Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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L

L'Écluse, Charles de: SEE Clusius, Carolus. (detail)
x
 
La Barre, Antoine Joseph Lefebvre de (detail)
   
1666
Description de la France equinoctiale, cy-devant appellee Guyanne, et par les Espagnols, El Dorado.
Paris, Jean Ribov: 1-52. 1 map.
–States that manatee meat was traded to the French, English, and Dutch by Aracaret and Palicour Indians of the Guiana coasts (14), and that manatees were "rare" in that area (31).
 
 
La Caille, Nicolas Louis de (detail)
   
1763
Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne-Espérance, par feu m. l'Abbé de La Caille....
Paris, Guillyn: xxxvii + 380. Illus. Map.
–Manatee, 229.
La Marre, L. H. de: SEE Duhamel du Monceau & La Marre, 1782. (detail)
 
 
Labach, Leopold Albert (detail)
   
1710
Dissertatio inauguralis medica de lapide manati ....
Halae Magdeburgicae [= Halle-an-der-Saale, Saxony], Recusum Literis Henckelianis: [1-21?]
–Treatise on "manatee stones". Available via Google Books at: http://books.google.com/books?id=bB5KAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Stahl+1710+Dissertatio+Inauguralis+Medica+de+Lapide+Manati&hl=en&sa=X&ei=z9iNT5CPCIH00gGXmMmkDw&sqi=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
 
 
Labat, Jean-Baptiste (detail)
   
1722
Nouveau voyage aux Isles de l'Amerique, contenant l'histoire naturelle de ces pays, l'origine, les moeurs, la religion & le gouvernement des habitans anciens et modernes. Les guerres & les evenemens singuliers qui y sont arrivez pendant le long sejour que l'auteur y a fait. Le commerce & les manufactures qui y sont établies, & les moyens de les augmenter. Avec une description exacte & curieuse de toutes ces isles. Ouvrage enrichi de plus de cent cartes, plans, & figures en tailles-douces.
Paris, Pierre-François Giffart (6 vols.). Illus.
–Allen 182. 1742 ed., Paris, Ch. J. B. Delespine, 8 vols. (Allen 221). Manatee, 2: 200-207, pl. facing p. 200 (1742 ed.: 2: 256-263, pl. facing p. 256). Allen says: "Very full original account of external characters and mode of capture, with an original figure - an adult clasping its young one to its breast. The figure, slightly altered, is given by Bellin, 1763, q.v."
 
 
Labat, Jean-Baptiste (detail)
   
1728
Nouvelle relation de l'Afrique occidentale: contenant une description exacte du Senegal & des païs situés entre le Cap-Blanc & la riviere de Serrelionne, jusqu'à plus de 300. lieuës en avant dans les terres. L'histoire naturelle de ces païs, les differentes nations qui y sont répanduës, leurs religions & leurs moeurs. Avec l'etat ancien et present des compagnies qui y font le commerce. Ouvrage enrichi de quantité de cartes, de plans, & de figures en taille-douce.
Paris, G. Cavelier (4 vols. in 2): Vol. 2: 1-375. Illus.
–The figure of the manatee, the ?same as the "original" one in the 1722 ed. but obviously based on that of Rochefort, is reproduced by Durand (1983: 172-173).
 
 
LaBonne, David L. (detail)
   
1998
Today's innovations in life-support technology set the stage for the 21st century.
Amer. Zoo & Aquarium Assoc. Regional Conf. Proc. 1998: 476-483. Illus.
 
 
Lacas, Sophie; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande; Cordonnier, Sebastien; Bouchon, Claude (detail)
   
2010
Primary production dynamics of Thalassia testudinum (Konig) seagrass beds in Guadeloupe Island, FWI.
Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 63: 508a. Nov. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The present work was realized in the framework of the project of the National Park of Guadeloupe of reintroduction of the manatee (Trichechus manatus). The aim was to study the dynamics of the leaf primary production, the associated litter and its micro-fauna in Thalassia testudinum seagrass beds in order to evaluate the potential grazing impact of manatees. According to sites, the leaf primary production fluctuated between 2.6 plus or minus 0.4 g to 4.0 plus or minus 0.7 g of dry weight/m(2)/day in the absence of grazing and between 0.9 plus or minus 0.3 g and 1.4 plus or minus 0.4 g of dry weight/m(2)/day when cutting the leaves to simulate manatees "grazing". Moreover, areas 50 cm x 50 cm were completely denuded from leaves and rhizomes to simulate the "rooting" by manatees. These areas have not recovered after three months. The average mass of leaf litter fluctuates between 36.12 plus or minus 7.5 g dry weight/m(2) and 6.2 plus or minus 0.9 g dry weight/m(2). According to sites, the decay of litter reached 82% and 69.6% in three months. The fauna associated with litter consisted mainly of polychaetes, crustaceans, plathelminths and nematodes, which constitute an important link in the seagrass food web. Results from this study show that manatees grazing might disturb the primary productivity of seagrass beds. It will be necessary to be careful in the choice of areas of acclimation in terms of surface and duration of use, and in the choice of the number of manatees that can be reintroduced in the seagrass habitats.
 
 
Lacépède, Bernard Germain Étienne, Comte de (detail)
   
1799
Tableau des divisions, sous-divisions, ordres et genres des mammifères.
Paris, Plassan, An VII [= 1799]: 1-18.
–Includes Manatus aequatorialis (nomen nudum), Dugong, n.gen., and Dugong indicus, n.comb. (17).
 
 
Lacépède, Bernard Germain Étienne, Comte de (detail)
   
1801
Mémoire sur une nouvelle table méthodique des animaux à mammelles.
Mém. Inst. (Paris) 3: 469-502.
–Mentions Dugong, 501.
 
 
Lacépède, Bernard Germain Étienne, Comte De; Daudin, F. M. (detail)
   
1802
Tableaux des mammifères. In: Buffon, Histoire naturelle, Didot ed., XIX, "Quadrupeds."
9: 254; 10: 251; 14: 194.
–Describes Manatus minor, n.sp., and M. indicus, n.comb., 14: 194.
Lack, Clem: SEE ALSO Cilento & Lack, 1959. (detail)
x
 
Lack, Clem (detail)
   
1968
Dugong fishing in early Queensland.
Newsletter Roy. Austral. Hist. Soc. No. 75: 4-6. Nov. 1968.
–A brief but fairly detailed history of the Queensland dugong-oil industry.
 
 
LaCommare, Katherine S. (detail)
   
2011
The Conservation and Habitat Ecology of Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Drowned Cayes Area, Belize, Central America.
Boston, University of Massachusetts: 1-160. 6 tabs. 21 figs. June 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The Drowned Cayes area of Belize, Central America is regionally important for the conservation of Antillean manatees in the Caribbean (Lefebvre et al. 2001; Quintana-Rizzo & Reynolds 2008). These islands are increasingly threatened by human activities such as tourism, development and population growth. The objective of this dissertation is to evaluate manatee habitat use and status in this area. The 5 specific objectives are to examine manatee (1) distribution in the Drowned Cayes, (2) use of seagrass beds and forage selection, (3) resting habitat use and selection (4) response to disturbance, and (5) trends in abundance and to suggest a method for monitoring manatees and other sirenians. The principal findings are that manatees utilize all habitat types within the area to meet a variety of their physiological and behavioral requirements. Some habitat types like seagrass beds and resting holes are clearly important components to the overall seascape. Manatees selectively forage on Halodule wrightii. Resting holes and seagrass beds that are adjacent to each other are a particularly important habitat configuration. Manatee habitat use seems to be resilient to mangrove removal, but foraging resources may not. Number of manatees sighted per scan over the duration of this study does not appear to have changed, but our method would not be able to detect a slight decline in abundance. Our survey protocol--point-based scan sampling from a small boat platform--is a relatively inexpensive, effective and repeatable method for monitoring sirenian population trends. By identifying important habitat types, foraging resources and resting areas, this research provides information that wildlife managers can use to promote watercraft guidelines and guide development decisions.
 
 
LaCommare, Katherine S.; Brault, Solange; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Hines, Ellen M. (detail)
   
2012
Trend detection in a boat-based method for monitoring sirenians: Antillean manatee case study.
Biological Conservation 152: 169-177. 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.02.021. Aug. 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Accurate monitoring is a critical step in evaluating the conservation and management needs of endangered species. We evaluated a low cost, effective survey method for monitoring West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America. The objectives for this paper are (1) to evaluate a count-based population index derived from a boat-based survey method, (2) to examine trends in manatee abundance in the Drowned Cayes area, (3) to conduct a power analysis to explore our ability to detect a trend and the ramifications of survey structure on trend detection. We used a generalized linear model to evaluate the impact of environmental conditions on sighting probability and to determine whether the number of manatees observed per 20-min scan changed from 2001 to 2007. We used simulations to determine statistical power – the ability to detect potential declines of 10%, 25% or 50% over 15 years and for various sampling regimes. The number of manatees sighted per scan was not affected by sighting conditions. There was no change in the mean number of manatees sighted per scan from 2001 to 2007. Our ability to detect a trend ranged from 9% to 100% depending on the level of decline, scan duration, number of points surveyed and number of surveys. This survey protocol is a practical and repeatable way to examine population trends of sirenians in similar habitats around the world.
 
 
LaCommare, Katherine S.; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Brault, Solange (detail)
   
2008
Distribution and habitat use of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Drowned Cayes area of Belize, Central America.
Aquatic Mammals 34(1): 35-43. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Lacreta, A. C. C., Jr.; Andrade, M. C. M. de; Legatzki, K.; Trinta, A. F.; Costa, E. M. M. (detail)
   
2010
Radiographic monitoring of radius fracture in Amazon manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 51(2): 205. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2009.01650.x. Mar.-Apr. 2010.
–ABSTRACT:
 Introduction/Purpose: The Amazonian manatee is an aquatic mammal classified as threatened with extinction mainly due to hunting for subsistence. A pup of Amazonian manatee calf was rescued on Marajó Island, state of Pará. The animal had restriction of movement and abnormal positioning of the left pectoral fin, with crepitation on palpation.
 Methods: After the rescue, the animal was sent to the Federal Rural University of the Amazon's veterinary hospital for radiographic evaluation. The radiographic examination indicated a complete oblique fracture in relation to the proximal-middle third of the diaphysis of the left radius bone, with loss of bone axis and overlap of the fracture fragments, radiolucent discrete point in correspondence to the cranial aspect of the distal metaphysis of the left humerus bone and irregularity of the bone surface in relation to the cranial aspect of the proximal metaphysis of the left ulna. The radiographic features suggested recent fracture. Conservative treatment was instituted, with restriction of space in the swimming-pool of 1,000 liters of milk diet enriched with calcium phosphate and vitamin D3.
 Results: The monitoring of the fracture consolidation was done only utilizing radiographs. In the 21th day, regular periosteal reaction was visible in correspondence to the extremities of the fracture fragments of the left radius, cranial-medial aspect of the distal metaphysis of the left humerus and cranial aspect of the proximal metaphysis of the left ulna. In the 43rd day, an intensification of the regular periosteal reaction was visible, with some evidence of bone lysis in the regions above (remodeling) and discrete filling of the fracture line by radiopaque content. In the 78th day and 106th day, the fracture's consolidation progress was visible with intensified radiographic aspects related to the process. In the 162nd day, it was possible to verify an ossified bone callus, absence of the fracture line, smooth and regular periosteal reaction, in correspondence to the cranio-medial aspect of the metaphysis of the distal left humerus bone and cranial aspect of the proximal metaphysis of the left ulna, suggesting bone remodeling. In the 319th day there was complete consolidation of the fracture with bone remodeling.
 Discussion/Conclusions: The radiographic monitoring of this case offered an excellent parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, given the fact that, due to environmental and anatomical factors related to the species, it was not possible to carry out treatments other than conservative. This report has significant value for conservation, since the literature does not offer much information about fracture treatment and radiographic follow-up in this species.
 
 
Ladd, John (detail)
   
1964
Archeological investigations in the Parita and Santa Maria zones of Panama.
Bull. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 193: xii + 291. 68 figs. 25 pls. 14 charts. 2 maps.
–Describes carved batons made of manatee bone from the El Hatillo site (150, pl. 1).
Ladds, P. W.: SEE Campbell & Ladds, 1981; Elliott et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Ladewig, G. (detail)
   
1934
Seekühe oder Sirenen.
Aquarium 1934: 199.
Laerm, Joshua: SEE Roth & Laerm, 1980. (detail)
 
 
Laet, Johannes de (detail)
   
1625
Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, wit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien by een versamelt.
Leiden, Isaack Elzevier: xxii + 526. Maps.
–Allen 57.
 
