Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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H

 
 
Haase, Catherine G.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Butler, Susan M. (detail)
   
2017
Landscape complementation revealed through bipartite networks: an example with the Florida manatee.
Landscape Ecology 32(10): 1999-2014. 2 tabs. 5 figs. + supplemental materials. doi:10.1007/s10980-017-0560-5. Oct. 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Context -- Landscape complementation, or how landscapes that contain two or more non-substitutable and spatially separated resources facilitate resource use, is critical for many populations. Implicit to the problem of landscape complementation is the movement of individuals to access multiple resources. Conventional measures of complementation, such as habitat area or distance between habitats, do not consider the spatial configuration of resources or how landscape features impede movement.
  Objectives -- We advanced a bipartite network approach to capture the spatial configuration and connectivity of two habitat types and contrasted this framework to conventional approaches in a habitat selection model.
  Methods -- Using satellite-telemetry of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a marine mammal that relies on two distinct, spatially separate habitats for foraging and thermoregulating, we parameterized and compared mixed conditional logistic models with covariates describing classic habitat selection metrics, conventional measures of landscape complementation, and bipartite network metrics.
  Results -- The models best supported included habitat area, resistance distance between habitats, and the bipartite network metric eigenvector centrality. The connectivity between habitats and the spatial configuration of one habitat type relative to other types better described habitat selection than conventional measures of landscape complementation alone. The type of habitat, i.e. seagrass or thermal refuge, influenced both the direction and magnitude of the response.
  Conclusions -- Landscape complementation is an important predictor of selection and thus classic complementation measures are not sufficient in describing the process. Formalization of complementation with bipartite network can therefore reveal effects potentially missed with conventional measures.
 
 
Haase, Catherine G.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Butler, Susan M. (detail)
   
2020
Traveling to thermal refuges during stressful temperatures leads to foraging constraints in a central-place forager.
Jour. Mammalogy 101(1): 271-280. 1 tab. 3 figs. + online supplementary data. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyz197 Feb. 2020 (publ. online Dec. 13, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Central-place foragers can be constrained by the distance between habitats. When an organism relies on a central place for thermal refuge, the distance to food resources can potentially constrain foraging behavior. We investigated the effect of distance between thermal refuges and forage patches of the cold-intolerant marine mammal, the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), on foraging duration. We tested the alternative hypotheses of time minimization and energy maximization as a response to distance between habitats. We also determined if manatees mitigate foraging constraints with increased visits to closer thermal refuges. We used hidden Markov models to assign discrete behaviors from movement parameters as a function of water temperature and assessed the influence of distance on foraging duration in water temperatures above (> 20°C) and below (? 20°C) the lower critical limit of the thermoneutral zone of manatees. We found that with increased distance, manatees decreased foraging duration in cold water temperature and increased foraging duration in warmer temperatures. We also found that manatees returned to closer thermal refuges more often. Our results suggest that the spatial relationship of thermal and forage habitats can impact behavioral decisions regarding foraging. Addressing foraging behavior questions while considering thermoregulatory behavior implicates the importance of understanding changing environments on animal behavior, particularly in the face of current global change.
 
 
Hackley, Richard S. (detail)
   
1822
Titles and legal opinions thereon, of lands in East Florida belonging to Richard S. Hackley, Esq. ....
Brooklyne (New York), G. L. Birch.
–Sirs., 100.
Haddad, Kenneth D.: SEE Reynolds & Haddad, 1990; Weigle & Haddad, 1990. (detail)
 
 
Haddon, Alfred Cort (detail)
   
1890
The ethnography of the western tribes of Torres Straits.
Jour. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain & Ireland 19: 297-446.
–Illustrates Mabuiag and Badu women with dugong totems cut into their backs.
 
 
Haddon, Alfred Cort (detail)
   
1932
Headhunters: black, white, and brown.
London, Watts & Co. (The Thinker's Library No. 26; abridged ed.): 1-244. Illus.
–Clan on Mabuiag Is., Torres Straits, named after the dugong (74-77); dugong and turtle fishing (148-157).
 
 
Haddon, Alfred Cort (detail)
   
1977
The decorative art of British New Guinea.
New York, AMS Press: 1-278.
–Reprint of 1894 ed. Dugong, 22, 27, 28.
 
 
Haddon, Alfred Cort (Ed.) (detail)
   
1901-35
Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press (6 vols. in 7).
–Repr.: New York, Johnson Repr. Corp., 1971. Sirs., vols. 4-6 (1912, 1904, 1908, respectively).
 
 
Haeckel, Ernst (detail)
   
1866
Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Allgemeine Grundzüge der organischen Formen-Wissenschaft, mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformierte Deszendenz-Theorie. II. Allgemeine Entwicklungsgeschichte der Organismen. Kritische Grundzüge der mechanischen Wissenschaft von den entstehenden Formen der Organismen, begründet durch die Deszendenz-Theorie.
Berlin, Georg Reimer: clx + 462. 9 pls.
–Sirs., vol. 2, clix, tab. 8.
 
 
Haeckel, Ernst (detail)
   
1868
Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte.
Berlin, G. Reimer: xvi + 568. Illus.
–First ed. Engl. ed., 1876; ed. 10, 1902. Sirs., 545, 556?
 
 
Haeckel, Ernst (detail)
   
1895
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbelthiere (Vertebrata). Dritter Theil des Entwurfs einer systematischen Phylogenie.
Berlin: xx + 660.
–Sirs., 567.
 
 
Haffner, Konstantin von (detail)
   
1957a
Konstruktion und Eigenschaft der Haut der vor 188 Jahren ausgerotteten Steller'schen Seekuh (Rhytina stelleri Retz.).
Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges. 1956 (Zool. Anz. Supplementband 20): 312-316. 2 figs.
 
 
Haffner, Konstantin von (detail)
   
1957b
Bau, Eigenschaften und ehemalige Verwendung der Haut der seit 1768 ausgerotteten Steller'schen Seekuh (Rhytina stelleri Retz.).
Mitt. Hamburg Zool. Mus. Inst. 55: 107-136. 1 tab. 18 figs. 3 pls. Sept. 1957.
 
 
Hagen, Victor W. von (detail)
   
1940
The Mosquito Coast of Honduras and its inhabitants.
Geogr. Review 30: 238-259.
Hagey, L. R.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Hagey, Lee R.; Vidal, Nicolas; Hofmann, Alan F.; Krasowski, Matthew D. (detail)
   
2010
Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites.
BMC Evolutionary Biology 10(133). 1 tab. 9 figs. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-133. May 2010.
–ABSTRACT:
 Background - Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense).
 Results - While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax) have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old) showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet.
 Conclusions - The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites preserved in arid climates, suggesting that bile salt analysis may have utility in selected paleontological research.
 
 
Hagihara, Rie; Jones, Rhondda E.; Grech, Alana; Lanyon, Janet M.; Sheppard, James K..; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2014
Improving population estimates by quantifying diving and surfacing patterns: A dugong example.
Marine Mammal Science 30(1): 348-366. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12041. January 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Diving animals are available for detection from above the water when environmental conditions are favorable and the animals are near the surface. The number of animals that are unavailable for detection needs to be estimated to obtain unbiased population estimates. The current availability correction factors used in aerial surveys for the dugong (Dugong dugon) allow for variation in environmental conditions but use the average time dugongs spend near the surface (i.e., constant availability corrections). To improve availability estimates, we examined location and dive data from nine dugongs fitted with satellite telemetry units and time-depth recorders (TDRs) in eastern Australia. The effects of water depth, tidal conditions, and habitat types on dugong surfacing time were examined using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). We found that availability for detection differed with water depth, and depth-specific availability estimates were often lower than the constant estimates. The habitat effect was less influential, and there was no tidal effect. The number of dugongs estimated using depth-specific availabilities were higher than those obtained using constant availabilities across water depth. Hence, information on water depth can refine availability estimates and subsequent abundance estimates from dugong aerial surveys. The methodology may be applicable to other aquatic wildlife.
 
 
Hagihara, Rie; Jones, Rhondda E.; Sheppard, James K.; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2011
Minimizing errors in the analysis of dive recordings from shallow-diving animals.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399(2): 173-181. 1 table. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.01.001 April 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the diving behaviour of aquatic animals expanded considerably with the invention of time–depth recorders (TDRs) in the 1960s. The large volume of data acquired from TDRs can be analyzed using dive analysis software, however, the application of the software has received relatively little attention. We present an empirical procedure to select optimum values that are critical to obtaining reliable results: the zero-offset correction (ZOC) and the dive threshold. We used dive data from shallow-diving coastal dugongs (Dugong dugon) and visual observations from an independent study to develop and test a procedure that minimizes errors in characterizing dives. We initially corrected the surface level using custom software. We then determined the optimum values for each parameter by classifying dives identified by an open-source dive analysis software into Plausible and Implausible dives based on the duration of dives. The Plausible dives were further classified as Unrecognized dives if they were not identified by the software but were of realistic dive duration. The comparison of these dive types indicated that a ZOC of 1 m and a dive threshold of 0.75 m were the optimum values for our dugong data as they gave the largest number of Plausible dives and smaller numbers of other dive types. Frequency distributions of dive durations from TDRs and independent visual observations supported the selection. Our procedure could be applied to other shallow-diving animals such as coastal dolphins and turtles.
Hagmann, Gottfried: SEE Goeldi & Hagmann, 1904. (detail)
 
 
Hahn, Eduard (detail)
   
1896
Die Haustiere und ihre Beziehungen zur Wirtschaft des Menschen. Eine geographische Studie.
Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot: x + 581. 1 map.
–Sirs., 24-25.
x
 
Haigh, M. D. (detail)
   
1991
The use of manatees for the control of aquatic weeds in Guyana.
Irrigation & Drainage Systems 5(4): 339-349. 1 tab. 1 fig. 2 pls.
–Summarizes the experience gained in Guyana and recommends guidelines for manatee use in countries with similar conditions. Recommends in particular a population density between 0.5 and 1.4 manatees per hectare of water surface in turbid water, depending on whether they are used for maintenance or initial clearing of the waterway, respectively.
Haimendorff, Christoph Führer von: SEE Führer von Haimendorff, Christoph. (detail)
 
 
Hale, Herbert M.; Tindale, Norman B. (detail)
   
1934
Aborigines of Princess Charlotte Bay, North Queensland. Part II.
Recs. South Austral. Mus. 5(2): 117-172. Figs. 140-250.
–Rock paintings of ?dugongs, 149, 150, 152-153; vernacular names, 162; dugong skulls, 127.
Hale, P.: SEE Moore et al., 1998. (detail)
Hale, Wendy: SEE Delaney et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Haley, A. (detail)
   
1883
Administration report Ceylon 1883: Report of the Director of the Colombo Museum for 1883.
–Dugong records.
 
 
Haley, Delphine (detail)
   
1978a
Steller sea cow. In: D. Haley (ed.), Marine mammals of eastern North Pacific and Arctic waters.
Seattle, Pacific Search Press (256 pp.): 236-241. 3 figs.
–Ed. 2, 1986 (296 pp.): 264-269 (text updated with mention of a skeleton found in 1983).
 
 
Haley, Delphine (detail)
   
1978b
Saga of Steller's sea cow.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 87(9): 9-17. 6 figs. Nov. 1978.
–Adapted from Haley (1978a).
x
 
Haley, Delphine (detail)
   
1980
The great northern sea cow: Steller's gentle siren.
Oceans 13(5): 7-11. 7 figs. Sept.-Oct. 1980.
–Pop. acc. of Hydrodamalis gigas and its evolution, with a new reconstruction of the animal by Dugald Stermer and D. Domning.
Halin, Deborah L.: SEE Marshall et al., 1998, 2000. (detail)
x
 
Hall, Alice J. (detail)
   
1984
Man and manatee: can we live together?
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 166(3): 400-413. Cover photo + 15 figs. Sept. 1984.
–Portfolio of excellent underwater photos of manatees at Crystal River and Blue Spring, Florida.
Hall, B. K.: SEE Miyake et al., 1992. (detail)
 
D
Hall, C. A., Jr. (detail)
   
1958
Geology and paleontology of the Pleasanton area, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California.
Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 34: 1-90.
Hall, Carlton R.: SEE Provancha & Hall, 1991. (detail)
 
 
Hall, E. Raymond; Dalquest, Walter W. (detail)
   
1963
The mammals of Veracruz.
Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 14(4): 167-363.
–Sirs., 348-349.
x
 
Hall, E. S., Jr. (detail)
   
1971
Kangiguksuk - a cultural reconstruction of a sixteenth century Eskimo site in northern Alaska.
Arctic Anthropology 8(1): 1-101.
–Reports a rib identified as that of "Steller's sea cow", with man-made cuts and gashes, found in a living site together with fossil mammoth and bison fragments (23, 34, 52). The site is well north of Bering Strait. See also Whitmore & Gard (1977).
Hall, James W.: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Hall, Natalie H.; Walsh, Mike; DeLuca, Catherine; Bukoski, Alex (detail)
   
2012
Hysteroscopy and episiotomy in a rescued, cold-stressed Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for diagnosis and treatment of a retained fetal skeleton.
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 43(3): 670-673. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1638/2011-0282R1.1 Sept. 20, 2012.
 
D
Halstead, L. Beverly (detail)
   
1985
On the posture of desmostylians: a discussion of Inuzuka's "herpetiform mammals".
Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Biol. 10(2): 137-144. 4 figs. Sept. 1985.
–Japanese transl.: Jour. Fossil Research 18(2): 65-68, illus., Dec. 1985.
 
 
Halvorsen, K. M.; Keith, E. O. (detail)
   
2008
Immunosuppression cascade in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aq. Mamms. 34: 412-419.
Hamann, Richard: SEE ALSO Gluckman & Hamann, 1983. (detail)
x
 
Hamann, Richard (detail)
   
1983a
Legal review regarding construction of marinas and docks and dredge and fill in manatee habitat and adjacent wetlands. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 185-232. 7 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Discusses the potential effects on manatees of construction and dredging, and the relevant powers and responsibilities of local, state, and federal governments in Florida, and makes recommendations for improving manatee protection, especially in the Crystal River area.
x
 
Hamann, Richard (detail)
   
1983b
Legal review regarding water demands influencing flow of springs that are winter refuges for manatees. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 302-309. Dec. 1983.
–Reviews Florida statutes regarding groundwater resources, and recommends regulatory actions to protect the flow of springs feeding Crystal River.
x
 
Hamann, Richard (detail)
   
1983c
Protection afforded manatees and their habitat by the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 310-316. Dec. 1983.
–Analyzes the provisions of these two federal acts that are relevant to Florida manatees, and discusses the meaning and implications of the term "take" in these acts.
 
 
Hamidun, Mukhtar Walid (detail)
   
1952
Précis sur la Mauritanie.
Saint Louis (Senegal), Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire.
–Sirs., 36, 37.
Hamilton, R.: SEE McCabe et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
Hamilton, Robert (detail)
   
1833
The natural history of the amphibious Carnivora, including the walrus and seals, also of the herbivorous Cetacea, &c.
?Edinburgh, ?W. H. Lizars: 1-336. Figs. 31 pls.
–Later eds.: Vol. 28 in W. Jardine, The naturalist's library, Edinburgh, W. H. Lizars, 1839; Vol. 6 in 1837 (also 1843?) ed. of same series, Edinburgh, Lizars; London, S. Highley; Dublin, W. Curry, Jun., & Co.; Vol. 25 in 1860 ed. of same series, London, Henry G. Bohn. Sirs., 284-312; female "manatee" and calf stranded near Dieppe, 298. Sir. material on pp. 300-306 of 1860 ed.; includes pl. 27 showing "Dugungus indicus".
Hamilton, W. R.: SEE Savage & Hamilton, 1973. (detail)
x
 
Hamilton, William John, Jr. (detail)
   
1941
Notes on some mammals of Lee County, Florida.
Amer. Midland Naturalist 25(3): 686-691. 1 fig. May 1941.
–Reports an additional manatee that was killed in the 1940 freeze described by Cahn (1940); discusses tooth replacement and possible seasonal migrations and breeding. Another "natural" death is reported but not further elaborated on (687, 690-691).
  Hamilton's obituary in Jour. Mamm. 73(3): 693-706, Aug. 21, 1992, adds that the manatee skull collected by his wife and illustrated here was removed from the decomposing carcass "while bobbing around in a small boat in the middle of the Caloosahatchee River" (695).
Hammond, D.: SEE Allen et al., 1976. (detail)
 
 
Hamylton, S. M., Hagan, A. B.; Doak, N. (detail)
   
2012
Observations of dugongs at Aldabra Atoll, western Indian Ocean: lagoon habitat mapping and spatial analysis of sighting records.
International Journal of Geographical Information Sciences 26(5): 839-853.
 
 
Hanif, M.; Poonai, N. O. (detail)
   
1968
Wildlife conservation in Guyana.
Man & Nature Series (Coconut Grove, Florida, Field Res. Projects) No. 8.
–Describes T. manatus and hunting for its meat.
x
 
Hanitsch, R. (detail)
   
1908
Guide to the zoological collections of the Raffles Museum, Singapore.
Singapore, Straits Times Press, Ltd.: 1-112. 21 pls.
–Brief account of sirs. and of a "duyong" captured in North Borneo in 1895 and kept alive at the Museum for several weeks (13). This may have been the first recorded dugong kept in captivity.
Hanna, George Dallas: SEE ALSO Anonymous, 1926. (detail)
x
D
Hanna, George Dallas (detail)
   
1925
Miocene marine vertebrates in Kern County, California.
Science (2)61(1568): 71-72. Jan. 16, 1925.
–P. 72: {"These [bones from Sharktooth Hill] are of many groups of vertebrates, sirenians and perhaps walruses being represented in addition to those mentioned above."} These "sirenians" were certainly desmostylians.
x
D
Hanna, George Dallas (detail)
   
1930
Geology of Shark-tooth Hill, Kern County, California.
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4)19(7): 65-83. 3 figs. July 15, 1930.
–P. 70: {"These [specimens from Sharktooth Hill] consisted of bones of dophins [sic], porpoises, seals, sea lions, whales and sea cows."} The "sea cows" in this statement (based on a letter of Mr. Charles Morrice, Dec. 10, 1929) were Desmostylus.
x
D
Hanna, George Dallas (detail)
   
1933
Desmostylus tooth dredged in Monterey Bay. [Abstr.]
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 43: 291.
–P. 291: {{"Messrs. Allyn G. Smith, John L. Nicholson and the writer did some dredging in Monterey Bay during the summer of 1930 and among other interesting objects obtained there was found a fragment of a cone of a Desmostylus tooth. The significance of the occurrence at this locality is discussed."}}
 
 
Hanneberg, Peter (detail)
   
1984
Seychelles: refuge for a threatened nature.
Fauna Flora (Stockholm) 79(6): 261-272.
–In Swedish; Engl. summ.
x
D
Hannibal, Harold (detail)
   
1922
Notes on Tertiary sirenians of the genus Desmostylus.
Jour. Mamm. 3(4): 238-240. 2 pls. Nov. 2, 1922.
–Briefly reviews the species of Desmostylus, and proposes the name D. cymatias for Merriam's (1906, 1911) specimens.
x
 
Hanson, Frank Blair (detail)
   
1919
The ontogeny and phylogeny of the sternum.
Amer. Jour. Anat. 26(1): 41-115. 49 figs. in 12 pls. Sept. 1919.
–Remarks on the ribs and sternum of Manatus americanus (81, 111, fig. 40).
 
 
Hanström, B. (detail)
   
1965
Wulzen's cone, a capriciously occurring lobe in the mammalian hypophysis.
Acta Univ. Lund. (2)1965(11): 1-15. 11 figs.
–Describes the structure in Trichechus manatus latirostris.
x
D
Hanzawa, Shoshiro; Asano, Kiyoshi; Takai, Fuyuji (detail)
   
1961
Catalogue of type-specimens of fossils in Japan.
Pal. Soc. Japan 25th Anniv. Vol.: vii + 422. Feb. 15, 1961.
–Lists (355) the localities and locations of the types of: Cornwallius tabatai Tokunaga, 1939; Desmostylella typica Nagao, 1937; Desmostylus japonicus Tokunaga & Iwasaki, 1914; D. minor Nagao, 1937; D. mirabilis Nagao, 1935; and D. cf. mirabilis, Nagao, 1936.
 
