Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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K

Kadel, Jessica J.: SEE ALSO Koelsch, Jessica Kadel (detail)
x
 
Kadel, Jessica J. (detail)
   
1992
The great white manatee.
Underwater Naturalist 21(2): 15-16. 2 figs.
–Account of a light-colored (but not albino) manatee, probably male, observed near Ft. Myers, Florida.
 
 
Kadel, Jessica J.; Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
   
1992
Aerial studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) on the west coast of Florida from 1985-1990: a comprehensive six year study.
Mote Marine Laboratory Tech. Rept. No. 246: iv + 17 + 5 + 17. 8 tabs. 13 figs. Mar. 3, 1992.
 
 
Kadel, Jessica J.; Dukeman, Angela K.; Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
   
1991
Report of the 1988 aerial studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) on the west coast of Florida.
Mote Marine Laboratory Tech. Rept. No. 228: iii + 55. 2 tabs. 17 figs. Oct. 18, 1991.
 
 
Kadel, Jessica J.; Morgan, Margaret A.; Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
   
1991
Aerial studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) on the west coast of Florida: 1990 technical report.
Mote Marine Laboratory Tech. Rept. No. 225: iv + 74. 2 tabs. 21 figs. Aug. 20, 1991.
 
 
Kagii, Yasuaki (detail)
   
2006
[The gentle life of manatees.]
Friday Tokyo, Kodansha: No. 1191: 56-58. 10 figs. Mar. 17, 2006.
–In Japanese. Underwater photos of manatees (TM), including copulation and nursing.
 
 
Kairies, Hans (detail)
   
1978
Key to saving gentle manatee is awareness.
Florida Conserv. News 14(2): 8-9. 1 tab. 3 figs. Nov. 1978.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1960
Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Osteologie der fossilen und rezenten Pachyostosen.
Palaeontographica A 114(5/6): 113-196. 1 fig. Pls. 16-25. June 1960.
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1965a
The phylogenetic adaptation of aquatic mammals to their environment. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 5(2): 229. May 1965 (read Aug. 20, 1965).
–Comments briefly on anatomical modifications in sirs.
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1965b
Einige Gesichtspunkte zur anatomischen Nomenklatur extremer Säugetierformen, am Beispiel der Sirenen.
Anat. Anz. 116(5): 425-428. 3 figs. June 30, 1965.
–Engl. summ. Calls attention to the horizontal position of the diaphragm in sirs. and proposes the terms "Cavum dorsale trunci" and "Cavum ventrale trunci" for their thoracic and abdominal cavities, respectively.
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1966a
Untersuchungen über die topographischen Verhältnisse der Leibeshöhle hochspezialisierter Säuger an Hand ausgewählter Beispiele.
Anat. Anz. 119(1): 57-69. 18 figs.
–Contrasts the position of the lungs and diaphragm in sirs. with the condition in other mammals, and points out its hydrostatic significance.
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1966b
Functional anatomy of breathing and balance in seacows (Sirenia). [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 155(3): 426. July 1966.
–Describes in general terms the gross anatomical specializations of sirs.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1967
Pachyostotic bone conditions in certain regions of the skull of Odobenus rosmarus L., in relation to weight distribution. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 157(2): 366. Feb. 1967 (read Apr. 4-7, 1967).
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1968a
Differences in the occipital regions of recent Sirenia in relation to the connections of the skull with the body. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 160(2): 478. Feb. 1968 (read Apr. 9-12, 1968).
–Compares gross morphology of occipital regions in the three Recent genera.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1969a
Type-specific microscopic findings in the Sirenia. [Abstr.]
Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 88(1): 170. Jan. 1969 (read Sept. 1968).
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1969b
Histochemical studies on pachyostosis in sea cows and pinnipeds. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 163(2): 207-208. Feb. 1969 (read Apr. 1-4, 1969).
–Mentions that pachyostosis has histochemical and metabolic implications.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1970
Das Abnorme in der Evolution.
Acta Biotheoretica 17, Suppl. 1: 1-623. 328 figs. 2 pls.
–Rev.: Anat. Anz. 131: 1-2, 173-174.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1971
Some facts about the possibilities and boundaries concerning the bone structure of aquatic mammals for taxonomic purposes. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 169(2): 351.
x
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1973
Sirenia.
Karger Gazette 28: 1-6. 4 figs. Oct. 1973.
–Gen. acc. of anatomy and conservation of sirs.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1974
Morphology of the Sirenia: a macroscopic and x-ray atlas of the osteology of Recent species.
Basel, S. Karger: viii + 76. 64 pls.
–Revs.: G. C. L. Bertram, Nature 249(5455): 393-394, May 24, 1974; Michael Kesner & Cynthia Lance, Jour. Mamm. 57(4): 798, Dec. 10, 1976.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar (detail)
   
1975
The x-ray structure of the pelvic bones of Steller's sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 181(2): 534-535. Feb. 1975.
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar; Bartone, John C. (detail)
   
1966
La topografia de los organos internos de los fetos de la vaca marina (Genera Dugong y Trichechus) (Sin: Manatus). [Abstr.]
Arch. Mex. Anat. 7(3): 9-10.
–Abstr. of Kaiser & Bartone (1968).
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar; Bartone, John C. (detail)
   
1967
The microscopic relationship of pachyostotic bone conditions to soft tissues in sea cow genera Dugong and Trichechus (Syn. = Manatus). [Abstr.]
Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 86(1): 74. (Read Aug. 1966.)
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar; Bartone, John C. (detail)
   
1968
The topography of internal organs of sea cow fetuses (genera Dugong and Trichechus, syn.: Manatus).
Arch. Mex. Anat. 7(27): 39-48. 6 figs.
–Abstr.: Kaiser & Bartone (1966).
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar; Schröpfer, H. P. (detail)
   
1970
Comparative investigations of the behavior of water mammals, especially sea-cows (Trichechus manatus latirostris). [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 10(3): 294. Read Aug. 29, 1970.
–?Repr.: Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 51(2): 46, June 1970?
 
 
Kaiser, Hans Elmar; Mergner, W.; Sheffield, D.; Jones, R. T. (detail)
   
1981
Selected aspects of comparative radiology, histology and electron microscopy of aquatic mammals. [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 199(3): 132A.
 
D
Kalandadze, Nikolay Nikolayevich; Rautian, Aleksandr Sergeyevich (detail)
   
1992
Sistema mlekopitayushchikh i istoricheskaya zoogeografia. [The system of mammals and historical zoogeography.] In: O. L. Rossolimo (ed.), Filogenetika mlekopitayushchikh.
Sbor. Tr. Zool. Muz. Moskovskogo Gos. Univ. 29: 44-174.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Kalashnikova, M. M.; Kazanskaya, N. I. (detail)
   
1986
[Light and electron-microscopic study of the liver cells of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 371-376.
–In Russian.
x
 
Kalk, Margaret (detail)
   
1995
Marine mammals: dugong; dolphins; whales. In: M. Kalk (ed.), A natural history of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Ed. 3.
Johannesburg, Witwatersrand Univ. Press (xxi + 395 pp.): 329-330. 1 fig.
–Ed. 1, 1958; ed. 2, 1969. Includes three paragraphs on dugongs, giving general information on their biology and recording a couple of sightings in Mozambique, where they are said to be "still fairly common" on the northern coast. Also repeats, however, the questionable stories of dugongs "piling up" seagrasses before eating them (cf. Gohar, 1957), and "holding the baby with one flipper."
 
 
Kalman, Bobbie; Dyer, Hadley (detail)
   
2006
Endangered manatees.
New York, Crabtree Publ. Co. (Earth's Endangered Animals): 1-32. Illus.
–Children's book.
x
 
Kaltenmark, Jean (detail)
   
1942a
Contribution à l'étude des siréniens actuels et fossiles.... [I.] Les siréniens actuels.
Mammalia 6(2): 53-64. 9 figs. June 1942.
–An unimpressive, undistinguished survey of the distribution and osteology of living sirs., mainly T. senegalensis. The erroneous figure (fig. 7, p. 61) and statement (p. 63) on the otic region of Rhytina are corrected in Kaltenmark (1943: 24).
  This and the following two papers also exist as a set of separates in a single wrapper, with continuous pagination (1-39) but the same page-breaks.
x
 
Kaltenmark, Jean (detail)
   
1942b
Contribution à l'étude des siréniens actuels et fossiles. II. Les siréniens fossiles. Définition d'un nouveau type.
Mammalia 6(3/4): 101-113. 4 figs. Sept.-Dec. 1942.
–Summarizes the history and nomenclature of many of the fossil sirs. of Europe. Describes the skull of Metaxytherium cuvieri illustrated by Depéret & Roman (1920: pl. 7, fig. 3) as "Metaxytherium nov. spec." (105-113). Refers Halitherium guettardi Gervais, 1867 to Metaxytherium (113).
x
 
Kaltenmark, Jean (detail)
   
1943
Contribution à l'étude des siréniens actuels et fossiles. III. Essai de phylogénie.
Mammalia 7(1): 14-25. 7 figs. March 1943.
–Carries phylogenetic reliance on the frontal-nasal relationship to the ultimate extreme, dividing sirs. into two groups, with all the living forms in one lump descended from Felsinotherium! Fig. 6 shows an interesting Hydrodamalis skull with very large nasals.
Kambe, Nobukazu: SEE Yamaguchi et al., 1981. (detail)
Kamei, Tadao: SEE ALSO Ijiri & Kamei, 1961; Kimura et al., 1983; Kobayashi & Kamei, 1973; Kuga et al., 1987. (detail)
 
D
Kamei, Tadao (detail)
   
1967
A note on a fossil premolar of Paleoparadoxia. In: Fossils of Anan-cho.
Anan-cho (Nagano Prefecture, Japan), Committee of Education: 129-130.
 
D
Kamei, Tadao (detail)
   
1978
Vertebrate paleontology.
Recent Prog. Nat. Sci. Japan 3: 99-108.
–Mentions Paleoparadoxia.
 
D
Kamei, Tadao (detail)
   
1984
Introduction. In: Desmostylians and their paleoenvironment ([vi] + 140 pp.).
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: [iii-iv]. May 1984.
–In Japanese. The volume headed by this introduction contains 13 articles, listed in this bibliography by their authors: Inuzuka (2), Chinzei, Yamanoi, Itoigawa, Goto & Kuga, Matsui et al., Akamatsu, Kaseno, Yoshida, Taguchi, Takayasu & Nakamura, and Kozawa. The volume concludes with a discussion (129-138).
 
D
Kamei, Tadao; Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1974
Fossil mammals from the Mizunami Group.
Bull. Mizunami Fossil Mus. No. 1: 263-291. 12 pls. 1 map.
–In Japanese. Mentions Paleoparadoxia tabatai.
 
D
Kamei, Tadao; Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1975
Neogene desmostylid and proboscidean fossils from Japan 1 [-6].
Atlas of Japanese Fossils (Tokyo, Tsukiji Shokan) 34(199 [-204]): [each fascicle 4 pp. long.] Illus.
–In Japanese. Fascicles 1-5 deal with desmostylians.
x
D
Kamei, Tadao; Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1977
Mammalian fauna of the Miocene Mizunami Group and the Neogene mammals in Japan. [Abstr.]
Proc. 1st Internatl. Congr. on Pacif. Neogene Stratigraphy (Tokyo, 1976): 353-354.
–Considers the occurrences of Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia in Japan to be Middle to Late Miocene (N8-N15) in age.
 
D
Kamei, Tadao; Kuga, Naoyuki; Inuzuka, Norihisa; Kamiya, Hidetoshi; Saegusa, Haruo (detail)
   
1989
[Report of Paleoparadoxia fossils from Tsuyama.]
Ann. Rept. Tsuyama Mus. No. 1: [vii] + 48. 3 tabs. Frontisp. 25 figs. 7 pls.
–In Japanese. Comprises a preface by Kamei and chapters on the following topics: geology of the Tsuyama Basin (Kamei, pp. 1-9); fossils of Paleoparadoxia and their modes of occurrence (Kuga, pp. 10-23); reconstruction of Paleoparadoxia (Inuzuka, pp. 24-25); radiographic observations (Kuga, p. 26); tooth microstructure (Kamiya, p. 27); and discussion (Kamei, Saegusa, & Kuga, pp. 28-41). Pp. 42-48 reproduce news clippings about the Tsuyama specimen.
Kamiya, Hidetoshi: SEE ALSO Kamei et al., 1989. (detail)
 
D
Kamiya, Hidetoshi (detail)
   
1987
[Observations on the dental structure of Paleoparadoxia from Tsuyama.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 81-82. 4 figs. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kamiya, Hidetoshi (detail)
   
1988a
Histological reexamination of enamel of Paleoparadoxia tabatai. In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 128-133. 6 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Kamiya, Hidetoshi (detail)
   
1988b
Observations on the tooth cementum of the Paleoparadoxia unearthed in Tsuyama Municipality, Okayama Prefecture.
Jour. Fossil Research 21(1): 5-8. Illus. Aug. 1988.
–In Japanese; Engl. Summ.
Kamiya, Toshiro: SEE ALSO Pirlot & Kamiya, 1985; Yamasaki et al., 1980, 1981. (detail)
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1984
The biology of the dugong.
Animals and Zoos 36(415): 316-317 (= No. 9, 1984: 18-19). 2 figs.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1986
Steller's sea-cow and gray whale.
Aquabiology 8(3): 161. June 1986.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1988
Marine mammals - 8. Steller's sea cow.
Aquabiology 10(1): 18-19.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1989a
Marine mammals - 16. Tradition about mermaids.
Aquabiology 11(3)(62): 208-209. 3 figs.? June 1989.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1989b
Marine mammals - 17. Some notes on the Dugongidae fossil from Japan.
Aquabiology 11(4)(63): 282-283. 3 figs.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1989c
Natural history of mermaid.
Tokyo, Shisaku Press: [xii] + 193 + 10. Illus.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1990
Marine mammals - 20. Posters on marine mammals.
Aquabiology 12(1): 24-25. Illus.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1991a
Marine mammals - 27. Influence of the Gulf war to dugong.
Aquabiology 13(2): 118-119. 2 figs.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1991b
Marine mammals - 31. Stamps of marine mammals.
Aquabiology 13(6)(77): 428-429. 3 figs.
–In Japanese. Includes discussion and illustration of the 1966 Ryukyus stamp depicting a dugong.
 
D
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1992
Marine mammals - 34. Some note of the Desmostylia.
Aquabiology 14(3)(80): 198-199. 3 figs.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1994a
[Dugong exhibit at Toba Aquarium, Japan.]
Toba Super Aquarium (Toba, Japan) No. 12: 10-13. 15 figs. Winter 1994.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1994b
[Steller's sea cow.]
Toba Super Aquarium (Toba, Japan) No. 12: 14-15. 1 fig. Winter 1994.
–In Japanese. Brief pop. acc.
x
 
Kamiya, Toshiro; Yamasaki, Fusao (detail)
   
1981
A morphological note on the sinus hair of the dugong. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 193-197. 4 figs.
–Briefly describes the distribution of sinus hairs on the body, and the gross anatomy and histology of sinus hairs from the upper lip.
 
D
Kamiya, Toshiro; Pirlot, Paul; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1985
Comparative brain morphology of miocene [sic] and recent sirenians.
Fortschritte der Zool. 30: 541-544. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–The Mioc. "sirenian" compared with the Recent dugong is actually Paleoparadoxia tabatai.
x
 
Kamiya, Toshiro; Uchida, Senzo; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
1979
Organ weights of Dugong dugon.
Sci. Rept. Whales Res. Inst. No. 31: 129-132. 2 tabs. Pls. 1-4.
–Weights of organs in 6 animals from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Okinawa, with body lengths and weights, intestine lengths, and photos of major organs.
 