 
Laet, Johannes de (detail)
   
1633
Novvs Orbis seu Descriptionis Indiae Occidentalis Libri XVIII.... Novis tabulis geographicis et variis animantivm, plantarum fructuumque iconibus illustrati.
Lugduni Batavorum [= Leiden], Elzevirios [= Elzevier]: 1-104, 205-690. Illus.
–Allen 65: "Manati, p. 6, fig. The account occupies nearly a page; the figure is a copy from Clusius." This ed. is said to be much improved over that of 1625. A French ed. (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1640: 1-632; Allen 69) likewise has the manatee material on p. 6. Whitehead (1977) lists other eds. in Portuguese (1912-25) and Dutch (1931-37).
Lahiri, T. C.: SEE Basu et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
Lainson, R.; Naiff, R. D.; Best, Robin Christopher; Shaw, J. J. (detail)
   
1983
Eimeria trichechi n. sp. from the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Syst. Parasitol. 5(4): 287-289. 2 figs.
–Describes oocysts and sporocysts of this new coccidial protozoan from captive and wild manatees, the majority of which were found to be infected.
Laist, David W.: SEE Marine Mammal Commission. (detail)
 
 
Laist, David W.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2005a
Influence of power plants and other warm-water refuges on Florida manatees.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 21(4): 739-764. 3 tabs. 4 figs. Oct. 2005.
 
 
Laist, David W.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2005b
Florida manatees, warm-water refuges, and an uncertain future.
Coastal Management 33: 279-295. 3 figs.
 
 
Laist, David W.; Shaw, Cameron (detail)
   
2006
Preliminary evidence that boat speed restrictions reduce deaths of Florida manatees.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 22(2): 472-479. 1 tab. 1 fig. Apr. 2006.
–Study conducted in Brevard County, Florida.
 
 
Laist, David W.; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2013
Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.
PLoS One 8(3): e58978. 11 pp. 1 tab. 6 figs. Mar. 20, 2013.
Lal Mohan, R. S.: SEE ALSO Anonymous, 1993a; Nair et al., 1975; Nair & Lal Mohan, 1977. (detail)
x
 
Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
   
1963
On the occurrence of Dugong dugon (Müller) in the Gulf of Cutch.
Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India 5(1): 152. June 1963.
–Records two dugongs stranded in 1961 and one netted in 1962.
x
 
Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
   
1980
Some observations on the sea cow, Dugong dugon from the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay during 1971-1975.
Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India 18(2): 391-397. 6 tabs. "Aug. 1976" (publ. June 1, 1980).
–Abstr.: Proc. Ind. Sci. Congr. 63(4): 109, 1976. Also exists as a 6-page reprint with different page-breaks. Analyzes body lengths, sex ratio, and seasonality of occurrence of 146 dugongs entangled in fishing nets. They were captured throughout the year but were scarcer during April-July; the overall sex ratio was about 1:1.
 
 
Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
   
1991
Research needs for the better management of dolphins and dugongs of Indian coast.
Cent. Mar. Fish. Res. Inst. Bull. 44(3): 662-667. 4 figs. Feb. 1991.
 
 
Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
   
1993a
Struggle for survival: the threatened dolphins and sea cows.
Frontline (Madras, India), Mar. 12, 1993: 80-81. 4 figs.
 
 
Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
   
1993b
Status of seagrass beds and dugong of the Indian coast.
Indian Jour. Fisheries
 
 
Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
   
1998
Mortality of marine mammals along the Indian coast.
Tigerpaper (Bangkok) 25(4): 13-16. Illus. Oct.-Dec. 1998.
Lal, Altaf: SEE Morgan et al., 2000. (detail)
Lalana R., Rogelio: SEE Ortiz et al., 1992. (detail)
Lambe, Lawrence M.: SEE ALSO Kermode, F., 1917. (detail)
 
D
Lambe, Lawrence M. (detail)
   
1916
Report of the vertebrate paleontologist.
Summ. Rept. Geol. Surv. Canada 1915: 193-198.
–Desmostylia, 197.
x
 
Lambert, Olivier; Muizon, Christian de (detail)
   
2013
A new long-snouted species of the Miocene pontoporiid dolphin Brachydelphis and a review of the Mio-Pliocene marine mammal levels in the Sacaco Basin, Peru.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 33(3): 709-721. 1 tab. 10 figs. + supplemental online data. May 2013.
–Notes the presence of "cf. Nanosiren sp." at the ELJ (El Jahuay) vertebrate fossil level (Late Miocene; dated as between 8.85 and 9.38 million years ago) (719, fig. 10). This record is based on Domning & Aguilera (2008: 496).
Lamothe, F.: SEE Ackman & Lamothe, 1989. (detail)
x
D
LaMotte, Robert Smith (detail)
   
1935
An Upper Oligocene florule from Vancouver Island.
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 455: 49-56. 1 pl. July 1935.
–Mentions teeth of Desmostylus sookensis, associated with a temperate-subtropical flora in the Sooke Formation (51-52).
Lamphear, Marjorie: SEE Delaney et al., 1986. (detail)
Lance, Cynthia: SEE Kaiser, H.E., 1974. (detail)
x
 
Landa, Diego de (detail)
   
1941
Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatan. (A. M. Tozzer, ed.)
Papers Peabody Mus. Archaeol. Ethnol. 18: xiii + 394.
–De Landa's MS., dating from 1566, was first publ. in 1864; this is ed. 8. Durand (1983: 66-67) reprints the manatee material from the ed. of Héctor Pérez Martínez, México, 1938. The 1941 ed. includes a brief gen. acc. of "sea-cows" (misidentified by the editor as T. m. latirostris) being used for meat and fat in Yucatan (190-191). It also gives an interesting description of harpooning of manatees, and claims (implausibly) that "bats are accustomed to prick them" in the snout, causing death from loss of blood!
x
 
Lande, Russell (detail)
   
1978
Evolutionary mechanisms of limb loss in tetrapods.
Evolution 32(1): 73-92. 4 figs. Mar. 24, 1978.
–Briefly summarizes evidence on the evolutionary rate of limb loss in sirs. (74).
 
 
Landeo-Yauri, Sarah Sofía; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Williams, Martha (detail)
   
2017
Behavior and habitat use of released rehabilitated Amazonian manatees in Peru.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquat. Mamms. 12(1-2): 17-27. 3 tabs. 5 figs. https://doi.org/10.5597/lajam00234. Dec. 30, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is endangered due to illegal hunting. In Peru, the Centro de Rescate Amazónico (CREA) rehabilitates and releases rescued manatees. Three females and two males were released in El Dorado Lake in July 2011 and radio tracked until November 2011. Movements, habitat use and behavior recorded during the post-release period were used to evaluate the manatees' adaptation to free-living conditions. A total of 140 locations was registered during 91 days of tracking. Females showed greater residence time than males, which migrated out of the lake. Females selectively used the micro habitats of the study area, preferring floating vegetation, followed by open water and lastly shore macrophytes. Most idling behaviors were registered in areas with floating macrophytes, and open water was mainly used for traveling. No correlation between sighting hour and sighting location (micro habitat type) was detected. The use of suitable zones, in addition to natural behavior, suggests that these rescued manatees responded well to free-living conditions after release. Some considerations are provided with the purpose of strengthening manatee rehabilitation programs and improving future releases, emphasizing the importance of choosing appropriate individuals, as well as suitable areas and times to help improve release outcome.
 
 RESUMEN: El manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis) es una especie amenazada, principalmente debido a la caza ilegal. En Perú, el Centro de Rescate Amazónico (CREA) desarrolla esfuerzos para rehabilitar manatíes rescatados y liberarlos posteriormente a la vida silvestre. Tres hembras y dos machos fueron liberados en la cocha El Dorado en julio del 2011, siendo rastreados mediante telemetría VHF hasta noviembre del mismo año. El monitoreo post liberación incluyó el registro de los desplazamientos, uso de hábitat y comportamiento de los animales, con el fin de evaluar su adaptación a las condiciones de vida libre. A lo largo de 91 días de rastreo, se obtuvo un total de 140 localizaciones. Las hembras mostraron un mayor tiempo de residencia que los machos, quienes migraron fuera de la zona de liberación. También se determinó que las hembras usaron selectivamente los micro habitats en el área de estudio, prefiriendo zonas de vegetación flotante seguidas por aguas abiertas y finalmente orillas asociadas a vegetación. La mayoría de desplazamientos fueron observados en aguas abiertas, mientras que comportamientos de permanencia ocurrieron generalmente en vegetación flotante. No se encontró ninguna correlación entre el tipo de micro habitat ocupado y la hora del día. El uso selectivo de zonas adecuadas por parte de los individuos, sumado a reportes previos sobre el comportamiento de la especie en vida silvestre, sugiere que los manatíes liberados tuvieron una respuesta positiva a las condiciones del medio natural. Se incluyen algunas recomendaciones con el fin de fortalecer programas de rehabilitación y mejorar futuras liberaciones, enfatizando la importancia de seleccionar adecuadamente los individuos a ser liberados, así como las áreas y tiempos de liberación.
 
 
Landeo-Yauri, Sarah Sofía; Ramos, Eric Angel; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Searle, Linda (detail)
   
2020
Using small drones to photo-identify Antillean manatees: a novel method for monitoring an endangered marine mammal in the Caribbean Sea.
Endangered Species Research 41: 79-90. 2 tabs. 5 figs. doi.org/10.3354/esr01007 Jan. 30, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Population assessments and species monitoring for many endangered marine megafauna are limited by the challenges of identifying and tracking individuals that live underwater in remote and sometimes inaccessible areas. Manatees can acquire scars from watercraft injury and other incidences that can be used to identify individuals. Here we describe a novel method for photo-identification of Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus using aerial imagery captured during flights with a small multirotor drone. Between 2016 and 2017, we conducted 103 flights to detect and observe manatees in Belize, primarily at St. George's Caye (SGC) near the Belize Barrier Reef. Review of aerial videos from these flights resulted in 279 sightings of manatees (245 adults, 34 calves). High-resolution images of individual manatees were extracted and classified according to image quality and distinctiveness of individual manatees for photo-identification. High-quality images of manatees classified as sufficiently distinctive were used to create a catalog of 17 identifiable individuals. At SGC, 21% of all sighted adult manatees (N = 214) were considered photo-identifiable over time. We suggest that the method can be used for investigating individual site fidelity, habitat use, and behavior of manatee populations. Our photo-identification protocol has the potential to improve long-term monitoring of Antillean manatees in Belize and can be applied throughout clear, shallow waters in the Caribbean and elsewhere.
Landini, Walter: SEE Bianucci & Landini, 2003; Bianucci et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Landrau-Giovannetti, Nelmarie; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Reidenberg, Joy S. (detail)
   
2014
Acoustical and anatomical determination of sound production and transmission in West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T.inunguis) manatees.
Anat. Rec. 297(10): 1896-1907. 3 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: 10.1002/ar.22993. July 16, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees are vocal mammals, with most sounds produced for communication between mothers and calves. While their hearing and vocalizations have been well studied, the actual mechanism of sound production is unknown. Acoustical recordings and anatomical examination were used to determine the source of sound generation. Recordings were performed on live captive manatees from Puerto Rico, Cuba and Colombia (T. manatus) and from Peru (T. inunguis) to determine focal points of sound production. The manatees were recorded using two directional hydrophones placed on the throat and nasal region and an Edirol-R44 digital recorder. The average sound intensity level was analyzed to evaluate the sound source with a T test: paired two sample for means. Anatomical examinations were conducted on six T. manatus carcasses from Florida and Puerto Rico. During necropsies, the larynx, trachea, and nasal areas were dissected, with particular focus on identifying musculature and soft tissues capable of vibrating or constricting the airway. From the recordings we found that the acoustical intensity was significant (P?
 
 
Landsberg, Jan H.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Naar, Jerome P. (detail)
   
2009
Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements.
Harmful Algae 8(4): 598-607. 2 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2008.11.010. Mar. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: As recently as a decade ago, Karenia brevis red tides and their effects on animal resources in the Gulf of Mexico were principally perceived as acute blooms that caused massive fish kills. Although occasional mortalities of higher vertebrates were documented, it has only been in the past decade that conclusive evidence has unequivocally demonstrated that red tides and their brevetoxins are lethal to these organisms. Brevetoxins can be transferred through the food chain and are accumulated in or transferred by biota at many trophic levels. The trophic transfer of brevetoxins in the food web is a complex phenomenon, one that is far more complicated than originally conceived. Unexplained fish kills and other animal mortalities in areas where red tide is endemic are being increasingly linked with post-bloom exposures of biota to brevetoxins. Mass mortality events of endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) follow a consistent spatial and temporal pattern, occurring primarily in the spring in southwestern Florida. Persistent blooms can also cause a cascade of environmental changes, affecting the ecosystem and causing widespread die-offs of benthic communities. Ongoing fish kills from sustained blooms can lead to short-term declines in local populations. Although animal populations in areas where red tide is endemic are unquestionably at risk, it remains to be determined to what extent populations can continue to recover from these sustained effects.
 