 
Happold, D. C. D. (detail)
   
1973
The distribution of large mammals in West Africa.
Mammalia 37(1): 88-93.
 
 
Happold, D. C. D. (detail)
   
1975
Large mammals of West Africa.
London, Longman Group Ltd.: 1-105.
 
 
Happold, D. C. D. (detail)
   
1987
The mammals of Nigeria.
Oxford, Clarendon Press: 1-402.
x
 
Happold, D. C. D. (detail)
   
2000
Nigerian mammals.
Nigerian Field 65: 193-211. 4 tabs. 3 figs.
T. senegalensis listed as "Vulnerable" by World Conservation Union as a result of "Declining numbers due to reduction in geographic distribution and/or exploitation" (m195, m201).
Hara, Motonobu: SEE Tabuchi et al., 1974. (detail)
 
 
Harcourt, Robert (detail)
   
1613
A relation of a voyage to Gviana. Describing the climat, scituation, fertilitie, prouisions and commodities of that country, containing seuen prouinces, and other signiories within that territory: together, with the manners, customes, behauiors, and dispositions of the people.
London, W. Welby: 8 + 71.
–Other eds.: London, 1626, 1928; Dutch transl., Leiden, 1707, ?1710. Manatee, p. 13 in 1707 ed. (entitled Scheeps-togt na Gujana, gedaan in 't Jaar 1608....).
 
 
Hardisky, M. (detail)
   
1979
Marsh habitat development: A feasible alternative to dredged material disposal.
Georgia Coastline 1(16): 5-6.
 
 
Hardy, Stacie K.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Cross, Tiffanie A.; de Wit, Martine; Hostetler, Jeffrey A. (detail)
   
2019
Cold-related Florida manatee mortality in relation to air and water temperatures.
PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225048. 4 tabs. 8 figs. + online supporting information. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225048 Nov. 21, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Many tropical and subtropical species are sensitive to sudden temperature changes, especially drops in temperature. During winters 2009–2010 and 2010–2011, unusually cold temperatures occurred in many parts of Florida, USA, resulting in increased mortality of Florida manatees, sea turtles, fish, corals, and other species. The Florida manatee, in particular, is highly susceptible to cold stress and death when water temperatures drop below 20°C. We sought to characterize the magnitude and timing of reports of cold-related manatee carcasses in relation to fluctuations in water and air temperatures in central-east and central-west Florida during the six winters from 2008 to 2014. We used a generalized linear model to predict counts of manatee carcasses with a cold-related cause of death reported over 7-day bins in relation to various short-term (two weeks or less) and cumulative (incrementally summed from the start of the winter) heating-degree-day effects (HDD; < 20°C) and a categorical winter variable. Using water temperature data, the top-ranked model in both regions included a short-term temperature effect (14-day HDD sum) that preceded increases in reports of cold-related manatee carcasses by 7 days. Cumulative exposure to cold weather over the winter amplified effects on mortality in the central-east region. Quantifying the relationship between cold events and manatee mortality helps us prepare for rescue and salvage operations when extremely cold weather is forecast. This is especially important because anticipated loss or degradation of warm-water refuges due to human activities and sea level rise could potentially impact the manatee population in the future. These methods could also be applied to other species susceptible to cold-related mortality.
 
 
Harino, H.; Ohji, M; Wattayakorn, G.; Adulyanukosol, K.; Arai, T.; Miyazaki, N. (detail)
   
2007
Concentrations of organotin compounds in tissues and organs of dugongs from Thai coastal waters.
Archs. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 53(3): 495-502.
Harkness, D. R.: SEE White et al., 1976, 1977. (detail)
Harlan, C. F.: SEE Quiring & Harlan, 1953. (detail)
x
 
Harlan, Richard (detail)
   
1824
On a species of lamantin resembling the Manatus Senegalensis (Cuvier) inhabiting the coast of East Florida.
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 3(2): 390-394. Pl. 13. May 1824 (read Mar. 30, 1824).
–Allen 643. Abstrs.: Edinb. Jour. Sci. 2: 186, 1825 (Allen 658); A.G. Desmarest, Férussac's Bull. Sci. Nat. 4: 106-108, 1825 (Allen 656). ?Repr.: Harlan (1835: 68-71). On the basis of "two skulls, two ribs, and a strip of skin," provisionally proposes the name Manatus latirostris for the Florida manatee, in case external differences should be found sufficient to separate it from M. senegalensis! Harlan's specimens were collected by a Dr. Burrows (or Burroughs; see K. F. Koopman, 1976) "on the Coast of East Florida, in the year 1822." Harlan also quotes from Burrows a few lines of information "obtained from the natives" concerning the manatee (392).
x
 
Harlan, Richard (detail)
   
1825a
Fauna Americana: being a description of the mammiferous animals inhabiting North America.
Philadelphia, Anthony Finley: x + 11-320.
–Allen 659. A revised version appeared in Harlan (1835: 78-83?). Describes Manatus latirostris and Stellerus borealis (274-281).
x
 
Harlan, Richard (detail)
   
1825b
Notice of the Plesiosaurus and other fossil reliquiae, from the State of New Jersey.
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4(2): 232-236. Pl. 14. Read Sept. 7, 1824.
–P. 236: {"There is also deposited in the Cabinet of the Academy, from the western shore of Maryland, a cervical and a caudal vertebra of a gigantic species of fossil Manatus; the vertical diameter of the former is nine inches and a half; the transverse diameter eleven inches. A fossil rib of the Manatus, was also discovered by Mr. Finch, at the same locality."} These remains were the basis for "Manatus giganteus" DeKay, 1842; however, at least the vertebrae were cetacean rather than sirenian (see Kellogg, 1966: 66). The rib is presumably the specimen collected by Finch (1833: 229); its correct locality, however, was Stratford, Virginia (see also Dooley, 2005: 32).
 
 
Harlan, Richard (detail)
   
1834
Critical notices of various organic remains hitherto discovered in North America.
Trans. Geol. Soc. Pennsylvania 1(1): 46-112. Aug. 1834.
–Allen 820. Repr.: Harlan (1835: 253-313). ?Abstr. in James. Edinb. N. Phil. Jour. 17: 342-362, 1834? Abstr.: Neues Jahrb. Min. 1836: 99-109 (Allen 896; in German; Manatus, 104). Mention of Manatus, 73 (278 in 1835 repr.).
 
 
Harlan, Richard (detail)
   
1835
Medical and physical researches: or original memoirs in medicine, surgery, physiology, geology, zoology, and comparative anatomy.
Philadelphia, printed by Lydia R. Bailey: xxxix + 9-653. 160 figs.
–Allen 852. Reprints Harlan's earlier works, including the following: 1824 (68-71), 1825a (78-83; revised), 1834 (253-313). (382-385?)
x
 
Harling, Richard (detail)
   
1993
Siren sex life: how a dugong impresses.
BBC Wildlife 11(12): 10-11. 1 fig. Dec. 1993.
–Brief pop. acc. of Paul Anderson's discovery of lekking behavior among dugongs at Shark Bay, Australia.
 
 
Harman, A. (detail)
   
1997
Manatees & dugongs (endangered!).
Tarrytown (New York), Benchmark Books: 1-32.
Harms, Craig A.: SEE Dierauf, L.A., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Harms-Tuohy, Chelsea A.; Tuohy, Evan A. (detail)
   
2017
Unusual aggressive behavior encountered by divers from Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquat. Mamms. 12(1-2): 59-60. https://doi.org/10.5597/lajam00238. Dec. 30, 2017.
 
 
Harney, William Edward (detail)
   
1946
North of 23 degrees; ramblings in Northern Australia.
Sydney, Australasian Publ. Co.: 1-265. Illus.
–Describes a traditional dugong hunt in the Sir Edward Pellew Group, Australia (161-163).
Harper, Francis: SEE Bartram, J., 1942. (detail)
x
 
Harper, Harry (detail)
   
1978
Hefty manatees tagged, freed -- but reluctant.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 13(12): 12. 3 figs. Sept. 1978.
–Pop. acc. of the release at Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge of two captive Florida manatees from Marineland, St. Augustine, Florida.
x
 
Harper, Harry (detail)
   
1979
In search of mermaids: Charles Kuralt, "On the Road," at Blue Spring.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 14(6): 16. 3 figs. Mar. 1979.
–Pop. acc. of the making of a videotape of manatees at Blue Spring, Florida, for a national newscast.
 
 
Harper, Harry (detail)
   
1980
Except for boats and barges: overall manatee deaths decline.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(5): 2. 3 tabs. Feb. 1980.
 
 
Harper, Jennifer Y.; Samuelson, Don A.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2005
Corneal vascularization in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and three-dimensional reconstruction of vessels.
Veterinary Ophthalmology 8(2): 89-99. 2 tabs. 7 figs.
 
 
Harr, Kendal E., Rember, R., Ginn, P. E., Lightsey, Jessica D., Keller, M., Reid, James P., Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2011
Serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(4): 1026-1031. 1 tab. 1 fig.
 
 
Harr, Kendal E.; Harvey, J. W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Murphy, David; Lowe, Mark T.; Menchaca, M.; Haubold, Elsa M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth (detail)
   
2006
Comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildl. Med. 37(2): 151-159.
 
 
Harr, Kendal E.; Szabo, N. J.; Cichra, Mary F.; Philips, Edward J. (detail)
   
2008
Debromoaplysiatoxin in Lyngbya-dominated mats on manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Florida King's Bay ecosystem.
Toxicon 52(2): 385-388.
Harris, A. N. M.: SEE Marsh, Harris, & Lawler, 1997. (detail)
 
D
Harris, John M. (ed.) (detail)
   
2011
The age of mammals. Continents move/climates change/mammals evolve.
Los Angeles, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: 1-56. Illus.
–Included, as a nomen nudum, the name Neoparadoxia cecilialina Barnes, n.gen.n.sp. (23).
x
 
Harris, Tony; Bertram, William Halsey Ricardo (detail)
   
1977
Dugongs in Abu Dhabi waters.
Bull. [Jour.?] Emirates Nat. Hist. Group (Abu Dhabi) No. 1: 5-6. Mar. 1977.
–Gives data on dugongs brought to the Abu Dhabi market, Nov. 1976-Feb. 1977, and on the accidental netting of dugongs and use of their meat in the area.
x
 
Harris, Walt. K. (detail)
   
1912
The Australian dugong.
The Lone Hand, July 1, 1912: 226-228. 1 fig.
–Pop. acc. of netting and harpooning techniques, processing of oil and meat, and the medicinal value of these products in treating consumption, burns, etc.
Harrison, J.: SEE Howes & Harrison, 1893. (detail)
 
 
Harrison, John Leonard (detail)
   
1964
An introduction to the mammals of Sabah.
Jesselton, Malaysia (Sabah Society): 1-244. 57 figs.
 
 
Harrison, John Leonard (detail)
   
1966
An introduction to mammals of Singapore and Malaya.
Singapore, Malayan Nature Soc.: 1-340. Illus.
–Dugong, 249-251.
 
 
Harrison, Richard J. (detail)
   
1969a
Reproduction and reproductive organs. In: H. T. Andersen (ed.), The biology of marine mammals.
New York & London, Academic Press: 253-348. 19 figs.
–Sirs., 336-342.
 
 
Harrison, Richard J. (detail)
   
1969b
Endocrine organs: hypophysis, thyroid, and adrenal. In: H. T. Andersen (ed.), The biology of marine mammals.
New York & London, Academic Press: 349-390. 8 figs.
–Sirs., 364-365, 381-382.
 
 
Harrison, Richard J.; King, Judith E. (detail)
   
1965
Marine mammals.
New York, Hillary House Publs.; London, Hutchinson & Co.: 1-192. 12 figs.
–Sirs., 151-184.
 
 
Harrison, Richard J.; Ridgway, Samuel H. (detail)
   
1976
Deep diving in mammals.
Patterns Prog. (Zool. Ser.) 7: 1-51. 3 tabs. 15 figs.
 
 
Harrison, Richard J.; Tomlinson, J. D. W. (detail)
   
1964
Observations on diving seals and certain other mammals.
Symp. Zool. Soc. London 13: 59-69. 4 figs.
x
 
Harrisson, Tom (detail)
   
1965
A future for Borneo's wildlife?
Oryx 8(2): 99-104. Pls. 9-13. Aug. 1965.
–Status of the dugong in Borneo and Sabah reported as uncertain; it is still hunted and accidentally netted despite legal protection in Sabah (103).
x
 
Harry, Robert Rees (detail)
   
1956
"Eugenie" the dugong mermaid.
Pacific Discovery 9(1): 21-27. 5 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1956.
–Account of the procurement of "Eugenie" in the Palau Islands for the Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco. Mentions that the dugong ate clams and sea cucumbers (22-24, 27). A postscript by the editor (Don Greame Kelley) describes its subsequent death from pneumonia and gangrene on Dec. 27, 1955 (27).
Harry-Rofen, Robert Rees: SEE Harry, Robert Rees; Bayer & Harry-Rofen, 1957. (detail)
 
 
Harshaw, L.T.; Larkin, I. V.; Staples, C.R.; Scott, K.C.; Hill, R.C. (detail)
   
2019
In Vivo apparent digestibility of fiber in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mammals 45(5): 513-524.
 
 
Harshaw, Lauren T.; Larkin, Iskande V.; Bonde, Robert K.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Hill, Richard C. (detail)
   
2016
Morphometric body condition indices of wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquat. Mamms. 42(4): 428-439. doi:10.1578/AM.42.4.2016.428. Nov. 18, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: In many species, body weight (W) increases geometrically with body length (L), so W/L3 provides a body condition index (BCI) that can be used to evaluate nutritional status once a normal range has been established. No such index has been established for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). This study was designed to determine a normal range of BCIs of Florida manatees by comparing W in kg with straight total length (SL), curvilinear total length (CL), and umbilical girth (UG) in m for 146 wild manatees measured during winter health assessments at three Florida locations. Small calves to large adults of SL from 1.47 to 3.23 m and W from 77 to 751 kg were compared. BCIs were significantly greater in adult females than in adult males (p < 0.05). W scaled proportionally to L3 in females but not in males, which were slimmer than females. The logarithms of W and of each linear measurement were regressed to develop amended indices that allow for sex differences. The regression slope for log W against log SL was 2.915 in females and 2.578 in males; W/SL2.915 ranged from 18.9 to 29.6 (mean 23.2) in females, and W/SL2.578 ranged from 24.6 to 37.3 (mean 29.8) in males. Some BCIs were slightly (4%), but significantly (p <- 0.05), higher for females in Crystal River than in Tampa Bay or Indian River, but there was no evidence of geographic variation in condition among males. These normal ranges should help evaluate the nutritional status of both wild and rehabilitating captive manatees.
x
 
Hart, Henry Chichester (detail)
   
1888
By-paths of Bible knowledge. XI. Scripture natural history. II. The animals mentioned in the Bible.
London, Religious Tract Soc.: 1-240. Illus.
–Discusses the identity of the tachash (25-27); favors its identification as the dugong (also mentioned on pp. 220 & 228).
x
 
Harting, J. E. (detail)
   
1878
The South American manatee in the Westminster Aquarium.
Zoologist (3)2(20): 285-287. Aug. 1878.
–Gen. acc. of manatees and of the second "Manatus americanus" [= T. manatus] brought alive to England.
 
 
Harting, Paul (detail)
   
1878
Het ei en de placenta van Halicore dugong, met en overzicht van de placentavorming bij zoogdieren van verschillende orden. Proefschrift ter verkrijging van den grad van doctor in de wis-en natuurkunde aan de Universiteit te Utrecht.... Te verdedigen op Maandag 18 Februari 1878....
Utrecht, P. W. Van de Weijer: 1-65. 2 pls.
–Engl. abstr.: Jour. Anat. Phys. 13: 116-117, 1879. French ?transl.: Harting (1879).
 
 
Harting, Paul (detail)
   
1879
Description de l'oeuf et du placenta de Halicore dugong (dugung) suivie de considérations sur la valeur taxonomique et phylogènique des caractères différentiels fournis par le placenta des mammifères.
Tijdschr. Nederl. Dierk. Ver. 4: 1-29. 2 pls.
–Transl. of Harting (1878)?
 
 
Hartlaub, Clemens (detail)
   
1886a
Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Manatus-Arten.
Zool. Jahrb., I. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Thiere 1(1): 1-112. 13 figs. 4 pls. Apr. 1, 1886.
–A landmark in sirenian osteology and systematics, this work definitively established the existence of three and only three Recent manatee species (here termed Manatus senegalensis, M. latirostris, and M. inunguis). It also reviews their nomenclature, describes bone by bone the cranial anatomy of both adult and juvenile specimens, discusses manatee dentitions and tooth replacement, and reviews the geographic distribution of the three species.
x
 
Hartlaub, Clemens (detail)
   
1886b
Ueber Manatherium delheidi, eine Sirene aus dem Oligocän Belgiens.
Zool. Jahrb. 1: 369-378. 5 figs.
–Describes the new genus and species Manatherium delheidi, based on fragments of a juvenile skull from the upper Rupelian (Oligocene) of Belgium; argues (erroneously) that it is closely related to Manatus. (It was referred to Halitherium schinzii by Sickenberg, 1934b.)
Hartley, Wayne C.: SEE O'Shea & Hartley, 1995; Appendix 1, _Save the Manatee Club News_. (detail)
 
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1969
Florida's manatees, mermaids in peril.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 136(3): 342-353. 11 figs. Sept. 1969.
–Gen. acc. of manatee behavior and natural history, illustrated with excellent color photos. A preliminary announcement of this article, with 1 photo, appeared in the advertisement section in the front of the Aug. 1968 issue (vol. 134, no. 2).
 
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1971
Behavior and ecology of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan), at Crystal River, Citrus County. [Abstr.]
Dissert. Abstrs. Internatl. B. 32(4): 2442. Oct. 1971.
–Abstr. of a Ph.D. dissertation submitted to the Dept. of Conservation, Cornell University, in June 1971; eventually publ. in revised form as Hartman (1979).
x
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1972a
Manatees.
Sierra Club Bull. 57(3): 20-22. Cover photo + 3 figs. Mar. 1972.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. in general and of the status and biology of Florida manatees, with 3 color photos. The manatee photo on p. 21 was subsequently the basis of widely-used drawings and posters.
 
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1972b
Sea nymphs and elephants.
Not Man Apart (publ. for Friends of the Earth & League of Conservation Voters) 2(12): 8. Cover photo + 1 fig. Dec. 1972.
x
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1974a
Distribution, status, and conservation of the manatee in the United States.
NTIS Document No. PB 81-140725: v + 247. 38 figs.
–The definitive compilation of manatee locality records in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina for the period 1880-1973. Includes detailed maps showing manatee sightings by county; discussions of local and regional manatee movements in response to temperature, food, and fresh water availability, manatee diet, abundance, and legal status, and threats to manatee survival in Florida; and recommendations for new legislation and protected areas.
 
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1974b
Status survey of the manatee.
World Wildlife Yearbook 1973-74: 235-237.
–Status of T. manatus.
x
 
Hartman, Daniel Stanwood (detail)
   
1979
Ecology and behavior of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida.
Amer. Soc. Mammalogists Spec. Publ. No. 5: viii + 153. 11 tabs. 40 figs. June 27, 1979.
–Rev.: D. K. Odell, Assoc. Systematics Collections Newsletter 8(2): 29, Apr. 1980; D. K. Odell, Amer. Scientist 69: 458, 1981. The most comprehensive study of sir. behavior published to date; based mainly on observations of the Crystal River-Homosassa River population in northwestern Florida, but including data from the St. Johns River and elsewhere in the state. Comprises physical and biological descriptions of the Crystal and Homosassa rivers, data on the manatee population, its movements, use of the habitat, daily activity, food habits, interspecific interactions, all aspects of behavior, sensory capacities, population dynamics, and man-manatee relations. Concludes with a comparison of sir. and cetacean behavioral repertoires in relation to ecology and evolution.
 