 
Kamiya, Toshiro; Uchida, Senzo; Tobayama, Teruo; Yoshida, M. (detail)
   
1979
Observation of Dugong dugon (2) from the point of view of comparative anatomy.
Sci. Rept. Whales Res. Inst. No. 326 [32?]: 35-42.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kampen, P. N. Van (detail)
   
1905
Die Tympanalgegend des Säugetierschädels.
Morph. Jahrb. 34(3/4): 321-722. 96 figs. Dec. 15, 1905.
–Sirs., 356-357, 632-636, etc.
Kane, Kent K.: SEE Boever et al., 1977. (detail)
 
D
Kaneko, Ituo; Goto, Doji (eds.) (detail)
   
1992
Miocene fossils from Ikuridani, Yatsuo town, Toyama Prefecture.
Spec. Publ. Toyama Sci. Mus. No. 5: 1-86. 5 figs. 19 pls.
–In Japanese. Reports a tooth of Paleoparadoxia tabatai (5, 6, 31; pl. 16, figs. 9a, b).
 
D
Kaneko, Kazuo; Inuzuka, Norihisa (detail)
   
1992
Desmostylian fossils from the Yatsuo Group in Toyama Prefecture, central Japan and their paleoenvironments.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 46(2): 153-164. 2 tabs. 8 figs. 1 pl. Mar. 1992.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes two isolated teeth of Early to Middle Miocene age: a lower P4 of Paleoparadoxia tabatai and an upper M2 of Desmostylus japonicus from Tsuzara and Minowa, respectively.
Kanemaru, Takashi: SEE Suzuki et al., 2000. (detail)
Kanwisher, John W.: SEE Best et al., 1982; Gallivan et al. (detail)
Kapindi, Richard A.: SEE Reeves et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Kappers, C. U. Ariëns; Huber, G. C.; Crosby, E. C. (detail)
   
1960
The comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates, including man.
New York, Hafner (3 vols.).
–1936 ed., 2 vols. Comments on the size of the spinal cord in the dugong (1: 286) and states that the epiphysis is absent in the dugong and manatee (2: 1064).
 
 
Kappler, August (detail)
   
1881
Holländisch-Guiana. Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen während eines 43jährigen Aufenthalts in der Kolonie Surinam.
Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer: ix + 495. Frontisp. 1 map.
–Sirs., 415.
 
 
Kappler, August (detail)
   
1887
Suriname, sein Land, sein Natur, Bevölkerung und seine Kultur-Verhältnisse mit Bezug auf Kolonisation.
Stuttgart: 1-384. Figs. 1 map.
–Manatees, 76-78.
Karasawa, Hiroaki: SEE Inuzuka & Karasawa, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Karre, B. D. (detail)
   
1995
A review of research on barramundi, reef fish, dugong, turtles and Spanish mackerel and their fisheries in the Torres Strait adjacent to Papua New Guinea.
Science in New Guinea 21(1): 43-56. Illus. May 1995.
 
 
Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime (detail)
   
2009
Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.
Research in Veterinary Science 86(2): 216-222. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2008.07.006. April 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and ?-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and ?-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and ?-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.
 
D
Kaseno, Yoshio (detail)
   
1964
A tooth of Desmostylus found at Shiratori, Southern Noto, Japan.
Ann. Rept. Noto Mar. Lab. (Fac. Sci. Univ. Kanazawa) 4: 59-64. 3 figs. 1 pl. Mar. 1964.
 
D
Kaseno, Yoshio (detail)
   
1984
Occurrence and stratigraphical horizon of the desmostylian fossils from Noto, Japan.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 69-72. 1 tab. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. See also T. Kamei (1984).
Kashiwada, Jerry V.: SEE Perrin & Kashiwada, 1989. (detail)
Kasuya, Toshio: SEE ALSO Marsh & Kasuya, 1981; Nishiwaki et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Kasuya, Toshio; Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
   
1978
On the age characteristics and anatomy of the tusk of Dugong dugon.
Sci. Rept. Whales Res. Inst. No. 30: 301-310. 1 tab. 3 figs. 4 pls. Dec. 1978.
–Monthly and annual growth layers identified in tusks; females thought to be sexually mature at about 10 years and to live at least 45 years.
Kataoka, Teruo: SEE ALSO Asano et al., 1978; Kamiya et al., 1979; Nishimura et al., 1981; Nishiwaki et al., 1979, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
1987
"Sirenology" [general biology of the dugong].
Jour. Mie Prefecture Zool. Soc. No. 9: 3-7. 4 tabs. 8 figs. Aug. 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
1994
Do dugongs look like mermaids? The thorough comparison of the legendary creature and its model animal.
Newton Graphic Science Mag. 14(6).
 
 
Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
1997
[Dugong: invitation to sirenian biology.]
Tokyo: 1-179. 12 tabs. 76 figs. 11 pls. June 1997.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
   
1998
Sirenia - dugong and manatee.
Aquabiology 20(1)(114): 36-41. 4 tabs. 7 figs. Feb. 1998.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Gen. acc. of Recent sirs.
x
 
Kataoka, Teruo; Asano, Shiro (detail)
   
1980
A brief note on the dugong Dugong dugon at the Toba Aquarium.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 20: 269-270. 1 fig.
–Describes the captive conditions, growth, diet, feeding and other behavior of a young female Philippine dugong. See also Kataoka & Asano (1981).
x
 
Kataoka, Teruo; Asano, Shiro (detail)
   
1981
On the keeping of dugong (Dugong dugon) in Toba Aquarium. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 199-203. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–A slightly more detailed version of Kataoka & Asano (1980), with a graph of food intake and tables showing the chemical composition of the diet used at Toba, the amounts of food consumed per day by various captive dugongs, and additional growth data on the Toba specimen.
 
 
Kataoka, Teruo; Asano, Shiro (detail)
   
1990
[The life of dugong.] In: N. Miyazaki & T. Kasuya (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Tokyo, Scientist Inc. (xi + 300): 206-217. 6 tabs. 9 figs.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kataoka, Teruo; Mori, Takuya; Wakai, Yoshihito; Palma, Joese Angelito M.; Yaptinchay, Arnel Andrew S. P.; Veyra, Rhodora T. D. Ramirez de; Trono, Romeo B. (detail)
   
1995
Dugongs Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776) of the Philippines: a report of the joint dugong research and conservation program.
[Toba, Japan], Pawikan Conservation Project-Protected Areas & Wildlife Bureau, Dept. of Environment & Natural Resources (Philippines) & Toba Aquarium (Japan): 1-168. 21 tabs. 114 figs. 35 color pls. Misc. other illustrations. May 1995.
–Lavishly illustrated summary of dugong biology, status, research and conservation activities in the Philippines, and of captive history and observations at Toba Aquarium.
Kato, Y.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Kattinger, Emil (detail)
   
1979
Nichtdarwinistische Evolutionsphilosophie.
Ber. Naturf. Ges. Bamberg 53: 210-271. Illus. June 1979.
–Mentions Halitherium.
 
 
Kaudern, Walter (detail)
   
1915
Säugetiere aus Madagaskar.
Arkiv Zool. 9(18): 1-101. 4 pls.
–Mentions dugongs at the Sofia River and at Mahakamby, and their sale at Analalava.
 
 
Kaudern, Walter (detail)
   
1917
Studien über die männlichen Geschlechtsorgane von Sirenia, Hyracoidea, und Proboscidea.
Zool. Jahrb. (Abt. Anat.) 40: 203-244. 16 figs.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1830
Versuch einer natürlichen Eintheilung der Säugethiere.
Isis von Oken 23: 799-802.
–Sirs., 801.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1835
Das Thierreich in seinen Hauptformen systematisch beschrieben.... Drei Bände. Erster Band. Naturgeschichte der Menschen und der Säugethiere.
Darmstadt, Johann Philipp Diehl: xxxv + 452. 180 figs.
–Allen 860. Sirenia, 426-430: Halicore Dugong, with fig. (428); Manatus americanus (429); and Rytina Stelleri (430).
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1837
Sur la place que doit occuper le Dinotherium dans l'echelle animale.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 4(14): 527-529. Apr. 3, 1837.
–Abstr.: L'Institut 5: 109?
x
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1838a
[Über Zähnen von Halytherium und Pugmeodon aus Flonheim. Letter dated May 14, 1838.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1838: 318-320. Pl. 2.
–Allen 936. Discusses and illustrates (319, pl. 2) teeth of Halytherium dubium and Pugmeodon Schinzii from the Oligocene of Flonheim, Germany. This was the first publication of the name Halytherium (soon changed by its author to Halitherium) and the first valid publication of P. Schinzii, which was previously a nomen nudum.
x
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1838b
[Über Zähnen von Halitherium und Dugong.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1838: 536.
–Allen 937. The original spelling Halytherium is here changed to Halitherium. Corrects the statement in Kaup (1838a) that the dugong has only two cheek teeth, rather than five [actually six!], and contrasts the root construction in this genus with that of Halitherium.
x
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1840
Notizen über die fossilen sogenannten Gras-fressenden Wale.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1840: 673-676.
–Allen 997. Discusses, and hopelessly ensnarls, the synonymy of Halitherium, Halianassa, Hippopotamus, and Manatus spp.; mentions the name "Fucotherium" as one he will not propose (675); and proposes the replacement name "Pontotherium Bruno" for Cheirotherium Bruno (676)!
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1841
Akten der Urwelt oder Osteologie der urweltlichen Säugethiere und Amphibien.
Darmstadt, publ. by the author: x + 54. 14 pls.
–Describes Cymatotherium antiquum, n.gen.n.sp. (11-14, pl. 4), a supposed sir., based on a ?fetal mandible of a proboscidean from Germany.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1855
Beitraege zur naeheren Kenntniss der urweltlichen Saeugethiere.... Zweites Heft.
Darmstadt, C. W. Leske: 1-23. 7 pls.
–The entire work was published in five parts, 1854-1861; see also Kaup (1861). Here he proposes a quinarian classification of sirs. and other mammals.
  Quinarian classification was a system of grouping taxa into sets of five that could be arranged in interlocking circles. It was developed by the English amateur entomologist William Sharp Macleay starting in 1819. See M. P. Winsor, Starfish, jellyfish, and the order of life: issues in nineteenth-century science (New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1976), pp. 82-97, for some historical and bibliogaphical information on this system.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1856
Ueber einen vollständigen Halitherium Gaumen mit Zähnen.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1856: 19-21. Pl. 1.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1858
Halitherium besitzt einen rudimentären Femur.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1858: 532-534. Pl. 21.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob (detail)
   
1861
Beitraege zur naeheren Kenntniss der urweltlichen Saeugethiere.... Fuenftes Heft.
Darmstadt & Leipzig, Eduard Zernin: 1-32. 5 pls.
–See also Kaup (1855). Supplemental information on Halitherium Schinzi, 31-32, pl. 5.
 
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob; Scholl, Johann Baptist (detail)
   
1834a
Catalogue des plâtres des ossements fossiles, qui se trouvent dans le cabinet d'histoire naturelle du Grand-Duc de Hesse.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 7: 200-216.
–Published previously as separate, Darmstadt, 1832?
x
 
Kaup, Johann Jakob; Scholl, Johann Baptist (detail)
   
1834b
Verzeichniss der Gypsabgüsse von dem ausgezeichnetsten urweltlichen Thierresten des Grossherzoglichen Museum zu Darmstadt.... Zweite vermehrte und verbesserte Ausgabe.
Darmstadt, Johann Philipp Diehl: 1-28. 6 figs. Sept. 1834.
–Apparently the first publication of the nomen nudum Pugmeodon Schinzii (16), based on a tooth (not illustrated) "Aus dem tertiären Sand bei Flonheim..." (Oligocene, Germany). I have not seen the first (1832) ed. and cannot say if this name appeared there also.
  The spelling Pygmeodon appeared in 1835 in the Amtlicher Bericht über die Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte (Stuttgart) 12: 106, in a report of the meeting of Sept. 25, 1834. I take this alternate spelling to be an unintentional misspelling of Pugmeodon, and for purposes of nomenclature, an incorrect subsequent spelling and an unavailable name.
 
 
Kautz, Randy S. (detail)
   
1990
Use of a Geographic Information System in wildlife habitat protection planning in Florida. In: J. E. Reynolds, III & K. D. Haddad (eds.), Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 45-50. 2 tabs. 5 figs. Dec. 1990.
 
 
Kawaguchi, S.; Shibata, A. (detail)
   
1972
An electron microscopic study of back protrusion of sea-cow.
Zool. Mag. 81: 310-311.
Kawaguchi, Sadanori: SEE Nishinakagawa et al., 1994. (detail)
Kawai, Shin-ichiro: SEE Miyazaki et al. (detail)
Kawakami, Takeshi: SEE Oishi & Kawakami, 1984; Oishi et al., 1990. (detail)
Kawamura, Akito: SEE Aketa et al., 2001, 2003; Aketa & Kawamura, 2001. (detail)
Kawamura, T.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
Kazanskaya, N. I.: SEE Kalashnikova & Kazanskaya, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Kaźmierczak, T. (detail)
   
1964
Czy krowa morska Rhytina stelleri zyje jeszcze?
Protection of Nature in Poland (Chronmy Przyrode Ojczysta) 20(4): 25-29, 53. 2 figs.
–Engl. summ., p. 53.
Kazukawa, Eisuke: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Keates, G. (detail)
   
1788
An account of the Pelew Islands, situated in the western part of the Pacific Ocean.
London, G. Nicol: 1-378.
 
 
Keberle, Karen (detail)
   
2005
Manatees: the gentle giants.
Cuttlefish Publishing: 1-72. Illus.
–Album of underwater photos of TML by Gregory Sweeney.
Kecskemeti, T.: SEE Detre et al., 1971. (detail)
x
 
Keferstein, Christian (detail)
   
1834
Die Naturgeschichte des Erdkörpers in ihren ersten Grundzügen dargestellt.
Leipzig, Friedrich Fleischer (2 vols.): Vol. 2: iv + 896.
–Records Manatus fossilis "aus dem Grobkalk von Angers, Doué &c., tertiairem Mergel von Leutmeritz in Böhmen, aus Maryland in Nord-Amerika" (2: 217). It is possible that "Phoca magna" from the Miocene of France (2: 224-225) also represents a sir. (i.e., Metaxytherium medium).
 
 
Kehrer, F. A. (detail)
   
1896
Zur Phylogenie des Beckens.
Verh. Naturhist.-med. Ver. Heidelberg (n.s.) 5: 346-359. Pls. 7-8.
–Publ. 1895? Sirs., 357, fig. 40.
 
 
Keijl, Guido O.; Van der Have, Tom M. (detail)
   
2002
Observations on marine mammals in southern Iran, January 2000.
Zoology in the Middle East 26: 37-40.
 
 
Keith Diagne, Lucy W. (detail)
   
2012
The forgotten sirenian.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 46: 14-17. 10 figs. June 2012.
–Diet and distribution of TS in West Africa; and the rescue and captive rearing of "Victor", an orphaned calf in Gabon.
 