 
Landsberg, Jan H.; Tabuchi, M.; Rotstein, D. S.; Subramaniam, K.; Rodrigues, T. C. S.; Waltzek, T. B.; Stacy, N. I.; Wilson, P. W.; Kiryu, Y.; Uzal, F. A.; de Wit, Martine (detail)
   
2022
Novel lethal clostridial infection in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): cause of the 2013 unusual mortality event in the Indian River Lagoon.
Frontiers in Marine Science https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.841857
 
 
Landsberger, B. (detail)
   
1934
Die Fauna des alten Mesopotamien nach der 14. Tafel der Serie ḪAR-RA = Ḫubullu.
Abh. Sächs. Akad. Wiss., Philolog.-Hist. Kl. 42(6): xiii + 144.
–Mentions the occurrence of dugongs in the Persian Gulf, and states that "Ein archaisches Keilschriftzeichen der Schicht Uruk IV stellt einen Dugong dar" (71, 141).
 
 
Landtman, Gunnar (detail)
   
1927
The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea, a nature-born instance of Rousseau's ideal community.
London, Macmillan & Co., Ltd.: xxxix + 485. Illus.
–Dugong hunting, 120-141.
 
 
Landtman, Gunnar (detail)
   
1933
Ethnographical collection from the Kiwai district of British New Guinea in the National Museum of Finland, Helsingfors (Helsinki). A descriptive survey of the material culture of the Kiwai people.
Helsinki, Commission of the Antell Collection: 1-146. Illus.
–Text in Engl. and Finnish. Harpooning of dugongs, 26-28.
Lane, B.: SEE Gribble et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Lange, Christian E.; Favrot, Claude; Ackermann, Mathias; Gull, Jessica; Vetsch, Elisabeth; Tobler, Kurt (detail)
   
2011
Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses.
Virology Journal 8: 436. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-436. Sept. 12, 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9%) and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) PV1 (55.4%), thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.
Lange, Frederick W.: SEE ALSO Bradley et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Lange, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1971
Marine resources: a viable subsistence alternative for the prehistoric Lowland Maya.
Amer. Anthrop. 73(3): 619-639. 1 tab. June 1971.
–Manatee, 631.
Lange, J.: SEE Klös & Lange, 1985. (detail)
 
 
Langer, Peter (detail)
   
1988
The mammalian herbivore stomach: comparative anatomy, function and evolution.
Stuttgart & New York, Gustav Fischer: xvii + 557. 72 tabs. 246 figs.
 
 
Langer, Peter (detail)
   
2001
Evidence from the digestive tract on phylogenetic relationships in ungulates and whales.
Jour. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 39(1-2): 77-90. Mar. 2001.
Langeveld, Paul: SEE De Iongh et al., 1998. (detail)
Langguth, Alfredo: SEE Paludo & Langguth, 2002. (detail)
 
 
Langham, Nigel P. E. (detail)
   
1974
Dugongs in Malaysian waters.
Malayan Nature Jour. 28(1): 35. Sept. 1974.
 
 
Langham, Nigel P. E. (detail)
   
1976
The need for marine parks and reserves in Malaysia.
Malayan Nature Jour. 29(4): 269-276. July 1976.
–Dugong, 272.
 
 
Langkavel, Bernhard (detail)
   
1896
Der Dugong.
Zool. Garten 37: 337-342.
–Dugong calf supported on back of parent.
 
 
Langkavel, Bernhard (detail)
   
1899
Ein kurzlebiger Zoologischer Garten.
Zool. Garten 40: 161-162.
x
D
Langston, Wann, Jr. (detail)
   
1953
The beast of San Pablo Dam.
Splashes (Oakland, Calif., East Bay Municipal Utility District) 20(9): 8-9. 2 figs. Sept. 1953.
–Describes the discovery of part of a supposed Desmostylus skeleton [which later proved to be cetacean] at the San Pablo Reservoir near Berkeley, California.
Langtimm, Catherine A.: SEE ALSO O'Shea & Langtimm, 1995. (detail)
 
 
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
2003
Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms.
Ecological Applications 13(1): 257-268. 4 tabs. 6 figs.
 
 
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Edwards, Holly H.; Fick-Child, Kristin J.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Barton, Sheri L.; Hartley, Wayne C. (detail)
   
2004
Survival estimates for Florida manatees from the photo-identification of individuals.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 438-463. 11 tabs. 2 figs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
 
 
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Dorazio, R. N.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, T. J. (detail)
   
2011
New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance.
Jour. Wildl. Management 75(2): 399-412.
 
 
Langtimm, Catherine A.; Krohn, M. D.; Reid, James P.; Stith, Bradley M.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
2006
Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement.
Estuaries & Coasts 29(6A): 1026-1032.
x
 
Langtimm, Catherine A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Pradel, R.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1998
Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Ecology 79(3): 981-997. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–Using a mark-recapture approach based on the manatee photo-identification database, adult survival probabilities were found to be high and constant at Crystal River and Blue Spring, but significantly lower and variable on the Atlantic coast. Survival did not differ between sexes, nor was evidence of senescence detected.
 
 
Lankester, E. Ray (detail)
   
1905
Extinct animals.
London: xxii + 331. 280 figs.
–Rev.: Knowledge (n.s.) 2: 274?; Geol. Mag. (5)2: 513-515, fig. 1?; Nature (London) 73: 6-7, figs. 1-2? Sirs., 20, figs. 13-14.
Lanyon, Janet M.: SEE ALSO Marsh et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2003
Distribution and abundance of dugongs in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.
Wildlife Research 30(4): 397-409. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
–Results of aerial surveys conducted in 1995.
x
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995
Digesta passage times in the dugong.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 43(2): 119-127. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Captive dugongs kept on a low-fiber, low-intake diet at Jakarta exhibited very slow passage times of 146-166 hours, similar to those of T. manatus. This is attributed to the long digestive tract, and results in almost complete digestion of low-fiber food.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Athousis, Chrissa; Sneath, Helen L.; Burgess, Elizabeth A. (detail)
   
2021
Body scarring as an indicator of social function of dugong (Dugong dugon) tusks.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 37(3): 962-981. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12788 July 7, 2021 (publ. online Feb. 26, 2021).
–ABSTRACT: The fully aquatic lifestyle of dugongs means that direct observation of social tusk use is not usually possible. This study used body scarring as an indicator of tusk function by males. Tusk rake scars on 298 live wild dugongs, of both sexes and all sizes, were categorized and counted in over 1,000 photographs, and examined in relation to maturity and reproductive activity over seasons. All dugongs had tusk scars, but adults were the main recipients. Sexually active adults acquired the greatest number of fresh tusk wounds during the mating season. Subadults received fresh rakes at similar numbers year?round. Adult males had more scars on the mid and posterior dorsum, indicating that males direct combative force to these regions of the male body when competing for females. Adult females had heaviest scarring and more tusk puncture wounds on the anterior?mid dorsum and head, suggesting that male dugongs use tusks in sexual coercion. Heavy scarring sustained by solitary calves compared to dependent ones, suggests that mothers afford some protection. Body scarring caused by tusks may serve as an indicator of reproductive contribution of the recipients, providing that successful males are involved in more reproductive competitions, and successful females in more mating events.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Burgess, Elizabeth A. (detail)
   
2014
Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.
Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation (New York, Springer) 753: 241-274. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0820-2-11. June 26, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Horgan, Patrick; Booth, David; Nichols, Cassandra (detail)
   
2015
Reply to the comment of Owen et al. on "Insulative capacity of the integument of the dugong (Dugong dugon): thermal conductivity, conductance and resistance measured by in vitro heat flux" by Horgan, Booth, Nichols and Lanyon (2014).
Marine Biology DOI: 10.1007/s00227-015-2641-9. Mar. 15, 2015.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Johns, Trevor; Sneath, Helen L. (detail)
   
2005
Year-round presence of dugongs in Pumicestone Passage, south-east Queensland, examined in relation to water temperature and seagrass distribution.
Wildlife Research 32(4): 361-368. 7 figs.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Limpus, Colin J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989
Dugongs and turtles: grazers in the seagrass system. In: A. W. D. Larkum, A. J. McComb & S. A. Shepherd (eds.), Biology of seagrasses: a treatise on the biology of seagrasses with special reference to the Australian region.
New York, Elsevier Science Publ. Co., Inc. (885 pp.): 610-634. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Newgrain, Keith; Alli, Teuku Sahir Syah (detail)
   
2006
Estimation of water turnover rate in captive dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Aquatic Mammals 32(1): 103-108. 2 tabs.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sanson, Gordon D. (detail)
   
2006a
Degenerate dentition of the dugong (Dugong dugon), or why a grazer does not need teeth: morphology, occlusion and wear of mouthparts.
Jour. Zool. 268(2): 133-152. 4 tabs. 12 figs. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2005.00004.x Feb. 2006.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sanson, Gordon D. (detail)
   
2006b
Mechanical disruption of seagrass in the digestive tract of the dugong.
Jour. Zool. 270(2): 277-289. 4 tabs. 8 figs. . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00135.x Oct. 2006.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Slade, Rob W.; Sneath, Helen L.; Broderick, Damien; Kirkwood, John M.; Limpus, Duncan; Limpus, Colin J.; Jessop, Tim A. (detail)
   
2006
A method for capturing dugongs (Dugong dugon) in open water.
Aquatic Mammals 32(2): 196-201.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Smith, Kate M.; Carrick, Frank N. (detail)
   
2005
Reproductive steroids are detectable in the faeces of dugongs.
Australian Zoologist 33(2): 247-250. 2 figs. Dec. 2005.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Kirkwood, John M.; Slade, Rob W. (detail)
   
2002
Establishing a mark-recapture program for dugongs in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland.
Australian Mammalogy 24(1): 51-56. 3 figs.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor (detail)
   
2010
Three skin sampling methods for molecular characterization of free-ranging dugong (Dugong dugon) populations.
Aquatic Mammals 36(3): 298-306. 1 tab. 2 figs.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor (detail)
   
2012
Evaluation of exertion and capture stress in serum of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 43(1): 20–32. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Seven hundred fifty-one dugongs (Dugong dugon) were pursued, captured, and handled for up to 20 min for population sampling. Fifty of these dugongs were then removed from the water for up to 55 min for comprehensive medical examination. Fifty whole blood and separated serum samples were analyzed for potassium, sodium, chloride, creatinine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, glucose, anion gap, and total blood CO2. Serum biochemical variables of the dugong were compared with those obtained in previous studies of the related West Indian manatee, a mammal that does not appear to experience capture myopathy based on available data. Differences between these species included higher blood sodium and chloride in dugongs, which may reflect differences in salt balance and renal function, and higher blood lactate and CO2. Some biochemical analytes such as CK and AST, which may be indicative of rhabdomyolysis associated with capture stress myopathy (a potentially fatal condition for which dugongs have been thought to be highly susceptible) were high compared with levels previously measured in wild West Indian manatees (Trichechus latirostris). One of the 50 dugongs had marked elevations of CK and AST but showed no other clinical indications of rhabdomyolysis associated with capture myopathy such as hyperthermia. Rather, generally high levels of lactate, CK, and AST most probably reflect metabolic acidosis resulting from the exertion involved in the pursuit prior to capture. Earlier observations suggesting that dugongs were probably susceptible to capture stress myopathy (based on high serum potassium levels) were not supported by this study. Capture and handling methods currently used on dugongs in this research program do not appear to result in acute capture stress.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2010
Physiological response of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) to out-of-water sampling for health assessment.
Aquatic Mammals 36(1): 46-58. 2 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.36.1.2010.46. Jan. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a vulnerable marine mammal with large populations living in urban Queensland waters. A mark-recapture program for wild dugongs has been ongoing in southern Queensland since 2001. This program has involved capture and in-water sampling of more than 700 dugongs where animals have been held at the water surface for 5 min to be gene-tagged, measured, and biopsied. In 2008, this program expanded to examine more comprehensively body condition, reproductive status, and the health of wild dugongs in Moreton Bay. Using Sea World's research vessel, captured dugongs were lifted onto a boat and sampled out-of-water to obtain accurate body weights and morphometrics, collect blood and urine samples for baseline health parameters and hormone profiles, and ultrasound females for pregnancy status. In all, 30 dugongs, including two pregnant females, were sampled over 10 d and restrained on deck for up to 55 min each while biological data were collected. Each of the dugongs had their basic temperature-heart rate-respiration (THR) monitored throughout their period of handling, following protocols developed for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). This paper reports on the physiological response of captured dugongs during this out-of-water operation as indicated by their vital signs and the suitability of the manatee monitoring protocols to this related sirenian species. A recommendation is made that the range of vital signs of these wild dugongs be used as benchmark criteria of normal parameters for other studies that intend to sample dugongs out-of-water.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Broderick, Damien; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2009
Sexing sirenians: validation of visual and molecular sex determination in both wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Aquatic Mamms. 35(2): 187-192. 1 fig.
 