 
Hartman, J. E. (detail)
   
1969
Manatee: siren of the sea.
Natl. Wildlife 7(6): 38-39. Oct. 1969.
x
 
Hartmann, R. (detail)
   
1880
Über einen jungen Dugong (Halicore cetacea Illig).
Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1880(9): 156-159. Read Nov. 16, 1880.
–Describes the external morphology of an alcohol-preserved 102-cm dugong calf, with special attention to the mouth region and with external measurements.
x
 
Hartt, Charles Frederick (detail)
   
1875
Amazonian tortoise myths.
Rio de Janeiro, William Scully: [ii] + 40.
–According to an Indian story, the stars ? and ? Orionis represent a man and a boy in a canoe chasing a manatee, represented by a nearby dark region of the sky (39).
 
 
Hartt, Charles Frederick (= Carlos Frederico) (detail)
   
1885
Contribuições para a ethnologia do Valle do Amazonas.
Arch. Mus. Nac. (Rio de Janeiro) 6: 1-174.
–Reports manatee bones from shell mounds about 30 miles east of Santarém, Brazil (3, 10).
 
 
Hartwig, Georg Ludwig (detail)
   
1892
The sea and its living wonders; a popular account of the marvels of the deep and of the progress of maritime discovery from the earliest ages to the present time. Ed. 8.
London, Longmans, Green , & Co.: xx + 524. 8 pls. 1 map.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, K. E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M. T.; de Wit, Martine; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2020
Serum iron analytes in healthy and diseased Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comparative Pathology 173: 58-70. 4 tabs. 8 figs. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2019.10.006 Publ. online Nov. 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Serum iron concentration is usually decreased in true iron deficiency and with inflammatory disease in man and domestic animals. Serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) may be increased in true iron deficiency and decreased with inflammatory disease. This prospective study was designed to measure serum iron analytes in healthy free-ranging and housed Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) of both sexes and various ages and to evaluate the effects of diseases common to manatees on these analytes. Blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 137 healthy free-ranging manatees, 90 healthy housed manatees and 74 free-ranging diseased manatees, and serum was prepared by centrifugation. Serum iron concentration and unsaturated iron binding capacity were measured colourimetrically, and TIBC and percent transferrin saturation with iron were calculated. Serum amyloid A (SAA) was measured to assist in the health assessment of manatees and provide evidence of inflammation in diseased manatees. Based on the serum iron analytes, iron availability was lower in immature manatees compared with adults, and it was lower in housed manatees compared with free-ranging manatees. In contrast to other mammals studied, serum iron concentration was elevated rather than depressed in late pregnancy. Serum iron concentrations and transferrin saturation with iron percentages were significantly lower, and SAA concentrations were significantly higher, in diseased (ill and injured) manatees compared with healthy manatees. Serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation with iron values were negatively correlated with SAA concentrations, and manatees with the highest SAA concentrations had lower serum TIBC values. These findings indicate that inflammation is the major factor responsible for alterations in iron analytes in diseased manatees. Consequently, hypoferraemia may be used as supportive evidence of inflammatory disease in manatees (unless haemorrhage is also present). A decision threshold of ?13.8 ?mol/l was determined for hypoferraemia using receiver operating curve analysis. Based on studies in man and domestic animals, iron therapy is unnecessary for manatees with hypoferraemia associated with inflammation and has the potential for causing tissue damage and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, K. J.; Murphy, D.; et al. (detail)
   
2007
Clinical biochemistry in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo Wildlife Med. 38: 269-279.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, Kendal E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, Michael T.; de Wit, Martine; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2018
Serum proteins in healthy and diseased Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Comparative Clinical Pathology 27(6): 1707-1716. doi: 10.1007/s00580-018-2797-z. Nov. 2018; Publ. online Aug. 3, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: A major goal of this study was to determine whether serum protein fractions of healthy Florida manatees differ with age, sex, or living environments (wild versus housed). A second goal was to determine which serum protein fractions vary in diseased versus healthy manatees. Serum protein fractions were determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Healthy adults had slightly higher total serum protein and total globulin concentrations than younger animals. This largely resulted from an increase in gamma globulins with age. Total serum protein, albumin, alpha-1 globulin, beta globulin, and total globulin concentrations were slightly higher in housed manatees compared to wild manatees, but there was no significant difference in the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, suggesting a difference in hydration between these groups. No significant differences were attributable to sex or pregnancy. Serum albumin concentrations and A/G ratios were significantly lower for manatees with boat trauma, entanglements, emaciation, or cold stress compared to healthy manatees. Variable increases were seen in alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. These globulin fractions contain positive acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulins, and their increases may reflect acute or chronic active inflammation. Changes in serum protein fractions were not consistent enough to justify the use of serum protein electrophoresis as a routine diagnostic test for manatees. However, serum (or plasma) protein electrophoresis is required when accurate values for albumin and globulins are needed in manatees and in determining which protein fractions may account for a hyperproteinemia or hypoproteinemia reported in a clinical chemistry panel.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, Kendal E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, Michael T.; de Wit, Martine; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2019
Serum iron analytes in healthy and diseased Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comparative Pathology 173: 58-70. 8 figs. 4 tabs. doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2019.10.006. Publ. online Nov. 14, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Serum iron concentration is usually decreased in true iron deficiency and with inflammatory disease in man and domestic animals. Serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) may be increased in true iron deficiency and decreased with inflammatory disease. This prospective study was designed to measure serum iron analytes in healthy free-ranging and housed Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) of both sexes and various ages and to evaluate the effects of diseases common to manatees on these analytes. Blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 137 healthy free-ranging manatees, 90 healthy housed manatees and 74 free-ranging diseased manatees, and serum was prepared by centrifugation. Serum iron concentration and unsaturated iron binding capacity were measured colourimetrically, and TIBC and percent transferrin saturation with iron were calculated. Serum amyloid A (SAA) was measured to assist in the health assessment of manatees and provide evidence of inflammation in diseased manatees. Based on the serum iron analytes, iron availability was lower in immature manatees compared with adults, and it was lower in housed manatees compared with free-ranging manatees. In contrast to other mammals studied, serum iron concentration was elevated rather than depressed in late pregnancy. Serum iron concentrations and transferrin saturation with iron percentages were significantly lower, and SAA concentrations were significantly higher, in diseased (ill and injured) manatees compared with healthy manatees. Serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation with iron values were negatively correlated with SAA concentrations, and manatees with the highest SAA concentrations had lower serum TIBC values. These findings indicate that inflammation is the major factor responsible for alterations in iron analytes in diseased manatees. Consequently, hypoferraemia may be used as supportive evidence of inflammatory disease in manatees (unless haemorrhage is also present). A decision threshold of ?13.8 ?mol/l was determined for hypoferraemia using receiver operating curve analysis. Based on studies in man and domestic animals, iron therapy is unnecessary for manatees with hypoferraemia associated with inflammation and has the potential for causing tissue damage and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.
 
 
Harvey, J. W.; Harr, Kendal E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, Michael T.; Nolan, E. C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Pate, M. G.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Edwards, Holly H.; Clapp, W. L. (detail)
   
2009
Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Veter. Clin. Pathol. 38(2): 183-193.
x
 
Harwood, Kitty (detail)
   
1947
The sea cow is a tourist.
Sports Afield, Nov. 1947: 50, 89. 1 fig.
–Pop. acc. of capturing a female Florida manatee by harpoon for the Prins Valdemar Aquarium, which was housed in a beached ship at Miami. She was released about two weeks later because it was thought she was about to give birth.
Hasegawa, A.: SEE Ohtomo et al., 1980. (detail)
x
 
Hasegawa, Hideo (detail)
   
1988
Paradujardinia halicoris (Owen, 1833) (Nematoda: Ascarididae) collected from a dugong, Dugong dugon, of Okinawa, Japan.
Biol. Mag. Okinawa No. 26: 23-25. 1 fig. Aug. 10, 1988.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. The first record in Japanese waters of P. halicoris, taken from the stomach and small intestine of a dugong washed ashore in Okinawa on Jan. 4, 1988.
Hasegawa, Kazuhiro: SEE Wakai et al., 2002. (detail)
Hasegawa, S.: SEE Nojo et al., 1999. (detail)
 
D
Hasegawa, Uto (detail)
   
1972
Adaptation to water and the evolution of the aquatic animals.
Iden 26(11): 2-9. Figs. Nov. 1972.
–In Japanese.
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu: SEE ALSO Kamiya et al., 1985; Kohno & Hasegawa, 1988; Oishi et al., 1990; Satoh et al., 1989; Shikama et al., 1973; Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
x
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1977
[The reconstruction of the queer mammal Desmostylus.]
Anima (Tokyo) 5(12)(57): 90-91. 11 figs. Dec. 1977.
–In Japanese. Pop. acc. of reconstructions of the body forms of Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia, illustrated by 11 artist's renderings.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1978
[Problems concerning some Cenozoic terrestrial vertebrates from Japan; with comment by Y. Okazaki.] [Abstr.]
Bull. Mizunami Fossil Mus. No. 5: 159. Dec. 25, 1978.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1980
Notes on vertebrate fossils from late Pleistocene to Holocene of Ryukyu Islands, Japan.
Quat. Res. (Jap. Assoc. Quat. Res.) 18(4): 263-267. 2 tabs. Feb. 1980.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Dugong.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1986
On morphological characteristics of Paleoparadoxia from the Yanagawa Formation. In: Research Report of Paleoparadoxia from Yanagawa Formation.
Res. Rept. Cultural Properties of Yanagawa-machi 11: 17-22.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1988
[Reconstruction of the skeleton of Paleoparadoxia.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 102-104. 2 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1997
Review on paleontological studies of marine mammals of the Japanese Archipelago.
IBI Reports (Kamogawa, Japan, Intl. Marine Biol. Research Inst.) No. 7: 139-145. 2 figs.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Discusses both sirs. and desmostylians.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
2007
[Contributions of Dr. Shigeyasu Tokunaga in paleovertebrate zoology. In: Festschrift for Dr. Shigemoto Tokunaga, Supplement:]
153-174. 17 figs. Oct. 2007.
–In Japanese. Shigemoto Tokunaga was one of the sons of Shigeyasu Tokunaga.
 
 
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Nohara, Tomohide (detail)
   
1982
Two large tusks of Dugong from Okinawa and Iriomote Islands, Ryukyu Islands.
Sci. Rept. Yokohama Natl. Univ., Sect. II, Biol. & Geol. No. 29: 29-32. 1 fig. 1 pl. Nov. 1982.
 
 
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Nokariya (detail)
   
1979
[Mammalian specimens from the Nagarabaru-Nishi Shellmound.]
Ieson Bunkazai Chosa Hokokusho [Iko Village Cultural Assets Investigative Report] No. 8: 175-229. 16 tabs. 4 figs. 17 pls.
–In Japanese. Reports specimens of Dugong dugon from an archeological site.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Taketani, Yojiro (detail)
   
1994
Paleoparadoxia tabatai from Yanagawa-machi, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan.
Research Rept. Fukushima Mus. 30: 1-69. 11 tabs. 15 figs. 30 pls. Mar. 1994.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki (detail)
   
1987
[Desmostylus from Takasaki.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 44. 1 fig. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Asami, Kiyohide; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Kumiko; Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
2014
On the Early Miocene Paleoparadoxia from the Upper Sankebetsu Formation at Chikubetsu River, Tomamae-gun, north-western Hokkaido, Japan.
Bull. Gunma Mus. Nat. Hist. 18: 69-76. 1 tab. 4 figs. 1 pl.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes an isolated cervical vertebra.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Toshiyuki (detail)
   
2008
On the two large specimens of Paleoparadoxia (Middle Miocene) from western Gunma Prefecture, Japan.
Bull. Gunma Mus. Nat. Hist. 12: 15-33. 1 tab. 6 figs. 8 pls.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes two sets of postcranial remains of large Paleoparadoxia sp.: the Kurosawa specimen and the stratigraphically-higher Nakajima specimen, both from the Annaka Group.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Ryosuke (detail)
   
2006
A smaller manus of the Paleoparadoxia (Mammalia: Desmostylia) from the Haratajino Formation, Tomioka Group, Gunma, Japan.
Bull. Gunma Mus. Nat. Hist. 10: 37-48. 3 tabs. 4 figs. 4 pls.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes a forelimb of a Middle Mioc. specimen of Paleoparadoxia sp., smaller than the Izumi specimen.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
2007
Case 3384: Cornwallius tabatai Tokunaga, 1939 (currently Paleoparadoxia tabatai; Mammalia, Desmostylia): proposed conservation of usage of the specific name by the designation of a neotype.
Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 64(2): 113-117. June 2007.
–In its Opinion 2232, the ICZN (2009) declined to take action on this proposal, on the grounds that Inuzuka's (2005) designation of a lectotype, which threatened the established usage, was invalid to start with. Consequently, Shikama's (1966) original designation of the Izumi skeleton as neotype of P. tabatai was maintained, as Hasegawa & Kohno desired.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Muramatsu, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Yuzuru (detail)
   
1995
A desmostylian tooth from the Tomikusa Group, Nagano Prefecture.
Sci. Repts. Yokohama Natl. Univ., Sect. II, Biol. & Geol. No. 41/42: 1-11. 2 tabs. 2 figs. 1 pl. Oct. 1995.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes a left upper second molar of a Middle Miocene Desmostylus.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Okazaki, Yoshihiko; Kuga, Naoyuki; Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
1988
[Comparison of mammal fossils in the Tomikusa Formation, Mizunami Formation, and Isshi Formation.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 15-17. 1 tab. 2 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Keiji; Taketani, Yojiro (detail)
   
1993
[On a Paleoparadoxia from Yanagawa-machi, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture.]
Yanagawa-cho-shi (Yanagawa History) 4, data volume I: 85-104. 2 tabs. 7 figs. 5 pls.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Takakuwa, Yuji; Nomura, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Toshie; Sudo, Yutaka; Takayama, Yoshitaka (detail)
   
2000
On occurrence of desmostylian fossils from the upper part of the Niwaya Formation, Tomioka Group, Gunma, Japan.
Bull. Gunma Mus. Nat. Hist. 4: 57-66. 6 figs.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Taketani, Yojiro; Taru, Hajime; Sakamoto, Osamu; Manabe, Makoto (detail)
   
1995
On sexual dimorphism in Paleoparadoxia tabatai.
The Island Arc 3(4): 513-521. 2 tabs. 4 figs. "Dec. 1994" (publ. Nov. 1995).
 
 
Hashim, M.; Ito, S.; Numata, S.; Hosaka, T.; Hossain, M. S.; ... Ahmad, S. (detail)
   
2017
Using fisher knowledge, mapping population, habitat suitability and risk for the conservation of dugongs in Johor Straits of Malaysia.
Marine Policy 78: 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.01.002
Hashimoto, Kazuo: SEE Satoh et al., 1989. (detail)
Hassall, Albert: SEE Stiles & Hassall, 1899. (detail)
Haswell, W. A.: SEE Parker & Haswell, 1897. (detail)
 
D
Hatai, Kotora (detail)
   
1960
Japanese Miocene reconsidered.
Sci. Rept. Tohoku Univ. (Sendai) Ser. 2, Special Vol. 4: 127-153.
 
 
Hatfield, Jessie R.; Samuelson, Don A.; Lewis, Patricia A.; Chisholm, Mae (detail)
   
2003
Structure and presumptive function of the iridocorneal angle of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), and African elephant (Loxodonta africana).
Veterinary Ophthalmology 6(1): 35-43. March 2003.
x
 
Hatt, Robert T. (detail)
   
1934
A manatee collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition, with observations on the Recent manatees.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 66(4): 533-566. 2 figs. Pl. 27. Sept. 10, 1934.
–Review of the nomenclature of manatees, comparison of skeletal features and variation of the species and subspecies of Trichechus, and resumé of distribution of manatees in Africa.
x
 
Hauer, Franz von (detail)
   
1867
Halianassa Collini aus einer Sandgrube bei Hainburg.
Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1867(7): 140-141. Read Apr. 16, 1867.
–Describes the circumstances of discovery of a headless sir. skeleton from the Miocene of Austria, and states which bones were present. The geological situation of the find is described by Stache (1867), and the specimen itself by Peters (1867).
 
 
Hauer, Franz von (detail)
   
1868
Fossilien von Metmach bei Ried (Ober-Oesterreich).
Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1868(15): 387.
x
 
Hauer, Franz von (detail)
   
1886
Jahresbericht für 1885.
Ann. k.k. Naturhist. Hofmuseums 1886: 1-47. 1 pl.
–Reports the collection of a pair of skeletons of "Halitherium" (now referred to Metaxytherium medium) in sandpits at Ottakring, a suburb of Vienna, Austria (27-28).
 
 
Haupt, O. (detail)
   
1935
Andere Wirbeltiere des Neozoikums.
Oberrhein. Fossilkatalog 9: 1-103.
–Mentions Halitherium schinzii, 61.
 
 
Hautier, Lionel; Sarr, Raphaël; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Adnet, Sylvain; Domning, Daryl Paul; Samb, Momar; Hameh, Pierre Marwan (detail)
   
2012
First prorastomid sirenian from Senegal (western Africa) and the Old World origin of sea cows.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32(5): 1218-1222. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2012.687421 Sept. 2012.
–Reports an isolated thoracic vertebra of an unidentified prorastomid from the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) Taïba Formation in Senegal.
x
 
Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J. (detail)
   
2010
Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 107(44): 18903-18908. 4 figs. Nov. 2, 2010.
–P. 18906: {"Short-necked sloths (C[holoepus]. hoffmanni) possess five to six ribless neck vertebrae. Manatees are known to typically possess six ribless neck vertebrae [Buchholtz et al., 2007]. We predict that when data on their axial skeleton ossification sequences are available, they will show one to two cranial-most rib-bearing vertebrae that are developmentally cervical. That is, they will exhibit late ossification of their centra, after that of more distal, rib-bearing vertebrae and coincident with more proximal cervical vertebrae."}
 
 
Hauxwell, J.; Frazer, T. K.; Osenberg, C. W. (detail)
   
2004
Grazing by manatees excludes both new and established wild celery transplants: implications for restoration in Kings Bay.
Jour. Aquat. Plant Management 42: 49-53.
–Discusses Vallisneria americana in Florida.
 
 
Havemann, P.; Thiriet, D.; Marsh, Helene D.; Jones, C. (detail)
   
2005
Decolonising conservation? Traditional use of marine resources agreements and dugong hunting in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
Environmental & Planning Law Jour. 22: 258-280.
 
 
Haworth, R. J.; Baker, R. G. V.; Flood, P. J. (detail)
   
2004
A 6000 year-old fossil dugong from Botany Bay: inferences about changes in Sydney's climate, sea levels and waterways.
Australian Geographical Studies 42(1): 46-59. 1 tab. 5 figs. March 2004.
–Restudy of the subfossil dugong occurrence reported by Etheridge et al. (1897). The specimen's conventional carbon-14 age is given as 5520±70 years B.P.
x
 
Hawrylyshyn, George (detail)
   
1974
A friend in need.
Internatl. Wildlife 4(6): 20. 1 fig. Nov.-Dec. 1974.
–Short paragraph with a photo of a T. inunguis killed near Tefé, Brazil.
 