 
Keith Diagne, Lucy W. (detail)
   
2014
Phylogenetics and feeding ecology of the African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
University of Florida. 263 pp.
x
 
Keith, Kent (detail)
   
1968
Mammals of the Pellew Islands.
Mimag (Mount Isa Mines Ltd., Australia) 19(2): 19-21. 10 figs. June 1968.
–"Herds of up to a hundred" dugongs reported near the mouth of the McArthur River, Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia (20).
 
 
Keith-Diagne, Lucy W., Fernandez de Larrinoa, P.; Diagne, T.; Gonzalez, L. M. (detail)
   
2021
First satellite tracking of the African Manatee (Trichechus senegalensis)and movement patterns in the Senegal River.
Aquatic Mammals 47(1): 21-29.
 
 
Kelaart, Edward Frederic (detail)
   
1852-53
Prodromus faunae zeylanicae; being contributions to the zoology of Ceylon (Appendix).
Colombo, printed for the author: 2 vols. in 1.
–Discusses Halicore dugung, 89.
Keller, G.: SEE Andreae & Keller, 1901. (detail)
x
 
Keller-Leuzinger, Franz (detail)
   
1874
The Amazon and Madeira Rivers.
London, Chapman and Hall: xvi + 177.
–Brief, unspecific paragraph on the manatee (81); fig. on p. 83. Also on p. 83 is an account of water-monster and "mother of waters" superstitions, with, however, no connection drawn to manatees.
Kelley, Don Greame: SEE Harry, R. R., 1956. (detail)
 
 
Kellogg, M. E.; Burkett, S.; Dennis, T. R.; Stone, G.; Gray, B. A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Zori, Robert T.; Stanyon, R. (detail)
   
2007
Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata.
BMC Evol. Biol. 7(6): 7 pp.
Kellogg, Remington: SEE ALSO Miller & Kellogg, 1955; Packard & Kellogg, 1934. (detail)
 
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1924
Tertiary pelagic mammals of eastern North America.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 35: 755-766.
–Sirs., 755.
x
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1925
A new fossil sirenian from Santa Barbara County, California.
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 348: 57-70. Pls. 9-11. Apr. 1925.
–Describes Metaxytherium jordani, n.sp., from the Upper Miocene of Lompoc and discusses its relationship to Hydrodamalis. Refers Dioplotherium manigaulti Cope to Metaxytherium (59) without, however, writing out the implied new combination.
 
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1929a
Extinct ocean-living mammals from Maryland.
Explor. Field Work Smithson. Inst. 1928 [1929]: 27-32. 4 figs.
 
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1929b
A new fossil toothed whale from Florida.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 389: 1-10.
–Mentions Felsinotherium, 1.
x
D
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1931
Pelagic mammals from the Temblor Formation of the Kern River region, California.
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4)19(12): 217-397. 134 figs. Jan. 30, 1931.
–Reviews the distribution of desmostylians (219-227) and gives the synonymy and type localities for Cornwallius sookensis, Desmostylus cymatias, D. californicus, D. hesperus, and D. japonicus, all of which he provisionally recognizes. Reports a Desmostylus tooth from the Upper Miocene of Washington (226), and illustrates and describes a tooth from the Temblor (225-227, figs. 1-3).
 
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1936
A review of the Archaeoceti.
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 482: xv + 366. 87 figs. 37 pls. Dec. 14, 1936.
 
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1942
Tertiary, Quaternary, and Recent marine mammals of South America and the West Indies.
Proc. 8th Amer. Sci. Congr. 3: 445-473.
–See also Kellogg (1943).
x
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1943
Past and present status of the marine mammals of South America and the West Indies.
Ann. Rept. Smithson. Inst. 1942 (Publ. no. 3705): 299-316.
–Abridged version of Kellogg (1942). Brief paragraph on Eocene and Oligocene sirs. in the West Indies (299).
x
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1959
Description of the skull of Pomatodelphis inaequalis Allen.
Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. Harvard Coll. 121(1): 3-26. 1 fig. 6 pls. May 1959.
–Mentions "manatee" (i.e., Metaxytherium floridanum) bones found in the Homeland Mine, Polk County, Florida (m6).
x
 
Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1966
Fossil marine mammals from the Miocene Calvert Formation of Maryland and Virginia. 3. New species of extinct Miocene Sirenia.
U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 247(3): 65-98. Figs. 32-38. Pls. 33-43.
–Reviews the Miocene Sirenia of the U.S. Atlantic coast; describes Metaxytherium calvertense, n.sp. (71-90), from the Middle Miocene of Maryland; discusses Felsinotherium alleni (new combination; 91) and M. manigaulti from the ?Miocene of South Carolina (91-92); describes M. ortegense, n.sp. (93-94), from the ?Upper Miocene of Colombia. The new combination Felsinotherium ortegense is inadvertently created as a lapsus for M. ortegense (pl. 36). Gives useful reviews of the usage of the names Halianassa, Metaxytherium, Felsinotherium, and many specific names. Considers Hemicaulodon Cope a sir., though it is actually a walrus (see C. E. Ray, 1975). Fixes the type species of Metaxytherium by restriction as M. medium (= M. cuvieri) (70), and inadvertently designates a lectotype for Halianassa studeri (69, pl. 43; see Domning, 1987b).
x
 
Kellogg, Remington; Whitmore, Frank Clifford, Jr. (detail)
   
1957
Mammals. In: H. S. Ladd (ed.), Treatise on marine ecology and paleocology. Vol. 2. Paleoecology (x + 1077 pp.).
Mem. Geol. Soc. Amer. 67(2): 1021-1024.
–Discusses the paleoenvironments of several Miocene sirs.: Miosiren (Antwerp Basin, Belgium), oceanic coastline (1021); Metaxytherium (Calvert Fm., Maryland), large estuary; Hesperosiren (Hawthorn Fm., Florida), environment similar to present Atlantic coast of Florida (1022).
  Vol. 1 (Ecology, J.W. Hedgpeth, ed.; Mem. 67(1): viii + 1296) of this treatise contains an article on "Marine Mammals" by the same authors (1223-1226), with a brief paragraph summarizing Recent sir. distribution on p. 1223. This is not indexed here.
x
 
Kellogg, William N. (detail)
   
1955
Sounds of sea animals [PHONOGRAPH RECORD].
New York, Folkways Records & Services, Inc., Album No. FPX 125.
–Includes sounds of T. manatus recorded in Florida.
x
 
Kemper, Catherine; Gibbs, Philip; Obendorf, David; Marvanek, Steven; Lenghaus, Cor (detail)
   
1994
A review of heavy metal and organochlorine levels in marine mammals in Australia.
The Science of the Total Environment 154: 129-139. 7 tabs.
–Summarizes published information on levels of mercury, lead cadmium, and organochlorines in dugong tissues from Australia and Sulawesi.
x
 
Kenchington, Richard A. (detail)
   
1972
Observations on the digestive system of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Erxleben).
Jour. Mamm. 53(4): 884-887. 1 tab. 7 figs. Nov. 30, 1972.
–Describes the gross anatomy and histology of stomachs and intestines of animals caught in northern Queensland shark nets; comments on secretions and muscular contractions of the gut, and the pH of its contents. "Sea grasses" were found even in the stomach of a "new born" calf.
x
 
Kenchington, Richard A. (detail)
   
1985
Dugong hunting in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
IUCN Bull. (Internatl. Union Conserv. Nature & Nat. Resources) 16(7-9): 89-90. 1 fig. July-Sept. 1985.
–Reports on the regulation of traditional hunting in the Hope Vale Community, Queensland, Australia. According to Kenchington (IUCN Bull. 17(1-3): 41, Jan.-Mar. 1986), authorship of this article should have been attributed to Claudia L. Baldwin.
Kendall, B. D.: SEE Pierson & Kendall, 1994. (detail)
x
 
Kendall, Beryl (detail)
   
1985
Sea cows.
Swara (Mag. of the East Afr. Wildlife Soc.) 8(1): 32-33. 2 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1985.
–Pop. acc. of sirs., emphasizing East African dugongs.
 
 
Kendall, Sarita (detail)
   
1999
Dolphins as people, manatees as maggots: incorporating indigenous knowledge and story into environmental education in the Colombian Amazon. In: Indigenous knowledge in/as environmental education processes.
EEASA Monograph No. 3: 5-12. Jan. 1999.
x
 
Kendall, Sarita (detail)
   
2003
La historia de Airuwe.
Bogotá, Fundación Omacha: 1-24. Illus.
–Pop. acc. of an orphaned Amazonian manatee calf rehabilitated, released, and radiotracked in Colombia by the Omacha Foundation.
 
 
Kendall, Sarita (detail)
   
2013
Caminos para la conservación: monitoreo y manejo de la fauna acuática con la comunidad.
Colombia, Fundación Natütama: [1-67]. Illus.
–Booklet on aquatic animal conservation intended for distribution to teachers, community leaders, and other citizens in the Amazon region of Colombia. PDF available at http://sirenian.org/library/. TI, 19-31, 59.
 
 
Kendall, Sarita (detail)
   
2020
Manatee trees: culture and conservation in Amazonia.
Bogotá, Fundación Natutama, 174 pp. Illus.
–ABSTRACT: This is the story of a community-based program to understand and protect the Amazonian manatee. It shows how working with an indigenous community to revive manatee stories and culture made it possible to stop manatee hunting in the Puerto Nariño area of the Colombian Amazon. An orphaned calf, Airuwe, was raised and released into the wild, while Ticuna fishermen and former hunters followed the manatees, discovering their seasonal habitats and interpreting their life under the water. Regular monitoring of the lakes and rivers resulted in over 5000 sightings in 16 years, establishing detailed migration patterns. Ticuna elders helped us to see the manatee from within their culture, giving us a different perspective on the relationship between people and animals. Out of this developed a long-term conservation and education program focused on the Natutama Interpretation Centre, run by Ticuna educators and guides.
 
 
Kendall, Sarita; et al. (detail)
   
2004
Los manatíes del Amazonas.
Bogotá, Fundación Omacha: 1-24. Illus.
–An attractive paperback booklet giving a gen. acc. of Amazonian manatee natural history, conservation, and folklore. Besides Kendall, 24 other coauthors are credited with contributions to the text.
 
 
Kendall, Sarita; Orozco, Diana Luz (detail)
   
2003
El árbol de los manatíes: caza, concertación y conservación en la amazonia colombiana. In: C. Campos-Rozo & A. Ulloa (eds.), Fauna socializada: tendencias en el manejo participativo de la fauna en América Latina.
?Bogotá, Fundación Natura, MacArthur Foundation & Instituto Colombiano de Antropología y Historia: 215-237. 10 figs.
 
 
Kendall, W. L.; Hines, J. E.; Nichols, J. D. (detail)
   
2003
Adjusting multistate capture-recapture models for misclassification bias: manatee breeding proportions.
Ecology 84: 1058-1066.
 
 
Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Runge, Michael C. (detail)
   
2004
Capture-recapture analysis for estimating manatee reproductive rates.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 424-437. 4 tabs. 2 figs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
 
 
Kendall, William L.; White, Gary C.; Hines, James E.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Yoshizaki, Jun (detail)
   
2012
Estimating parameters of hidden Markov models based on marked individuals: use of robust design data.
Ecology 93(4): 913-920. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1890/111538.1. April 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Development and use of multistate mark–recapture models, which provide estimates of parameters of Markov processes in the face of imperfect detection, have become common over the last 20 years. Recently, estimating parameters of hidden Markov models, where the state of an individual can be uncertain even when it is detected, has received attention. Previous work has shown that ignoring state uncertainty biases estimates of survival and state transition probabilities, thereby reducing the power to detect effects. Efforts to adjust for state uncertainty have included special cases and a general framework for a single sample per period of interest. We provide a flexible framework for adjusting for state uncertainty in multistate models, while utilizing multiple sampling occasions per period of interest to increase precision and remove parameter redundancy. These models also produce direct estimates of state structure for each primary period, even for the case where there is just one sampling occasion. We apply our model to expected-value data, and to data from a study of Florida manatees, to provide examples of the improvement in precision due to secondary capture occasions. We have also implemented these models in program MARK. This general framework could also be used by practitioners to consider constrained models of particular interest, or to model the relationship between within-primary-period parameters (e.g., state structure) and between-primary-period parameters (e.g., state transition probabilities).
Kenney, Robert D.: SEE Rountree et al., 2002. (detail)
x
 
Kenny, R. (detail)
   
1967
The breathing pattern of the dugong.
Austral. Jour. Sci. 29(10): 372-373. 2 figs. Apr. 1967.
–Reports observations of a captive Australian dugong at Cairns Oceanarium. Its longest recorded dive lasted 8 min. 26 sec.; the average dive, 3 min. 1 sec. Forward progress was maintained during breathing, and a rhythmic pattern of breaths was noted.
 
 
Kent, Janet (detail)
   
1972
The Solomon Islands.
Newton Abbott, David & Charles; Harrisburg (Pennsylvania), Stackpole Books: 1-222. Illus.
–Dugongs in the Solomons said to be more numerous than whales; comments on superstitions of people of Malaita (22).
Kent, William Saville: SEE ALSO Welsby, T., 1967. (detail)
 
 
Kent, William Saville (detail)
   
1893
The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities.... Containing - an account, with copious coloured and photographic illustrations ... of the corals and coral reefs, pearl and pearl-shell, bêche-de-mer, other fishing industries, and the marine fauna of the Australian Great Barrier region.
London, W. H. Allen & Co., Ltd.: xvii + 387. Illus.
–Repr. of 1893 ed.: Melbourne, John Currey, O'Neil, 1972. Ed. 2, London, W. H. Allen, 1900. Dugong fishery, 310, 327-330.
Kenworthy, W. Judson: SEE Lefebvre et al., 2000. (detail)
Kenyon, Karl W.: SEE Reeves et al., 1992; Simenstad et al., 1978. (detail)
Keravec, J.: SEE Richard-Hansen et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Kerber, Leonardo; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa (detail)
   
2021
Endocranial morphology of a Middle Miocene South American dugongid and the neurosensorial evolution of sirenians.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 28(3): 661-678. 10.1007/s10914-021-09555-8 June 3, 2021
–ABSTRACT: Sirenians are placental mammals that comprise the extant manatees (Trichechus manatus, T. inunguis, and T. senegalensis) and dugongs (Dugong dugon). Since the late 19th century, cranial endocasts of extinct sirenians have been employed to study the neurological evolution of these mammals during the Cenozoic. Here, we analyzed the endocranial morphology of Dioplotherium cf. allisoni (MPEG 63–V) from the middle Miocene of South America to gain insights on brain morphology and encephalization. This sirenian was ca. three meters long, weighed approximately 800 kg, and inhabited coastal marine environments of northern Brazil 14.2 to 12.7 million years ago. The cranial endocast of this animal is lissencephalic, with two smooth hemispheres divided by a deep median sulcus and presenting a weakly marked Sylvian fissure separating frontal and temporal lobes. The olfactory bulbs are small (compared to Paleogene stem sirenians as well as terrestrial mammals), and the optic nerves were thin but long. The sphenorbital fissure and mandibular canal are bulky, indicating the presence of large sensory trigeminal components that innervate the facial region, which was presumably covered by perioral bristles and facial hairs used to feed and explore the environment. The encephalization quotient is 0.36 (Jerison's EQ) and 0.34 (Manger's EQ). Ancestral character state reconstruction suggests that, despite an overall slight increase in the degree of encephalization of sirenians, except for the extant Dugong dugon, other analyzed taxa present values below 0.5. This is in accordance with previous studies that have maintained that sirenians have a relatively small brain size compared to other tethytherians, perhaps associated with their lifestyle.
x
D
Kermode, Francis (detail)
   
1917
Palaeontology.
Rept. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Victoria, Brit. Columbia) 1916: 42-43. Pl. 9.
–Reports a tooth of "Desmostylus hesperus" from Vancouver Is., B.C. (This tooth, BCPM 486, was later made the holotype of Cornwallius sookensis.) Includes comments on the tooth by Lawrence M. Lambe (42) and a photo of the type locality.
 