 
Lanyon, Janet M.; Wong, Arthur; Long, Trevor; Woolford, Lucy (detail)
   
2015
Serum biochemistry reference intervals of live wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) from urban coastal Australia.
Veterinary Clinical Pathology DOI: 10.1111/vcp.12249. Publ. online April 3, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about the baseline clinical pathology of the dugong (Dugong dugon), a vulnerable marine mammal found in tropical coastal marine systems. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to collect and determine reference intervals (RI) for select serum biochemical variables for dugongs, and to analyze differences between males and females and different age groups. Methods: Reference intervals were established from 103 apparently healthy, wild-caught dugongs for 31 analytes using a Beckman Coulter AU400 Automated Chemistry Analyzer and an Olympus AU680 Chemistry-Immuno Analyzer. Results: Significant differences (P<.05) in some of the variables were found related to size class, sex, and pregnancy status. Adult dugongs had higher serum sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, glucose, and l-lactate concentrations and higher anion gap, compared to sub-adults. Male dugongs had higher triglyceride and l-lactate concentrations than females. Pregnant females displayed higher l-lactate levels compared to nonpregnant animals. Statistical differences in variables within the population contributed to better understanding of the physiologic differences between cohorts. Some serum biochemistry changes observed in this study here also potentially include some effects of pursuit on dugongs (e.g., higher l-lactate); however, as all dugongs were subject to similar capture and handling, serum biochemistry RI should be considered as normal for captured dugongs. Conclusions: The serum biochemical RI documented here are considered representative of a population of healthy captured dugongs. They provide a baseline for health surveillance of this and other dugong populations.
x
 
Lapham, Lewis H. (detail)
   
1964
Can the manatee save Florida?
Saturday Evening Post 237(25): 38-39. June 27, 1964.
–Amusing pop. acc. of manatees and their use for water hyacinth control in Florida and Panama.
 
 
Lapparent, A. F. de (detail)
   
1938
Études géologiques dans les régions provençales et alpines entre le Var et la Durance.
Bull. Serv. Carte Géol. France 40(198): 1-299.
–The first report of fossil sirs. (called "Halitherium") at the Late Eocene site of Taulanne in southeastern France.
x
 
Lardeux, Hubert (detail)
   
2000
Le Docteur Michel Gruet (1912-1998) et son rôle en paléontologie.
Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Ouest de la France (n.s.) 22(2): 77-91. Illus. Apr.-June 2000.
–Notes that Gruet was responsible for assembling the composite skeleton of Metaxytherium [medium] displayed in the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle d'Angers (78; photo of skeleton, 79). It is stated that "les divers ossements provenaient de gisements très variés."
Largen, M. J.: SEE Yalden et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Larger, René (detail)
   
1913
La contre-évolution ou dégénérescence par l'hérédité pathologique cause naturelle de l'extinction des groupes animaux actuels et fossiles. Essai de paléopathologie générale comparée.
Bull. Mém. Soc. Anthrop. (6)4: 683-729.
–Sirs., 718.
 
 
Larger, René (detail)
   
1917
Théorie de la contre-évolution ou dégénérescence par l'hérédité pathologique.
Paris, F. Alcan: xiv + 405. Illus.
–Discusses giantism in Halitherium and other sirs., 68-72.
 
 
Larkin, Iskande L. V.; Fowler, V. F.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2007
Digesta passage rates in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Zoo Biology 26(6): 503-515.
 
 
Larkin, Iskande L. V.; Gross, T. S.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2005
Use of faecal testosterone concentrations to monitor male Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) reproductive status.
Aquatic Mammals 31(1): 52-61.
x
 
Lartet, Édouard (detail)
   
1866
Note sur deux nouveaux siréniens fossiles des terrains tertiaires du bassin de la Garonne.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (2)23: 673-686. Pl. 13. Read June 4, 1866.
–Abstr.: Jour. Mag. Zool. (Paris) 1: 341-343, 1872? Describes Rytiodus Capgrandi, n.gen.n.sp. [Aquitanian, Early Miocene], on the basis of two pairs of tusks and some skull and rib fragments, believing it to be allied to Halitherium. Also describes another (unnamed) form from a higher horizon on the basis of a mandible fragment (682-683, pl. 13). Reviews the sirs. of the Garonne Basin (683-684), noting that they occur in four successive beds.
Las Casas, Bartolomé de: SEE ALSO Morison, S. E., 1942, 1963. (detail)
 
 
Las Casas, Bartolomé de (detail)
   
1550
Apologética historia sumaria.
Madrid.
–MS., first publ. in Nueva biblioteca de autores españoles (Serrano Sanz, ed.), 1909. Repr.: Mexico City, 1967. Manatí, cap. x (reproduced in Durand, 1983: 63).
 
 
Las Casas, Bartolomé de (detail)
   
1699
An account of the first voyages and discoveries made by the Spaniards in America. Containing the most exact relation hitherto publish'd, of their unparallel'd cruelties on the Indians, in the destruction of above forty millions of people. With the propositions offer'd to the King of Spain, to prevent the further ruin of the West-Indies....
London, D. Brown: 248 + 40.
–Apparently a transl. of a French ed. (Amsterdam, 1698). Based on works of Las Casas dated 1552-53.
 
 
Latimer, George W. (detail)
   
1864
Letter offering to forward manatees for the Society's menagerie.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864(2): 167-168. Nov. 1864.
–Concerns two specimens captured at St. Johns, Puerto Rico. According to Antonio A. Mignucci Giannoni (unpubl. M.A. thesis, Univ. of Rhode Island, 1989), Latimer was Austrian Consul to Puerto Rico, and the manatees were also offered to Central Park in New York City but never arrived there. See also P.L. Sclater (1866).
 
 
Latreille, Pierre André (detail)
   
1800
Exposition méthodique des quadrupèdes, specialement mentionnés dans cette édition de l'Histoire Naturelle de Buffon. In: Buffon & Sonnini (1800), Histoire naturelle ..., vol. 34 (q.v.).
Paris, F. Dufart, An VIII [= 1800] (324 pp.): 251-321.
–Allen 457. Reissued in 1802 with different pagination; see Buffon & Sonnini (1800). Manatus, 288.
x
 
Latreille, Pierre André (detail)
   
1825
Familles naturelles du Règne Animal, exposées succinctement et dans un ordre analytique, avec l'indication de leurs genres.
Paris, J.-B. Baillière & Baudouin Frères: 1-570.
–Allen 661. Pp. 64-65: {"Onzième Ordre. Cétacés. Cetacea. Première Famille. Herbivores. Herbivora.
  "Ils n'ont point d'évens. Les mamelles sont pectorales. Les dents sont terminées par une couronne plate. Les nageoires antérieures servent à la préhension. Les moustaches sont garnies de poils.
  [65] "Les g. Lamantin (Manate), Dugong, Stellère."}
 
 
Lauckner, G. (detail)
   
1985
Diseases of Mammalia: Sirenia. In: O. Kinne (ed.), Diseases of marine animals. Volume 4, Part 2. Introduction, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia.
Hamburg, Biol. Anstalt Helgoland (xiii, 543-884): 795-803. Illus.
 
 
Laughlin, William S. (detail)
   
1967
Human migration and permanent occupation in the Bering Sea area. In: D. M. Hopkins (ed.), The Bering Land Bridge.
Stanford Univ. Press: 409-450. 11 figs.
–Sirs., 444. See also D.M. Hopkins (1967) and V.B. Scheffer (1967).
x
 
Laughlin, William S. (detail)
   
1985
Russian-American Bering Sea relations: research and reciprocity.
Amer. Anthrop. 87(4): 775-792. 1 tab. 6 figs. Dec. 1985.
–Mentions A. Hrdlicka's attempts to collect sea cow bones on Bering Is. (m780); notes the importance of the distribution of Hydrodamalis for theories of colonization of the Aleutians (781); and mentions a skeleton in the Khabarovsk museum (m783).
 
 
Laughlin, William S.; Harper, A. B. (detail)
   
1982
Demographic diversity, length of life and Aleut-Eskimo whaling.
Rept. Internatl. Whaling Comm., Special Issue 4: 75-77.
 
 
Laurillard, C. L. (detail)
   
1846
Metaxytherium.
Dict. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. 8: 171-172.
x
 
Lavergne, Anne; Douzery, Emmanuel; Stichler, Todd; Catzeflis, François M.; Springer, Mark S. (detail)
   
1996
Interordinal mammalian relationships: evidence for paenungulate monophyly is provided by complete mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences.
Molec. Phylogenetics & Evol. 6(2): 245-258. Oct. 1996.
–The most strongly supported clade among mammalian orders was found to be the Paenungulata (Sirenia + Proboscidea + Hyracoidea); the Tethytheria (Sirenia + Proboscidea) grouping was also observed but less stably supported. This may be due to a short elapsed time between the divergences of hyracoids and tethytheres. Paenungulates are estimated to have originated at the end of the Cretaceous.
Lavigne, D. M.: SEE Schmitz & Lavigne, 1984. (detail)
 
 
Lavocat, A. (detail)
   
1885
Rachis des vertébrés.
Mém. Acad. Sci. Toulouse (8)7: 23-54.
–Sirs., 46.
 
 
Lawler, I.; Marsh, Helene D.; McDonald, B.; Stokes, T. (detail)
   
2002
Dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef: Current state of knowledge.
CRC Reef Research Center, Australia.
Lawler, Ivan R.: SEE Marsh et al., 1996; Marsh, Harris, & Lawler, 1997; Preen et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Lawler, Ivan R.; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Berding, N.; Marsh, Helene D.; Foley, W. J. (detail)
   
2006
Near infrared spectroscopy is a rapid cost effective predictor of sea grass nutrients.
Jour. Chem. Ecol. 32: 1353-1365.
 
 
Lawley, Roberto (detail)
   
1876
Nuovi studi sopra ai pesci ed altri vertebrati fossili delle Colline Toscane.
Florence, Arte della Stampa: 1-122. 5 pls.
–Abstr.: Boll. Comm. Geol. Italy 8: 80-81, 1877?; Jour. Zool. (Paris) 6: 177-180, 1877? Sirs., 8, 105-106, 116.
x
 
Lawley, Roberto (detail)
   
1877
Resti di Felsinotherium Forestii Cap. trovati presso Volterra.
Atti Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat. 3(2): 341-342. Read May 6, 1877.
–Records a tusk and two molars from near Volterra, Italy.
Lawlor, Timothy E.: SEE Jones & Lawlor, 1965. (detail)
Lawrence, Barbara: SEE Allen & Lawrence, 1936. (detail)
x
 
Lawrence, James E. (detail)
   
1954
Nearest thing to a mermaid.
Nature Mag. 47(8): 401-404. 3 figs. Oct. 1954.
–Interesting pop. acc. of Florida manatees, including behavior, economic use, conservation, etc.
 
 
Lawrie, Margaret E. (detail)
   
1970
Myths and legends of Torres Strait, collected and translated by M. Lawrie.
St. Lucia (Queensland), Univ. of Queensland Press: 1-372.
–Recounts dugong myths, hunting stories, and vernacular names.
x
 
Lawrie, Margaret E. (detail)
   
1972
Tales from Torres Strait, collected and translated by Margaret Lawrie.
St. Lucia (Queensland), Univ. of Queensland Press: Illus.
–Includes two folktales of Torres Strait Islanders relating to dugongs: "Gelam, creator of dugong" (3-6) and "Kusa Kap, the giant eagle" (22-28).
 