 
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1899
A census of the fossil Vertebrata of North America.
Science (2)10: 681-684.
–Sirs., 682.
x
 
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1902
Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North America.
Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv. 179: 1-868.
–Creates the new combinations Trichechus antiquus (Leidy) (583) and T. inornatus (Leidy) (584).
x
D
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1915
A contribution to the knowledge of the extinct sirenian Desmostylus hesperus Marsh.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 49(2113): 381-397. Pls. 56-58.
–Abstrs.: Nature (London) 96: 152?; Geol. Mag. (6)2: 567? Recounts the history of discovery of Desmostylus; discusses it and compares it with various sirs.; proposes the Family Desmostylidae (a name actually coined previously by Osborn, 1905a) and gives the name Desmostylus watasei to the specimen of Yoshiwara and Iwasaki (1902).
x
 
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1919
Description of some mammalian and fish remains from Florida of probably Pleistocene age.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 56(2291): 103-112. Pls. 26-28.
–Describes a mandible of uncertain provenance (USNM 2522) and refers it to "Trichechus antiquus Leidy?" (109-110, pl. 26). Domning (1982b: 604-605) interpreted this specimen as a subrecent T. manatus.
x
 
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1922a
Description of a new fossil sea cow from Florida, Metaxytherium floridanum.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 61(17)(2438): 1-4. 1 pl.
–Bases the new species on a maxilla with third molar from a phosphate mine at Mulberry, Florida, supposing it to be of Late Oligocene age (it is probably late Middle Miocene; Domning, 1988). An isolated lower tooth from Palma Sola, Florida, is provisionally referred to the species.
 
D
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1922b
Note on Desmostylus hesperus.
Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 3: 392-393.
–In O. Abel (1922).
x
D
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1923a
Characters of sundry fossil vertebrates.
Pan-American Geologist 39: 101-120. Figs. 4-5. Pls. 7-9. March 1923.
–In section III ("Desmostylus: its species and relationships"), criticizes Hannibal's erection of the species D. cymatias; proposes the names D. californicus and Cornwallius; refutes Abel's theory of multituberculate affinities for desmostylians; and proposes the suborders Desmostyliformes and Trichechiformes within the Sirenia (105-109).
 
 
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1923b
The Pleistocene of North America and its vertebrated animals from the states east of the Mississippi River and from the Canadian provinces east of longitude 95°.
Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington No. 322: vii + 499. 25 figs. 41 maps.
–Sirs., 379.
x
D
Hay, Oliver Perry (detail)
   
1924
Notes on the osteology and dentition of the genera Desmostylus and Cornwallius.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 65(8)(2521): 1-8. 2 figs. 2 pls.
–Suggests that the type of Cornwallius may be a milk tooth of Desmostylus; discusses and compares various other specimens.
Hayashi, Seiji: SEE Ozawa et al., 1997. (detail)
 
D
Hayashi, Shoji; Houssaye, Alexandra; Nakajima, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Kentaro; Ando, Tatsuro; Sawamura, Hiroshi; Inuzuka, Norihisa; Kaneko, Naotomo; Osaki, Tomohiro (detail)
   
2013
Bone inner structure suggests increasing aquatic adaptations in Desmostylia (Mammalia, Afrotheria).
PLoS ONE 8(4):e59146. 20 pp. 5 tabs. 13 figs. + Supplementary Information. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059146 Apr. 2, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The paleoecology of desmostylians has been discussed controversially with a general consensus that desmostylians were aquatic or semi-aquatic to some extent. Bone microanatomy can be used as a powerful tool to infer habitat preference of extinct animals. However, bone microanatomical studies of desmostylians are extremely scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the histology and microanatomy of several desmostylians using thin-sections and CT scans of ribs, humeri, femora and vertebrae. Comparisons with extant mammals allowed us to better understand the mode of life and evolutionary history of these taxa. Desmostylian ribs and long bones generally lack a medullary cavity. This trait has been interpreted as an aquatic adaptation among amniotes. Behemotops and Paleoparadoxia show osteosclerosis (i.e. increase in bone compactness), and Ashoroa pachyosteosclerosis (i.e. combined increase in bone volume and compactness). Conversely, Desmostylus differs from these desmostylians in displaying an osteoporotic-like pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In living taxa, bone mass increase provides hydrostatic buoyancy and body trim control suitable for poorly efficient swimmers, while wholly spongy bones are associated with hydrodynamic buoyancy control in active swimmers. Our study suggests that all desmostylians had achieved an essentially, if not exclusively, aquatic lifestyle. Behemotops, Paleoparadoxia and Ashoroa are interpreted as shallow water swimmers, either hovering slowly at a preferred depth, or walking on the bottom, and Desmostylus as a more active swimmer with a peculiar habitat and feeding strategy within Desmostylia. Therefore, desmostylians are, with cetaceans, the second mammal group showing a shift from bone mass increase to a spongy inner organization of bones in their evolutionary history.
Hayek, Lee-Ann C.: SEE Domning & Hayek. (detail)
Hayford, K. T.: SEE Romero et al., 2002. (detail)
Hayman, R. W.: SEE ALSO Ellerman et al., 1953. (detail)
 
 
Hayman, R. W. (detail)
   
1956a
Manatees and dugongs.
Zoo Life (London) 10(4): 98-100. 3 figs.
–Gen. acc. of sir. natural history, and of two T. manatus from British Guiana on exhibit in London.
 
 
Hayman, R. W. (detail)
   
1956b
Mammals of the West Indies.
Zoo Life (London) 11: 41-46.
Haynes, Ann M.: SEE Fairbairn & Haynes, 1982; Shaul & Haynes, 1986. (detail)
Haynes, David: SEE ALSO Gaus et al., 2001; McLachlan et al., 2001; Muller et al., 1998; Vetter et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Haynes, David; Muller, Jochen F.; McLachlan, Michael S. (detail)
   
1999
Polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Great Barrier Reef (Australia) dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Chemosphere 38(2): 255-262. Jan. 1999.
 
 
Haynes, David; Slater, J.; Devlin, M.; Makey, L. (detail)
   
1998
Great Barrier Reef water quality monitoring and dugong protection areas.
Reef Research 8: 10-15.
x
 
Healy, Paul (detail)
   
1993
Northeastern Honduras. Chap. 11 in: J. S. Henderson & M. Beaudry-Corbett (eds.), Pottery of prehistoric Honduras: regional classification and analysis.
Univ. Calif. Los Angeles Inst. Archaeol. Monograph 35: 194-213. 1 tab. 20 figs.
–Describes and illustrates "Manatee Lugs" on pottery of the Selín phase (Early to Late-Terminal Classic periods) in Honduras (202-203, 213). The assertion that these bizarre pot handles or legs "almost certainly" depict manatees is more than questionable.
x
 
Heaney, Lawrence R. (detail)
   
1998
A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands.
Fieldiana: Zool., n.s. No. 88(1493): v + 61. 7 figs. June 30, 1998.
–Lists many areas in the Philippines known to have had dugongs, but notes that they are now regularly reported only from Palawan (53).
Heck, K. L., Jr.: SEE Valentine & Heck, 2001. (detail)
Heddle, R.: SEE Baikie & Heddle, 1848. (detail)
 
 
Heerfort, Christoph (detail)
   
1725
Dissertatio hist.-phys.-crit. de sirenibus, seu piscibus humani corporis structuram quodammodo imitantibus.
Hafniae [= Copenhagen], Resp. Andr. Bing.: 1-20.
–Allen 189.
Hegel, Giesela von: SEE Schweigert et al., 1991. (detail)
 
 
Heilmann, Gerhard (detail)
   
1913
Vor nuvaerende Viden om Fuglenes Afstamning. Første Afsnit. [What we know about the descent of birds. Part 1.]
Dansk Ornith. For. Tidsskr. 7: 1-71. 50 figs.
–Sirs., 58.
 
 
Heilmann, Gerhard (detail)
   
1914
Vor nuvaerende Viden om Fuglenes Afstamning. Tredje Afsnit. [What we know about the descent of birds. Part 3.]
Dansk Ornith. For. Tidsskr. 9: 1-91. Figs. 110-159.
–Sirs., 90.
 
 
Heilprin, Angelo (detail)
   
1887
The geographical and geological distribution of animals.
New York & London, Internatl. Scientific Series: xii + 435. 1 map.
–Sirs., 339.
 
 
Heilprin, Angelo (detail)
   
1907
An impression of the Guiana wilderness.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 18: 373-381. 6 figs. June 1907.
–Note on T. manatus cropping bank vegetation in British Guiana (376).
Heinsohn, George Edwin: SEE ALSO Anderson & Heinsohn, 1978; Denton et al., 1980; Elliott et al., 1979, 1981; Murray et al., 1977; Marsh et al.; Preen & Heinsohn, 1983; Preen et al., 1989; Spain et al. (detail)
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1972
A study of dugongs (Dugong dugong) in northern Queensland, Australia.
Biol. Conserv. 4(3): 205-213. 7 figs. Apr. 1972.
–Abstr.: Austral. Mammalogy 1: 71, Dec. 1972. Discusses numbers, age and sexual structure of population, growth, maturation, reproduction, and conservation, based on data from dugongs caught accidentally in shark nets, 1964-71.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1977a
Dugongs in the seagrass ecosystem in north Queensland. [Abstr.]
Bull. Austral. Mammal Soc. 4(1): 27. Sept. 1977 (read May 1977).
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1977b
Dugongs and turtles. Part one.
Wildlife in Australia 14(4): 134-139. 14 figs. Dec. 1977.
–Pop. acc. of dugong biology.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1978a
Dugongs and turtles. Part 2.
Wildlife in Australia 15(1): 26-30. 12 figs. Autumn 1978.
–Pop. acc. of dugong conservation (29-30).
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1978b
Marine mammals of the northern Great Barrier Reef region. In: Workshop on the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Series No. 1: 315-335.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1978c
Aerial surveys and dugong conservation - an overview. [Abstr.]
Bull. Austral. Mammal Soc. 51: 36-37. Read May 1978.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981a
Status and distribution of dugongs in Queensland. [Abstr.] In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 55-56.
–Outlines available data on dugong numbers and locations (based on aerial surveys), and discusses the threats to which they are exposed.
n
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981b
The dugong in the seagrass ecosystem. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 162-163.
–Abstr. of Heinsohn, Wake, Marsh & Spain (1977).
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981c
Aerial survey techniques for dugongs. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 217-227.
–Describes the techniques used by the research team at James Cook University, Queensland, and problems encountered. Also includes as appendices two sample aerial survey data sheets (386-387).
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981d
Methods of taking measurements, other data and specimen material from dugong carcasses. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 228-238. 1 fig.
–Describes in detail a set of standard external measurements, and briefly lists other sorts of data and tissue samples that are desirable to collect. Also includes as appendices two sample carcass data sheets (370-385).
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1983
Dugongs: Family Dugongidae. In: R. Strahan (ed.), The Australian Museum complete book of Australian mammals.
Sydney, Angus & Robertson (xxi + 530): 474-476. 3 figs.
–Later ed.: Heinsohn (1995).
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1986
Rare and endangered: world's only strictly marine sea cow threatened.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 21(12): 530-531. 2 figs. Autumn 1986.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1995
Order Sirenia: dugongs and manatees. In: R. Strahan (ed.), Mammals of Australia.
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. Press (756 pp.): 666-670. 3 figs.
–Earlier ed.: Heinsohn (1983). This ed. first published by Reed Books, Chatswood, New South Wales. Consists of a gen. acc. of Dugong dugon, updated from 1983 ed.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Birch, W. R. (detail)
   
1972
Foods and feeding habits of the dugong Dugong dugong (Erxleben) in northern Queensland, Australia.
Mammalia 36(3): 414-422. 1 fig. Sept. 1972.
–Describes stomach contents (seagrasses) of dugongs caught in shark nets, and notes the food preferences indicated thereby.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1977
Sirens of tropical Australia.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 19(4): 106-111. 8 figs. Oct.-Dec. 1977.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs and dugong research in Australia, mainly covering the same material presented by Heinsohn, Wake, Marsh & Spain, 1977.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984
Sirens of northern Australia: the dugongs. In: M. Archer & G. Clayton (eds.), Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia (animals in space and time).
Carlisle (Western Australia), Hesperian Press (1203 pp.): 1003-1010. 13 figs.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1974
Effects of a tropical cyclone on littoral and sub-littoral biotic communities and on a population of dugongs (Dugong dugon (Müller)).
Biol. Conserv. 6(2): 143-152. 2 tabs. 5 figs. Apr. 1974.
–Analyzes data on sex and age ratios of dugongs caught in shark nets before and after a cyclone; discusses an apparent increase in their movements, and a change in their feeding habits to include brown algae in addition to seagrasses.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Wake, Judith Ann (detail)
   
1976
The importance of the Fraser Island region to dugongs.
Operculum 5(1): 15-18. 3 figs. Mar. 1976.
–Reports results of aerial surveys showing dugong concentrations in Great Sandy Strait and Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia; emphasizes dugongs' need for protected seagrass beds and the vulnerability of the latter to human activities.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Lear, Richard J.; Bryden, Michael M.; Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R. (detail)
   
1978
Discovery of a large population of dugongs off Brisbane, Australia.
Envir. Conserv. 5: 91-92. 1 fig.
–Reports aerial observations of at least 300 dugongs in Moreton Bay, 1976-77.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979a
Australian dugong.
Oceans 12(3): 48-52. 5 figs. May 1979.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1976
Extreme risk of mortality to dugongs (Mammalia: Sirenia) from netting operations.
Austral. Jour. Wildl. Res. 3(2): 117-121. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Account of techniques used in catching Australian dugongs for research, behavior of dugongs in nets, and effects on dugong populations of netting operations in Queensland and Kenya.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R.; Spain, Alister V.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1979b
Aerial surveys of dugongs. In: Proceedings of workshop on aerial surveys of fauna populations, Canberra, Feb. 22-25, 1977.
Austral. Natl. Parks & Wildl. Serv., Spec. Publ. No. 1: 85-96. 4 figs.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1976
Populations of dugongs (Mammalia: Sirenia): aerial survey over the inshore waters of tropical Australia.
Biol. Conserv. 9(1): 21-23. 1 tab. Jan. 1976.
–Results of surveys in the Townsville and Cape York areas, Sept.-Dec. 1974; several large aggregations seen.
x
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Wake, Judith Ann; Marsh, Helene D.; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1977
The dugong (Dugong dugon (Müller)) in the seagrass system.
Aquaculture 12(3): 235-248. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Heinsohn (1981b). Review, mainly from published literature, of dugong feeding habits, movements, trophic relations, exploitation, and conservation problems. Suggests dugongs should be studied for possible sustained-yield meat production.
 
 
Heinsohn, George Edwin; Wolanski, Eric; Bunt, John S.; Denton, Gary; Garnett, Stephen; Johannes, Robert Earle; Marsh, Helene D.; Veron, John (detail)
   
1985
The Torres Strait.
Habitat Australia 13(6): 12-18. 5 figs. Dec. 1985.
–Dugong conservation, 15-16.
 
 
Heinsohn, Robert; Lacy, Robert C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Marsh, Helene D.; Kwan, Donna; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2004
Unsustainable harvest of dugongs in Torres Strait and Cape York (Australia) waters: two case studies using population viability analysis.
Animal Conservation 7(4): 417-425. 6 tabs. 3 figs. Nov. 2004.
Heisey, Dennis M.: SEE Garrott et al., 1994, 1995. (detail)
 
 
Heithaus, Michael R. (detail)
   
2001
The biology of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, in Shark Bay, Western Australia: sex ratio, size distribution, diet, and seasonal changes in catch rates.
Envir. Biol. Fishes 61(1): 25-36.
 
 
Heizmann, Elmar P. J. (detail)
   
1992
Das Tertiär in Südwestdeutschland.
Stuttgart Beitr. Naturk., Ser. C: Allgem. Aufsätze 33: 1-61.
–Mentions Halitherium.
x
 
Hellwing, S.; Steinitz, Heinz (detail)
   
1971
Sea cows in the Gulf of Elat.
Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem, Mar. Biol. Lab., Elat, Sci. Newsletter No. 1: 11-12. Apr. 1971.
–Records a possible sighting of a dugong in 1969 and the finding of a skull in 1970, both on the east coast of the Sinai Peninsula.
x
 
Hellyer, Peter (detail)
   
1992
[Recorder's report for January-June 1992 - mammals.]
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 2(2): 43-44. Oct. 1992.
–P. 44: {"The only report of a Dugong, (Dugong dugon), was of a skeleton about four and a half feet long at Dhabbiyyah, (UA 25), on February 19th."}
x
 
Hellyer, Peter (detail)
   
1993
Mammals.
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 3(2): 23-24. Oct. 1993.
–Reports two recent occurrences of dugongs in Abu Dhabi (24).
x
 
Hellyer, Peter (detail)
   
1995
Mammals.
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 5(1): 32. Apr. 1995.
–Reports the collection of dugong skeletons on the islands of Merawah and Liffiyah by R. Baldwin and V. G. Cockcroft, who estimated that 28 had been caught there over the last two years and suggested that the United Arab Emirates dugong population may be the second largest in the Indian Ocean.
x
 
Hemming, Francis (detail)
   
1952
Report on the nomenclatorial status of the generic name "Manatus" Brünnich, 1771 (Class Mammalia).
Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 6(5): 159-160. Apr. 15, 1952.
–Recommends that Manatus Brünnich, 1771 be considered a synonym of Trichechus Linnaeus, 1758, and that manatus be recognized as the valid specific name of the type species (Trichechus manatus), on the appropriate Official Lists of Names in Zoology.
 
 
Hemminga, Marten A.; Duarte, Carlos A. (detail)
   
2000
Seagrass ecology.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press: xi + 298. Illus.
–Sirs., 11, 89, 153, 228, 231-234, 239.
 
 
Hemprich, F. G.; Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried (detail)
   
1828-99
Symbolae physicae seu icones et descriptiones corporum naturalium novorum aut minus cognitorum quae ex itineribus per Libyam Aegyptum Nubiam Dongalam Syriam Arabiam et Habessiniam publico institutis sumptu Friderici Guilelmi Hemprich et Christiani Godofredi Ehrenberg ... studio annis MDCCCXX-MDCCCXXV redierunt.... Pars zoologica I[-II].... Mammalia II.
Berlin, Officina Academica (4 vols.).
–Text publ. 1828-45. The plates, with legends and brief explanatory text by Paul Matschie, were issued as a supplement (Symbolae physicae seu icones adhuc ineditae corporum ..., Berlin, Georg Reimer: 1-12, 32 pls., Oct. 1899). Some signatures separately dated. Halicora [sic] Hemprichii and H. Lottum, n.spp., sign. k (Sept. 1832). Pls. 3-5 of the 1899 supplement depict the skull of a female "Halicora Hemprichii".
 
 
Hénaut, Yann; Becerra-López, Sylvia P.; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Winterton, Peter; Delfour, Fabienne (detail)
   
2010
Activities and social interactions in captive Antillean manatees in Mexico.
Mammalia 74(2): 141-146.
 
 
Hénaut, Yann; Lara-Sánchez, Lisbeth Esmeralda; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima (detail)
   
2020
Learning capacities and welfare in an Antillean manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus.
Comptes Rendus, Biologies 343(1): 73-87. 4 figs. 4 tabs. + supplementary material. doi: 10.5802/crbiol.6. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/biologies/item/CRBIOL20203431730/
–ABSTRACT: Studies on the cognitive abilities of manatees are limited despite their importance for the environmental enrichment and welfare of individuals in captivity and the understanding of manatee behaviour in the wild. Our study analyses how the presence of new stimuli and their association with food may have changed the behaviour of an Antillean manatee called Daniel. First, Daniel was observed in the absence of stimuli and subsequently, in step two, presented with the presence of four different geometrical shapes. During step three, we trained Daniel to eat from the square, while in step four he was presented with the four shapes without food. The behaviour and interaction of the manatee with the square increased considerably. We observed that three and twelve months after training the manatee still chose the square and displayed behaviours toward this specific shape. This study allowed us to formally demonstrate the ability of manatees to associate visual cues with food and increase activity with environmental and occupational devices. Our results open up new perspectives for behavioural studies on manatees, in particular those associated with cognition, management and welfare in captivity.
 
 
Henderson, George (detail)
   
1809
An account of the British settlement of Honduras.... To which are added, sketches of the manners and customs of the Mosquito Indians, preceded by the journal of a voyage to the Mosquito Shore.
London, C. & R. Baldwin: xi + 203.
–Ed. 2: London, 1811. See R. Harlan (1825a: 278).
Henderson, Gregory S.: SEE Whitten et al., 1987. (detail)
Hendricks, Vicki: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Hendrokusumo, Sukiman: SEE ALSO Tas'an et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Hendrokusumo, Sukiman; Sumitro, D.; Tas'an (detail)
   
1981
The distribution of the dugong in Indonesian waters. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 10-18. 6 figs.
–Presents maps showing where dugongs were captured or reported by local inhabitants. Mentions in passing some information about vernacular names and local attitudes towards dugong hunting, and cites Indonesian protective legislation.
 