 
Kerr, Robert (detail)
   
1792
The animal kingdom, or zoological system, of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus. Class I. Mammalia....
London, A. Strahan & T. Cadell; Edinburgh, W. Creech: xii + 644.
–"Trichechus Dugon", 118-119; "Trich. Manatus australis", 119-120; "Trich. Manatus borealis" (= Hydrodamalis), 120; "Trich. Manatus Siren" (= Steller's "sea-ape"), 120.
Kesner, Michael: SEE Kaiser, H.E., 1974. (detail)
x
 
Kettembeil, Sibylle (detail)
   
1995
Dugong vom Aussterben bedroht.
Natw. Rundschau 48(1): 29. Jan. 1995.
–Brief pop. acc. of dugongs and threats to their survival, including hunting, Persian Gulf oil spills, and destruction of seagrasses.
Ketten, Darlene R.: SEE ALSO Mass et al., 1997. (detail)
x
 
Ketten, Darlene R.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1992
Structure, function, and adaptation of the manatee ear. In: J. Thomas, R. Kastelein & A. Supin (eds.), Marine mammal sensory systems.
New York, Plenum Press: 77-95. 2 tabs. 8 figs.
–Rev.: D.E. Gaskin, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 10(3): 384-387, July 1994. Describes the anatomy and (using CT scans) location in the head of ear structures in Florida manatees. Calls attention to the possible role of the inflated zygomatic process in sound conduction. Concludes that the manatee has an essentially aquatic but non-acute, low-frequency ear with a relatively narrow range, poor sensitivity, and poor localization ability. Suggests that this could account for inability to avoid collisions with powerboats. Also notes hypertrophy of the chorda tympani, suggesting that taste is a very important sensory modality for manatees.
 
 
Khacher, Lavkumar (detail)
   
1998
Dugong dugong in the Gulf of Kachchh.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 95(3): 499. Dec. 1998.
 
 
Khalil, M. B.; Vogelsang, Enrique G. (detail)
   
1932
One [sic] some nematode parasites from South American animals.
Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abt. 1. Originale 123: 477-485.
–Describes the nematode Typhlophorus hagenbecki, n.gen.n.sp., from a Caribbean T. manatus at Hagenbeck's Tierpark, Hamburg (see also Travassos & Vogelsang, 1931).
Khan, Majeed: SEE Thomas et al., 1982. (detail)
Khitrov, Sofron: SEE Golder, F. A., 1922; Pekarskiy, P. P., 1869. (detail)
 
D
Khomenko, J. P. (detail)
   
1927
Desmostylus sp. iz tretichnykh plastov o. Sakhalina. (Desmostylus sp. des dépôts de l'île de Sakhalin.)
Izvest. Geol. Kom. (Leningrad) 46(3): 21-24. 1 pl.
–In Russian.
x
D
Khomenko, J. P. (detail)
   
1928a
Bemerkungen zu: E. Pfizenmayer, Ein Desmostylidenzahn von der neusibirischen Insel Kotelnyi.
Centralbl. Min. Geol. Pal., Abt. B: Geol. Pal. 1928(9): 519-520.
–Proposes the new name Neodesmostylus primigenius (520) for the tooth described by Pfizenmayer (1927) from the Quaternary of Siberia. It is now regarded as a mammoth tooth.
 
D
Khomenko, J. P. (detail)
   
1928b
Neue Ergebnisse über die Familie der Desmostylidae.
Mém. Soc. Russe Min. (2)57(1): 140-147. 2 pls.
 
 
Kiely, John (detail)
   
1991
A million years in the making.
American Way 24(3): 16, 18, 20, 22, 27. 3 figs. Feb. 1, 1991.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees.
Kigbu, E. E.: SEE Osakwe et al., 1988. (detail)
Kihira, Kenji: SEE Yoshii et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Kikuchi, Mumi; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki (detail)
   
2013
Application of acceleration data loggers to classify the behavior of captive Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).
Coastal Marine Science 34(1): 24-30. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Kikuchi, Mumi; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Souza, Diogo; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki (detail)
   
2012
The implications of turning behaviour performed by Amazonian manatees after release into the wild.
Journal of Ethology 30(1): 187-190. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI:10.1007/s10164-011-0290-0. Jan. 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Sirenians have dichromatic colour vision and tactile hairs but have not developed underwater echolocation. Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) live in turbid water and it has been unclear how they understand their surroundings. In this study, we recorded the 3D movements of two captive-raised Amazonian manatees. The results revealed that the manatees always swam in a circular pattern. Both animals used slower, narrower turning motions as they approached the flooded forests, which are abundant in aquatic vegetation. Therefore, we suggest that these two manatees swam in a circular pattern to detect all directions of their surroundings especially using sensitive facial bristles.
 
 
Kikuchi, Mumi; Suzuki, Miwa; Ueda, Keiichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Uchida, Senzo (detail)
   
2011
The differences in behavioral responses to a net obstacle between day and night in captive manatees: does entanglement happen at night?
Fisheries Science 77(5): 795-798. 2 tables. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1007/s12562-011-0388-x. Sept. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Entanglement in fishing gear occurs in endangered manatees and may result in serious injury or death. Such incidents may happen more frequently at night when the animal's visual sense is limited. In this study, we examined the differences in behavioral response of captive manatees to a net obstacle during light (day) and dark (night) periods. We used a plastic net as the obstacle, and video-recorded the manatees' behavior. The experiments showed that captive manatees avoided the obstacle during the day more frequently than at night, which suggests that the manatees can perceive the obstacle more readily during light periods. However, there was no difference in the frequency of bumping or actively touching the obstacle between light and dark periods. The results suggest that the manatees can recognize the net obstacle even at night by purposely touching it, but they avoid it less frequently, and that entanglement during light periods may occur during accidental bumping, rather than from a failure to recognize it altogether.
x
 
Kilmer, Frank Hale (detail)
   
1965
A Miocene dugongid from Baja California, Mexico.
So. Calif. Acad. Sci. Bull. 64(2): 57-74. 2 figs. Apr.-June 1965.
–Describes Halianassa(?) allisoni, n.sp., and compares it with numerous other sirs.
 
 
Kim, Sora L.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Churchill, Morgan M.; Suydam, Robert S.; Ketten, Darlene R.; Clementz, Mark T. (detail)
   
2014
Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.
Physiological & Biochemical Zoology 87(4): 576-584. 3 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1086/676309. Aug. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.
Kimura, Masaichi: SEE ALSO Furusawa & Kimura, 1982, 1995; Furusawa et al., 1993; Igarashi et al., 2000; Inuzuka et al., 2000; Matsui et al., 1984; Shinohara et al., 1985; Takikawa Sea Cow Geological Investigation Group, 1984; Yahata & Kimura, 2000. (detail)
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1977
Discovery of desmostylian molar from Rawan conglomerate sandstone member, Honbetu-cho, Nakagawa-gun, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 31(4): 167-170. 1 tab. Pl. 1. Maps. May 1977.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1978
Desmostylus teeth from the Hatsune mine, Setana-gun, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 84(9): 549-550. Sept. 1978.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1981
[On the fifth desmostylian specimen from Kamitokushibetsu, Utanobori-cho, Hokkaido, and its relationship with other desmostylians from Hokkaido.]
Jour. Fossil Research 13: 15-19.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1982a
A Desmostylus molar tooth in the fossil collection of the Hakodate City Museum, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 36(6): 351-352. 1 pl. Nov. 1982.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1982b
Sirenia.
Nature and Animals 12(6): 2-6. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1985
On Desmostylus from Hobetsu-cho, Hokkaido (Part 2).
Bull. Hobetsu Mus. No. 2: 51-62. 3 tabs. 10 figs. 7 pls. Mar. 1985.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Part 1 is Kimura & Akamatsu (1984).
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1998
[Ancient times of Hokkaido: pleasure of fossil museum.]
1-198. Illus.
–In Japanese. Pop. acc. of the geology and paleontology of Hokkaido, including sirs. and desmostylians.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
2000
... In: [Research report on Akan vertebrate fossils (first report).]
Akan City (Japan), Akan City Board of Education, Akan Vertebrate Fossil Study Group, 2000. March 29, 2000.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
2002
[Chap. 5. Summary of the second locality.] In: [Research report on Akan vertebrate fossils (second report).]
Akan City (Japan), Akan City Board of Education, Akan Vertebrate Fossil Study Group: 76-78. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Mar. 2002.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Akamatsu, Morio (detail)
   
1984
On Desmostylus from Hobetsu-cho, Hokkaido (Part 1).
Bull. Hobetsu Mus. No. 1: 11-23. 5 tabs. 6 figs. 6 pls. Mar. 1984.
–In Japanese. Part 2 is Kimura (1985).
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Oguri, Hiroshi (detail)
   
1985
Largest desmostylian humerus and patella.
Jour. Fossil Research 18: 11-20. 1 tab. 8 figs. 3 pls.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Takaku, Kouichi (detail)
   
1979
A Desmostylus molar from the upper course of the Sankebetsu-kawa, Haboro-cho, Tomamae-gun, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 33(4): 233-235. July 1979.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Kumano, Sumio (detail)
   
1978
Additional specimens of Desmostylus molars from Kamitokushibetsu, Utanobori-cho, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 84(10): 621-623. Oct. 1978.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kimura, Masaichi; Furusawa, Hitoshi; Sagayama, Tsumoru, Igarashi, Yaeko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Fukusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1995
Geologic age and paleoenvironment of fossil sirenian-bearing deposits (Kinkomanai Formation) in the Shosambetsu region of northern Hokkaido, Japan.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 101(5): 345-352. 2 tabs. 5 figs. 1 pl. May 1995.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Kokubo, Hidehiko; Kumano, Sumio; Matsui, Masaru (detail)
   
1987
Desmostylian molar found from Shimukappu Village, Yufutsu County, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 41(1): 61-64. 1 tab. 3 figs. 1 pl. Jan. 1987.
–In Japanese. Describes a tooth of Desmostylus.
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Sato, Yoshio; Goto, Hidehiko (detail)
   
1978
A molar of Desmostylus discovered at the Goryu section of Urahoro-cho, Tokachi-gun, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 32(4): 205-207. Illus. July 1978.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Kimura, Masaichi; Tonosaki, Tokuji; Akamatsu, Morio; Kitagawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Mitsuo; Kamei, Tadao (detail)
   
1983
Occurrences of Early-Middle Pleistocene mammalian fossils from the Nopporo Hills in the Ishikari Lowland, Hokkaido.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 37(3): 162-177. 2 tabs. 9 figs. 4 pls. May 1983.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Reports a partial skeleton of Hydrodamalis sp. from the Shimonopporo Formation (162, 165, 167, 169, 174-175, pl. 4).
 
D
Kimura, Masaichi; Yahata, Masahiro; Sawamura, Hiroshi; Segawa, Isao; Suzuki, Akihiko; Muraishi, Yasushi (detail)
   
1998
The vertebrate fossils and their horizon from Akan-cho, eastern Hokkaido, Japan.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 52(1): 44-50. 1 tab. 3 figs. 1 pl. Jan. 1998.
–In Japanese. Repr.: Research report on Akan vertebrate fossils (first report), Akan City Board of Education, Akan Vertebrate Fossil Study Group, March 2000, pp. 14-20.
 
 
King, Donald P.; Stott, Jeffrey L. (detail)
   
2002
The cytokines of marine mammals: biological properties and molecular analysis. Chap. 27 in: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.) Molecular and cell biology of marine mammals.
Malabar (Florida), Krieger Publ. Co. (xvii + 427): 289-299. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
 
 
King, J. M. (detail)
   
1967
[Title?]
Jour. Anatomy 101: 277.
–Note on hippomanes?
 
 
King, Jill M.; Heinen, Joel T. (detail)
   
2004
An assessment of the behaviors of overwintering manatees as influenced by interactions with tourists at two sites in central Florida.
Biol. Conserv. 117(3): 227-234. 5 tabs. 1 fig. May 3, 2004.
–Study conducted at Crystal and Homosassa Rivers, Florida.
King, Judith E.: SEE Harrison & King, 1965. (detail)
x
 
King, Phillip P. (detail)
   
1827
Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western coasts of Australia. Performed between the years 1818 and 1822. ... In two volumes ... Vol. II.
London, John Murray. Illus.
–On p. 183, the entry for Jan. 22, 1822, records that at Shark Bay: {"A seal of the hair species, like those of Rottnest Island, was seen on the rocks, probably of the same description that Dampier found in the maw of the shark; and also what was found by the French on Faure Island, which M. Peron supposed to be an herbiverous animal, and described as a dugon."}
 Dampier's record more likely also refers to a dugong. The footnote for the Peron citation reads "Peron, vol. ii. p. 227, et seq., and De Freycinet, p. 201."
 
 
King, Zelda (detail)
   
2012
Manatees.
New York, PowerKids Press (Rosen Publishing Group): 1-24. Illus.
–Children's book.
x
 
Kingdon, Jonathan (detail)
   
1971
East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa. Vol. 1.
London & New York, Academic Press: x + 446. Illus.
–Gen. acc. (with a number of erroneous statements) of dugongs and their occurrence and natural history in East Africa, with an interesting series of the author's sketches of dugongs from life and from photos (388-399, 431-432). These include drawings of the superficial musculature - the first ever published, but unfortunately not described or labeled. One of them is a figure of the skull with a transparent overlay of the facial muscles.
x
 
Kingdon, Jonathan (detail)
   
1991
Arabian mammals: a natural history.
London, Academic Press: vii + 279. Illus.
–Previously publ. in 1990 by the Al Areen Wildlife Park and Reserve, Bahrain? Pop. acc. of dugongs, with no new data and no significant discussion of their occurrence in Arabian waters (112-114, 2 figs.).
 
 
Kingsley, J. S. (detail)
   
1925
The vertebrate skeleton from the developmental standpoint.
Philadelphia: vi + 337. 324 figs.
–Sirs., 218, 300.
 
 
Kingsley, John Sterling (detail)
   
1888
Order VI. - Sirenia. In: J. S. Kingsley (ed.), The Riverside Natural History.
Boston & New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Co.: Vol. 5: 210-214. Figs. 112-114.
–Also an 1884 ed.?
x
 
Kingston, W. H. G. (detail)
   
1872
On the banks of the Amazon; or, A boy's journal of his adventures in the tropical wilds of South America.
London, T. Nelson & Sons: 1-512.
–Exciting account of a manatee caught by a jaguar (184-190); of doubtful authenticity, however, considering that the illustration on p. 185 is directly pirated from Marcoy (1869)!
 