 
Laye, Camara (detail)
   
1956
The radiance of the king.
London, Collins: 1-319.
–Transl. from the French (Le regard du roi, Paris, Plon: 1-254, 1954) by James Kirkup. Novel; alludes to African manatees and a dream in which the protagonist imagines them as "fish-women" (245-254, 259-261).
Layne, James N.: SEE ALSO Reynolds & Odell, 1991. (detail)
x
 
Layne, James N. (detail)
   
1965
Observations on marine mammals in Florida waters.
Bull. Florida St. Mus., Biol. Sci. 9(4): 131-181. 4 figs. May 19, 1965.
–Collection of reports (1957-1963) of manatees killed by cold, boat propellers, shooting, and perhaps red tide; sighting reports; and reports of seasonal migrations (166-168).
x
 
Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A.; Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1989
The occurrence of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 5(2): 202-205. 1 fig. Apr. 1989.
–Reports manatee sightings and the collection of 5 ribs from a carcass found in the Rio Soto La Marina, constituting the westernmost record of the species and the first definitive record from the state of Tamaulipas.
 
 
Lazensky, R.; Silva-Sanchez, C.; Kroll, K. J.; et al. (detail)
   
2021
Investigating an increase in Florida manatee mortalities using a proteomic approach.
Sci. Repts. 11: 4282. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83687-y
Le Boeuf, Burney J.: SEE Williams et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Le Cointe, Paul (detail)
   
1922
L'Amazonie Brésilienne: Le pays - ses habitants: ses ressources: notes et statistiques jusqu'en 1920.... Tome II.
Paris, Augustin Challamel: 1-495. 66 figs. 1 map.
–Manatees and statistics on export of mixira, 302-304.
Le Souëf, William Henry Dudley: SEE ALSO Lucas & Le Souëf, 1909. (detail)
 
 
Le Souëf, William Henry Dudley (detail)
   
1907
Wild life in Australia.
Christchurch, Whitcombe & Tombs: xv + 439. 170 figs.
–Dugong, 246, 248.
 
 
Le Soueff, Albert Sherbourne; Burrell, Harry (detail)
   
1926
The wild animals of Australasia, embracing the mammals of New Guinea & the nearer Pacific islands.
London, G. G. Harrap & Co. Ltd.: 1-388. 105 figs.
–Sirs., 104.
 
 
Leahy, Thomas M. (detail)
   
1979
The manatee - an endangered species.
Sea Grant 70's (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ.) 9(3): 8-9. 2 figs. Mar. 1979.
–Brief account of manatee conservation efforts in Florida. Includes "Manatee habitats under study" (p. 9), a short report on a study of manatee behavior conducted by John Tiedemann.
x
 
Leakey, Louis S. B. (detail)
   
1958
Dugongs.
Afr. Wild Life 12: 19-20. 1 fig. Mar. 1958.
–Brief gen. acc. of East African dugongs, chiefly remarkable for its insistence that they "mainly" inhabit fresh and brackish water, specifically "the lower reaches and estuaries of the large rivers like the Tana and the Sabaki." Also states that "small family groups" of dugongs defend particular stretches of rivers, and that females nurse calves while upright in the water. These data were evidently obtained from native informants, and may conceivably refer at least in part to the hippopotamus (cf. comment on Beeckman, 1812).
Lear, Richard J.: SEE Heinsohn et al., 1978. (detail)
Leatherwood, J. Stephen: SEE ALSO Jefferson & Leatherwood, 1995; Reeves et al., 1992, 1996; Smith et al., 1995, 1997. (detail)
x
 
Leatherwood, J. Stephen (detail)
   
1979
Aerial survey of the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, and the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus, in the Indian and Banana Rivers, Florida.
Fish. Bull. 77(1): 47-59. 5 tabs. 7 figs.
–Reports 151 sightings of manatees (9.9-13.2% of them calves) made in the course of a dolphin survey in August 1977. Also gives data on group sizes.
x
 
Leatherwood, J. Stephen; Reeves, Randall R. (eds.) (detail)
   
1989
Marine mammal research and conservation in Sri Lanka: 1985-1986.
United Nations Environment Programme (Nairobi, Kenya), Marine Mammal Tech. Rept. No. 1: vi + 138. 17 tabs. 28 figs.
–"Ed. 2", 1991 (an unaltered reprint with a different cover). Rev.: H. Marsh, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(2): 203-204, Apr. 30, 1991. Discusses the distribution and status of dugongs, and presents data on hunting, accidental netting, catch levels and trends, specimens in Sri Lankan museums, and the need for a dugong sanctuary (4-5, 7, 61, 64, 80, 82-91, 105, 129-132). Also appended are the recommendations of, and lists of the papers presented at and participants in, the Symposium on Marine Mammals of the Indian Ocean, held at Colombo, Feb. 22-25, 1983 (119-127).
 
 
Leatherwood, J. Stephen; Peters, C. B.; Santerre, R.; Santerre, M.; Clarke, J. T. (detail)
   
1984
Observations of marine mammals in the Northern Indian Ocean Sanctuary, 1979-1983.
Rept. Internatl. Whaling Comm. 34: 509-520.
 
 
Leatherwood, S. M.; Dolar, L. L.; Wood, C. J.; Aragones, Lemnuel V.; Hill, C. (detail)
   
1992
Marine mammal species confirmed from Philippine waters.
Silliman Jour. 36(1): 65-86.
–Reports dugong sightings in Palawan.
x
 
LeBaron, John Francis (detail)
   
1880
The manatee, or sea cow.
Forest & Stream 13(25): 1005-1006. Jan. 22, 1880.
–Account of Florida manatees and their live capture with nets; mentions occasional hunting with rifles, sale of skins and skeletons to museums, and dredging of bones from the sea bottom between Florida Cape and Cuba.
x
 
Leboucq, Hector (detail)
   
1889a
Über Nagelrudimente an der fötalen Flosse der Cetaceen und Sirenier.
Anat. Anz. 4(6): 190-192. 2 figs. Mar. 31, 1889.
–Abstr.: Amer. Naturalist 23(274): 923? Reports observations on rudimentary nail-forming areas in a dugong fetus.
 
 
Leboucq, Hector (detail)
   
1889b
Recherches sur la morphologie de la main chez les mammifères marins: pinnipèdes, siréniens, cétacées.
Arch. Biol. 9: 571-648. Pls. 36-41.
–Sirs., 572, 574, 576, 607-608, 624-627, 638, 640, 643, pl. 39.
x
 
Leboucq, Hector (detail)
   
1896
Über Hyperphalangie bei den Säugetieren.
Verh. Anat. Ges., 10. Vers.: 174-176.
–Alludes to occasional hyperphalangy in sirs. (174).
 
 
Leccese, Mike (detail)
   
1979
Florida establishes manatee refuges.
Bull. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 50(8): 33-34. Illus.
 
 
Leche, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1887
Mammalia. In: Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs.
Leipzig & Heidelberg, C. F. Winter'sche Verlagshandlung (1874-1900): 6(5) (1884-87); 6(7) (1888-1900).
–See also C.G.A. Giebel (1883).
 
 
Leche, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1921
Morphologisch-geographische Formenreihen bei den Säugethieren.
Acta Univ. Lund. (2)16(10): 1-76. 11 figs.
–Publ. 1919-21? Sirs., 72.
Lecointre, Comtesse Pierre: SEE Mayet & Lecointre, 1909. (detail)
 
 
Lecointre, G. (detail)
   
1947
La Touraine.
Géol. Rég. de la France 4: 1-250. 49 figs. 3 pls.
 
 
Lecuyer, C.; Grandjean, P.; Paris, F.; Robardet, M.; Robineau, Daniel (detail)
   
1996
Deciphering "temperature" and "salinity" from biogenic phosphates: the δ18O of coexisting fishes and mammals of the Middle Miocene sea of western France.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 126(1-2): 61-74.
 
 
Ledbetter, C. S. (detail)
   
1960
Amazing mammals of Blue Spring Run.
Florida Wildlife 14(2): 22-24.
 
 
Ledererr, G. (detail)
   
1937
Sirenen oder Seekühe.
Kosmos 1937: 64.
 
 
Ledru, André-Pierre; Sonnini, Charles Nicolas Sigisbert (detail)
   
1810
Voyage aux Iles de Ténériffe, la Trinité, Saint-Thomas, Sainte-Croix et Porto-Ricco, exécuté par ordre du Gouvernement Français, depuis le 30 Septembre 1796 jusqu'au 7 Juin 1798, sous la direction du Capitaine Baudin, pour faire des recherches et des collections relatives à l'histoire naturelle; contenant des observations sur le climat, le sol, la population, l'agriculture, les productions de ces iles, le caractère, les moeurs et le commerce de leurs habitants....
Paris, Arthus Bertrand (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xlvii + 315; Vol. 2: 1-324. 1 map.
–Allen 515. Manatus australis, 1: 258 (by Ledru), 294-295 (by Sonnini).
 
 
Lee Long, Warren J.; Coles, Rob G.; McKenzie, Len J. (detail)
   
2000
Issues for seagrass conservation management in Queensland.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 5(4): 321-328. Illus. Mar. 2000.
 
 
Lee Long, Warren J.; Coles, Rob G.; McKenzie, Len J. (detail)
   
1996
Deepwater seagrasses in northeastern Australia - how deep, how meaningful? In: J. Kuo, R.C. Phillips, D.I. Walker, & H. Kirkman (eds.), Seagrass biology: proceedings of an international workshop, Rottnest Island, Western Australia 25-29 January 1996.
Perth, Univ. of Western Australia: 41-50.
–Records observations of DD feeding at depths of at least 23 meters.
 
 
Lee Long, Warren J.; Mellors, J. E.; Coles, R. G. (detail)
   
1993
Seagrasses between Cape York and Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.
Austral. Jour. Mar. & Freshwater Res. 44: 19-31.
–Mentions dugong feeding trails at depths down to 23 m.
 
 
Lee, Chas (detail)
   
1992
Totally trusting.
Mahomet (Illinois), Mayhaven Publishing: x + 212. Illus.
–Adventure novel for young people, involving Florida manatees. (Author = Charles Lee Wilson?)
Lee, David S.: SEE ALSO Browne & Lee, 1977. (detail)
 
 
Lee, David S. (detail)
   
1976
Mermaids in distress.
Wildlife in North Carolina 40(7): 8-9, 27. 3 figs. July 1976.
 
 
Lee, David S.; Socci, M. C. (detail)
   
1989
Potential effects of oil spills on seabirds and selected other oceanic vertebrates off the North Carolina coast.
Occas. Pap. North Carolina Biol. Surv. 1989-1: 1-64. Illus.
Lee, Fred: SEE Greenwood et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Lee, H. (detail)
   
1878
The manatee.
Leisure Hour 27: 619.
x
 
Lee, Ida (detail)
   
1925
Early explorers in Australia.
London, Methuen & Co. Ltd.: xii + 651.
–Summarizes accounts of dugongs encountered in Australian waters by the expeditions of Dampier (19-21), Cunningham (482), and Flinders (520, 523).
 
 
Lee,Paige Biqi; Nijmana, Vincent (detail)
   
2015
Trade in dugong parts in Southern Bali.
1 table. 1 figure. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315415001423. Published online September 7, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Dugong Dugong dugon Lacépède, 1799, a globally threatened marine mammal that occurs in the coastal waters of the Indian and Pacific Ocean, is traded in small numbers throughout their range. We surveyed 128 shops selling wildlife in seven (June 2013) and eight (July 2014) towns on the island of Bali, one of Indonesia's most popular tourist destinations. Dugongs are protected under Indonesian law and CITES Appendix I Iisting precludes international trade. Despite this dugong parts were observed in trade in Denpasar, Mengwi and Sanur where 14 traders were interviewed. We recorded over 130 dugong parts, including raw bones and teeth but also many carved items and some derivatives, with no noticeable difference between years. The most common items were cigarette pipes carved from, predominantly, dugong ribs, and decorative carvings from bone and teeth. The total value of the items observed was $1500–3000. The trade was open and qualitatively similar to trade in parts of non-protected species. Information from traders suggests that dugongs are caught throughout Indonesia, and are both targeted specifically and caught accidentally. It is imperative for the management of dugongs to take the illegal trade in dugong parts into account and for the authorities to curb the trade by taking appropriate action in line with Indonesia's legislation. Greater awareness of the plight of the dugong, including the impediments to their conservation posed by the illegal trade in body parts, by the residents of and visitors to Bali, may aid in pressuring the authorities to take these steps.
 