 
Hennemann, W. W. (detail)
   
1983
Relationship among body mass, metabolic rate and the intrinsic rate of natural increase in mammals.
Oecologia (Berlin) 56: 104-108.
 
 
Hennicke, Carl (detail)
   
1902
Über die Anpassung des Gehörorganes der Wassersäugethiere an das Leben im Wasser.
Monatschr. Ohrenheilk. 36: 157-179.
–Sirs., 159, 163.
Henningsen, T.: SEE Reeves et al., 1996. (detail)
x
 
Henriques, Deise Dias Rêgo; Azevedo, Sergio Alex Kugland de; Carvalho, Luciana Barbosa de; Carvalho, Alberto Barbosa de; Gallo, Valéria (detail)
   
2000
Catálogo de fósseis-tipo da coleção de paleovertebrados do Museu Nacional - Rio de Janeiro.
Publ. Avulsas Mus. Nac. (Rio de Janeiro) No. 81: 1-25. May 2000.
–Lists the holotype material of Sirenotherium pirabensis [sic] Paula Couto, 1967 (19).
 
 
Henry, Walter (detail)
   
1843
Events of a military life: being recollections after service in the Peninsular war, invasion of France, the East Indies, St. Helena, Canada, and elsewhere.... Ed. 2.
London, W. Pickering (2 vols.).
–Sirs., 2: 66-67.
 
 
Henshall, J. A. (detail)
   
1884
Camping and cruising in Florida.
Cincinnati, Robert Clarke & Co.: 1-248.
 
 
Henshaw, Henry Wetherbee (detail)
   
1883
Animal carvings from mounds of the Mississippi Valley.
Second Ann. Rept. of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Inst., 1880-81 (Washington, Govt. Printing Office): 117-166. Illus.
–Available online at: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18184.
  Supposed effigies of manatees from Indian mounds, 125-133, figs. 4-13. Henshaw debunks the identifications (going back to Squier & Davis, 1848) of these carved tobacco pipes as manatees, concluding that they more likely represent otters.
 
 
Henshaw, John; Child, Gilbert S. (detail)
   
1972
New attitudes in Nigeria.
Oryx 11(4): 275-283.
–Reports recent catches of T. senegalensis in Kainji Lake (278).
 
 
Hentschel, E.; Vosseler, J. (detail)
   
1915
Der gegenwärtige Stand unserer Kenntnisse von den Seekühen (Sirenen).
Verh. Natw. Ver. Hamburg (3)23: 72-73.
x
 
Heptner, Vladimir Georgievich (detail)
   
1965
Yeshche raz o stellerovoy korove. [More on Steller's sea cow.]
Priroda 54(7): 91-94. 1 fig.
–Harshly criticizes the report of Berzin et al. (1963), and attributes their supposed sightings of Hydrodamalis to female narwhals. Also reviews other reports and concludes there is no evidence for Hydrodamalis ever having occurred outside of the Komandorski Islands.
 
 
Heptner, Vladimir Georgievich (detail)
   
1966
[Area of distribution and history of extermination of Hydrodamalis gigas Zimmermann.]
Lynx (n.s.) 6: 49-50.
–In Russian; Engl. summ.
 
 
Heptner, Vladimir Georgievich; Naumov, N. P. (eds.) (detail)
   
1967
Mlekopitaiushchie Sovetskogo Soiuza. [Mammals of the Soviet Union.] Vol. 2. Sirenia and Carnivora.
Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola: 5-1004. 356 figs.
–German ed.: Jena, G. Fischer, 1974? Engl. ed.: Hoffmann & Domning (eds.), 1998. Heptner was sole author of the chapter on Hydrodamalis (13-46).
Herald, Earl S.: SEE ALSO Evans & Herald, 1970; Frye & Herald, 1969; Loughman et al., 1970. (detail)
x
 
Herald, Earl S. (detail)
   
1969
Aquatic mammals at Steinhart Aquarium.
Pacific Discovery 22(6): 26-30. 10 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1969.
–Mention of "Eugenie" the dugong and account of "Butterball" the Amazonian manatee (food, behavior, etc.), with remarks on other sirs. in captivity at other institutions (29-30).
x
 
Herapath, A. N. (detail)
   
1837
Two Mermaids caught in the river Gabon, Africa. (Extracted from Mr. Herapath's Railway Magazine.)
Loudon's Magazine of Natural History (n.s.) 1(2): 110-111. Feb. 1837.
–Three paragraphs of description of Manatus senegalensis, based on native accounts and on direct observation of two female specimens by Herapath, Captain of the brig "Tom Cod," in August 1835.
 
 
Herbert, Thomas (detail)
   
1634
A relation of some years travaile, begunne anno 1626. Into Afrique and the Greater Asia, especially the territories of the Persian Monarchie: and some parts of the Orientall Indies, and iles adiacent. Together with the proceedings and death of the three late ambassadours: Sir D. C., Sir R. S. and the Persian Nogdi-Beg: as also the two great monarchs, the King of Persia, and the Great Mogol.
London, W. Stansby & J. Bloome: 225 + [12]. Illus.
–An excerpt (?) is found in John Harris, Navigantium atque Itineratium Bibliotheca, London, 1705; Indian Ocean dugong, Vol. 1: 408.
 
 
Herbert, W.; Nichelson, W. (detail)
   
1780
A new directory for the East Indies.... Ed. 5.
London, Henry Gregory.
 
 
Herdson, D. M. (detail)
   
1978
Mammals.
Wildlife Bahrain 1977: 61.
x
 
Heriarte, Mauricio de (detail)
   
1874
Descripção do Estado do Maranhão, Pará, Corupá e Rio das Amazonas....
Vienna, Filho de Carlos Gerold: 1-84.
–Regarding the period ca. 1662, notes the export of manatees from Gurupá, Brazil to St. Christopher, West Indies (29-30), and states that the Rio Trombetas has "many manatees" (39).
x
 
Herklots, Geoffrey Alton Craig (detail)
   
1951
The Hong Kong countryside.
Hong Kong, printed by the South China Morning Post: 175 + vii. Illus. Jan. 1951.
–Mentions a dugong captured in Hong Kong in 1940 or 1941, along with earlier published records (93).
 
 
Herkner, Bernd (detail)
   
2005
Neue fossile Seekuh im Senckenberg.
Natur und Museum 135(9/10): 240-241. 2 figs.
–Describes the installation at the Senckenberg Museum (Frankfurt a.M.) of a replica of a skeleton of Metaxytherium krahuletzi from Austria (see Domning & Pervesler, 2001: frontispiece).
 
 
Herlein, J. D. (detail)
   
1718
Beschryvinge van de Volk-plantinge Zuriname: vertonende de opkomst dier zelver Colonie, de aanbouw en bewerkinge der zuiker-plantagien. Neffens den aard der eigene natuurlijke inwoonders of Indianen; als ook de slaafsche Afrikaansche Mooren; deze beide natien haar levens-manieren, afgoden-dienst, regering, zeden, gewoonten en dagelijksche bezigheden. Mitsgaders een vertoog van de bosch-grond, water- en pluim-gediertens; de veel vuldige heerlijke vrugten, melkagtige zappen, gommen, olyen, en de gehele gesteltheid van de Karaïbaansche kust.
Leeuwarden, M. Injema: 18 + 262. 4 pls. 1 map.
–Manatee in Suriname, 196.
 
 
Hermandez, A. G.; Bravo, O. E. R.; Maiti, R. K.; Maiti B. R. (detail)
   
2002
Manatees: an endangered giant sea monster.
Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta 55(2): 35-38.
 
 
Hermann, Johann (detail)
   
1783
Tabula affinitatum animalium olim academico specimine edita, nunc uberiore commentario illustrata cum annotationibus ad historiam naturalem animalium augendam facientibus.
Argentorati [= Strassburg], J. G. Treuttel: 1-370.
–Allen 374.
 
 
Hermanussen, S.; Matthews, V.; Papke, O.; Limpus, Colin J.; Gaus, C. (detail)
   
2008
Flame retardants (PBDEs) in marine turtles, dugongs and seafood from Queensland, Australia.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 57(6-12): 409-418.
Hernández Camacho, Jorge I.: SEE Camacho, Jorge I. Hernández. (detail)
 
 
Hernández, Francisco (detail)
   
1651
Nova plantarum, animalium et mineralium mexicanorum historia.... [illus. title; or] Rervm medicarvm Novae Hispaniae thesavrvs sev Plantarvm animalivm mineralivm mexicanorvm historia.... [engraved title]
Rome, sumptibus Blasij Deuersini & Zanobij Masotti Bibliopolarum, typis Vitalis Mascardi: [9] + 950 + 90 + [3] + [10].
–Allen 76. An abridgement of earlier eds.: 1604; Mexico, 1615; Rome, 1628 (Allen 62). Reprs. of 1615 ed.: Mexico, Antonio Peñafiel, 1888; Morelia (Mexico), Nicol s León, 1888. Various Spanish transls. bear titles such as Cuatro libros de la natureza y virtudes de las plantas y animales de uso medicinal en la Nueva España.
  Manatee, chap. 13, 323-324, 2 figs., "not remarkable for accuracy" (Allen). The manatee material in the 1615 ed. is in Book 4, Pt. 1, Chap. 8, leaves 183-184. Durand (1983: 160-163) reproduces and comments on the two figures, one of which shows the animal with a dugong-like tail and the hooves and genitalia of a horse!
 
 
Hernandez, Patricia; Reynolds, John E., III; Marsh, Helene D.; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
1995
Age and seasonality in spermatogenesis of Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 84-97. 3 tabs. 10 figs. 1 app. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 17).
x
 
Herndon, William Lewis (detail)
   
1853
Exploration of the valley of the Amazon, made under direction of the Navy Department, by Wm. Lewis Herndon and Lardner Gibbon.... Part I.
Washington, Robert Armstrong: iv + 417 + iii. 16 pls.
–See also Gibbon (1854). Mentions manatees and their uses in Peru (158, 163-164, 200) and Brazil (300, 319, 365), including the quantities of meat and mixira shipped through Santarem in 1843 and 1846 (300).
 
 
Herrara, Antonio de (detail)
   
1625
A description of the West Indies. In: S. Purchas, ... Purchas his pilgrimes... (q.v.).
London, Henry Fetherston: Part 3.
–Originally publ. in 1601?
 
 
Herrara, Antonio de (detail)
   
1660
Histoire generale des voyages et conqvestes des Castillans, dans les isles & terre-ferme des Indes Occidentales. Traduite de l'Espagnol ... Par N[icolas]. de la Coste....
Paris, Nicolas & Iean de la Coste (3 vols.).
–Allen 83. Manati, 1: 378-379.
 
 
Herrara, Antonio de (detail)
   
1726
Historia general de los Hechts. de los Castellanos en las islas i terra firme del Mar Oceano.... En quatro decadas desde el año de 1492, hasta el de [1]531.
Madrid, Nicolas Rodriguez (4 vols.).
–Allen 190.
 
 
Herrara, Antonio de (detail)
   
1728
Historia general de las Indias ocidentales; ò de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas y tierra firme del Mar Oceano, .... En ocho decadas. Sigue a la ultima decada la descripcion de las Indias por el mismo autor.... Nueva Impression....
Amberes [= Antwerp], Juan Bautista Verdussen (4 vols.): Vol. 1: 1-496. Pls.
–Allen 193. Ed. 1: Herrara (1726). Manati, vol. 1, dec. 1, lib. V, cap. xi: 118; also dec. 1, lib. II, cap. i and dec. 4, lib. VIII, cap. xii? (reproduced in Durand, 1983: 50, 29, 152). According to Allen, a slightly abridged paraphrase of Gomara's (1554) account.
 
 
Herrara, Antonio de (detail)
   
1730
Historia general de los hechos delos Castellanos enlas islas i tierra firme del Mar Oceano.... En quatro decadas des de el año de 1492 hasta el de [1]531. [Or, with different title-page:] Descripcion de las Indias ocidentales....
Madrid, Nicolas Rodriguez (4 vols.).
–Allen 194, 195; these eds. apparently differing only in the title-page. Manati, dec. 1: 141-142.
 
 
Herrara, Antonio de (detail)
   
1740
The general history of the vast continent and islands of America, commonly call'd, the West-Indies, from the first discovery thereof: with the best accounts the people could give of their antiquities. Collected from the original relations sent to the Kings of Spain.... Translated into English by Capt. John Stevens.... The second edition.
London, Wood & Woodward (6 vols.).
–Allen 215. First ed., London, Jer. Batley, 1725-26. Manati, 1: 82 (Columbus' account), 278-279.
Herre, Albert W. C. T.: SEE ALSO Dickerson et al., 1928. (detail)
 
 
Herre, Albert W. C. T. (detail)
   
1928
Rational methods for the protection of useful aquatic animals of the Pacific.
Proc. 3rd Pan-Pacif. Sci. Congress (Tokyo, 1926) 1: 1072-1074.
Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de: SEE Herrara, Antonio de. (detail)
 
 
Hersh, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1991
Siren census.
Sea Frontiers 37(4): 6. 1 fig. Aug. 1991.
–Brief pop. acc. of the statewide manatee census conducted in Florida in Feb. 1991.
x
 
Hershkovitz, Philip (detail)
   
1959
Nomenclature and taxonomy of the Neotropical mammals described by Olfers, 1818.
Jour. Mamm. 40(3): 337-353. Aug. 20, 1959.
–P. 342: {"M[anatus]. fluviatilis (p. 235) = Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1: 34). - Olfers' primary basis for the name is the Guianan manati of Pennant (1793, Hist. Quadr. 2: 297). His other synonyms, Tr[ichechus]. Clusii Shaw and Tr[ichechus]. Amazonius Shaw (1800, Gen. Zool., 1, [1]: 246) are freshwater representatives of the common Antillean manatee."}
Hesse, C. J.: SEE Stenzel et al., 1944. (detail)
x
 
Heuglin, Martin Theodor von (detail)
   
1868
Reise nach Abessinien, den Gala-Ländern, Ost-Sudán und Chartúm in den Jahren 1861 und 1862.
Jena, Hermann Costenoble: xii + 459 + [iii]. 1 tab. 10 pls. 1 map.
–Report of a "Manatus"-like animal in Lake Tana, Ethiopia (247, 289).
 
 
Heuglin, Martin Theodor von (detail)
   
1877
Reise in Nordost-Afrika....
Braunschweig, George Westermann (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xiv + 285. Vol. 2: vi + 304.
–Account of Halicore cetacea, 2: 135-137.
x
 
Heuvelmans, Bernard (detail)
   
1941a
Notes sur la dentition des Siréniens. I. La formule dentaire du lamantin (Trichechus).
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 17(21): 1-15. 2 figs. Apr. 1941.
–Detailed literature review. Concludes that the dental formula is DI 3/3 DC 0/1 DM 0/3 M 12-15/12-15; that the large number of molars is a primitive (but "generally inhibited") mammalian character despite the manatee's descent from forms with normal counts; and that horizontal tooth replacement is an "illusion" due to growth of the mandible.
x
 
Heuvelmans, Bernard (detail)
   
1941b
Notes sur la dentition des Siréniens. II. Morphologie de la dentition du lamantin (Trichechus).
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 17(26): 1-11. 8 figs. Apr. 1941.
–Describes molars of T. senegalensis and T. latirostris, reviews literature, and comments (10-11) on dental occlusion, abrasion, and mastication, concluding that the jaw movement is posterior-to-anterior.
x
 
Heuvelmans, Bernard (detail)
   
1941c
Notes sur la dentition des Siréniens. III. La dentition du dugong.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 17(53): 1-14. 5 figs. 1 pl. Oct. 1941.
–Reviews literature and concludes that the dental formula is DI 1/3 DC 0/1 DM 3/3, I 1/(2) C 0/(1) P 0/0 M 3/3. Describes the premolars of a dugong fetus. Comments on the loss of teeth in Hydrodamalis (14).
x
 
Heuvelmans, Bernard (detail)
   
1942
Notes sur la dentition des Siréniens. IV. Le cas de Prorastoma veronense.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 18(3): 1-6. 4 figs. Jan. 1942.
–Attacks Lydekker's (1892) idea of close relationship between sirs. and selenodont artiodactyls, noting that bunoselenodonty occurs in many groups.
x
 
Heuvelmans, Bernard (detail)
   
1943
Notes sur la dentition des Siréniens. V. Conclusions générales.
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 19(29): 1-16. May 1943.
–Comments on the evolution of the sir. dentition; concludes that sirs. are related to proboscideans and hippos.
Heyning, John E.: SEE Domning, D.P., 1994b. (detail)
 
 
Hiaasen, Carl; Leonard, Elmore; Barry, Dave; Buchanan, Edna; Hall, James W.; Standiford, Les; Levine, Paul; Hospital, Carolina; Due, Tananarive; Dufresne, John; Hendricks, Vicki; Antomi, Brian; Mayerson, Evelyn (detail)
   
1997
Naked came the manatee.
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons: 1-201.
–Rev.: People, Mar. 3, 1997: 35. Originally serialized in The Miami Herald Tropic Sunday magazine, 1995-96. Written by 13 authors (one chapter each) and set in south Florida, this is the first mystery novel to feature a manatee as a major character (he appears in each chapter and actually contributes to the action). The cover, title page, and chapter title pages, however, are unaccountably adorned with the silhouette of a dugong.
  The book was evidently inspired by Naked Came the Stranger, a 1969 literary spoof by Mike McGrady and a group of other journalists writing under the pen name "Penelope Ashe".
Hickie, John P.: SEE Worthy & Hickie, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Hieb, Elizabeth E.; Carmichael, Ruth Herrold; Aven, Allen; Nelson-Seely, Courtney; Taylor, Nicole (detail)
   
2017
Sighting demographics of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in the north-central Gulf of Mexico supported by citizen-sourced data.
Endangered Species Research 32(1): 321-332. 1 tab. 6 figs. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00817 Apr. 7, 2017 (publ. online Jan. 2017).
–ABSTRACT: Traditional research methods are often limited in their ability to capture broad spatial and temporal changes in species distribution that affect global patterns of biodiversity. To provide range-wide demographic data needed to quantify and evaluate changes in habitat use and support ongoing recovery efforts for the endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus, we analyzed data from a formal manatee sighting network that uses citizen-sourced data for the understudied north-central Gulf of Mexico region. Although historically considered to be outside manatees' typical US range, more than 1700 opportunistic, publicly reported manatee sightings and 23 mortalities have been documented in Alabama and Mississippi since the early 1900s. Live manatee sightings have occurred primarily during warmer months in rivers and subembayments. Manatee mortalities have significantly increased since the mid-1980s and have most often been attributed to cold stress, with 2 known mortalities due to vessel strikes in recent years. Sightings of individual manatees were most common, but group sizes of up to 17 were reported, typically in late summer. Decadal-scale trends in opportunistic sighting records demonstrate persistent spatial and temporal patterns of manatee occurrence in the north-central Gulf of Mexico and suggest greater use and importance of the region as seasonal manatee habitat than previously documented. If applied appropriately, citizen-sourced data have the potential to enhance targeted research efforts, significantly contribute to ecological datasets for a number of species, and provide a useful tool to enhance conservation and management.
 