D
Kinman, Kenneth E. (detail)
   
1994
The Kinman system: toward a stable cladisto-eclectic classification of organisms: living and extinct, 48 phyla, 269 classes, 1,719 orders.
x
 
Kinnaird, Margaret F. (detail)
   
1983a
Aerial census of manatees and boats over the lower St. Johns River and the Intracoastal Waterway in northeastern Florida.
Site-Specific Reduction of Manatee Boat/Barge Mortality Research Report (Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville) No. 2: iv + 56. 10 tabs. 20 figs. Oct. 1983.
–Presents and analyzes data from one full year on manatee abundance, distribution, movements, behavioral patterns, adult/calf ratios, effects of temperature and boat traffic, and population trends. Also analyzes in detail the distribution of boat traffic and its composition in terms of boat sizes. Concludes that the manatee population in northeastern Florida is likely to be unstable and declining, and makes recommendations for management.
x
 
Kinnaird, Margaret F. (detail)
   
1983b
Evaluation of potential management strategies for the reduction of boat-related mortality of manatees.
Site-Specific Reduction of Manatee Boat/Barge Mortality Research Report (Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville) No. 3: ii + 43. 2 tabs. Oct. 1983.
–Discusses pros and cons of methods of physical protection of manatees (propeller guards, artificial barriers, acoustic repellents, deeper dredging of channels) and passive detection and avoidance (boat speed zones, routing of boat traffic, marina siting policies, sonar imagery, public education). Describes some inconclusive experiments to test manatee response to high-intensity sounds (3-4) and the effectiveness of manatee detection by sonar (9-12). Recommends a combination of strategies, including public education, wise marina-siting policies, and boat speed zones, plus further research on propeller guards. Includes an appendix (20-43) illustrating numerous designs for propeller guards and related devices.
x
 
Kinnaird, Margaret F. (detail)
   
1983c
Site-specific analysis of factors potentially influencing manatee boat/barge mortality.
Site-Specific Reduction of Manatee Boat/Barge Mortality Research Report (Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville) No. 4: iv + 41. 15 tabs. 4 figs. Oct. 1983.
–Analyzes patterns of boat-related manatee deaths in relation to various measures of manatee and boat activity in Brevard County and the lower St. Johns River, Florida. In Brevard County, manatees seem to be hit more frequently while feeding than while engaged in other activities, and are killed by small boats as often as by large ones. In the lower St. Johns River, manatees are killed mainly by large vessels and barges, especially during the warmer months, and a greater proportion of adults was killed than in Brevard County. Data from scar patterns show no tendency for injured animals to avoid further boat encounters, but other evidence suggests that manatees do learn traffic patterns. Concludes with management and research recommendations for reducing boat mortality.
 
 
Kinnaird, Margaret F. (detail)
   
1985
Aerial census of manatees in northeastern Florida.
Biol. Conserv. 32(1): 59-79. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
x
 
Kinnaird, Margaret F. (detail)
   
1986
The manatee: South Carolina's summertime visitor.
South Carolina Wildlife 33(2): 6-10. 5 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1986.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and their occasional occurrence in South Carolina.
x
 
Kinnaird, Margaret F.; Valade, James (detail)
   
1983
Manatee use of two power plant effluents on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida.
Site-Specific Reduction of Manatee Boat/Barge Mortality Research Report (Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville) No. 1: iii + 63. 5 tabs. 6 figs. Oct. 1983.
–Documents manatee use of the effluents in relation to air and water temperatures, and describes local and long-distance manatee movements and site fidelity as shown by recognition of individuals by scars. Concludes that the Jacksonville plants are used only by small numbers of transient manatees, mainly at the beginning and end of winter, but that these plants may nonetheless be important to the manatee population on a regional scale. Makes recommendations for research and management actions at the Jacksonville plants. Includes an appendix showing the scar patterns of 36 individually identified manatees.
x
 
Kinzer, J. (detail)
   
1966
Beobachtungen über das Verhalten des Lamantin Trichechus senegalensis (Link, 1795) in Gefangenschaft.
Zs. Säugetierk. 31(1): 47-52. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Abstr.: L. Goettert (1966). Gives measurements of six individuals from Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast, and observations on feeding, locomotion, and breathing of one kept in captivity at Abidjan.
 
 
Kipling, Rudyard (detail)
   
1894
The jungle book.
London, Macmillan & Co.: vi + 212. Illus.
–Many later eds. Includes the short story "The White Seal", with its fanciful description of Steller's sea cow and other marine creatures of the North Pacific - as memorably entertaining as it is sirenologically inaccurate.
 
 
Kipps, E. K.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Pabst, D. Ann (detail)
   
2002
Skin density and its influence on buoyancy in the manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 18(3): 765-778. 5 tabs. 2 figs. "July 2002" (mailed June 20, 2002).
 
 
Kirby, Tim (detail)
   
1986
Making up with the mermaids.
BBC Wildlife 4(8): 391-395. 7 figs. Aug. 1986.
 
 
Kirk, Gustav (detail)
   
1967
Theriophylaxe. Erhaltung, Bewahrung und Schutz der Säugetiere.
Hohenbüchen, publ. by the author: 1-249.
 
 
Kirk, Gustav (detail)
   
1968
Säugetierschutz. Theriophylaxe.
Stuttgart, Gustav Fischer: 1-216.
 
 
Kirk, Gustav (detail)
   
1996
Frühe Zeugnisse über Anstrengungen zum Naturschutz für Seekühe.
Manati (Nuremberg) 11(2): 8-9. 1 fig. Dec. 1996.
–Short pop. acc. of some early efforts at sir. conservation, from 1755 to the mid-1900s.
x
 
Kirke, Henry (detail)
   
1898
Twenty-five years in British Guiana.
London, Sampson Low, Marston & Co.: x + 364.
–Relates anecdotes of two Guiana manatees brought to London (134-135).
x
 
Kirkman, H. (detail)
   
1975
A description of the seagrass communities of Stradbroke Island.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 86(12): 129-131. 1 fig. Mar. 1, 1975.
–P. 131: {"Seagrass also affords food for ... dugongs (personal observations in Tin Can Bay)...."} See also J.H.D. Martin (1975).
x
 
Kirkpatrick, Ralph D.; Cartwright, Anne M. (detail)
   
1975
List of mammals known to occur in Belize.
Biotropica 7(2): 136-140. July 1975.
–Lists Trichechus manatus manatus (139) on the basis of the reports of Charnock-Wilson (1968), Gaumer (1917), and A. Murie (1935).
Kirsch, John A. W.: SEE Johnson et al., 1994; Springer & Kirsch, 1993. (detail)
 
 
Kirshenbaum, J. (detail)
   
1980
Defending the defenseless.
Sports Illustrated 52: 13. Feb. 1980.
 
D
Kishida, Kyukichi (detail)
   
1924
Illustrated monograph of Japanese mammals.
Tokyo, Ministry of Agriculture: 1-429.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kishida, Kyukichi (detail)
   
1933
Mammalia.
Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten (Iwanami Lectures of Biology Series No. 11): 1-190.
–In Japanese. Places desmostylians in a suborder Desmodontia of the order Multituberculata.
Kiswara, W.: SEE De Iongh et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Kiszka, Jeremy J. (detail)
   
2007
Atypical associations between dugongs (Dugong dugon) and dolphins in a tropical lagoon.
Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 87(1): 101-104. Feb. 2007.
 
 
Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Muir, Catharine (detail)
   
2007
Disappearing dugongs in eastern Africa.
JMBA Global Marine Environment (Marine Biological Association of the UK) 5: 22-23. 3 figs.
–A full-color magazine article published by the Marine Biological Association of the UK (NGO).
 
 
Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Muir, Catharine; Jamon, Alban (detail)
   
2007
Status of a marginal dugong (Dugong dugon) population in the lagoon of Mayotte (Mozambique Channel), in the western Indian Ocean
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 6(1): 111-116. 3 figs.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong (Dugong dugon) is one of the most endangered mammal species in eastern Africa. Dugongs are exposed to many human-induced threats, such as by-catch in fishing gears and deliberate killing. In order to understand the conservation and management issues surrounding this species status assessments are needed. An assessment was conducted in Mayotte (Comoros, Mozambique Channel) in 2003 to determine the status and distribution of the dugong. Questionnaire surveys were carried out in August 2003 with local fishermen. Results of opportunistic sightings were collected from 1999 to 2005 (n=53), and aerial surveys were undertaken between July and November 2005. The three data sources provide historical and actual data on the status of the species. Dugongs were common in the lagoon before the 1980's, and then declined significantly due to hunting pressure and by-catch in fishing nets. In the 2000's, opportunistic sightings have been made regularly by recreational dive operators and microlight aircraft pilots. Recent sightings indicate calving in the lagoon of Mayotte, with several observations of mother-calf pairs. Measures to protect Mayotte's marine biodiversity, such as establishing a network of Marine Protected Areas, banning fishing nets and developing pelagic fisheries is expected to help ensure the future survival of the dugong in this area.
Kitagawa, Yoshio: SEE Kimura et al., 1983. (detail)
Kitamura, S.: SEE Asano et al., 1978; Nishimura et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Kitching, G. C. (detail)
   
1936
The manatee of St. Helena.
Nature (London) 138(3479): 33-34. July 4, 1936.
–Supplements Mortensen (1934) with further records of "sea-cows" at St. Helena, including references in the Jamestown Public Records, 1679-1739, and two eyewitness reports. These sightings are now considered to have been of pinnipeds.
 
D
Klaauw, C. J. Van Der (detail)
   
1931
The auditory bulla in some fossil mammals with a general introduction to this region of the skull.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 62: 1-352. 18 figs.
–Sirs., 11-14, 17, 18, 32-33, 79, 140, 173, 191, 203-204, 235, 244. Desmostylians, 12, 32.
 
 
Klärner, D. (detail)
   
1986
Seekühe vor dem Untergang?
Kosmos (Stuttgart) 82(8): 87. 1 fig.
 
 
Kleen, Joyce M.; Breland, Amber D. (detail)
   
2014
Increases in seasonal manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) abundance within Citrus County, Florida.
Aquatic Mammals 40(1): 69-80. DOI:10.1578/AM.40.1.2014.69.
–ABSTRACT: Identified as critical winter manatee habitat, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has documented a significant increase in peak and average Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) counts during the winter months in Citrus County and Kings Bay, Florida. Manatees use the warm 22 degrees C spring-fed waters of Kings Bay when water temperatures drop below 20 degrees C in the Gulf of Mexico. The USFWS manages winter manatee sanctuaries positioned over and near the bay's warm-water springs. Simple linear regressions of aerial survey data collected between 1983 and 2012 indicate that the peak counts for the survey period were 654 manatees occurring on 5 January 2012 in Citrus County and 566 manatees occurring on 13 January 2010 in Kings Bay. The average winter count has increased from 102 +/- 5 (1983) to 216 +/- 49 (2012) in Citrus County and from 73 +/- 6 (1983) to 148 +/- 41 (2012) in Kings Bay. Summer surveys were conducted consistently between 2004 and 2012. No significant change in peak or average manatee abundance was detected during this period. The increase in winter manatee counts prompted the need to review existing manatee protection measures, including manatee use within the sanctuaries. Additional analysis of habitat quality (i.e., salinity, plant community, disturbance caused by human recreation) on the abundance and distribution of manatees in the bay is needed to promote adaptive manatee management in the bay.
 
 
Klein, Arnold (detail)
   
1999
Dugong, manatee, sea cow.
New York, Tsimmes Editions: [1-24.] Illus. (12 pp. of text, numbered "A"-"L", with silhouettes of manatees on facing pages.)
–A prose poem in 295 lines, recounting sir. lore from various cultures and exploitation of sirs. by humans.
x
 
Klein, Earl H. (detail)
   
1979
Review of the status of manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Honduras, Central America.
Ceiba 23(1): 21-28.
–Spanish summ. Describes existing protective legislation, summarizes manatee distribution based on interviews and some sightings, and describes harpooning methods and public attitudes toward manatee protection.
 
 
Klein, Jacob Theodor (detail)
   
1741
Historiae piscium naturalis promovendae Missus secundus de piscibus per pulmones spirantibus ad iustum numerum et ordinem redigendis. Accesserunt singularia: de I. Dentibus balaenarum et elephantinis. II. Lapide manati et tiburonis.
Gedani [= Danzig], Litteris Schreiberianis: 1-38.
–Allen 218. The first part of the work appeared in 1740. "Ossa petrosa manati", 33-38, pl. 4: figs. 5-7.
 
 
Klein, Jacob Theodor (detail)
   
1751
Qvadrvpedvm dispositio brevisque historia natvralis.
Lipsiae [= Leipzig], Ionam Schmidt: 1-127. 5 pls.
–Allen 256. Manatus, 94, 95.
x
 
Kleinschmidt, Adolf (detail)
   
1951
Über ein Skelet und eine Rekonstruktion des äusseren Habitus der Riesenseekuh, Rhytina gigas Zimmermann 1780.
Zool. Anz. 146(9/10): 292-314. 11 figs. May 1951.
–Lists material of Hydrodamalis gigas known to be in various museums, describes bones in the Braunschweig Museum, and describes in detail the construction of a scale model of the animal based on Steller's account and on a mounted skeleton.
x
 
Kleinschmidt, Adolf (detail)
   
1982
Wissenswertes über die Säugerordnung der Seekühe (Sirenia) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Stellerschen Riesenseekuh Rhytina gigas (Zimmermann, 1780) sowie ihre hochgradige Anpassung an das Wasserleben im Vergleich zu den Walen.
Braunschw. Naturk. Schr. 1(3): 367-418. 7 tabs. 23 figs. Oct. 1982.
–Engl. summ. Discusses skeletons of Hydrodamalis gigas in various museums, details of old and new Hydrodamalis reconstructions, comparative bone density, pelvic, skull, and snout structure in various sirs., phylogeny and distribution of fossil and Recent sirs., and generalities about aquatic adaptation and locomotion. A rather random assortment of information and misinformation, much of it seriously outdated due to failure to cite many important papers of the previous three decades.
x
 
Kleinschmidt, Adolf (detail)
   
1983
Notiz zu weiterem Skelet-Material der Stellerschen Riesenseekuh Rhytina gigas (Sirenia, Mammalia).
Braunschw. Naturk. Schr. 1(4): 763-765. 1 fig. Oct. 1983.
–Lists material of Hydrodamalis gigas in the museums at Darmstadt, Göteborg, Lund, and Uppsala; reproduces and comments on an illustration of manatee bones and "Sirens" from Bartholin (1661).
Kleinschmidt, Traute: SEE ALSO Czelusniak et al., 1990; Jacquet et al., 1989. (detail)
x
 
Kleinschmidt, Traute; Braunitzer, Gerhard; in cooperation with Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1988
The primary structure of the hemoglobin of the Brazilian manatee (Trichechus inunguis, Sirenia).
Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369: 507-512. 3 tabs. 3 figs. June 1988.
–German summ. Best died before seeing the completed manuscript of this paper. Reports that T. inunguis hemoglobin has only one component, describes the primary structures of its a- and ß-chains, and concludes that several hemoglobin synapomorphies support the monophyletic grouping of the Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Hyracoidea and show the Paenungulata to be the most anciently separated branch of the Eutheria.
 
 
Kleinschmidt, Traute; Czelusniak, John; Goodman, Morris; Braunitzer, Gerhard (detail)
   
1986
Paenungulata: a comparison of the hemoglobin sequences from elephant, hyrax and manatee.
Molec. Biol. Evol. 3(5): 427-435.
 
 
Klima, Milan (detail)
   
1999
Development of the cetacean nasal skull.
Advances Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 149: viii + 143. Illus.
–Rev.: J.E. Heyning, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 17(2): 425-426, Mar. 13, 2001.
 
 
Klinge, P. (detail)
   
1968
Seacow safari.
Amer. Biol. Teacher 30(3): 200.
–Account of manatees and a weed-control project on the Chagres River, Panama Canal Zone.
 
