1983.
–Reports a manatee caught in a shrimp trawl in the Mississippi Sound on Dec. 3, 1981.
Gupta, A. N.: SEE Sharma & Gupta, 1971. (detail)
 
 
Gur, M. Berke; Niezrecki, Christopher (detail)
   
2009
A source separation approach to enhancing marine mammal vocalizations.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 126(6): 3062-3070. DOI: 10.1121/1.3257549. Dec. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: A common problem in passive acoustic based marine mammal monitoring is the contamination of vocalizations by a noise source, such as a surface vessel. The conventional approach in improving the vocalization signal to noise ratio (SNR) is to suppress the unwanted noise sources by beamforming the measurements made using an array. In this paper, an alternative approach to multi-channel underwater signal enhancement is proposed. Specifically, a blind source separation algorithm that extracts the vocalization signal from two-channel noisy measurements is derived and implemented. The proposed algorithm uses a robust decorrelation criterion to separate the vocalization from background noise, and hence is suitable for low SNR measurements. To overcome the convergence limitations resulting from temporally correlated recordings, the supervised affine projection filter update rule is adapted to the unsupervised source separation framework. The proposed method is evaluated using real West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) vocalizations and watercraft emitted noise measurements made within a typical manatee habitat in Florida. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm can improve the detection range of a passive acoustic detector five times on average (for input SNR between ?10 and 5?dB) using only two receivers.
 
 
Gur, M. Berke; Niezrecki, Christopher (detail)
   
2007
Autocorrelation based denoising of manatee vocalizations using the undecimated discrete wavelet transform.
Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 122(1): 188.
 
 
Gur, M. Berke; Niezrecki, Christopher (detail)
   
2011
A wavelet packet adaptive filtering algorithm for enhancing manatee vocalizations.
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 129(4): 2059-2067.
x
 
Gut, H. James (detail)
   
1939
Hitherto unrecorded vertebrate fossil localities in south-central Florida.
Proc. Florida Acad. Sci. 1938(3): 50-53.
–Lists "Trichechus sp." from the following Pleistocene localities: Sanford and the Wekiva River, Seminole County; Seminole Springs, Lake County; and Rock Springs, Orange County.
 
 
Guterres-Pazin, Michelle Gil; Volpato Pazin, Victor Fernando; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2013
Plants with toxic principles eaten by the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) (Mammalia, Sirenia).
Uakari 9(1): 61-66. 1 tab.
 
 
Guterres-Pazin, Michelle Gil; Marmontel, Miriam; Ayub, Daniel Martins; Singer, Rosana Farias; Singer, Rodrigo B. (detail)
   
2008
Anatomia e morfologia de plantas aquáticas da Amazônia utilizadas como potencial alimento por peixe-boi amazônico.
Belém, Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá - IDSM: [1]-187. Illus.
 
 
Guterres-Pazin, Michelle Gil; Marmontel, Miriam; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Pazin, Victor F. V.; Venticinque, Eduardo M. (detail)
   
2014
Feeding ecology of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in the Mamirauá and Amanã Sustainable Development Reserves, Brazil.
Aquatic Mammals 40(2): 139-149. 3 tabs. 4 figs. doi:10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.139
–ABSTRACT: The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is an exclusively herbivorous freshwater mammal. Between 1994 and 2008, 230 fecal and 16 stomach content samples from wild Amazonian manatees were obtained. The material was collected during both dry and wet seasons in the sustainable development reserves of Mamirauá (MSDR) and Amanã (ASDR) from floodplain and terra firme and igapó (not subject to long-term flooding) habitats, respectively. Species constituting the diet of the Amazonian manatee were identified through a comparative analysis with a reference collection of epidermis from 69 plant species of potential consumption by the species. Forty-nine plant species were identified in the species' diet. In the MSDR, 32 plant species were found -- 18 during the dry season and 28 during the wet season. In the ASDR, 48 species were identified of which 40 occurred in both periods. A total of 30 new species were added to the Amazonian manatee diet known to date. The species that were found most frequently in the material were Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Oryza grandiglumis, Paspalum repens, Azolla caroliniana, and Limnobium spongia. Poaceae was the family with the greatest frequency of occurrence (91.5%). Plant species most consumed present emergent or floating habits. There was a difference in the composition of plant species found in manatee feces between the dry and wet seasons (p = 0.0002) but not between floodplain and igapó. Results show that the Amazonian manatee feeds on a great variety of plant species during the wet and dry season alike, and both in floodplain and igapó environments. Therefore, food availability alone does not represent a determining factor to explain the seasonal migration of the species.
 
 
Guterres-Pazin, Michelle Gil; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2012
Ingestion of invertebrates, seeds, and plastic by the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) (Mammalia, Sirenia).
Aquatic Mammals 38(3): 322-324. DOI: 10.1578/AM.38.3.2012.322.
–ABSTRACT: The living Sirenia belong to the only group of herbivorous aquatic mammals which occur in river systems and coastal tropical and subtropical waters. From this group, the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is the smallest species, exclusively from fresh-water and endemic to the Amazon Basin. Sirenians are monogastric herbivores with post-gastric digestion and a low metabolic rate. Aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes are the main food source for Amazonian manatees, and the species composition and abundance of these plants are strongly influenced by the Amazonian hydrological pulse, which consequently influences the annual supply of food for the manatees. As accidental ingestion of microorganisms and seeds does not affect the health of the manatee even when not digested, the major concern is centered on the growing process of environmental degradation, mainly caused by indirect and direct deposition of waste in the rivers of the Amazon.
Guyana, National Science Research Council: SEE Anonymous, 1973a, 1974c. (detail)
Guzik, Nancy: SEE Delaney et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Guzmán, Alonso Enríquez de (detail)
   
1960
Libro de la vida y costumbres de Don Alonso Enríquez de Guzmán (Hayward Keniston, ed.).
Madrid, Ediciones Atlas (Biblioteca de Autores Españoles ..., t. 126): lxiii + 364.
–Written in the 16th century. Mentions manatees in Puerto Rico in 1534 (p. 131).
 
 
Guzman, Hector M.; Real, Candy K. (detail)
   
2022
Have Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) entered the Eastern Pacific Ocean?
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12950
Győrffy-Mottl, Maria: SEE Mottl, Mária von. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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