 
Hieb, Elizabeth E.; Eniang, Edem A.; Keith-Diagne, Lucy W.; Carmichael, Ruth H. (detail)
   
2021
Impacts of in-water bridge construction on manatees and implications for other marine megafauna species.
Journal of Wildlife Management 85(4): 674-685. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.22030
–ABSTRACT: Globally, increasing coastal development requires construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure that affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Construction of bridges as part of transportation networks introduces a series of risks to aquatic species near construction zones. We reviewed relevant literature and obtained exemplary case studies to synthesize potential effects of bridge construction on the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), a nearshore megafauna species vulnerable to human activities. Stages of bridge construction including dredging, pile driving, and installation and assembly of bridge components each involve potential direct and indirect effects on manatees. Direct effects such as vessel interactions, entanglement or ingestion, and entrainment may result in acute physical injury or mortality. Indirect effects from construction such as habitat obstruction or degradation and increased noise from construction activities can alter behavior and intraspecies communication and reduce access to essential resources. Some effects of construction may be immediately diffcult to quantify, but cumulative effects through time can result in major habitat and species loss. To prevent large-scale negative effects of construction on manatees and other aquatic species, use and evaluation of itigation strategies should be implemented pre-, during, and post-construction. As the global human population increasingly occupies coastal zones, effective planning of coastal development, including bridge and other in-water construction, will be essential to support conservation and recovery efforts for manatees and other species at risk in these areas.
 
 
Higueras, M. D.; Martin-Meras, M. L. (detail)
   
1974
La historia de las islas e indios Visayas del Padre Alzina, 1668.
Madrid, Inst. Historico Marine.
Hikichi, K.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Hill, B. D.; Fraser, I. R.; Prior, H. C. (detail)
   
1997
Cryptosporidium infection in a dugong (Dugong dugon).
Austral. Vet. Jour. 75(9): 670-671. Sept. 1997.
Hill, Bruce D.: SEE Morgan et al., 2000. (detail)
Hill, C.: SEE Leatherwood et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Hill, D. Ashley; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1989
Gross and microscopic anatomy of the kidney of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Acta Anat. 135: 53-56. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Describes the structure of the kidney and concludes that the species may have an enhanced urine-concentrating ability.
Hill, J. E.: SEE ALSO Carter et al., 1945; Grubb et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Hill, J. E. (detail)
   
1958
Some observations on the fauna of the Maldive Islands. II. Mammals.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 55: 3-10.
 
 
Hill, John (detail)
   
1752
An history of animals. Containing descriptions of the birds, beasts, fishes, and insects, of the several parts of the world; and including accounts of the several classes of animalcules, visible only by the assistance of microscopes. In these the characters, qualities, and forms of the several creatures are described, the names by which they are commonly known, as well as those by which authors, who have written on the subject, have called them are explained: and each is reduced to the class to which it naturally belongs.
London, Thomas Osborne: 1-584. 28 pls.
–Allen 259. Describes Trichechus under Plagiuri, Cetaceous Fishes (317).
 
 
Hill, Kyle (detail)
   
1980
Mermaids in danger.
Florida Wildlife 34(1): 30-33. 5 figs. May-June 1980.
 
 
Hill, R.C.; Harshaw, L.T.; Scott, K.C.; Larkin, I.V. (detail)
   
2019
Quantitative survey of the diet of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) at facilities in Florida.
Aquatic Mammals ["accepted"]
Hill, Richard: SEE Gosse & Hill, 1851. (detail)
x
 
Hill, Robert T. (detail)
   
1898
Cuba and Porto Rico with the other islands of the West Indies: their topography, climate, flora, products, industries, cities, people, political conditions, etc.
New York, Century Co.: xxviii + 429. Illus.
–P. 56: {"The shallower waters of the borders [of Cuba] are inhabited also by that peculiar marine mammal, the manatee."}
  P. 199: {"The crocodile, the manatee, and the West Indian seal inhabit the adjacent sea borders [of Jamaica]."}
  P. 298: {"Crocodiles and manatees are also found near some of the shores [of the Bahamas]."}
 
 
Hill, W. C. Osman (detail)
   
1926
A comparative study of the pancreas.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1926: 581-631.
 
 
Hill, W. C. Osman (detail)
   
1938-39
Revised checklist of mammals of Ceylon.
Ceylon Jour. Sci. 21: 139-184.
–Dugong, 182.
 
 
Hill, W. C. Osman (detail)
   
1945
Notes on the dissection of two dugongs.
Jour. Mamm. 26(2): 153-175. 8 figs. "May 1945" (publ. July 13, 1945).
x
 
Hilmy, A. M.; El-Domiaty, N. A.; Said, M. (detail)
   
1979
Measurements of some physiological parameters in the herbivorous dugong and the carnivorous common dolphin of the Red Sea.
Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Fish. Cairo 6: 197-203. 1 tab. 6 figs. in 3 unnumbered pls.
–Arabic summ. Reports the red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit value, serum total proteins, protein fractions, serum total cholesterol, and potassium and sodium concentrations in blood of an adult male dugong.
 
 
Hilmy, I. S. (detail)
   
1949
New paramphistomes from the Red Sea dugong, Halicore halicore, with description of Solenorchis gen.n. and Solenorchinae subf.n.
Proc. Egypt. Acad. Sci. 4: 1-14. 7 figs. Read Feb. 1948.
–Describes parasites from dugong cecum.
 
 
Hilzheimer, Max (detail)
   
1913
Stammesgeschichte der Wirbelthiere.
Monatschr. Natw. Unterr. (n.s.) 6: 465-475, 512-523, 564-570. 18 figs.
–Sirs., 570.
 
 
Hilzheimer, Max (detail)
   
1915
Sirenen oder Seekühe. In: Brehm's Tierleben. Ed. 4.
Vol. 12: 580-590. 3 figs.
 
 
Hines, E. M. (compiler) (detail)
   
2012a
Dugongs in Asia. Chap. 7 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 58-76. 2 maps.
–Includes sections on Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Sri Lanka, and India.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M. (detail)
   
2002
Conservation of the dugong (Dugong dugon) along the Andaman coast of Thailand. In: P. Dearden (ed.), Environmental protection and rural development in Thailand: challenges and opportunities.
Bangkok, White Lotus Press: 155-180.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M. (detail)
   
2012b
A framework for sirenian conservation in developing countries. Chap. 28 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 246-253. 2 figs.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Adulyanukosol, K.; Duffus, D.; Dearden, P. (detail)
   
2005b
Community perspectives and conservation needs for dugongs (Dugong dugon) along the Andaman coast of Thailand.
Environmental Management 36(5): 654–664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-0287-8
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Duffus, David A. (detail)
   
2005a
Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance along the Andaman coast of Thailand.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 21(3): 536-549. 3 tabs. 5 figs. July 2005 (mailed June 20, 2005).
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Somany, Phay; Sam Ath, Leng; Cox, Nick; Boonyanate, Potchana; Hoa, Nguyen Xuan (detail)
   
2008
Conservation needs of the dugong Dugong dugon in Cambodia and Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam.
Oryx 42(1): 113-121. 2 tabs. 3 figs. 1 pl. Jan. 2008.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Marmontel, Miriam; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2012
The role of scientists in sirenian conservation in developing countries. Chap. 27 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 243-245.
 
 
Hines, Ellen M.; Reynolds, John E., III; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Marmontel, Miriam (eds.) (detail)
   
2012
Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida: xiv + 326. 28 tabs. 46 figs. 11 maps.
–Rev.: Quart. Rev. Biol. 89(3), Sept. 2014. The book comprises 28 chapters, listed in this bibliography by their authors.
Hinga, Kenneth R.: SEE Rountree et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Hinton, M. A. C. (detail)
   
1937
What are dugongs?
Loris 1(2): 82-84. Illus. June 1937.
 
 
Hintz, H. F.; Schryver, H. F.; Stevens, C. E. (detail)
   
1978
Digestion and absorption in the hind gut of nonruminant herbivores.
Jour. Anim. Sci. 46(6): 1803-1807. June 1978.
–Quotes data on Dugong from Murray et al. (1977).
x
 
Hinze, Chris; Palomo, Mindy (detail)
   
2000
Species Corner. Dugong (Dugong dugon) [by Hinze]. [and] Mermaid? [by Palomo]
Texas Stranding Newsletter, April 2000: 8. 1 fig.
–Brief pop. acc. of the species, in two parts.
Hiraoka, Toshio: SEE Abe et al., 1982. (detail)
x
 
Hirasaka, Kyosuke (detail)
   
1932
The occurrence of dugong in Formosa.
Mem. Fac. Sci. Agric. Taihoku Imper. Univ. (Zool.) 7(1): 1-4. 1 pl. Oct. 1932.
–Reports of dugongs from Formosa (with photograph of a skull and mandible), the Ryukyus, and Japan. The stomach of the Formosan specimen contained algae and crabs.
 
 
Hirasaka, Kyosuke (detail)
   
1933
Dugong. In: Rept. Survey Natl. Monuments. Animals. Part I.
Tokyo, Min. Educ.: 1-22.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Hirasaka, Kyosuke (detail)
   
1934
On the distribution of sirenians in the Pacific.
Proc. 5th Pacif. Sci. Congress (Victoria & Vancouver, Canada, 1933) 5: 4221-4222.
–Review of the status of the dugong in the Japanese Empire and Australasia.
 
 
Hirasaka, Kyosuke (detail)
   
1939
[Dugong dugon in Palau.]
Science of the South Sea (Kagaku Nanyo) 2(2): 11-18 (= 69-76 of whole vol.?). 3 figs. 2 pls.
–In Japanese.
Hirota, Kiyoharu: SEE ALSO Abe et al., 1982; Okubo et al., 1980. (detail)
 
D
Hirota, Kiyoharu (detail)
   
1979
A list of vertebrate fossils from Shimane Prefecture, Japan.
Fossil Club Bull. (= Jour. Fossil Research) 12: 21-27. 2 figs. 1 pl.
–In Japanese. Engl. transl., done for Smithsonian Inst. and Natl. Sci. Foundation: TT 81-52170, 20 pp., 1983. Lists the occurrence of molars of Desmostylus japonicus in the Upper Miocene Fujina Formation, quoting Sakai (1935).
 
D
Hirota, Kiyoharu (detail)
   
1981
[Problems on paleoparadoxian mandible (Paleoparadoxia tabatai).]
Fossil Club Bull. (= Jour. Fossil Research) 14: 9-15. 2 tabs. 7 figs.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Hirschfelder, Harry (detail)
   
1936
Das Primordialcranium von Manatus latirostris.
Zs. Anat. Entwicklungsges. 106(4): 497-533. 21 figs.
 
 
Hirst, E.; Bank, H. (detail)
   
1971
Striking the balance.
Environment (St. Louis) 13(9): 34-41.
Hla Aung, Sithu: SEE Aung, Sithu Hla. (detail)
Ho, Dao Tan: SEE Smith et al., 1995, 1997. (detail)
x
 
Ho, H. C.; Subaraj, R.; Yeo, S. L.; Yang, C. M. (detail)
   
1994
Mammals. In: P. K. L. Ng & Y. C. Wee (eds.), The Singapore Red Data Book: threatened plants and animals of Singapore.
Singapore, The Nature Society (343 pp.): 248-267, 336. Illus. June 1994.
–One-page gen. acc. of the dugong and its occurrence in Singapore (249, 1 fig.).
x
 
Ho, Hua Chew (detail)
   
1988
The dugong in Singapore waters.
Malayan Naturalist 42(1): 22-25. 1 fig. Aug. 1988.
–?Repr.: The Pangolin 1(1): 17-21, 1988 (see also Anon., 1988d). Somewhat inaccurate gen. acc. of dugongs, with a review of literature on their hunting, use, and strandings in the Singapore area, and data on recent dugong deaths and strandings.
 
 
Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Hender, Jay; Gilligan, Justin J. (detail)
   
2007
Long-distance oceanic movement of a solitary dugong (Dugong dugon) to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Aquatic Mammals 33(2): 175-178. 1 tab. 3 figs.
 
 
Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Willshaw, Karen. (detail)
   
2015
Unusual behavior and habitat use of a solitary male dugong inhabiting coral reefs at the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Marine Biodiversity 46(1):31-32. DOI:10.1007/s12526-015-0360-6. Published online July 02, 2015.
Hobbs, William: SEE Faithful, 1862; Lack, 1968; Thorne, 1876; Wight, 1862. (detail)
x
 
Hoch, Ella (detail)
   
1979
Reflections on prehistoric life at Umm an-Nar (Trucial Oman) based on faunal remains from the third millennium BC. In: M. Taddei (ed.), South Asian archaeology 1977. Papers from the Fourth International Conference of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, Naples 1979.
Naples, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Seminario di Studi Asiatici Series Minor 6: 589-638. 13 figs.
–Describes dugong remains from Umm an-Nar (591, 597-601, 604, 606, 634). Notes that the tusks were not utilized, nor, apparently, were dugongs venerated or depicted in art. Though dugongs and green turtles are the most abundant species at he site, it is thought that Umm an-Nar did not represent a "dugong-turtle hunting culture", because trade and not hunting/fishing was probably the main economic activity at the site.
x
 
Hoch, Ella (detail)
   
1995
Animal bones from the Umm an-Nar settlement. In: K. Frifelt, The island of Umm an-Nar. Volume 2. The Third Millennium settlement.
Jutland Archaeol. Soc. Publs. (Aarhus) 26(2): 249-256. 2 pls.
–Supplements Hoch (1979) with a gen. acc. of sirs. and a description of four additional dugong bone fragments from Umm an-Nar (249-251, 254-255).
 
 
Hodgson, Amanda J. (detail)
   
2011
Marine Mammals. Chap. 8 in: Ronald A. Loughland & Khaled A. Al-Abdulkader (eds.), Marine Atlas. Western Arabian Gulf.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, A Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Publication, 242-263. ISBN: 978-0-9776600-8-7.
–Dugongs, 250-251.
 
 
Hodgson, Amanda J.; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David (detail)
   
2013
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: A dugong case study.
PLoS ONE 8(11): e79556. 15 pp. 5 figs. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079556. Nov. 4, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, was affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.
 
 
Hodgson, Amanda J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2007
Response of dugongs to boat traffic: the risk of disturbance and displacement.
Jour. Exper. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 340(1): 50-61.
 
 
Hodgson, Amanda J.; Marsh, Helene D.; Delean, S.; Marcus, L. (detail)
   
2007
Is attempting to change marine mammal behaviour a generic solution to the bycatch problem? A dugong case study.
Animal Conservation 10(2): 263-273.
 
 
Hodgson, Robert (detail)
   
1822
Some account of the Mosquito territory; contained in a memoir, written in 1757.... published from the original manuscript of the late Colonel Robert Hodgson.... Ed. 2.
Edinburgh, W. Blackwood: ix, [11]-55.
 
 
Hoenstine, Ron (detail)
   
1980
Manatees from the past - fossils found in Florida.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. of Natural Resources) 15(6): 16-17. 4 figs. + cover photo. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1. Pop. acc. of fossil sirs. of Florida and the Caribbean.
 
 
Hoernes, Rudolf (detail)
   
1884
Elemente der Palaeontologie (Palaeozoologie).
Leipzig, Veit & Co.: xvi + 594. 672 figs.
–French transl. by L. Dollo (Manuel de Paléontologie), Paris: xvi + 741, 1886. Sirs., 682 (French ed.).
 
 
Hofbauer, Clemens (detail)
   
1962
Seekühe lockten Odysseus vergeblich.
Das Tier 2(8): 12-15.
 
 
Hofbauer, Clemens (detail)
   
1964
Sea cows, the sirens of the Odyssey?
Animals 4(8): 220-223.
Hofer, Helmut: SEE Thenius & Hofer, 1960. (detail)
Hoffman, C. A., Jr.: SEE Wing et al., 1968. (detail)
Hoffmann, Robert S.: SEE Hoffmann Domning, Rice et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
Hoffmann, Robert S.; Domning, Daryl Paul (eds.) (detail)
   
1998
Order of sea cows, or sirenians. In: R. S. Hoffmann (scientific ed.), Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 1a. Sirenia and Carnivora (sea cows; wolves and bears) by V. G. Heptner et al.
Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Inst. Libraries & National Science Foundation (xxii + 733 pp.): 3-49. 10 figs. 1 pl. Dec. 1998.
–Engl. transl. of Heptner & Naumov (eds.), 1967. Domning co-edited the sirenian chapter and provided some of the footnotes. The original sirenian chapter was written entirely by Heptner, and includes lengthy quotations from Steller (1751, 1753), translated into Russian by Heptner and here re-translated into English.
x
 
Hoffmann, T. W. (detail)
   
1971
The Fauna & Flora Protection Ordinance as amended by Act No. 1 of 1970.
Loris 12(3): 169-170, 182. June 1971.
–Notes that "the Dugong (Mudu Ura)" has been added to the list of animals absolutely protected from hunting in Ceylon (182).
Hoffstetter, Robert: SEE ALSO Marshall et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Hoffstetter, Robert (detail)
   
1981
Historia biogeographica de los mamiferos terrestres sudamericanos: problemas y ensenanzas.
Acta Geol. Hisp. 16(1-2): 71-88. Figs.
–Engl. & Catalan summs.
Hofman, George: SEE Minch et al., 1970. (detail)
Hofmann, A. F.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Hofmeister, Max (detail)
   
1963
A manatee experience.
Drum & Croaker, June 1, 1963: 12.
–Account of the captivity in the Toledo (Ohio) Zoo Aquarium of a "South American freshwater manatee" from Georgetown, British Guiana [probably T. manatus], Apr.-Sept. 1960. He shared a tank with a paddlefish and ate lettuce, spinach, and celery; suffered from "very loose bowels" near the end of his captivity and finally died. Death was attributed to "edema and other complications probably due to ... resting in a bent attitude with head and tail downward, resulting in skin folds blocking the urogenital opening"; but this is a normal attitude for wild manatees. Also, "severe rope lacerations ... responded slowly to Acriflavin treatment."
 
 
Hogben, Lancelot T. (detail)
   
1919
The progressive reduction of the jugal in the Mammalia.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1919(1-2): 71-78. Sept. 29, 1919.
–Sirs., 76.
 
 
Hojo, Teruyuki (detail)
   
1976
Anatomical identification and anthropological consideration of a humerus of the dugong (Dugong dugon) unearthed from Urasoe Shellmound Okinawa Island.
Jour. Anthrop. Soc. Nippon (Jinruigaku Zasshi) 84(2): 139-146. 1 fig. June 1976.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
x
 
Holden, Constance (detail)
   
1996
Manatee killer revealed.
Science 273(5272): 191. 1 fig. July 12, 1996.
–Brief announcement that the spring 1996 manatee die-off in southwest Florida has been attributed to red tide.
x
 
Holder, Charles Frederick (detail)
   
1893
The California Academy of Sciences.
Californian Illus. Mag. 3(2): 229-244. 14 figs. Jan. 1893.
–P. 236: {"The skeleton that attracts most attention [in the Academy's collection] is that of the great sea-cow, or Rhytina, that was discovered by Steller on our northwest coast. There are but two or three good skeletons known, this being one of the best."} This skeleton was destroyed in the San Francisco earthquake and fire in 1906. See also L. Stejneger (1893).
 
 
Holguin-Medina, Victoria Eugenia; Fontenele-Araujo, John; Romero, Víctor Manuel Alcaraz; Cortes, Jose Francisco; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo (detail)
   
2015
Circadian and ultradian activity rhythms in manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in captivity.
Biological Rhythm Research 46(5): 631-645. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI:10.1080/09291016.2015.1046244. Published online May 13, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: In this study, we show temporal organization of activity patterns in larger temporal series recording. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal pattern of the rest-activity rhythm in manatee (T. manatus manatus) in captivity. Activity recordings were programmed from August (2010) to September (2011) with actimetry devices, and behavior recordings were conducted in dry and rainy seasons. We showed that the marine manatee presents a complex temporal organization, in which the activity-rest rhythm comprises several frequencies with a predominant circadian component and multiple ultradian components. Our results indicate that the animals were more active during the day with respect to the night. The temporal organization of this cycle entails multiple frequencies that include ultradian rhythms, which may be expressions generated by physiological needs, like a food availability and thermoregulatory requirements. These patterns should be taken into consideration for future studies of biological rhythms in manatee.
 