 
Klishin, V. O.; Pezo Diaz, Roberto; Popov, Vladimir V.; Supin, Alexander Ya. (detail)
   
1990
Some characteristics of hearing of the Brazilian manatee, Trichechus inunguis.
Aquatic Mammals 16(3): 139-144. 8 figs.
 
 
Klös, H. G.; Lange, J. (detail)
   
1985
Vom Seepferdchen bis zum Krokodil. Vergangenheit und Gegenwart des Berliner Zoo-Aquariums.
Berliner Forum 4/85.
–Mentions a manatee kept at the Berlin Aquarium for over a month in 1884.
 
 
Klunzinger, C. B. (detail)
   
1871
Über den Fang und die Anwendung der Fische und anderer Meeresgeschöpfe im Rothen Meere.
Zs. Ges. Erdkunde (Berlin) 6: 58-72.
–See also O. Ule (1871). Dugong, 64-66.
 
 
Klunzinger, C. B. (detail)
   
1878
Zur Wirbelthiere im und am Rothen-Meer.
Zs. Ges. Erdkunde (Berlin) 13: 61-96.
Klykov, V. I.: SEE Sukhanov et al., 1986. (detail)
x
 
Knappert, Jan (detail)
   
1995
Pacific mythology: an encyclopedia of myth and legend.
London, Diamond Books: 1-336. Illus.
–First ed.: Aquarian Press, 1992. Mentions legends from Malaysia and Indonesia that the dugong was once a pig or a woman, respectively, and recounts a story of the dugong's origin from the Manus Islands (68).
 
 
Knauer, F. (detail)
   
1914
Sirenen oder Seekühe.
Oest. Illus. Rundschau 2: 341-342.
x
 
Knauff (detail)
   
1905
Ueber die Anatomie der Beckenregion beim Braunfisch (Phocaena communis Less.).
Jena. Zs. Natw. 40 (=N.F. 33)(2): 253-318. Pls. 7-8. July 15, 1905.
–Comments briefly on the homologies of the pelvic bones in the Recent dugong and manatee (306, 309).
x
 
Kneeland, S., Jr. (detail)
   
1850
The Manatus not a cetacean, but a pachyderm.
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 3: 42-47.
–Compares the manatee skeleton with that of cetaceans and ungulates, and concludes that the Sirenia are much closer to the latter.
 
 
Kneissler, Michael (detail)
   
1985
Die Seekuh - weil sie so lieb ist, stirbt sie aus.
P.M. Magazin (Munich) 1985(9): 52-56. 9 figs. + 1 on contents page. Aug. 23, 1985.
 
 
Knight, Kathryn (detail)
   
2009
Manatees locate sound sources.
Journal of Experimental Biology 212(13): I-II. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.033985. July 1, 2009.
 
 
Knight, Kathryn (detail)
   
2012
Manatees should hear looming danger.
Journal of Experimental Biology 215(9): 1-1. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.073056. May 2012.
x
 
Knoll, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1958
Das morphologische Blutbild der Sirenen.
Vierteljahresschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 103: 332-333. Dec. 31, 1958.
–Summarizes the cell types observed in a smear of manatee blood. The blood morphology is considered "immature" relative to that of other mammals. The red cells included some with nuclei. See also B. Maupin (1969).
 
 
Knowles, Brittany Kaitlyn (detail)
   
2015
Social Interactions Between Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize.
Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center Capstone 99 pages. 1 table. 16 figures. July 2015.
–Abstract- Interspecific interactions are among the most common relationships organisms will experience in a lifetime. Social interspecific interactions are investigated less frequently, especially in aquatic habitats. This research provides examples of interspecific interactions across a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms with focus on social interspecific interactions within marine mammal taxa. This research will also emphasize social interspecific interaction between bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Antillean manatee (Trichachus manatus manatus). Published studies between these two species are scarce, but studies on similar taxa suggest that interactions between delphinids and sirenians are incidental, or even agonistic. Anecdotal research suggests that Antillean manatee have been observed occasionally interacting socially with coastal bottlenose dolphin in the Drowned Cayes. The review documents social behavior observed between manatees and dolphins in the Drowned Cayes, additionally it should serve as the first to document altruistic behavior between the two species.
Knox, Robert: SEE ALSO Robison, J., 1833. (detail)
 
 
Knox, Robert (detail)
   
1829
Notice regarding the osteology and dentition of the dugong.
Edinburgh Jour. Sci. (n.s.) 1(1): 157-158.
–Allen 728. Summs.: C., F.D., Férussac's Bull. Sci. Nat. 25: 350, 1831 (Allen 757); Isis von Oken 1835: 290 (Allen 858).
 
 
Knox, Robert (detail)
   
1831
Observations to determine the dentition of the dugong; to which are added observations illustrating the anatomical structure and natural history of certain of the Cetacea.
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 11(2)(23): 389-417. Pl. 15.
–Allen 764. Dugong, 389-400.
 
 
Kobayashi, Fumio; Miyazaki, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Shoji (detail)
   
1993
[Excavation report on the Shimo-akima sea cow fossil.]
Annaka City (Japan), Board of Education: 1-55. 6 tabs. 6 figs. 11 pls. 2 maps. Mar. 31, 1993.
–In Japanese.
Kobayashi, Iwao: SEE ALSO Horikawa et al., 1987. (detail)
 
D
Kobayashi, Iwao (detail)
   
1973
Preliminary study of the distribution of some elements in mammalian teeth fossils by the electron microprobe.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 79(5): 341-348.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Kobayashi, Iwao; Kamei, Tadao (detail)
   
1973
A histological study on a tooth of Paleoparadoxia.
Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Geol. Min. 40(1): 13-25. 1 tab. 4 figs. Pls. 2-3. Sept. 10, 1973.
 
D
Kobayashi, Iwao; Takahashi, Keiichi; Horikawa, Hideo (detail)
   
1988
[Neogene marine mammal fossils from Niigata Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 18-21. 1 fig. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
Kobayashi, Shoji: SEE ALSO Kobayashi et al., 1993. (detail)
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji (detail)
   
1994
On the comparison of the fossil sirenian skull from the Shiotsubo Formation (Upper Miocene) in Takasato, Fukushima Prefecture, with those of Dusisiren jordani and Dusisiren dewana.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collaboration in Japan 43: 91-97. 4 figs. 1 pl. July 1994.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji (detail)
   
1998
Summary of sirenian (Hydrodamalinae) fossils from Japan.
[Serial?] 1998: 105-116. 4 figs. Mar. 1998.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji (detail)
   
2002
Halitheriine Sirenia from the Itahana Formation (late middle Miocene-early late Miocene) in Annaka, Gunma Prefecture, central Japan.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 56(3): 179-190. 2 tabs. 9 figs. May 2002.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes a partial skeleton (scapula, sternum, vertebrae, and ribs; called the "Shimoakima specimen") as an indeterminate halitheriine.
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji; Aizu Fossil Research Group (detail)
   
1988
[Marine mammal fossils from Takasato, Fukushima Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 9-10. 1 fig. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji; Horikawa, Hideo; Miyazaki, Shigeo (detail)
   
1995
A new species of Sirenia (Mammalia: Hydrodamalinae) from the Shiotsubo Formation in Takasato, Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 15(4): 815-829. 5 tabs. 12 figs. Dec. 27, 1995.
–Abstr.: East Asian Tertiary/Quaternary Newsletter No. 21: 130-131, 1995. Describes Dusisiren takasatensis, n.sp.
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji; Nagasawa, Kazuo (detail)
   
1998
Morphology of the thorax, ribs and thracics [sic] of Dusisiren dewana.
[Serial?] 1998: 91-104. 8 figs. Mar. 1998.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Kobayashi, Shoji; Tazaki, Kazue (detail)
   
2006
Evolutional change of the masticating and spinal movement in Hydrodamalinae.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 60: 49-62. 1 tab. 8 figs.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Koch, Antal (= Anton) (detail)
   
1886
Harmadik pótlék Erdély ősemlősei és az ösemberre vonatkozó leleteinek kimutatásához.
Orvos-Temészettud. Értesítő (Cluj) 8: 21-24.
–Reports a molar of Halitherium sp. from Cluj, Romania (22).
 
 
Koch, Antal (= Anton) (detail)
   
1894
Az Erdélyrészi medencze harmadkori képződeményei. I. rész. Paleogén csoport. (Die Tertiärbildungen des Beckens der siebenbőrgischen Landestheile. I. Paläogene Abtheilung.)
Földt. Intézet. Évkön. (= Mitt. Jahrb. Ungar. Geol. Anst.) 10(6): 177-399. 7 figs. Pls. 6-9.
 
 
Koch, Antal (= Anton) (detail)
   
1900
A magyar korona országai kövült gerinczesállat maradványainak rendszeres átnézete.
Magyar Orvosok és Természetvizsgálók Vándorgyülésének Munkálatai (Budapest) 30.
 
 
Koch, Antal (= Anton) (detail)
   
1904
Kövült czápafogak és emlősmaradványok Felsőesztergályról, Nógrd Vármegyében.
Földt. Közlöny 34: 190-203. 1 fig. 1 pl.
–Describes "Halitherium sp. ind. (aff. Schinzi, Kaup.)", 198-199; pl. 1, figs. 8a-d.
 
 
Koch, Antal (= Anton) (detail)
   
1911
Újabb földtani és őslénytani megfigyelések a Budai-hegységben. 3. Halitherium-borda a törökbálinti felső-oligocén-homokból. (Eine Halitheriumrippe aus dem oberoligozänen Sand von Törökbálini.)
Földt. Közlöny 41(7-8): 548 (Hungarian), 600-601 (German).
Koch, Paul L.: SEE Clementz et al., 2003. (detail)
x
 
Koch-Grünberg, Theodor (detail)
   
1928
Vom Roroima zum Orinoco: Ergebnisse einer Reise in Nordbrasilien und Venezuela in den Jahren 1911-1913.... Vierter Band: Sprachen.
Stuttgart, Strecker & Schröder: xii + 357. 1 map.
–Under Carib languages, gives the Taulipáng word for "Manati" as apí:na (37).
Kochman, Howard I.: SEE ALSO Buckingham et al., 1999; Deutsch et al., 2003; Etheridge et al., 1985; Irvine, Caffin, & Kochman, 1981; Irvine et al., 1982; Lefebvre & Kochman, 1991; Marmontel et al., 1996; O'Shea, Beck et al., 1985; O'Shea & Kochman, 1990; O'Shea et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Kochman, Howard I.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1983
Use of Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida by the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 69-124. 4 tabs. 34 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Summ.: Kochman et al. (1985). Describes the physical characteristics and aquatic flora of Kings Bay, mapping the flora's distribution in detail; gives results of aerial surveys of manatees in the bay, 1977-81, with detailed maps for each month; and describes observations of behavior and diurnal movements within the bay.
x
 
Kochman, Howard I.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1985
Temporal and spatial distribution of manatees in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 49(4): 921-924. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–An abridgement of Kochman et al., 1983. Presents aerial-survey data on manatee use of Kings Bay, 1977-1981.
Kock, D.: SEE Yalden et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Koehn, Ch. (detail)
   
1973
Bergung von Skelettfragmenten einer Seekuh im Tagebau Profen.
Fundgrube (Berlin, Kulturbund der DDR, Abt. Natur u. Heimat) 10(3/4): 51-54. 2 figs.
Koelsch, Jessica Kadel: SEE ALSO Kadel, Jessica J.; Gorzelany & Koelsch, 1995. (detail)
 
 
Koelsch, Jessica Kadel (detail)
   
1995
The seasonal (re)use of the Sarasota Bay area by manatees [abstr.].
Florida Scientist 58, Suppl. 1: 9.
x
 
Koelsch, Jessica Kadel (detail)
   
1996
Sarasota's manatees.
Mote News (Sarasota, Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory) 41(3): 8-10. 4 figs. Fall 1996.
–Gen. acc. of Mote Marine Lab's research on manatees in Sarasota County, Florida, including photographic identification studies, focal-animal behavioral observations, and habitat studies. See also Appendix 1.
 
 
Koelsch, Jessica Kadel (detail)
   
2001
Reproduction in female manatees observed in Sarasota Bay, Florida.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 17(2): 331-342. 4 tabs. "Apr. 2001" (mailed Mar. 13, 2001).
 
 
Koenigswald, Gustav Heinrich Ralph von (detail)
   
1933
Beiträge zur Kenntniss der fossilen Wirbeltiere Javas.
Wetens. Meded. Dienst Mijnb. Ned. Indië No. 23: 1-127. 28 pls.
–Describes Cryptomastodon martini.
x
 
Koenigswald, Gustav Heinrich Ralph von (detail)
   
1952
Fossil sirenians from Java.
Proc. Sect. Sci. Nederl. Akad. Wetens., Ser. B (Phys. Sci.) 55(5): 610-612. 1 fig. Nov.-Dec. 1952.
–Mentions Upper Eocene and Lower Miocene sir. fragments from Java, and describes Indosiren javanense [sic], n.gen.n.sp., from the Upper Miocene. Suggests that Indosiren is ancestral to Halicore, and states that Cryptomastodon is not a sirenian.
x
D
Koenigswald, Wighart von (detail)
   
2011
Diversity of hypsodont teeth in mammalian dentitions - construction and classification.
Palaeontographica, Abt. A: Palaeozoology - Stratigraphy 294(1-3): 63-94. 3 tabs. 9 figs. July 2011.
–Classifies the hypsodonty of Desmostylus hesperus as "multicusped hypsodonty" based on its construction and ontogeny (70, 79, 94).
x
 
Koeppel, Dan (detail)
   
1999
Kiss of the manatee.
Travel Holiday 182(1): 66, 68-69. 6 figs. "Feb. 1999" (mailed Jan. 1999).
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees, their conservation problems, and places where they can be observed.
Kohler, Maria Cláudia M.: SEE Grubel da Silva, Soavinski, et al., 1992. (detail)
Kohn, Anna: SEE Travassos et al., 1969. (detail)
Kohno, Naoki: SEE ALSO Furusawa & Kohno, 1994; Hasegawa et al., 1988; Inuzuka et al., 2000. (detail)
 
D
Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
1987
[Relationships of pinnipeds and other fossil mammals from the Mizunami Group.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 29-34. 3 tabs. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
2000
A centenary of studies on the holotype (NSM-PV 5600) of Desmostylus japonicus Tokunaga and Iwasaki, 1914. In: Inuzuka et al. (eds.), Evolution of Desmostylia ... (q.v.).
Bull. Ashoro Mus. Pal. No. 1: 137-151. 7 figs. Mar. 29, 2000.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Kohno, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1988
[First discovery of Imagotaria from Japan and its significance.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 87-89. 2 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kohno, Naoki; Takaizumi, Yukihiro (detail)
   
1992
The first record of the halitheriine dugongid (Sirenia: Dugongidae) in the western North Pacific Ocean.
Fossils (Tokyo) 53: 1-6. 3 figs. Nov. 30, 1992.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes an upper third molar and a fragment of a lower molar from the Late Miocene Aoso Formation, Sendai Prefecture, Japan.
 
 
Kohno, Naoki; Yakushi, Daigoro; Kobayashi, Eiichi (detail)
   
2007
Discovery of a skeleton of the Hydrodamalis sea cow from the Lower Pleistocene Iimuro Formation, Komae City, Tokyo, central Japan.
Fossils (Palaeont. Soc. Japan) 82: 1-2. 6 figs.
–In Japanese. Brief announcement with photographs of a partial skeleton including mandible, scapula, vertebrae, and ribs, associated with teeth of Carcharodon carcharias.
Koike, Isao: SEE Yamamuro et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Koizumi, Akihiro (detail)
   
1987
[Present status of marine mammal fossils from the southern Kanto region.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 15-17. 1 tab. 1 fig. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Kojeszewski, Tricia; Fish, Frank E. (detail)
   
2007
Swimming kinematics of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris): hydrodynamic analysis of an undulatory mammalian swimmer.
Jour. Exper. Biol. 210(14): 2411-2418. 1 tab. 6 figs.
 