 
Leech, Thomas (detail)
   
1817
In: John Barnes, A tour through the island of St. Helena....
London, J. M. Richardson (xx + 239): 116-117.
Lefebvre, Lynn W.: SEE ALSO Buckingham et al., 1999; Marsh & Lefebvre, 1994; Miller et al., 1999; Montoya et al., 2001; O'Shea et al., 2001; Zoodsma et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Kochman, Howard I. (detail)
   
1991
An evaluation of aerial survey replicate count methodology to determine trends in manatee abundance.
Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19: 298-309. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
–Analyzes winter survey data from Crystal and Homosassa rivers, Florida, 1985-86. Concludes that unit-recount surveys (Packard et al., 1986) should not be used to develop a population index based on resightings of individuals, but can serve to improve survey designs and to obtain an index with a measure of variation at specific aggregation sites. They could also be used in conjunction with a "variable effort recount" method, to standardize the latter and make the former method more flexible.
 
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1995
Florida manatees. In: E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, & M. J. Mac (eds.), Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals and ecosystems.
Washington, U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biol. Service (xi + 530 pp.): 267-269. 1 tab. 2 figs.
 
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1990
Manatee grazing impacts on seagrasses in Hobe Sound and Jupiter Sound in southeast Florida during the winter of 1988-89.
NTIS Document No. PB 90-271883: vi + 36. 6 tabs. 12 figs. Aug. 1990.
–Includes an appendix by Domning (34-36; see Domning, D.P., 1990a).
 
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Portier, Kenneth M.; Pollock, Kenneth H. (detail)
   
1995
Aerial survey as a technique for estimating trends in manatee population size - problems and prospects. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 63-74. 4 tabs. 3 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 11-13).
 
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Marmontel, Miriam; Reid, James P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2001
Status and biogeography of the West Indian manatee. Chap. 22 in: C.A. Woods & F.E. Sergile (eds.), Biogeography of the West Indies: patterns and perspectives. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press (582 pp.): 425-474. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
x
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1989
Distribution, status, and biogeography of the West Indian manatee. In: C. A. Woods (ed.), Biogeography of the West Indies: past, present, and future.
Gainesville (Florida), Sandhill Crane Press (xvii + 878): 567-609. 12 figs.
–Reviews historical, distributional, and status information from all countries within the range of T. manatus, and discusses aspects of habitat that account for limits to the species' distribution.
 
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Provancha, Jane A.; Slone, Daniel H.; Kenworthy, W. Judson (detail)
   
2017
Manatee grazing impacts on a mixed species seagrass bed.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 564: 29-45. 2 tabs. 9 figs. doi:10.3354/meps11986. Jan. 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The endangered manatee Trichechus manatus is one of few large grazers in seagrass systems. To assess the long-term impacts of repeated grazing on seagrasses, we selected a study site within Kennedy Space Center in the northern Banana River, Brevard County, Florida, that was typically grazed by large numbers of manatees in spring. Two 13 × 13 m manatee exclosures and 2 paired open plots of equal size were established at the study site in October 1990. Shoot counts, biomass, and species composition of the co-dominant seagrass species, Syringodium filiforme and Halodule wrightii, were sampled 3 times per year in all 4 plots between October 1990 and October 1994. We used a Bayesian modelling approach, accounting for the influence of depth, to detect treatment (exclosed vs. open) effects. S. filiforme shoot counts, total biomass, and frequency of occurrence significantly increased in the exclosures. By July 1993, mean biomass values in the exclosures (167 g dry wt m?²) greatly exceeded those in the open plots (28 g dry wt m?²). H. wrightii decreased in the exclosures by 1994. Initially, both S. filiforme and H. wrightii responded positively to release from manatee grazing pressure. As S. filiforme continued to become denser in the exclosures, it gradually replaced H. wrightii. Our findings may be helpful to biologists and managers interested in predicting seagrass recovery and manatee carrying capacity of repeatedly grazed seagrass beds in areas of special significance to manatees and seagrass conservation.
x
 
Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2000
Characterizing manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: implications for conservation and management.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 5: 289-298. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Compares manatee use of seagrasses in the Indian River Lagoon and eastern Puerto Rico, and with reports of seagrass use by dugongs. Manatees grazed more frequently on the locally most abundant species, exhibited possible cultivation grazing, and appeared to prefer Thalassia associated with clumps of Halimeda opuntia, which they pushed aside to get at the Thalassia. Florida manatees are hypothesized to be less specialized seagrass grazers than manatees in tropical regions.
 
 
Lefeuvre, D. (detail)
   
1911
Structure histologique des os de l'Halitherium.
C.R. Congr. Soc. Savantes Paris (Lille, 1909) 38: 291-293.
–Correct publication date 1909?
x
 
Lefèvre, Théodore (detail)
   
1889
Note préliminaire sur les restes de siréniens recueillis en Belgique.
Zool. Anz. 12(304): 197-200. Apr. 1, 1889.
–Recognizes two forms from the Belgian Rupelian (Oligocene): Metaxytherium Guettardi and Halitherium Schinzi. States that one (presumably the former) is ancestral to Halicore, the other to Manatus. Crassitherium is also present and, if a valid taxon, would constitute a third member of the fauna, ancestral to Rhytina. Manatherium is considered of doubtful validity and more probably equivalent to M. Guettardi. The two Rupelian species definitely recognized are said to have complete epiphyses on the centra of all vertebrae.
 
 
Leguat, François (detail)
   
1708
A new voyage to the East-Indies by Francis Leguat and his companions. Containing their adventures in two desart islands, and an account of the most remarkable things in Maurice Island, Batavia, at the Cape of Good Hope, the island of St. Helena, and other places in their way to and from the desart isles.
London, R. Bonwicke, W. Freeman, Tim. Goodwin, J. Walthoe, M. Wotton, S. Manship, F. Nicholson, B. Tooke, R. Parker, & R. Smith: xv + 248. Pls.
–Allen 164. This is a transl. of an earlier French ed. (London, David Mortier, 2 vols., 1708). Later eds.: ?1720; Hakluyt Soc. (P. Oliver, ed.), 1891. Lamentin, 67-70, pl. facing p. 67. See also G. Atkinson (1922), T. Mortensen (1933b, 1934b), and D. R. Stoddart (1972) concerning this work.
  According to Allen, "The account of the Lamantin is one of the earliest descriptions of the African manatee, and is quoted by Buffon and other early naturalists. The figure of the Lamantin displays a pig-like tusk in the lower jaw. It is represented as holding its young one in its arms. 'The Lamentins, which other Nations call Manati, that is, having Hands, abound in the Sea about this Isle [Maurice], appearing often in numerous Troops....'" (67).
  The illustration of a tusked "Lamentin" with a dolphin-like tail is doubtless intended to represent the dugong and not (as Allen supposed) the manatee, and is interpreted as a dugong by Durand (1983: 193-194), who reproduces it.
  The work also describes an encounter with a "sea cow" on New Year's Day, 1691, between Tristan da Cunha and the Cape of Good Hope. This was presumably a pinniped, but the account is illustrated with a copy (reproduced by Durand, 1983: 208-209) of Tachard's hippopotamus-like beast, which has by now grown fins in place of toes!
Lehti, Kesä Kannikah: SEE Rosas et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Leiblein, V. (detail)
   
1839
Grundzüge einer methodischen Uebersicht des Thierreiches nach seinem Classen, Ordnungen, Familie'n und Gattungen, nebst Aufzählung ihrer Haupt-Repräsentanten. Ein Leitfaden beim zoologischen Studium.... Erstes Bändchen. Der Mensch und die Säugethiere.
Würzburg, Stahel'schen Buchhandlung: 1-182.
–Allen 966. Manatus americanus, M. Senegalensis, Halicore Dugong, 165; Rytina Stelleri, 167. Between Halicore and Rytina is interpolated the extinct genus Dinotherium.
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1854
The ancient fauna of Nebraska, or a description of remains of extinct Mammalia and Chelonia from the Mauvais Terres of Nebraska.
Smithson. Contrib. Knowledge 6(7): 1-126. 24 pls.
–Mentions Manatus in a list of North American Pliocene fauna, based on R. Harlan (1825b, 1835) (m10).
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1856a
Notices of remains of extinct Mammalia, discovered by Dr. F. V. Hayden, in Nebraska Territory.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 88-90. Read Apr. 8, 1856.
–Describes Ischyrotherium antiquus (sic), n.gen.n.sp., a supposed sir. based on vertebrae and rib fragments from the Nebraska Territory (89). Later, Leidy (1869) decided these remains were reptilian. The holotype is USNM 6643, and is evidently referable to Plesiosauria.
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1856b
Notice of some remains of extinct vertebrated animals.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8(5): 163-165. Sept. 1856.
–P. 165: {"7. Manatus antiquus, Leidy [n.sp.]. / The species is predicated on fragments of ribs found in the miocene deposits of New Jersey and Virginia, and on a fragment of a rib and an isolated molar tooth, discovered by Capt. Bowman, U.S.A., in the sands of Ashley river, South Carolina. The tooth apparently corresponds to the sixth or seventh upper molar of M. latirostris, Harlan, than which it is considerably larger. It has no anterior basal ridge, but from both of the inner lobes of the crown the summits are prolonged in a curved line to the middle of the outer lobes. The specimen measures in both diameters 9½ lines."}
 
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1859-60
Description of vertebrate fossils. In: F. S. Holmes, Post-Pleiocene fossils of South-Carolina, Parts 8-15.
Charleston, Russell & Jones (xiii + 122 + v): 99-122. Pls. 15-28.
–Sirs., 117, pl. 24. Parts 11-12, comprising pp. 115-118, were published in 1860 (see Ward & Blackwelder, Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. 61: 134, 1987).
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1869
The extinct mammalian fauna of Dakota and Nebraska, including an account of some allied forms from other localities, together with a synopsis of the mammalian remains of North America.
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)7: 23-472. 30 pls.
–Summ.: Jour. Zool. 1: 187-191, 500-508, pls. 10-11, 2: 541-545, 1872? The synopsis includes the reported American species and occurrences of Manatus and Prorastomus, and also discusses Leidy's taxon Ischyrotherium, which he now considers a reptile rather than a sir. (414). (Hay [1902] provisionally assigned Ischyrotherium to the Champsosauridae.)
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1873
Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the western territories.
Rept. U.S. Geol. & Geogr. Surv. Terr. (= Hayden Survey) 1: [7]-358. 37 pls.
–Describes a tooth of Manatus inornatus, n.sp., from the Ashley River, South Carolina (336-337, pl. 37).
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1876
[Fossils from Ashley River, South Carolina. Summary of presentation to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, May 9, 1876, in:] Proceedings of societies.
Amer. Naturalist 10(9): 570-576. Sept. 1876.
–P. 570: {"From among a collection of fossils from the Ashley phosphate beds [South Carolina], recently submitted to his [Leidy's] inspection by Mr. J. M. Gliddon, of the Pacific Guano Company, the specimens were selected which were presented for the examination of the meeting. One of them is a well-preserved tooth of a Megatherium; another, a characteristic portion of the skull of a manatee; ...."} It is likely that these were the specimens that formed the subject of Leidy (1877), below.
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1877
Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina.
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8(3): 209-261. Pls. 30-34.
–Calls attention to the existence, in the collection of fossils from the Ashley phosphate beds belonging to the Pacific Guano Company, of skull and other bone fragments which he refers to Manatus antiquus (211, 214).
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1889
Description of vertebrate remains from Peace Creek, Florida.
Trans. Wagner Free Inst. of Science 2: 19-31. Dec. 1889.
–P. 27: {"9. Fragments of ribs of a Manatee, Manatus antiquus."} These specimens, apparently the first fossil sir. remains reported from the Bone Valley phosphate district, were referred to Metaxytherium floridanum by Domning (1988). They can still be seen at the Wagner Free Institute in Philadelphia.
x
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1891
Notices of Entozoa.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 42(= (3)20)(3): 410-418. Oct.-Dec. 1890 (publ. Jan. 20, 1891).
–Reports Amphistomum fabaceum from the intestines and nasal passages of manatees (413-414).
 
 
Leidy, Joseph (detail)
   
1892
[List of Vertebrata from the Pliocene of Florida.] In: Correlation papers: Neocene.
Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv. 84: 129-130.
 
 
Leistra, W. H. G.; Hoyer, M. J.; Kik, M.; Sinke, J. D. (detail)
   
2003
Recidiverende huidproblemen bij een seekoe: de diagnostische aanpak. Recurrent skin problems in a manatee: the diagnostic approach.
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 128(5): 140-145. Mar. 1, 2003.
x
 
Lemire, Michel (detail)
   
1968
Particularites de l'estomac du lamantin Trichechus senegalensis Link (Sireniens, Trichechides).
Mammalia 32(3): 475-520. 7 figs. Pls. 25-28. Sept. 1968.
–Engl. summ. Compares the manatee stomach with those of the dugong and other mammals; discusses digestive processes and adaptation.
Lenghaus, Cor: SEE Kemper et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Lenz, Harald Othmar (detail)
   
1831
Naturgeschichte der Säugethiere, nach Cuvier's Systeme bearbeitet.
Gotha, Beckersche Buchhandlung: 1-324.
–Allen 765. Sirs. and cetaceans, 294-306; lists 3 genera and 4 species of the former. Allen says "The notices of the species are very short; the references relate only to figures. The technical names are marked for accent and their etymology is given. Evidently prepared for use as a concise hand-book of Mammalogy."
 