 
Holl, Friedrich (detail)
   
1829
Handbuch der Petrefaktenkunde.... Erstes Bändchen.
Dresden, P. G. Hilscher'sche Buchhandlung (Allgemeine Taschenbibliothek der Naturwissenschaften, 9. Theil): viii + 115.
–Allen 726. In four "Bändchen", paged consecutively (pp. 1-489), the last two dated 1830. Hippopotamus intermedius [= Metaxytherium medium], 57; H. dubius or minimus [= Protosiren minima], 58; Manatus fossilis [= Metaxytherium medium], 69.
x
 
Holland, W. J. (detail)
   
1917
The mammals of the Isle of Pines.
Ann. Carnegie Mus. 11(3/4): 356-358. Nov. 5, 1917.
–P. 356: {"Order SIRENIA (Sea-cows). Family MANATIDAE Gray. Genus Manatus Brünnich. 1. Manatus manatus (Linnaeus). The manatee is known to occur in the lagoons about Siguanea Bay [Cuba]. An effort to secure a license to take a specimen for the Museum was made by Mr. Link, but was unsuccessful."}
 
 
Holley, David K.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Gales, Nicholas J. (detail)
   
2006
Summer survey of dugong distribution and abundance in Shark Bay reveals additional key habitat areas.
Wildlife Research 33(3): 243-250.
 
 
Hollister, N. (detail)
   
1912
A list of the mammals of the Philippine Islands, exclusive of the Cetacea.
Philippine Jour. Sci. 7D(1): 1-64. Feb. 1912.
–Dugong, 3, 45-46.
 
 
Holme, T. K. (detail)
   
1956
[title?]
Jour.[?] Malayan Angling Assoc. 4(1): 26. June 1956.
–Report of a three-foot-long dugong at Port Dickson, Malaya.
x
 
Holton, Isaac F. (detail)
   
1857
New Granada: twenty months in the Andes.
New York, Harper & Bros.: 1-605.
–P. 46: {"Next comes a pond that I suspect is brackish, La Laguna de Tesca. Your peon will tell you strange stories of the viviparous fish - manati - with women's breasts, found there. It is the Manatus Americanus, a mammal. This is Herndon's cow-fish, a staple article of food on the Amazon, but not often caught here [near Cartagena, Colombia]. No wonder that its meat is not like fish, for it is no more a fish than a seal or a whale is."}
Home, Everard: SEE ALSO Raffles, T.S., 1820. (detail)
x
 
Home, Everard (detail)
   
1820a
On the milk tusks, and organ of hearing of the dugong.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 110(2)(Art. 9): 144-155. Pls. 12-14. Read Apr. 13, 1820.
–Allen 589. Discusses replacement of the tusks (146-149, 153, pls. 12-14) and the ear apparatus (149-153); describes a specimen with two vestigial lower incisors (153-154, pl. 14). "The plates give profile and basilar views of the skull, section of the tusk, milk dentition, lower jaw, incisors, and section of molars" (Allen).
x
 
Home, Everard (detail)
   
1820b
Particulars respecting the anatomy of the dugong, intended as a supplement to Sir T. S. Raffles' account of that animal.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 110(2)(Art. 20): 315-323. Pls. 25-31. Read June 29, 1820.
–Allen 590. Describes the teeth, skeletons, and internal organs of a male and a female dugong sent by Raffles. The plates show the entire (female) animal, the stomach, tongue, cecum, heart, part of the trachea and lungs, sexual organs, sternum, and pelvic bones. The fig. of the entire animal is reproduced by Desmoulins (1824: pl. 141) and Durand (1983: 198-199).
x
 
Home, Everard (detail)
   
1821a
An account of the skeletons of the dugong, two-horned rhinoceros, and tapir of Sumatra, sent to England by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor of Bencoolen.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 111(2)(Art. 18): 268-275. Pls. 20-24. Read Mar. 22, 1821.
–Allen 602. Notes that the arrangement of the lungs and skeleton of the dugong result in its passively maintaining a horizontal posture (268-270); illustrates the skeleton of a female (pl. 20).
x
 
Home, Everard (detail)
   
1821b
On the peculiarities that distinguish the manatee of the West Indies from the dugong of the East Indian seas.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 111(2)(Art. 26): 390-391. Pls. 26-29. Read July 12, 1821.
–German ?transl.: Froriep's Notizen 2: 260-261, June 1822 (Allen 614). Comments on the anatomy of the manatee in comparison with the dugong; the plates show a female Jamaican manatee, its skeleton, stomach, and cecum. The fig. of the entire animal is reproduced by Durand (1983: 182-183), who calls it "la primera figura exacta" of a manatee.
 
 
Home, Everard (detail)
   
1823
Lectures on comparative anatomy; in which are explained the preparations in the Hunterian Collection. Illustrated by engravings. To which is subjoined, Synopsis systematis regni animalis, nunc primum ex ovi modificationibus propositi.... Vol. III [-IV].
London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown (entire work: 6 vols., 1814-28): Vol. 3 (text): xvii + 586; Vol. 4 (plates): i-viii, 171 pls.
–Allen 627. The plates of sirs. (pls. 21-27, 50-56, 116) all first appeared in Home (1820a, b; 1821a, b).
Homer, B. L.: SEE Reep et al., 2001. (detail)
 
D
Honda, A. (detail)
   
1927
On the "Desmostylus".
Jour. of Zoology of Japan 39: 435.
–Regards Desmostylus as a monotreme.
Honda, Katsuhisa: SEE Miyazaki et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Hooijer, Dirk Albert (detail)
   
1952
Fact and fiction in hippopotamology (sampling the history of scientific error).
Osiris 10: 109-116.
–Reviews the nomenclatural history of "Hippopotamus minimus" and "Hippopotamus medius", noting that the first is a senior synonym of H. dubius. Corrects the name of Protosiren(?) dubia to P.(?) minima, new combination (113-114).
x
 
Hooijer, Dirk Albert (detail)
   
1977
A sirenian skeleton from the Miocene of Eibergen, Province of Gelderland, The Netherlands: Metaxytherium cf. medium (Desmarest).
Scripta Geol. 41: 1-25. 6 pls.
–Describes and compares a partial skeleton of Middle-Late Miocene (Langenfeldian-Badenian?) age in the Leiden Museum.
x
 
Hooijer, Dirk Albert (detail)
   
1982
A sirenian rib dredged from the Western Scheldt, The Netherlands.
Netherlands Jour. Zool. 32(2): 261-262. Pl. 1.
–Describes the distal portion of a rib, of unknown age but resembling those of Metaxytherium cf. medium from the Miocene of Eibergen (see Hooijer, 1977).
x
D
Hooijer, Dirk Albert (detail)
   
1984
The solution of the Cryptomastodon problem.
Netherlands Jour. Zool. 34(2): 228-231. 1 fig.
–Shows that the supposed desmostylian Cryptomastodon martini v. Koenigswald, 1933 was based on material of Stegodon (Proboscidea) and Geochelone (Chelonia).
 
 
Hooker, Sascha K.; Gerber, Leah R. (detail)
   
2004
Marine reserves as a tool for ecosystem-based management: the potential importance of megafauna.
BioScience 54(1): 27-? Jan. 2004.
–Lists HG as extinct, and TI, TS, and TM as "of significant concern" (30).
 
 
Hope Vale Aboriginal Community (detail)
   
1999
A guugu yimithirr bama wii - girrbithi and ngawiya - a turtle and dugong hunting management plan.
Hope Vale (Australia), Hope Vale Aboriginal Community.
 
 
Hopewell-Smith, Arthur (detail)
   
1913
An introduction to dental anatomy and physiology, descriptive and applied.
London, J. & A. Churchill: xx + 372. Frontisp. 334 figs. 5 pls.
Hopkins, David M.: SEE ALSO MacNeil et al., 1961. (detail)
 
 
Hopkins, David M. (detail)
   
1967
The Cenozoic history of Beringia - a synthesis. In: D. M. Hopkins (ed.), The Bering Land Bridge.
Stanford Univ. Press: 451-484. 4 figs.
–Sirs., 479. See also W.S. Laughlin (1967) and V.B. Scheffer (1967).
Hopkins, Thomas D.: SEE Odell et al., 1995. (detail)
Hoppe, Kathryn A.: SEE Clementz et al., 2003. (detail)
x
 
Hopwood, A. Tindell (detail)
   
1927
Sirens in fancy and in fact.
Nat. Hist. Mag. (London) 1(1): 17-21. 3 figs. Jan. 1927.
–Pop. acc. of fossil and Recent sirs. and the mermaid legend. Notes the existence of a partial skeleton of Metaxytherium from Ragusa, Sicily, in the British Museum.
 
 
Horgan, Patrick; Booth, David; Nichols, Cassandra; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2014
Insulative capacity of the integument of the dugong (Dugong dugon): thermal conductivity, conductance and resistance measured by in vitro heat flux.
Marine Biology 161(6): 1395-1407. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-014-2428-4. April 1, 2014.
–For comments, see Owen et al. (2015) and Lanyon et al. (2015.
  ABSTRACT: Extant sirenians are restricted to warm waters, presumably due to their low metabolism and poor thermoregulatory capacity, including thin blubber. When subjected to winter waters, Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) migrate to warm areas, but dugongs (Dugong dugon) do not and instead live year-round in winter waters as cool as 15–18 °C. Dugongs appear to be more active than manatees and may have higher metabolic rates, but little is known about thermal energetics or the insulative properties of their integument. This study investigated the physical and thermal properties of whole samples of dugong integument, i.e. epidermis, dermis and hypodermis (blubber) sampled from fresh dugong carcasses collected from 2004 to 2012 in Moreton Bay (27.21°S, 153.25°E). Physico-chemical properties (thickness, density and lipid content) of each component tissue layer were measured. Thermal conductance (C) and conductivity (k) were measured for each tissue layer through in vitro temperature flux experiments within an insulated chamber. C and k were higher for dermis (25.7 ± 1.2 W m?2 K?1, 0.43 ± 0.02 W m?1 K?1, respectively, n = 21) than blubber (24.3 ± 2.4 W m?2 K?1, 0.31 ± 0.01 W m?1 K?1, n = 21), suggesting that blubber, with higher density and lipid content, affords better insulation. However, because the dermis contributes 65 % of integumentary thickness, both layers contribute significantly to insulation. The integument of dugongs is a poorer insulator compared to many cold-water marine mammals, but the greater thickness of its dermal layer means that despite its relatively thin blubber, its integumentary insulation is similar to warm-water dolphins of similar body size.
Horikawa, Hideo: SEE ALSO Kobayashi et al., 1988, 1995; Miyazaki et al., 1988. (detail)
 
D
Horikawa, Hideo; Kobayashi, Iwao; Takahashi, Keiichi (detail)
   
1987
[Marine mammal fossils from Niigata Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 18-20. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Horikoshi-Beckett, C.; Schulte, B. A. (detail)
   
2006
Activity patterns and spatial use of facility by a group of captive female manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Zoo Biology 25(4): 285-301.
 
 
Horn, Gabriel (detail)
   
1989
Steller's sea cow.
New York, Crestwood House (Gone Forever series): 1-48. Illus.
–Children's book, with numerous underwater photos of Florida manatees.
 
 
Hornaday, W. T. (detail)
   
1895
Manatee, tapir, and peccary.
St. Nicholas 22: 1038. Oct. 1895.
Horning, M.: SEE Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Horsfield, Thomas (detail)
   
1851
A catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum of the Hon. East-India Company.
London, W. H. Allen & Co.: vi + 212.
–Lists a skull of Halicore dugung from Siam (139).
Hoshita, Takahiko: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988; Yoshii et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Hoson, Osamu; Kawada, Shin-ichiro; Oda, Sen-ichi (detail)
   
2012
Ossification patterns of basicranial sutures in manatees, genus Trichechus.
Mammal Study 37(3): 213-225. 6 figs. 1 appendix table.
Hospital, Carolina: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Hostetler, J. A.; Edwards, H. H.; Martin, J.; Schueller, P. (detail)
   
2018
Updated statewide abundance estimates for the Florida manatee.
Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish & Wildlife Research Institute, Technical Report No. 23. 1-23.
 
 
Hotta, Akemi (detail)
   
1998
Manatee.
San Francisco, Chronicle Books: 1-96. Illus.
–First publ. by Shichiken Publ. Co., Ltd., Japan, 1996. Album of color photos of Florida manatees by Rei Ohara, with brief text by Hotta.
 
 
Houhoulis, Paula (detail)
   
1990
Excerpts from [a senior thesis entitled] Applications of the Geographic Information System to manatees (Trichechus manatus) in West Tampa Bay, Florida. In: J. E. Reynolds, III & K. D. Haddad (eds.), Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 54-57. Dec. 1990.
 
 
Houk, Randy (detail)
   
1997
Chessie, the travelin' man.
Fairfield (Connecticut), The Benefactory, Inc., for the Humane Society of the United States (Animal Tales series): 1-32. Illus.
–Available with audio cassette tape featuring narration and music by Tom Chapin. Also published by Reader's Digest Young Families, Inc., Westport, Connecticut (1997?). Children's story, in verse form, of the travels of Florida manatee "Chessie" up and down the U.S. Atlantic Coast in 1994 and 1995.
House, Carol: SEE Duignan et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Houssaye, Alexandra (detail)
   
2009
"Pachyostosis" in aquatic amniotes: a review.
Integrative Zoology 4: 325-340. 1 tab. 1 fig.
 
D
Houssaye, Alexandra; Waskow, Katja; Hayashi, Shoji; Cornette, Raphaël; Lee, Andrew H.; Hutchinson, John R. (detail)
   
2015
Biomechanical evolution of solid bones in large animals: a microanatomical investigation.
Biol. Jour. Linn. Soc. 117(2): 350-371. 6 tabs. 7 figs. DOI:10.111/bij.12660 Feb. 2016 (publ. online Sept. 8, 2015).
–Graviportal taxa show an allometric increase of the cross-sectional area of supportive bones and are assumed to display microanatomical changes associated with an increase in bone mass. This evokes osteosclerosis (i.e. an increase in bone compactness observed in some aquatic amniotes). The present study investigates the changes in bones' microanatomical organization associated with graviportality and how comparable they are with aquatically acquired osteosclerosis aiming to better understand the adaptation of bone to the different associated functional requirements. Bones of graviportal taxa show microanatomical changes that are not solely attributable to allometry. They display a thicker cortex and a proportionally smaller medullary cavity, with a wider transition zone between these domains. This inner cancellous structure may enable to better enhance energy absorption and marrow support. Moreover, the cross-sectional geometric parameters indicate increased resistance to stresses engendered by bending and torsion, as well as compression. Adaptation to a graviportal posture should be taken into consideration when analyzing possibly amphibious taxa with a terrestrial-like morphology. This is particularly important for palaeoecological inferences about large extinct tetrapods that might have been amphibious and, more generally, for the study of early stages of adaptation to an aquatic life in amniotes.
 
 
Houttuyn, Martin (detail)
   
1761-73
Natuurlyke Historie, of uitvoerige Beschryving der Dieren, Planten en Mineraalen, volgens het Samenstel van den Heer Linnaeus.... Deel 1. Dieren.
Amsterdam, F. Houttuyn (in 18 parts, 1761-73).
–Allen 283. Manati, 1: 462.
Howard, Hildegarde: SEE ALSO Barnes et al., 1981. (detail)
 
D
Howard, Hildegarde (detail)
   
1966
A possible ancestor of the Lucas auk (Family Mancallidae) from the Tertiary of Orange County, California.
Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. No. 101: 1-8.
Howard, James D.: SEE Frey et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Howell, Alfred Brazier (detail)
   
1930
Aquatic mammals: their adaptations to life in the water.
Springfield (Ill.) & Baltimore, Charles C Thomas; London, Bailliere, Tindall, & Cox: xii + 338. 54 figs.
–Rev.: Jour. Anat. 65: 280-281. Repr.: Dover Publ. Co., 1970.
 
 
Howell, John H. (detail)
   
1968
The Borgu Game Reserve of northern Nigeria: Part 2.
Nigerian Field 33(4): 147-165. 1 tab. 5 pls. Oct. 1968.
–Discusses the occurrence, natural history, and hunting of T. senegalensis in the Doro River Forest Reserve, which is to be added to the Borgu Game Reserve (150-151, 165).
 
 
Howell, K.M. (detail)
   
1988
The conservation of marine mammals and turtles in Tanzania. In: Mainoya, J.R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Ecology and Bioproductivity of Marine Coastal Waters of Eastern Africa, Dar es Salaam 18-20 January 1988.
Faculty of Science, Univ. of Dar es Salaam: 154-161.
x
 
Howes, C. A.; Bamber, M. (detail)
   
1970
Rarities in a museum.
Oryx 10(5): 326-328. Sept. 1970.
–Lists Dugong specimens from Kenya and Ceylon in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter, England (327).
 
 
Howes, G. B. (detail)
   
1893
On the coracoid of the terrestrial Vertebrata.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1893(3): 585-592. 2 figs. Oct. 1893.
–Sirs., 572 (?).
x
 
Howes, G. B.; Harrison, J. (detail)
   
1893
On the skeleton and teeth of the Australian dugong.
Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 62nd Meeting (Edinburgh, 1892): 790.
–Observations on vertebral epiphyses, phalanges, and dentition in the dugong; compares the dugong with the manatee, Halitherium, Metaxytherium, and Cetacea.
x
 
Hoyt, Erich (detail)
   
1995
One last song for the sirenian: the brief "return" of the Steller's sea cow.
Nature Canada 24(1): 60-61. 2 figs. Winter 1995.
–Pop. acc. of H. gigas and a supposed sighting that proved to be a gray whale.
Hoz-Zavala, Ma. Elia: SEE Colmenero-Rolón & Hoz-Zavala, 1986. (detail)
Huber, G. C.: SEE Kappers et al., 1960. (detail)
 
 
Hucke, K.; Voigt, E. (detail)
   
1929
Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fauna des norddeutschen Septarientones.
Zs. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. 81: 159-168. 2 pls.
Hudson, Brydget E. T.: SEE ALSO Blair & Hudson, 1992; Chambers et al., 1989; Johnstone & Hudson, 1980, 1981; Ligon & Hudson, 1977; Maynes & Hudson, 1981; Ober & Hudson, 1988?. (detail)
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1977a
The dugong Dugong dugon (Müller 1776) in Papua New Guinea: a programme for conservation, management and public education.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 77/14: iv + 41 + 9 pp. between pp. 29 & 30 + 11 pp. between pp. 35 & 36. 8 figs.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1977b
Dugong: distribution, hunting, protective legislation and cultural significance in Papua New Guinea.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 77/16: 1-22. 21 figs.
–Results of two mail surveys to determine dugong distribution, hunting areas, hunting methods, population dynamics, needed conservation measures, and cultural significance in PNG. Includes a selection of dugong legends.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1978
Papua New Guinea's national animals.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 78/2: [1-14]. 33 figs.
–A collection of articles that first appeared in New Nation. Includes brief pop. acc. and figure of dugong, 12-13.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1979
Dugong conservation, management and public education programme in Papua New Guinea.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 79/1: 38-42. 4 figs.
–Repr. from B.E.T. Hudson (ed.), Wildlife in Papua New Guinea: wildlife conservation & management in Papua New Guinea. Proc. South Pacif. Commission Workshop on Environmental Planning & Assessment, 26-28 Jan. & 18-28 Feb. 1978. Konedobu (PNG), Wildlife Division, Dept. of Lands & Environment, 1978.
x
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1980a
Dugong conservation management and public education programme report 1978-1980, and action plan 1980-1982.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 80/8: 1-102. 65 figs.
–Detailed report on dugong-related activities in PNG, with extensive appendices including posters, public-education aids, questionnaires, and other documents.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1980b
Aerial surveying of dugongs and other marine resources.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 80/14.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1980c
Dugongs in Papua New Guinea: West New Britain. Background information, aerial surveys, a village patrol, recommendations.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 80/15: 1-22. 14 figs.
–Published May 1981?
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1980d
Dugongs in Papua New Guinea: Manus Province.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 80/16.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1980e
Dugong myth and management in Papua New Guinea. In: L. Morauta, J. Pernetta & W. Heaney (eds.), Traditional conservation in Papua New Guinea: implications for today.
Boroko (Papua New Guinea), Institute of Applied Social & Economic Research, Monogr. 16: 311-315.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1981a
Interview and aerial survey data in relation to resource management of the dugong in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 31(3): 662-672. 1 tab. 7 figs. 1 pl. July 1981.
–?Abstr.: Internatl. Symp. Biol. Manage. Mangroves Trop. Shallow Water Communs. 2: 30-31, 1980?
x
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1981b
The dugong conservation, management and public education programme in Papua New Guinea: working with people to conserve their dugong resources. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 123-141. 5 figs.
–Describes the program's history and aims, its present scope, and the educational and research methods used. Also includes as appendices sample carcass and aerial survey data sheets (388-398).
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1983
Dugongs of the northern Torres Strait: aerial surveys, observations during a tagging project, catch statistics, with recommendations for conservation and management. [Abstr.]
Proc. Pacif. Sci. Congress 15(1-2): 108.
x
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1984
So long, dugong.
BBC Wildlife 2(6): 298-301. 5 figs. June 1984.
–Pop. acc. of the linkage between the decline of dugongs and cultural change among the Kiwai of Papua New Guinea.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1986a
The hunting of dugong at Daru, Papua New Guinea, during 1978-1982: community management and education initiatives. In: A. K. Haines, G. C. Williams & D. Coates (eds.), Torres Strait Fisheries Seminar, Port Moresby, 11-14 February 1985.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (vii + 344): 77-94. 5 figs.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1986b
Dugongs and people.
Oceanus 29(2): 100-106. 8 figs. Summer 1986.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1986c
Dugongs - traditional harvesting and conservation. In: S. Burgin (ed.), Endangered species: social, scientific, economic and legal aspects ....
Sydney, Total Environment Centre: 188-205.
 