 
Koken, Ernst (detail)
   
1893
Die Vorwelt und ihre Entwickelungsgeschichte.
Leipzig: viii + 636. 117 figs. 2 pls. Maps.
–Sirs., 487.
Kokubu, Hidehiko: SEE Kimura et al., 1987. (detail)
 
D
Kokufuda, Yoshiki (detail)
   
1987
[Marine mammal fossils from the Joban region.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 8-11. 2 tabs. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
Komatsu, Shunro: SEE Yamasaki et al., 1980, 1981. (detail)
x
D
Kondrashov, P. E. (detail)
   
1998
The taxonomic position and relationships of the order Hyracoidea (Mammalia, Eutheria) within the Ungulata sensu lato.
Pal. Jour. 32(4): 418-428. 1 fig.
–Transl. from Russian (Pal. Zhur. 1998(4): 95-105). Reviews cranial and mandibular characters, comparing Trichechus manatus and Prorastomus with tapirs, hyraxes, and proboscideans. Concludes that hyracoids belong in the Grandorder Paenungulata and not with perissodactyls, but in a Mirorder Procaviamorpha together with embrithopods, separate from the Mirorder Tethytheria.
Koop, B. F.: SEE Czelusniak et al., 1990. (detail)
x
 
Koopman, Karl F. (detail)
   
1976
Catalog of type specimens of Recent mammals in the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 128(1): 1-24. Nov. 15, 1976.
–Records specimen no. ANSP 2497 as a cotype of Manatus latirostris Harlan, 1824 (23). The original label states that it was "coll. by Dr. Burroughs" on the coast of East Florida in 1822.
 
 
Kooyman, G. L. (detail)
   
1973
Respiratory adaptations in marine mammals.
Amer. Zool. 13(2): 457-468. 3 tabs. 7 figs. May 1973.
 
 
Kooyman, G. L.; Andersen, H. T. (detail)
   
1969
Deep diving. In: H. T. Andersen (ed.), The biology of marine mammals.
New York, Academic Press: 83-84.
 
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1976
Negyven éve a gyűjteményben ismeretlenül: hazánk első ősemlősei a szirének.
Élet és Tudomány 40: 1875-1878. 7 figs.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and their fossil occurrences in Hungary.
x
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1977
Új Felsőeocén sziréna (Paralitherium tarkanyense n.g.n.sp.) Felsőtárkányból. [or] A new Upper Eocene sirenian (Paralitherium tarkanyense n.g.n.sp.) from Felsőtárkány, NE Hungary.
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1975: 349-367. 5 pls.
–Hungarian summ., 349-350; Engl. text, 362-367. The new taxon is based on a mandible, vertebrae, and ribs. It is thought to represent a separate lineage showing parallel evolution of features seen in Halitherium.
x
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1978
Fontosabb szórványleletek a MAFI Gerinces gyűjteményében (3. közlemény). [or] Major finds of scattered fossils in the Palaeovertebrate Collection of the Hungarian Geological Institute (Communication No. 3).
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1976: 281-290. 1 pl. Dec. 1978.
–In Hungarian and Engl. Describes a lower M2 of Protosiren cf. fraasi from the Middle Eocene of Felsőgalla, Hungary (Hung., 281-282; Engl., 288-289).
 
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1979
Fontosabb szórványleletek a MAFI Gerinces gyűjteményében (4. közlemény). [or] Major finds of scattered fossils in the Palaeovertebrate Collection of the Hungarian Geological Institute (Communication No. 4).
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1977: 313-326. 1 fig. 2 pls.
–In Hungarian and Engl.
x
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1980
Újabb adatok a magyarországi eocén szirénák ismeretéhez. [or] Contribution to the knowledge of sirenians from the Hungarian Eocene.
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1978: 385-397. 1 tab. 1 fig. 2 pls. Oct. 1980.
–Hungarian text, 385-389; Engl. text, 394-397. Describes a mandible and other fragments of Eotheroides sp. from Middle Eocene rocks in the Balinka Coal Mine.
 
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1981
Some complements to the knowledge of a Middle Eocene sirenian, Sirenavus hungaricus.
Fragm. Min. Pal. No. 10: 75-78. 4 figs. 1 pl.
–Concludes from repreparation of the holotype that Sirenavus is not a prorastomid.
 
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1983
Sirenavus or Eotheroides species (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Eocene of the Tatabánya Basin (Hungary).
Fragm. Min. Pal. No. 11: 41-42. 1 pl.
x
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1985a
The evolution of the Cenozoic sirenian on the basic [sic] of Hungarian fossil remains. [Abstr.]
Abstrs. VIIIth Congr., Regional Comm. Mediterranean Neogene Stratig., Symposium on European Late Cenozoic Mineral Resources (Budapest, Sept. 15-22, 1985): 314.
–Outlines the sir. fossil record of Hungary in the light of paleogeographic connections in the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene. The Hungarian sirs. of each epoch are thought to each represent a different evolutionary line.
 
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1985b
Legányi Ferenc munkássága az ősgerincesek gyűjtésében. [Ferenc Legányi as a collector of paleovertebrates.]
Fol. Hist.-nat. Mus. Matr. 10: 5-9.
–Engl. summ. Discusses Legányi's discoveries of sirs., including the types of Haplosiren leganyii Kretzoi, 1951 and Paralitherium tarkanyense Kordos, 1977.
 
 
Kordos, László (detail)
   
1985c
A magyarországi eggenburgi-szarmata képződmények szárazföldi gerinces maradványai, biozonációja és rétegtani korrelációja. [Terrestrial vertebrate remains from the Eggenburgian to Sarmatian of Hungary: biozonation and stratigraphic correlation.]
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1983: 157-165. 2 figs.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Kordos, László; Solt, Péter (detail)
   
1984
A magyarországi miocén tengeri gerinces faunaszintek vázlata. [An outline of Hungary's Miocene marine vertebrate faunal horizons.]
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése 1982: 347-354.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Kornhuber, Andreas (detail)
   
1899
Der Thebener Kobel. Ein Beitrag zu seiner Naturgeschichte.
Verh. Ver. Natur- und Heilkunde Pressburg (2)10 (= vol. 19?): 57-97.
–Publ. 1897-98? Sirs., 95.
 
 
Kornhuber, Andreas (detail)
   
1901
Ueber Halitherium-Reste.
Verh. Ver. Natur- und Heilkunde Pressburg 21: 80.
Korrubel, J.: SEE Cockcroft & Korrubel, 1997. (detail)
 
 
Korrubel, J.; Cockcroft, Vic G. (detail)
   
1998
Mermaids and sirens.
Divestyle 34: 36 pp.
x
 
Korschelt, E. (detail)
   
1932
Über Frakturen und Skelettanomalien der Wirbeltiere. Erster Teil: Säugetiere.
Beitr. Path. Anat. Allgem. Path. 89(2): 419-483. 65 figs. May 30, 1932.
–Describes rib fractures in dugongs (450, fig. 36), and a large cavity on the radius of a Florida manatee (451, fig. 37). He mistakes the fusion of radius and ulna in the manatee for an abnormal condition.
x
 
Kostanecki, K. (detail)
   
1923
On a remnant of the omphalo-mesenteric arteries in the manatee.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923(2): 273-276. 1 fig. July 6, 1923 (read Apr. 10, 1923).
–Describes the caecum and umbilical arteries in a 35-cm fetus of T. inunguis.
 
 
Köstlin, Otto (detail)
   
1844
Der Bau des knöchernen Kopfes in den vier Klassen der Wirbelthiere.
Stuttgart: x + 506. 4 pls.
–In ?1848 ed.: sirs., 78?
Kotsakis, T.: SEE Carboni & Kotsakis, 1983. (detail)
 
 
Kotzebue, Otto von (detail)
   
1821
Entdeckungs-Reise in die Süd-See und nach der Berings-Strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt. Unternommen in den Jahren 1815, 1816, 1817 und 1818....
Weimar, Gebrüder Hoffman: 3 vols. in 1.
–Later ed.: Vienna, Kaulfuss & Krammer, 3 vols., 1825. Russian transl.: St. Petersburg, 1821-23. Dugongs in the Palau Islands, 3: 125-126?
 
 
Kouadio, Akoi (detail)
   
2012
The West African manatee. Chap. 6 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 54-57. 1 fig. 1 map.
Kovacs, K. M.: SEE West et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
Kowalski, Kathiann M. (detail)
   
2011
Steller's sea cow: found, then lost.
YES Mag (Victoria, B.C., Canada) No. 85: 18-19. 4 figs. Nov./Dec. 2011.
–Pop. acc. of HG and its extinction, with brief comments on living manatees and dugongs.
 
 
Koyabu, Daisuke; Sánchez, Rodolfo (detail)
   
2012
Los dugones de Urumaco. Chap. 19 in: M. R. Sánchez-Villagra (ed.), Venezuela paleontológica: evolución de la biodiversidad en el pasado geológico.
Zürich, Universität Zürich (378 pp.): 301-311. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–Describes and illustrates a newly-discovered mandible of Nanosiren sanchezi from the Late Mioc. Upper Member of the Urumaco Formation, Venezuela.
Kozawa, Yukishige: SEE ALSO Suzuki & Kozawa, 1999; Suzuki et al., 2000. (detail)
 
D
Kozawa, Yukishige (detail)
   
1974
A histological study of Desmostylus molar tooth from Kamitokushibetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 80(4): 179-185. 2 figs. Pls. 1-2.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Kozawa, Yukishige (detail)
   
1984a
On the teeth structure of the food habitude of desmostylids.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 119-128. 9 figs. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
x
D
Kozawa, Yukishige (detail)
   
1984b
The development and the evolution of mammalian enamel structure. In: R. W. Fearnhead & S. Suga (eds.), Tooth enamel IV.
Amsterdam, Elsevier: 437-441. 1 fig.
–Considers the Sirenia to show the primitive mammalian condition, with round enamel prisms and no Schreger bands, whereas the Desmostylia are mentioned as having ungulate-like enamel (438-440).
 
 
Kozawa, Yukishige (detail)
   
1985
The evolution of proboscidean enamel structure.
Jour. Fossil Research, Suppl. 2: 45-50. Illus. Mar. 1985.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Mentions "Eosiren aegypticam".
 
D
Kozawa, Yukishige; Sagae, Toshiro; Mishima, Hiroyuki (detail)
   
1988
[Dental structure of Behemotops and Desmostylus.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 134-136. 3 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
x
D
Kozawa, Yukishige; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Mishima, Hiroyuki (detail)
   
1996
Development of tooth structure in aquatic mammals.
Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. (Monaco), Numéro Spécial 14(4): 353-357. 16 figs.
–Includes micrographs of enamel structure in the sirenians Eosiren, Halitherium, Metaxytherium, and Trichechus, and the desmostylians Behemotops, Paleoparadoxia, and Desmostylus, with brief comparative comments. (The specimens are not identified to species, nor are their sources given, making the taxonomy and hence the comparisons open to question.) Suggests that desmostylians, like Hippopotamus, ate fibrous terrestrial plants.
 
 
Krabbe, K. H. (detail)
   
1961
La glande pineale.
Wld. Neurol. 2: 94-102.
 
 
Kramer, A. (detail)
   
1929
Palau. In: G. Thilenius (ed.), Ergebnisse der Südsee-Expedition 1908-1910. Vol. II. Etnographie. B. Mikronesien. III.
Hamburg, L. Friedrichsen & Co.: xv + 362.
–Publ. 1926?
 
 
Krasheninnikof, Stepan Petrovitch (detail)
   
1764
The history of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski Islands, with the countries adjacent.... Published at Petersbourg in the Russian language, ... and translated into English by James Grieve....
Glocester, T. Jefferys: vii + 280. 5 pls. 2 maps.
–Allen 292. A greatly abridged transl. of the original Russian ed. (St. Petersburg, Akad. Nauk, 2 vols., 1755). This version was in turn translated into German (Lemgo, J. T. Koehler, 1766) and French (Lyon, Benoit Duplain, 2 vols., 1767; sea cow, 1: 313-325; Allen 302). For a complete French transl. of the original ed., see Krasheninnikof (1768). A second Russian ed. was published in 1786. The first Russian ed. has been republished (Moscow & Leningrad, 1949; sea cow, 288). Hydrodamalis, 132-136.
 
 
Krasheninnikof, Stepan Petrovitch (detail)
   
1768
Voyage en Sibérie, contenant la description du Kamtchatka, ou l'on trouve I. Les moeurs & les coutumes des habitants du Kamtchatka. II. La géographie du Kamtchatka, & des pays circonvoisins. III. Les avantages & les désvantages du Kamtchatka. IV. La réduction du Kamtchatka par les Russes, les révoltes arrivées en différents temps, & l'état actuel des forts de la Russie dans ce pays.... Tome Seconde.
Paris, Debure, pere: xvi + 627. 17 pls. 6 maps.
–Allen 305. This work forms Vol. 2 of the Voyage en Sibérie of l'Abbé Jean Chappe d'Auteroche (Paris, Debure, 1768). It is translated direct (and unabridged?) from the Russian original, and is greatly superior to Grieve's abridged translation (Krasheninnikof, 1764). Another French ed. (Amsterdam, Marc Michel Rey, 2 vols., 1770; sea cow, 2: 197-207) said to be a direct transl. from the Russian is merely a reprint of this one, with crude copies of the plates. Hydrodamalis, 446-454.
x
 
Kraus, James (detail)
   
1995
Florida manatee soft release.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 20(5): 8-9. 2 figs. Sept./Oct. 1995.
–Describes the rehabilitation of injured Florida manatees and the soft-release site developed at Merritt Island for their introduction into a semi-natural environment prior to release into the wild.
x
 
Kraus, Manfred (detail)
   
1987
Aktuelles aus dem Tiergarten.
Tiergarten Aktuell (Nuremberg) 3(1): 31-34. 2 tabs. July 25, 1987.
–Briefly reports the birth of twins to a captive manatee from Guyana, p. 33: {"Im Berichtsjahr gab es bei den Geburten einige tiergärtnerische Sensationen: Bei den Seekühen wurden erstmals Zwillinge geboren und aufgezogen. Mit bisher fünf Jungtieren steht Nürnberg an der Weltspitze in der Zucht dieser Art."} See also P. Mühling, 1987.
Krause, Ernst: SEE Lepsius, G.R., 1882. (detail)
Krause, W. J.: SEE Reynolds & Krause, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1858a
Beiträge zur Osteologie des surinamischen Manatus.
Müller's Arch. Anat. 1858: 390-425.
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1858b
Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Schädel-Baues von Halitherium.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1858: 519-531. Pl. 20.
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1859
Ueber die Deutung der Schädelknochen der fossilen Sirenen.
Verh. Ges. Deutsch. Naturf. Ärzte 34: 63.
–Publ. 1858?
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1862a
Beiträge zur Osteologie des surinamischen Manatus.
Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. Med. 1862: 415-427. Pl. 13.
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1862b
Der Schädel des Halitherium schinzi Kaup.
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1862: 385-415. Pls. 6-7.
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1870
Beiträge zur Osteologie von Halicore.
Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. Med. 1870: 525-614.
–Abstr.: Jour. Anat. Physiol. 5: 384?
 