 
Lenz, Harald Othmar (detail)
   
1835
Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte.... Erster Band: Säugethiere.
Gotha, Beckersche Buchhandlung: vi + 450. 8 pls.
–Allen 865. Under the Order Cetacea, Family Herbivora (= Sirenia), lists Manatus australis, M. senegalensis (427), Halicore cetacea, and Rhytina Stelleri (428).
León, Mario A.: SEE Reynolds et al., 1995. (detail)
Leonard, Elmore: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Lépes, Marta M.: SEE Allen et al., 1976; Budiarso et al., 1979. (detail)
 
 
Lepsius, Georg Richard (detail)
   
1882
Halitherium Schinzi, die fossile Sirene des Mainzer Beckens. Eine vergleichend-anatomische Studie.
Abh. Mittelrheinischen Geol. Ver. (Darmstadt) 1: vi + 200 + viii. 10 pls.
–Notice: Zs. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. 32: 672-673, 1880? Rev.: Ernst Krause, Kosmos 11(3): 234-240, June 10, 1882. This monograph on the important Middle Oligocene dugongid from Germany is one of the finest and most thorough osteological studies of a sirenian ever published. In addition to a detailed osteological description of H. schinzii, it comprises a full review of the sir. fossil record, with detailed comparisons and diagnoses of all known fossil and Recent forms, and a discussion of the relationships of sirs. among the Mammalia.
 
 
Lepthien, Emilie Utteg (detail)
   
1991
Manatees.
Chicago, Childrens Press: 1-48. Illus.
–Children's book on Florida manatees.
 
 
Léry, Jean de (= Lerius, John) (detail)
   
1578
Histoire d'un voyage fait en la terre du Bresil, autrement dit Amerique....
La Rochelle (also Rouen?), Antoine Chuppin: 1-424.
–Engl. transl. in Purchas his pilgrimes, Vol. 16: 534. Another French ed., Paris, Alphonse Lemerre (2 vols.), 1880, with introduction and notes by Paul Gaffarel. This was apparently reprinted (Geneva, Droz, 1976) and translated into Portuguese (São Paulo, Martins Ed., 1941, and Biblioteca Histórica Brasileira, vol. 7).
  Gives a brief account of a possible manatee or, more likely, a pinniped encountered in the region of Rio de Janeiro (185-193); see also Whitehead (1977: 171), who also gives an Engl. transl.
 
 
Lesson, Réné-Primèvere (detail)
   
1827
Manuel de mammalogie, ou histoire naturelle des mammifères.
Paris, Roret: xv + 442. Atlas, 80 pls.
–Allen 699. Sirs., treated as a "tribe" of the Order Cetae: Manatus americanus, M. senegalensis, M. latirostris, Halicore dugong, and Stellerus borealis (401-404). Allen calls this work "an indiscriminate compilation, useful mainly as giving a list of the species described up to this date." The atlas (Allen 700) apparently contains no illustrations of sirs.
 
 
Lesson, Réné-Primèvere (detail)
   
1828
Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des mammifères et des oiseaux. Cétacés.
Paris, Baudouin Frères: vii + 442. Pls.
–Dugong, 72-87.
 
 
Lesson, Réné-Primèvere (detail)
   
1829
Rytine ou Stellère. Rytina. In: Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle.
Paris, Rey et Gravier & Baudouin Frères: Vol. 15 (Rua-S): 25-28. May 1829.
–Allen 729. See also Desmoulins (1824).
Lester, K. S.: SEE ALSO Boyde & Lester, 1967. (detail)
 
 
Lester, K. S.; Boyde, A. (detail)
   
1967
Electron microscopy of predentinal surfaces.
Calcified Tissue Res. 1(1): 44-54.
Lesueur, Charles A.: SEE Dockery, D. T., III, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Leuckart, R. (detail)
   
1875
Bericht über die wissenschaftlichen Leistungen in der Naturgeschichte der niederen Thiere während der Jahre 1872-1875.
Arch. Naturgesch. 40(2): 401-505.
–Describes the trematode Monostomum dujonis from the eustachian tube of a dugong from the Philippines.
x
 
Leung, Yuk-maan (detail)
   
1967
An illustrated key to the species of whale-lice (Amphipoda, Cyamidae), ectoparasites of Cetacea, with a guide to the literature.
Crustaceana 12(3): 279-291. 5 figs. May 8, 1967.
–Reviews the history of Sirenocyamus rhytinae, and regards it as a synonym of Cyamus ovalis, following Lütken (1873) (279-280, 287).
 
 
Leunis, Johannes; Ludwig, Hubert (detail)
   
1883
Synopsis der Thierkunde. Ein Handbuch für höhere Lehranstalten und für alle, welche sich wissenschaftlich mit der Naturgeschichte der Thiere beschäftigen wollen.... Ed. 3.
Hanover, Hahn (2 vols., 1883-86): Vol. 1: xvi + 796. 641 figs.
–Sirs., 275.
x
D
Leutenegger, Madeleine (detail)
   
1982
Bibliographie der Sirenen (Trichechidae).
Zool. Garten (n.s.) 52(2): 81-105.
–Lists 785 titles alphabetically by author; no annotations or index. Covers the Sirenia and Desmostylia generally, not just the Trichechidae.
 
 
Levin, M. J.; Pfeiffer, C. J. (detail)
   
2002
Gross and microscopic observations on the lingual structure of the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 31(5): 278-285. Oct. 2002.
Levine, Paul: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Levitsky, Katherine: SEE Caldwell et al., 1969. (detail)
 
 
Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien (detail)
   
1910
Les fonctions mentales dans les sociétés inférieures.
Paris, F. Alcan: 1-461.
–Various later eds. & transls. Sirs., ed. 2 (1912): 277 (quotes Guise, 1899).
x
 
Lew, Andrew M.; Valas, Robert B.; Maloy, W. Lee; Coligan, John E. (detail)
   
1986
A soluble class I molecule analogous to mouse Q10 in the horse and related species.
Immunogenetics 23(5): 277-283. 1 tab. 7 figs.
–The molecule was not detected in serum from 9 Florida manatees (279-280).
 
 
Lewis, C. B. (detail)
   
1945
Mermaids and manatees. In: Glimpses of Jamaican natural history.
Kingston, Institute of Jamaica: 21-23.
–Ed. 2, 1949. Pop. acc. of manatees, reporting sightings near Portland Bight.
Lewis, G. E.: SEE Gard et al., 1972. (detail)
x
 
Lewis, Jessica H.; Wilson, John H. (detail)
   
1973
Variations in abilities of animal fibrinogens to clump staphylococci.
Thromb. Res. 3(4): 419-424.
–Abstr.: Federation Proc. 32(3, pt. 1): 290? Reports that blood plasma samples from two T. inunguis in the Pittsburgh Zoo showed ability to clump; elephant plasma, however, did not (421-422).
x
 
Lewis, Roy R., III; Carlton, Jedfrey M.; Lombardo, Ralph (detail)
   
1984
Algal consumption by the manatee (Trichechus manatus L.) in Tampa Bay, Florida.
Florida Scientist 47(3): 189-191.
–Report of 4 to 6 manatees observed in Jan. 1981 apparently feeding on green algae (Ulva sp.). Suggests that marine algae may be an important food source for manatees wintering at nearby warm-water refugia.
x
 
Lewis, Thomas A. (detail)
   
1989
Slow creature caught in a fast world.
Natl. Wildlife 28(1): 42-49. 7 figs. "Dec.-Jan. 1990."
–Pop. acc. of the threat to Florida manatees from boat collisions, and of the rescue of an injured animal in Jan. 1989.
 
 
Leyden, Bill (detail)
   
2006
The manatee who wanted to be a mermaid.
Jacksonville (Florida), Happy Critter Press: 1-106. Illus.
–Book for children ages 7-12. Illustrations by Nancy Banks.
 
 
Leydig, Franz von (detail)
   
1857
Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Thiere.
Frankfurt am Main, Meidinger Sohn & Co.: xii + 551. 271 figs.
–Sirs., 87, 315-316.
 
 
Leydig, Franz von (detail)
   
1859
Über die äusseren Bedeckungen der Säugethiere.
Arch. Anat. Phys. Med. 1859: 677-747. Pls. 19-20.
–Sirs., 684, 698.
 
 
Liapunova, R. G. (detail)
   
1979
Novyi Dokument o Rannikh Plavaniiakh Na Aleutskii Ostrova ("Izvestiia" Fedora Afanas'evicha Kulkova 1764g). [New Documents about the Early Voyages to the Aleutian Islands (News of Fedor A. Kulkov 1764).]
Stranyi I Narody Vostoka [Lands and Peoples of the East] 20(4): 97–105.
–Mentions Steller's sea cows as rare visitors in the Near Islands in the 1760s.
Liat, J. B.: SEE Jones et al., 1971. (detail)
Lidstone, William: SEE Brown & Lidstone, 1878. (detail)
 
 
Lieven, A, F. von; Uni, S.; Ueda, K.; Barbuto, M.; Bain, O. (detail)
   
2011
Cutidiplogaster manati n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) from skin lesions of a West Indian manatee (Sirenia) from the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium.
Nematology 13(1): 51-59.
Ligabue, G.: SEE Thomas et al., 1982. (detail)
Ligensa, Klaus: SEE Blessing et al., 1972. (detail)
 
 
Lightsey, Jessica D.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Costidis, Alexander M.; Pitchford, Thomas D. (detail)
   
2006
Methods used during gross necropsy to determine watercraft-related mortality in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Med. 37(3): 262-275.
Ligon, Sandra L. Husar: SEE ALSO Husar, Sandra L. (detail)
x
 
Ligon, Sandra L. Husar (detail)
   
1976
A survey of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Queensland.
Jour. Mamm. 57(3): 580-582. 1 tab. 1 fig. Aug. 27, 1976.
–Reports 629 dugongs seen in an aerial survey of 3540 km of coastline. Includes observations on behavior, aggregations, and possible migrations.
x
 
Ligon, Sandra L. Husar (detail)
   
1982
Aerial survey of the dugong, Dugong dugon, in Kenya. In: Mammals in the seas, vol. 4.
Rome, Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 511-513.
–French & Spanish summs. Brief report on surveys flown in 1975, which sighted only 8 dugongs on the entire coast of Kenya.
 
 
Ligon, Sandra L. Husar (detail)
   
1983
Trichechus manatus (manatí, West Indian manatee). In: D. H. Janzen (ed.), Costa Rican natural history.
Chicago, Univ. Chicago Press (xi + 816): 498-500. Illus.
x
 
Ligon, Sandra L. Husar; Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1977
Aerial survey of the dugong Dugong dugon in Papua New Guinea.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 77/17: 1-5. 4 figs.
–A survey of 750 miles of coastline and coral reef in four areas (Daru-Warrior Reef; southeastern Papuan coast; Lae area and northwestern coast of West New Britain; and northwestern coast of PNG) during April 1975 resulted in 186 sightings of dugongs.
Lim, Theresa Mundita S.: SEE Eduardo et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Lima, C. S.; Magalhães, R. F.; Santos, F. R. (detail)
   
2021
Conservation issues using discordant taxonomic and evolutionary units: a case study of the American manatee (Trichechus manatus, Sirenia).
Wildlife Research 48: 385-392. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR20197
 
 
Lima, Camilla S.; Magalhães, Rafael F.; Marmontel, Miriam; Meirelles, Ana Carolina; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Lavergne, Anne; Thoisy, Benoit de; Santos, Fabrício R. (detail)
   
2019
A hybrid swarm of manatees along the Guianas coastline, a peculiar environment under the influence of the Amazon River plume.
An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 91, supl. 3: e20190325. 3 figs. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920190325 Aug. 26, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees have a sympatric occurrence at the mouth of the Amazon River. A result of this interspecific encounter is the occurrence of hybrids, which are frequently found along the coasts of Amapá state in Brazil, French Guiana and Guyana. Here we present new genetic evidence indicating the occurrence of a hybrid swarm along the Guianas Shield coastline, which is an interspecific hybrid zone that also separates T. manatus populations located east (Brazil) and west (Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Antilles). In addition, we suggest that this hybrid population occupies a peculiar mangrove-rich environment under strong influence of the Amazon River plume, which requires an independent management and should be considered a special conservation area.
x
 
Lima, Daisy Costa (detail)
   
1971
Itacoatiara, Amazonas.
Inst. Brasil. Estatística, Coleção de Monogrs. No. 497 (Ed. 2): 1-20.
–States that 20 tons of salted manatee meat, worth CR$14.000, was exported from Itacoatiara, Brazil in 1968 (7).
 