 
Hudson, Brydget E. T.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986
Present and future value of data concerning the Torres Strait area accumulated by the Australian Coastal Surveillance Centre. In: A. K. Haines, G. C. Williams, & D. Coates (eds.), Torres Strait Fisheries Seminar, Port Moresby, 11-14 February 1985.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (vii + 344): 316-334. 6 tabs. 7 figs.
 
 
Huerta, Jerónimo Gómez de (detail)
   
1624
Historia natural de Cayo Plinio Secundo....
Madrid: 434 leaves.
–Manatee material based on Gómara, fol. 230 recto, fol. 432 ff.; reprinted by Durand (1983: 148-149). According to Durand, Huerta here coined the term "manato", an inadvertent combination of the proper name "Mato" with "manatí" that was quoted by several later authors.
 
 
Hughes, Claire D. (detail)
   
1993
The manatee: rescue at sea.
Sky Magazine (Delta Air Lines) 22(3): 74-83. 14 figs. Mar. 1993.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and their conservation.
 
 
Hughes, George R. (detail)
   
1969
Dugong status survey in Mozambique.
World Wildlife Yearbook (World Wildlife Fund) 1969: 137-139.
 
 
Hughes, George R. (detail)
   
1971
Preliminary report on the sea turtles and dugongs of Moçambique. [Referência preliminar às tartarugas marítimas e dugongues de Moçambique.]
Veterin. Moçambique (Lourenço Marques) 4(2): 45-62. 4 figs.
–Based on interviews with fishermen, discusses past and present dugong distribution in Mozambique and in the Maputa River, the need for enforcement of existing protective laws, and the need for sanctuaries (58-62).
x
 
Hughes, George R.; Oxley-Oxland, R. (detail)
   
1971
A survey of dugong (Dugong dugon) in and around Antonio Enes, northern Moçambique.
Biol. Conserv. 3(4): 299-301. 3 figs. July 1971.
–Reports the results of a brief aerial survey (27 dugongs sighted) and an interview with a fisherman, together with measurements of one dugong. Comments on dugong habits and the construction and use of dugong nets; concludes that there is a substantial dugong population in the area and that hunting pressure is slight. The survey result was also mentioned by Hughes in South Afr. Assoc. Mar. Biol. Res. Bull. No. 9: 43, 1971.
x
D
Hulbert, Richard C., Jr. (detail)
   
1992
A checklist of the fossil vertebrates of Florida.
Papers in Florida Paleontology No. 6: 1-35. 1 tab. May 1992.
–Lists the fossil sirs. Protosiren sp., Crenatosiren olseni, Dioplotherium manigaulti, Corystosiren varguezi, "Hesperosiren" crataegensis, Metaxytherium calvertense, M. floridanum, Trichechus sp., and T. manatus from Florida. Considers the presence of desmostylians in Florida "extremely doubtful" (28-29, 33).
x
 
Hulbert, Richard C., Jr.; Morgan, Gary Scott (detail)
   
1989
Stratigraphy, paleoecology, and vertebrate fauna of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, Early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) of southwestern Florida.
Papers in Florida Paleontology No. 2: 1-19. 3 tabs. 5 figs. July 1989.
–Lists T. manatus in the faunal lists from Leisey Sites 1A, 3A, and 3B, Hillsborough County, Florida (11).
x
 
Hulbert, Richard C., Jr.; Pratt, Ann E. (detail)
   
1998
New Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate faunas from coastal Georgia.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 18(2): 412-429. 7 tabs. 5 figs. June 15, 1998.
–Lists "the dugong Metaxytherium" among pre-Pleistocene taxa collected at the Porters Pit Site, Chatham County, Georgia (m415). The elements recovered are not specified, and the geological age of the fossils is uncertain.
 
D
Hulbert, Richard C., Jr.; Reinhart, Roy Herbert; Morgan, Gary Scott; Pratt, Ann E. (detail)
   
2001
Sirenians. Chap. 16 in: R. C. Hulbert, Jr. (ed.), The fossil vertebrates of Florida.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xv + 350 pp.): 322-330. 9 figs.
–Reviews the fossil sirs. reported from the state. A checklist of fossil sirs. of Florida appears on pp. 69-70, with a note on p. 73. The reported desmostylian occurrences in Florida are discounted (326, 330).
 
 
Humboldt, Alexander von (detail)
   
1819
Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, par Al. de Humboldt et A. Bonpland.... Tome second.
Paris, N. Maze (entire work: 3 vols., 1814-25): Vol. 2: 1-722.
–Allen 579. Engl. eds., 1819, 1852-53. German ed., Stuttgart, J. G. Cotta (4 vols.), 1859-60. Manati, 2: 226-228, 606; in 1819 London ed., 4: 447-450; in Stuttgart ed., 3: 44-46, 4: 162-163, 284-285, 293. Durand (1983: 74-75, 97) quotes the manatee passages from a Spanish ed.
 
 
Humboldt, Alexander von (detail)
   
1826
Essai politique sur l'isle de Cuba.... Tome II.
Paris, Gide Fils: 1-408.
–Discusses manatees at freshwater springs in the Bahia de Jagua (18-19).
x
 
Humboldt, Alexander von (detail)
   
1838
Über den Manati des Orinoko.
Wiegmann's Arch. Naturgesch. 4(1): 1-10. Pls. 1-2.
–Allen 935. Transl. from French and annotated by A. F. A. Wiegmann. Describes the distribution, measurements, external and internal anatomy (especially of the mouth region), food, habits, hunting, and use of products of Orinoco manatees. The plates give overall views of the animal and of the interior of the mouth, and a schematic longitudinal section of the body, showing the horizontal diaphragm. See also A.F.A. Wiegmann (1838).
x
 
Humes, Arthur G. (detail)
   
1964
Harpacticus pulex, a new species of copepod from the skin of a porpoise and a manatee in Florida.
Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf & Caribbean 14(4): 517-528. 32 figs. Dec. 1964.
–Spanish summ. Describes an ectoparasite from specimens of Tursiops truncatus and Trichechus manatus latirostris held in the Miami Seaquarium.
Humphrey, Stephen R.: SEE Marmontel et al., 1990, 1996, 1997. (detail)
x
 
Humphreys, John (detail)
   
1908
The teeth of fossil fishes.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., Odont. Sect. 1(3): 7-16. 1 pl.
–P. 8: {"In Edentates we find the teeth of the sloths are formed of a dentine permeated by vascular canals, hence termed vaso-dentine. The megatherium, the gigantic extinct sloth of South America, exhibits this variety very clearly, in which the dentine and the cementum also were rich in looped blood-vessels which traversed the structures.
  "The teeth of the manatee possess similar characteristics...."}
 
 
Hunger, Richard; Magalowski, G. (detail)
   
1957
Mitteilung über neue, umfangreiche Sirenierfunde aus dem marinen Mitteloligozän Mitteldeutschlands.
Geologie 6: 837-841. 1 tab. 4 figs.
Hunnam, Peter: SEE Baldwin & Hunnam, 1987. (detail)
x
 
Hunt, Archibald E. (detail)
   
1899
Ethnographical notes on the Murray Islands, Torres Straits.
Jour. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain & Ireland 28: 5-19. Read Feb. 22, 1898.
–Pp. 12-13: {"The vegetable food of the island [Mer] included cocoanuts, yams (several varieties), sweet potatoes, bananas, sugar cane, and several indigenous fruits. Pigs, birds, [13] fish, dugong, shell-fish, turtle, crustacea, &c., are also eaten."}
 
 
Hunt, David M.; Carvalho, Livia S.; Cowing, Jill A.; Davies, Wayne I. L. (detail)
   
2009
Evolution and spectral tuning of visual pigments in birds and mammals.
Philosophical Transactions B of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 364(1531): 2941-2955. 2 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0044. Oct. 12, 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Variation in the types and spectral characteristics of visual pigments is a common mechanism for the adaptation of the vertebrate visual system to prevailing light conditions. The extent of this diversity in mammals and birds is discussed in detail in this review, alongside an in-depth consideration of the molecular changes involved. In mammals, a nocturnal stage in early evolution is thought to underlie the reduction in the number of classes of cone visual pigment genes from four to only two, with the secondary loss of one of these genes in many monochromatic nocturnal and marine species. The trichromacy seen in many primates arises from either a polymorphism or duplication of one of these genes. In contrast, birds have retained the four ancestral cone visual pigment genes, with a generally conserved expression in either single or double cone classes. The loss of sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a feature of both mammalian and avian visual evolution, with UV sensitivity retained among mammals by only a subset of rodents and marsupials. Where it is found in birds, it is not ancestral but newly acquired.
 
 
Hunt, Katherine; Renell, Jenny; Kwan, Donna (detail)
   
2012
Dugongs at the edge.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 25-30. 14 figs. June 2012.
–Overview of worldwide dugong status under the Dugong Memorandum of Understanding. Includes a table of characteristics comparing manatees and dugongs (p. 30).
Hunter, Aline: SEE Morales et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Hunter, John (detail)
   
1787
Observations on the structure and oeconomy of whales.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 77(2): 371-450. Pls. 16-23. Read June 28, 1787.
–Repr. in J. F. Palmer (ed.), The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. London, Longmans, Vol. 4: 331-392, 1837. Alludes in passing to the lobulated condition of the manatee kidney (m413).
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E. Kellogg; Auil Gomez, Nicole E.; Tucker, K. P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2010
Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee.
Animal Conservation 13: 592-602. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E. Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2010
Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.
Molecular Ecology Resources 10(2): 368-377. 4 tabs.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Ferrante, Jason A.; Takoukam Kamla, Aristide; Dorazio, Robert M.; Keith Diagne, Lucy; Luna, Fabia; Lanyon, Janet M.; Reid, James P. (detail)
   
2018
Surveys of environmental DNA (eDNA): a new approach to estimate occurrence in Vulnerable manatee populations.
Endangered Species Research 35: 101-111. doi:10.3354/esr00880. Mar. 13, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Environmental DNA (eDNA) detection is a technique used to non-invasively detect cryptic, low density, or logistically difficult-to-study species, such as imperiled manatees. For eDNA measurement, genetic material shed into the environment is concentrated from water samples and analyzed for the presence of target species. Cytochrome b quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR eDNA assays were developed for the 3 Vulnerable manatee species: African, Amazonian, and both subspecies of the West Indian (Florida and Antillean) manatee. Environmental DNA assays can help to delineate manatee habitat ranges, high use areas, and seasonal population changes. To validate the assay, water was analyzed from Florida's east coast containing a high-density manatee population and produced 31564 DNA molecules l-1 on average and high occurrence (?) and detection (p) estimates (? = 0.84 [0.40-0.99]; p = 0.99 [0.95-1.00]; limit of detection 3 copies µl-1). Similar occupancy estimates were produced in the Florida Panhandle (? = 0.79 [0.54-0.97]) and Cuba (? = 0.89 [0.54-1.00]), while occupancy estimates in Cameroon were lower (? = 0.49 [0.09-0.95]). The eDNA-derived detection estimates were higher than those generated using aerial survey data on the west coast of Florida and may be effective for population monitoring. Subsequent eDNA studies could be particularly useful in locations where manatees are (1) difficult to identify visually (e.g. the Amazon River and Africa), (2) are present in patchy distributions or are on the verge of extinction (e.g. Jamaica, Haiti), and (3) where repatriation efforts are proposed (e.g. Brazil, Guadeloupe). Extension of these eDNA techniques could be applied to other imperiled marine mammal populations such as African and Asian dugongs.
 
 
Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2012
Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups.
Conserv. Genet. 13(6): 1623-1635. 3 tabs. 4 figs. + online supplemental material. DOI 10.1007/s10592-012-0414-2 Dec. 2012 (publ. online Oct. 7, 2012).
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P < 0.001)) and mitochondrial (F ST = 0.66; Ф ST = 0.50 (P < 0.001)) DNA. Microsatellite Bayesian cluster analyses detected two populations (K = 2) and no admixture or recent migrants between Florida (q = 0.99) and Puerto Rico (q = 0.98). The microsatellite genetic diversity values in Puerto Rico (HE = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Ф ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.
 
 
Hüpsch, Baron von (detail)
   
1774
Beschreibung einiger neuentdeckten versteinten Theile grosser Seethiere.
Der Naturforscher 3: 178-183.
–Allen 328. Reports fossil ear and other bones of sirs. and cetaceans from Antwerp.
x
 
Hurst, Lawrence A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1988
Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida with techniques for the study of manatee food habits.
U.S. Fish & Wildl. Service Biol. Rept. 88(18): xii + 145. 6 tabs. 93 figs. Sept. 1988.
–Describes microhistological characters of 83 taxa of plants found in manatee habitat in Florida (but does not indicate which are known to be eaten by manatees); provides identification keys and sample data sheets; and details procedures for collecting, processing, and analyzing samples of manatee ingesta and for preparing and photographing reference slides of plants. Includes a glossary and an index.
Husar, Sandra L.: SEE ALSO Ligon, Sandra L. Husar. (detail)
x
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1975a
The dugong: endangered siren of the South Seas.
Natl. Parks & Conserv. Mag. 49(2): 15-18. 3 figs. Feb. 1975.
–Pop. acc. with range map. Notes (18) that bleeding dugong carcasses in Queensland were not molested by sharks or other predators.
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1975b
A review of the literature of the dugong (Dugong dugon).
U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish & Wildl. Serv., Wildl. Research Rept. No. 4: 1-30. 2 tabs. 8 figs.
–In 1973, Husar, under contract to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, produced an unpublished Survey of the Order Sirenia in four parts dealing with the four living species. These were the basis for this work as well as Husar (1977a, b; 1978a, b, c). In 1975 she compiled An annotated bibliography of the Recent Sirenia (Trichechus, Dugong, Hydrodamalis), comprising 1,181 titles and likewise unpublished, but incorporated into the bibliography of Marsh et al. (1979).
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1975c
Sirenia. Project 1038. Sea cows - world-wide conservation programme.
World Wildl. Yearbook (Morges, Switzerland, World Wildl. Fund) 1974-75: 292-294.
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1977a
Trichechus inunguis.
Mamm. Species (Amer. Soc. Mammalogists) No. 72: 1-4. June 15, 1977.
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1977b
The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish & Wildl. Serv., Wildl. Research Rept. No. 7: 1-22. 4 tabs. 4 figs. June 22, 1977.
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1978a
Dugong dugon.
Mamm. Species (Amer. Soc. Mammalogists) No. 88: 1-7. 4 figs. Jan. 6, 1978.
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1978b
Trichechus senegalensis.
Mamm. Species (Amer. Soc. Mammalogists) No. 89: 1-3. 3 figs. Jan. 6, 1978.
 
 
Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1978c
Trichechus manatus.
Mamm. Species (Amer. Soc. Mammalogists) No. 93: 1-5. 3 figs. Jan. 6, 1978.
 
 
Hussainy, H. S. H. (detail)
   
1977?
Rare sightings of dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Newsletter Madras Snake Park Trust 2(2): 9.
 
 
Husson, A. M. (detail)
   
1973
Voorlopige lijst van de zoogdierens van Suriname.
Zool. Bijdragen (Leiden) 14: 1-15.
–Engl. summ. Manatee, 11.
x
 
Husson, A. M. (detail)
   
1978
The mammals of Suriname.
Zool. Monogr., Rijksmus. Nat. Hist. (Leiden) 2: xxxiv + 569. 92 tabs. Frontisp. 52 figs. 160 pls. 3 maps.
–Summarizes the distribution and natural history in Suriname of T. m. manatus (334-339, pls. 90-91), mainly on the basis of previous literature. Includes skull measurements of 5 specimens and some external measurements of 3. Repeats a report that manatees like ripe bananas so much that they will overturn boats to get them!
 
 
Hutchins, Jane (detail)
   
1968
Discovering mermaids and sea monsters.
Tring, Shire Publs.: 1-40. Illus.
 
 
Hutchinson, Henry Neville (detail)
   
1892
Extinct monsters. A popular account of some of the larger forms of ancient animal life....
London, Chapman & Hall, xxii + 270. 58 figs. 26 pls.
–First ed., Sept. 1892; "corrected and enlarged" ed., Apr. 1893; "Fourth and cheaper ed.", 1896. Rev.: Nat. Sci. 2: 135-143. Rhytina, 246-250, fig. 58, pl. 26.
Hutchison, J. Howard: SEE Barnes et al., 1981. (detail)
Huth, Glenn D.: SEE Marshall et al., 1998, 2000. (detail)
 
 
Hutson, K. S.; Vaughan, D. B.; Blair, David (detail)
   
2019
First record of a 'fish' blood fluke (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from a marine mammal: Cardicola dhangali n. sp.
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 10: 23-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.06.009
 
 
Hutton, Robert F. (detail)
   
1964
A second list of parasites from marine and coastal animals of Florida.
Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 83: 439-447.
x
 
Hutton, Robert F.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin (detail)
   
1960
A list of parasites from marine and coastal animals of Florida.
Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc. 79(3): 287-292. July 1960.
–Lists Chiorchis fabaceus from T. m. latirostris (m290).
 
 
Huxley, Thomas Henry (detail)
   
1863
Lectures on the vertebrate skull.
Med. Times & Gazette 1863: 2.
–Sirs., 579, 609, 633.
 
 
Huxley, Thomas Henry (detail)
   
1866
Lectures at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Lancet 1866(1): 180, 381.
 
 
Huxley, Thomas Henry (detail)
   
1871
A manual of the anatomy of vertebrated animals.
London, J. & A. Churchill: vi + 510. Illus.
–New York ed., D. Appleton & Co., 1872: 1-431, 110 figs. Sirs., 332, 387-391 (1872 ed., 330).
Huzita, Kazuo: SEE Fujita, Kazuo. (detail)
 
 
Hyrtl, Joseph (detail)
   
1845
Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen über das innere Gehörorgan des Menschen und der Säugethiere.
Prague, F. Ehrlich: viii + 139. 9 pls.
 
 
Hyrtl, Joseph (detail)
   
1873
Die Corrosions-anatomie und ihre Ergebnisse.
Vienna, Wilhelm Braumüller: 1-253. Illus.
–Discusses the kidney of Dugong.
 
 
Hysing-Dahl, Christian (detail)
   
2010
Sjøkyr - forunderlige dyr.
Naturen No. 4: 205-213. 14 figs.
–Discusses sirs. and other marine mammals in relation to mermaid legends.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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