 
Krauss, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (detail)
   
1872
Die Beckenknochen des surinamischen Manatus.
Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. Med. 1872: 257-292. Pls. 9-10.
Kreckman, Todd A.: SEE Patton et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Kretzoi, Miklós (detail)
   
1941
Sirenavus hungaricus n.g., n.sp., ein neuer Prorastomide aus dem Mitteleozän (Lutetium) von Felsőgalla in Ungarn.
Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici (Min. Geol. Pal.) 34: 146-156. 1 fig. 1 pl.
–Hungarian summ. Describes S. hungaricus (147), proposes the new names Masrisiren Abeli (152) and Halysiren (153) together with several new names for higher taxa, and proposes a general classification for the Sirenia.
x
 
Kretzoi, Miklós (detail)
   
1951
Új sziréna-tipus a Magyar Miocénből. (Neuer Sirenen-Typus aus dem ungarischen Miozän.)
Földt. Közlöny (Bull. Hung. Geol. Soc.) 81(10-12): 438-441. Oct.-Dec. 1951?
–Text in Hungarian and German; Russian summ. Describes Haplosiren legányii, n.gen.n.sp., on the basis of two lower molars from the Miocene ("Tortonian"; ?= Badenian) of Hungary, and compares it with other sirs., concluding that it lies between Metaxytherium and Felsinotherium.
x
 
Kretzoi, Miklós (detail)
   
1953
A legidősebb Magyar ősemlős-lelet. (Le plus ancien vestige fossile de mammifère en Hongrie.)
Földt. Közlöny (Bull. Hung. Geol. Soc.) 83(7-9): 273-277. June-Sept. 1953.
–In Hungarian; Russian & French summs. Reports sir. vertebra and rib fragments from the Early Eocene (Ypresian) of Dudar, Hungary, and comments on the functional significance of pachyostosis in hydrostasis. These specimens are now considered Middle Eocene in age.
 
 
Kretzoi, Miklós (detail)
   
1955
A hazai emlősállatok fejlődéstörténete. [Evolution of mammals in our country.]
Űtmutató A Társadalom- és Természettudományi Ismerretterjesztő Társulat Előadói Számára [Guide for Lecturers of the Public Association for Social Science & Science] (Budapest, A Társadalom- és Természettudományi Ismerretterjesztő Társulat [Public Association for Social Science & Science]) No. 29.
–Briefly discusses the fossil sirs. reported from Hungary (9-10).
 
 
Krishna Pillai, S.; Ambrose, J. D.; Sivadas, M. (detail)
   
1989
On an unusually large sea cow Dugong dugon landed at Mandapam, Gulf of Mannar.
Indian Counc. Agric. Res., Mar. Fish. Inf. Serv. Tech. Ext. Ser. No. 96: 12, 16. Illus.
–Hindi summ.
x
 
Kriznar, Matija (detail)
   
2006?
Morska krava izpod Rovnika.
Društvene Novice 35: 26. 1 fig.
–Illustrates an upper molar, possibly of Metaxytherium (M. krahuletzi?), from Slovenia.
x
 
Krogh, Martin; Reid, Dennis (detail)
   
1996
Bycatch in the protective shark meshing programme off south-eastern New South Wales, Australia.
Biol. Conserv. 77(2-3): 219-226. 3 figs.
–Lists five dugongs caught between 1950 and 1993 in shark nets in New South Wales, near the southern limit of the species' range in eastern Australia (221-223).
 
 
Krüger, Fritz J. (detail)
   
1988
Der Doberg bei Bünde. In: W. K. Weidert (ed.), Klassische Fundstellen der Paläontologie. Band 1: 21 Fundgebiete und Aufschlüsse in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Österreich.
Korb (Germany), Goldschneck-Verlag (208 pp.): 153-161, 199-200. Illus.
Krumbiegel, Günter: SEE Fischer & Krumbiegel, 1982. (detail)
x
 
Krumholz, Louis A. (detail)
   
1943
Notes on manatees in Florida waters.
Jour. Mamm. 24(2): 272-273. June 8, 1943.
–Presents records of manatees killed by freezes, and observations of five manatees in the Gulf of Mexico off Sanibel Island.
 
 
Krupp, Friedhelm (detail)
   
1991
Die Fauna des Persisch/Arabischen Golfes und seiner Küsten.
Natur und Museum 121(4): 97-110. 16 figs. Apr. 1, 1991.
–Brief account of the dugong population in the Gulf (103-104).
 
 
Krushinskaya, N. L.; Lisitsyna, T. Yu. (detail)
   
1983
[Behavior of marine mammals.]
Moscow, Nauka: 1-334. Illus.
–In Russian.
Kruskop, S. V.: SEE Pavlinov & Kruskop, 1995. (detail)
Ku, Teh-Lung: SEE Jefferson et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Kubary, J. S. (detail)
   
1895
Ethnographische Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Karolinen Archipels.
Leiden, P. W. M. Trap.
Kubilis, Paul S.: SEE Marshall et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Kubota, R.; Kunito, T.; Tanabe, S. (detail)
   
2001
Arsenic accumulation in the liver tissue of marine mammals.
Envir. Pollut. 115(2): 303-312.
 
 
Kubota, Reiji; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke (detail)
   
2002
Chemical speciation of arsenic in the livers of higher trophic marine animals.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 45(1-12): 218-223.
Kuga, Naoyuki: SEE ALSO Goto & Kuga, 1984; Hasegawa et al., 1988; Kamei et al., 1989; Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
D
Kuga, Naoyuki; Saegusa, Haruo; Kamei, Tadao (detail)
   
1987
[Paleoparadoxia from Tsuyama, Okayama Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 45-48. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Kuhn, Hans-Jürg (detail)
   
1965
A provisional check-list of the mammals of Liberia.
Senckenbergiana Biologica 46(5): 321-340. 2 maps. Nov. 30, 1965.
–Cites a record of T. senegalensis at Cape Mount (Robertsport) (333). Also includes a short history of mammal collecting in Liberia (321-323).
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1891a
Über die Anpassung von Säugethieren an das Leben im Wasser.
Zool. Jahrb. (Abt. Syst. Geog. Biol. Tiere) 5: 373-399.
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1891b
On the adaptation of mammals to aquatic life.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6)7: 153-179.
–Transl. of Kükenthal (1891a)?
x
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1896
Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Gebisses von Manatus.
Anat. Anz. 12(22): 513-526. 10 figs. Nov. 26, 1896.
–Describes the dentition of a 6.85-cm fetus of Manatus latirostris based on serial sections. The tooth formula is interpreted to be DI 3/3 DC 0/1 DP 0/3 + 3/3 deciduous "Backzähne." Presents evidence for the existence of a "prelacteal" dentition and for the compound origin of teeth.
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1897a
Vergleichend-anatomische und entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Sirenen. In: R. W. Semon (ed.), Zoologische Forschungsreisen in Australien und dem Malayischen Archipel, Vol. 4, Part 1.
Denkschr. Med.-natw. Ges. Jena 7: 1-75. 47 figs. 5 pls.
–See also part 10: 68 of Semon's Zool. Forsch.?
x
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1897b
Die Arten der Gattung Manatus.
Zool. Anz. 20(523): 38-40. Feb. 1, 1897.
–Gives diagnoses (based largely on external characters) of Manatus latirostris Harlan, M. senegalensis Desmarest (39), M. inunguis Natterer, and M. Köllikeri, n.sp., from Surinam (40). No specimens are cited in connection with the latter species description.
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1897c
Über die Entwicklung der Sirenen.
Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges. 7: 140-147.
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1897d
Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Sirenen.
Verh. Ges. Deutsch. Naturf. Ärzte 68(2?)(1): 181-186.
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1913
Säugetiere (Mammalia). In: Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: Vol. 8: 633-695. 42 figs.
–Sirs., 683.
 
 
Kükenthal, Willy (detail)
   
1914
Zur Entwicklung des Gebisses des Dugong, ein Beitrag zur Lösung der Frage nach dem Ursprunge der Säugetierzähne.
Anat. Anz. 45(23/24): 561-577. 11 figs. Mar. 13, 1914.
 
 
Kulatunge, D. (detail)
   
1963
[Title?]
Loris 9: 273.
–Dugongs hunted in Ceylon.
Kumano, Sumio: SEE Akiyama & Kumano, 1973; Kimura, Akiyama, & Kumano, 1978; Kimura et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Kumar, K. S.; Yamamuro, M.; Pitaksintorn, S.; Masunaga, S. (detail)
   
2003
Dioxins/Furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dugongs from the Thailand coast.
Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 70(2): 198-204.
Kumar, Kishor: SEE ALSO Sahni & Kumar, 1980; Sahni et al., 1980, 1983. (detail)
x
 
Kumar, Kishor (detail)
   
1991
Anthracobune aijiensis nov. sp. (Mammalia: Proboscidea) from the Subathu Formation, Eocene from NW Himalaya, India.
Geobios 24(2): 221-239. 4 tabs. 4 figs. 3 pls.
–Reaffirms that Ishatherium subathuensis is a sir. and not an anthracobunid, and that it is Ypresian in age rather than Lutetian (234-237).
 
 
Kumaran, Pl. (detail)
   
2002
Marine mammal research in India - a review and critique of the methods.
Current Science (India) 83(10): 1210-1220. 6 tabs. 1 fig. Nov. 25, 2002.
–Catalogs the shortcomings of Indian literature on marine mammal occurrences, 1800-2000. Dugongs are mentioned in passing throughout.
Kumasaka, H.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
Kunito, T.: SEE Kubota et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Kuntner, Matjaz; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi (detail)
   
2011
Phylogeny and conservation priorities of afrotherian mammals (Afrotheria, Mammalia).
Zoologica Scripta 40(1): 1-15. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00452.x. Jan. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Phylogenies play an increasingly important role in conservation biology providing a species-specific measure of biodiversity - evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) or phylogenetic diversity (PD) - that can help prioritize conservation effort. Currently, there are many available methods to integrate phylogeny and extinction risk, with an ongoing debate on which may be best. However, the main constraint on employing any of these methods to establish conservation priorities is the lack of detailed species-level phylogenies. Afrotheria is a recently recognized clade grouping anatomically and biologically diverse placental mammals: elephants and mammoths, dugong and manatees, hyraxes, tenrecs, golden moles, elephant shrews and aardvark. To date, phylogenetic studies have focused on understanding higher level relationships among the major groups within Afrotheria. Here, we provide a species-level phylogeny of Afrotheria based on nine molecular loci, placing nearly 70% of the extant afrotherian species (50) and five extinct species. We then use this phylogeny to assess conservation priorities focusing on the widely used evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness (EDGE) method and how that compares to the more recently developed PD framework. Our results support the monophyly of Afrotheria and its sister relationship to Xenarthra. Within Afrotheria, the basal division into Afroinsectiphilia (aardvark, tenrecs, golden moles and elephant shrews) and Paenungulata (hyraxes, dugongs, manatees and elephants) is supported, as is the monophyly of all afrotherian families: Elephantidae, Procaviidae, Macroscelididae, Chrysochloridae, Tenrecidae, Trichechidae and Dugongidae. Within Afroinsectiphilia, we recover the most commonly proposed topology (Tubulidentata sister to Afroscoricida plus Macroscelidea). Within Paenungulata, Sirenia is sister to Hyracoidea plus Proboscidea, a controversial relationship supported by morphology. Within Proboscidea, the mastodon is sister to the remaining elephants and the woolly mammoth sister to the Asian elephant, while both living elephant genera, Loxodonta and Elephas, are paraphyletic. Top-ranking evolutionarily unique species always included the aardvark, followed by several species of elephant shrews and tenrecs. For conservation priorities top ranking species always included the semi-aquatic Nimba otter shrew, some poorly known species, such as the Northern shrew tenrec, web-footed tenrec, giant otter shrew and Giant golden mole, as well as high profile conservation icons like Asian elephant, dugong and the three species of manatee. Conservation priority analyses were broadly congruent between the EDGE and PD methodologies. However, for certain species EDGE overestimates conservation urgency as it, unlike PD, fails to account for the status of closely related, but less threatened, species. Therefore, PD offers a better guide to conservation decisions.
 
 
Kuntze, Roman (detail)
   
1932
Benedictus Dybowski als Säugetierforscher.
Zs. Säugetierk. 7(1): 39-54. Pls. 16-17. Dec. 15, 1932.
–Describes Dybowski's work in the Komandorskies and his collection of Hydrodamalis bones, 1879-1885 (48-50).
Kuramoto, Taiju: SEE Yoshii et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Kuriandewa, T.E.; Kiswara, W.; Hutomo, M.; Soemodihardjo, S. (detail)
   
2003
The seagrasses of Indonesia. Chap. 16 in: E.P. Green & F.T. Short (eds.), World atlas of seagrasses.
Berkeley, Univ. of California Press: xii+ 298. 171-182. Illus.
–Notes dugongs kept in captivity at Ancol Oceanorium, Jakarta; Surabaya Zoo; and Sea World of Indonesia, Ancol-Jakarta, and reports briefly on their dietary intake and locality and mode of capture (180).
 
 
Kuroiwa, T. (detail)
   
1894
[The hunting ground of the dugong.]
Dobutsugaku Zasshi 7(83): 395.
–In Japanese. Discusses dugongs in the Ryukyu Islands and the Yaeyama Archipelago, and the sale of dugong products in China.
x
 
Kuroki, S.; Schteingart, C. D.; Hagey, L. R.; Cohen, B. I.; Mosbach, E. H.; Rossi, S. S.; Hofmann, A. F.; Matoba, N.; Une, Mizuho; Hoshita, Takahiko; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1988
Bile salts of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of bile acids.
Jour. Lipid Research 29: 509-522. 6 tabs. 5 figs.
–Reports that salts in manatee gallbladder bile comprise a mixture of bile alcohol sulfates, including α-, β-, and ω-trichechol, described here for the first time. Bile acids, previously thought to be present in all mammals, were not detected.
Kurosawa, T.: SEE Hasegawa et al., 2000. (detail)
Kurt, Fred: SEE ALSO Thenius et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Kurt, Fred; Wendt, Herbert (detail)
   
1972
Seekühe oder Sirenen. In: B. Grzimek (ed.), Grzimeks Tierleben.
Vol. 12: 525-535.
x
 
Kurtén, Bjorn; Anderson, Elaine (detail)
   
1980
Pleistocene mammals of North America.
New York, Columbia Univ. Press: xvii + 442. Illus.
–Chap. 16 (Order Sirenia; 340-342) summarizes Pleistocene records of Hydrodamalis gigas and Trichechus manatus.
Kusaka, Hajime: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
D
Kutsuzawa, Arata; Tan, K. (detail)
   
1954
Geology of desmostylid locality in Akira Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 60(706): 305-306.
–In Japanese.
Kuz'min, D. A.: SEE Galantsev & Kuz'min, 1989. (detail)
 
 
Kwan, Donna (detail)
   
2005
Traditional use in contemporary Ailan (Island) ways: the management challenge of a sustainable dugong fishery in Torres Strait. In: N. Kishigami & J. M. Savelle (eds.), Indigenous use and management of marine resources.
Senri Ethnological Studies 67: 281-302.
 
 
Kwan, Donna; Marsh, Helene D.; Delean, S. (detail)
   
2006
Factors influencing the sustainability of customary dugong hunting by a remote indigenous community.
Envir. Conserv. 33(2): 164-171.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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