 
Lima, Danielle dos Santos; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Young, Robert John; Paszkiewicz, Erika (detail)
   
2005
Training of Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758) as a management technique for individual welfare.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquat. Mamms. 4(1): 61-68. Jan./June 2005.
–Spanish summ.
Lima, Fernando de Castro Pires de: SEE Pires de Lima, Fernando de Castro. (detail)
Lima, Francisco Fiuza: SEE Fiuza Lima, Francisco. (detail)
 
 
Lima, Murilo Rodolfo de (detail)
   
1989
Fósseis do Brasil.
São Paulo, T. A. Queiroz, Edit. Univ. São Paulo (Biblioteca de Ciências Naturais, vol. 14): 1-118. Illus.
–Classifies Sirenotherium pirabense as Sirenia incertae sedis (87). The catalog number MN 2761-I should read MN 2761-V (Henriques et al., 2000: 19).
Lima, Régis Pinto de: SEE Pinto de Lima, Régis (detail)
Lima, S. L.: SEE Rattenborg et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Lima, S. L.; Blackwell, B. F.; DeVault, T. L.; Fernández-Juricic, E. (detail)
   
2014
Animal reactions to oncoming vehicles: a conceptual review.
Biological Reviews 1 fig. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12093.
–ABSTRACT: Animal–vehicle collisions (AVCs) are a substantial problem in a human-dominated world, but little is known about what goes wrong, from the animal's perspective, when a collision occurs with an automobile, boat, or aircraft. Our goal is to provide insight into reactions of animals to oncoming vehicles when collisions might be imminent. Avoiding a collision requires successful vehicle detection, threat assessment, and evasive behaviour; failures can occur at any of these stages. Vehicle detection seems fairly straightforward in many cases, but depends critically on the sensory capabilities of a given species. Sensory mechanisms for detection of collisions (looming detectors) may be overwhelmed by vehicle speed. Distractions are a likely problem in vehicle detection, but have not been clearly demonstrated in any system beyond human pedestrians. Many animals likely perceive moving vehicles as non-threatening, and may generally be habituated to their presence. Slow or minimal threat assessment is thus a likely failure point in many AVCs, but this is not uniformly evident. Animals generally initiate evasive behaviour when a collision appears imminent, usually employing some aspect of native antipredator behaviour. Across taxa, animals exhibit a variety of behaviours when confronted with oncoming vehicles. Among marine mammals, right whales Eubalaena spp., manatees Trichechus spp., and dugongs Dugong dugon are fairly unresponsive to approaching vehicles, suggesting a problem in threat assessment. Others, such as dolphins Delphinidae, assess vehicle approach at distance. Little work has been conducted on the behavioural aspects of AVCs involving large mammals and automobiles, despite their prevalence. Available observations suggest that birds do not usually treat flying aircraft as a major threat, often allowing close approach before taking evasive action, as they might in response to natural predators. Inappropriate antipredator behaviour (often involving immobility) is a major source of AVCs in amphibians and terrestrial reptiles. Much behavioural work on AVCs remains to be done across a wide variety of taxa. Such work should provide broad phylogenetic generalizations regarding AVCs and insights into managing AVCs.
Lima, Vilma Almeida: SEE Banks & Lima, 1995. (detail)
Limor, Josef: SEE Morgan et al., 2000. (detail)
Limpus, Colin J.: SEE Lanyon et al., 1989; Marsh, Freeland et al., 1986; Marsh et al., 1993, 1997; Marsh, Corkeron et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Linares, O. J. (detail)
   
1998
Mamíferos de Venezuela.
Caracas, Soc. Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela: 1-691.
–Review: J. Ortega, Jour. Mamm. 81(1): 286-287, Feb. 17, 2000. Manatees, 199-201. Includes T. inunguis although that species is not recorded in Venezuela.
 
 
Linares, Olga F. (detail)
   
1976
"Garden hunting" in the American tropics.
Human Ecol. 4(4): 331-349.
 
 
Linares, Olga F. (detail)
   
1980
Cultural inferences from organic remains. In: O. F. Linares & A. J. Ranere (eds.), Adaptive radiations in prehistoric Panama.
Monogr. Peabody Mus. Archaeol. Ethnol. 5: 146-150.
 
 
Linares, Omar J. (detail)
   
2004
Bioestratigrafia de la fauna de mamiferos de las Formaciones Socorro, Urumaco y Codore (Mioceno Medio-Plioceno Temprano) de la region de Urumaco, Falcon, Venezuela.
Paleobiologia Neotropical 1: 1-26. 1 tab. 6 figs. Nov. 15, 2004.
–Engl. summ. A detailed preliminary report on the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Urumaco region. Identifies three stratigraphic occurrences of sirs.: "Potamosiren" at the top of the Socorro Formation (in marine sediments of Laventan age, Middle Miocene) and "Ribodon?" (or possibly Metaxytherium) in two horizons near the top of the Upper Member of the Urumaco Formation (in freshwater sediments of Huayquerian age, Late Miocene) (9-13, 16-19, 25).
 
 
Linares, Omar J.; Rivas A., Belkis (detail)
   
2004
Mamiferos del sistema deltaico (delta del Orinoco-Golfo de Paria), Venezuela.
Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales 2004 ("2003"), 159-160: 27-104.
–TMM (82).
 
 
Linchant, Julie; Lisein, Jonathan; Semeki, Jean; Lejeune, Phillippe; Vermeulen, Cédric (detail)
   
2015
Are unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) the future of wildlife monitoring? A review of accomplishments and challenges.
Mammal Review DOI: 10.1111/mam.12046. Published online August 24, 2015.
–ABSTRACT:
 1. Regular monitoring of animal populations must be established to ensure wildlife protection, especially when pressure on animals is high. The recent development of drones or unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) opens new opportunities. UASs have several advantages, including providing data at high spatial and temporal resolution, providing systematic, permanent data, having low operational costs and being low-risk for the operators. However, UASs have some constraints, such as short flight endurance.
 2. We reviewed studies in which wildlife populations were monitored by using drones, described accomplishments to date and evaluated the range of possibilities UASs offer to provide new perspectives in future research.
 3. We focused on four main topics: 1) the available systems and sensors; 2) the types of survey plan and detection possibilities; 3) contributions towards anti-poaching surveillance; and 4) legislation and ethics.
 4. We found that small fixed-wing UASs are most commonly used because these aircraft provide a viable compromise between price, logistics and flight endurance. The sensors are typically electro-optic or infrared cameras, but there is the potential to develop and test new sensors.
 5. Despite various flight plan possibilities, mostly classical line transects have been employed, and it would be of great interest to test new methods to adapt to the limitations of UASs. Detection of many species is possible, but statistical approaches are unavailable if valid inventories of large mammals are the purpose.
 6. Contributions of UASs to anti-poaching surveillance are not yet well documented in the scientific literature, but initial studies indicate that this approach could make important contributions to conservation in the next few years.
 7. Finally, we conclude that one of the main factors impeding the use of UASs is legislation. Restrictions in the use of airspace prevent researchers from testing all possibilities, and adaptations to the relevant legislation will be necessary in future.
Lincoln, Frederick C.: SEE Beard et al., 1942. (detail)
 
 
Ling, John K. (detail)
   
1974
The integument of marine mammals. In: R. J. Harrison (ed.), Functional anatomy of marine mammals.
London, Academic Press: Vol. 2: 1-44. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Sirs., 4, 6, 13, 16, 22-23, 35, 37-39.
 
 
Ling, John K. (detail)
   
1977
Vibrissae of marine mammals. In: R. J. Harrison (ed.), Functional anatomy of marine mammals.
New York, Academic Press: Vol. 3 (428 pp.): 387-415. 2 tabs. 12 figs.
–Sirs., 405-408.
 
 
Ling, John K. (detail)
   
1979
The status of endangered Australian marine mammals. In: M. J. Tyler (ed.), The status of endangered Australasian wildlife. Proceedings of the Centenary Symposium of the Royal Zoological Society of South Australia, Adelaide, 21-23 September, 1978.
Adelaide, Roy. Zool. Soc. South Australia (ix + 210): 67-74. 1 tab. 2 figs.
x
 
Link, Heinrich Friedrich (detail)
   
1794
Ueber die natürlichen Ordnungen und Geschlechter der Säugthiere.
Mag. f. Thiergesch. Thieranat. u. Thierarztneykunde 1(2): 33-41.
–Gives a brief characterization of only one sir. species, "Trichecus Manatus ?. borealis" (= Hydrodamalis gigas), which is placed in the order Belluae and said to be merely a variety of "Trichechus Manatus ?" (40-41).
 
 
Link, Heinrich Friedrich (detail)
   
1794-95
Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte.
Rostock & Leipzig, Karl Christoph Stiller: 1(1): [iv] + 124, 1794; 1(2): 1-126, 1795.
–In the "Erstes Stück" (1794), discusses sirs. on pp. 67-68; in the "Zweytes Stück" (1795), on pp. 109-110.
Linnaeus, Carl: SEE ALSO Artedi, P., 1738; Müller, P.L.S.; Turton, W. (detail)
 
 
Linnaeus, Carl (detail)
   
1748
Systema naturae sistens regna tria naturae, in classes et ordines genera et species redacta tabulisque aenis illustrata.... Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem.
Lipsiae [= Leipzig], Godofr. Kiesewetter: [1] + 2-224. Frontisp. 8 pls.
–Allen 245. A reprinting of the sixth edition. Trichecus, 39.
 
 
Linnaeus, Carl (detail)
   
1756
Systema naturae sistens regna tria naturae, in classes et ordines genera et species redacta tabulisque aenis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula Gallica. Editio multa auctior & emendatior.
Lugduni Batavorum [= Leiden], Theodor Haak: 1-227. 8 pls.
–Allen 273. Trichecus manatus, 39.
x
 
Linnaeus, Carl (detail)
   
1758
Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.
Holmiae [= Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii: [5] + 6-823 + [1].
–Facsimile ed.: London, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), 1956. The tenth edition and the official starting point for zoological nomenclature. Names and describes Trichechus manatus, n.gen.n.sp. (34). See also P. Artedi (1738) and O. Thomas (1911).
 
 
Linnaeus, Carl (detail)
   
1766
Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata.
Holmiae [= Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii: [10] + 11-532.
–Allen 298. The twelfth edition and the last to appear during Linnaeus' lifetime. For this reason it was long regarded as the most authoritative, in preference to the tenth ed. Since it (unlike the tenth ed.) includes the walrus in the genus Trichechus, the eventual result was that the latter name became attached to the walrus instead of the manatee for the following century and a half. "Trichecus [sic] Manatus" (including both the manatee and the dugong), 49-50.
  The name Trichechus Linnaeus, 1766 was declared a junior homonym of Trichechus Linnaeus, 1758 by ICZN Direction 24 (1955); therefore it has no separate nomenclatural validity.
  According to Allen, "In the Vindobonae reprint (1767), styled 'Editio decima tertia, ad Editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem,' the pagination and matter relating to [the Sirenia] is the same as here." See also J. F. Gmelin (1788).
Linné, Carl von: SEE Linnaeus, Carl. (detail)
 
 
Linstow, Otto Friedrich Bernhard von (detail)
   
1878
Compendium der Helminthologie. Ein Verzeichniss der bekannten Helminthen, die frei oder in thierischen Körpern leben, geordnet nach ihren Wohnthieren, unter Angabe der Organe, in denen sie gefunden sind, und mit Beifügung der Litteraturquellen.
Hannover, Hahn'sche Buchhandlung: xxii + 382.
–Lists parasites of sirs., 58-59.
 
 
Linstow, Otto Friedrich Bernhard von (detail)
   
1889
Compendium der Helminthologie. Nachtrag. Die Litteratur der Jahre 1878-89.
Hanover, Hahn'sche Buchhandlung: 1-151.
–Lists parasites of sirs., 24.
 
 
Linstow, Otto Friedrich Bernhard von (detail)
   
1903
Entozoa des zoologischen Museums der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersburg.
Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeia Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 8: 265-294.
–Lists Ascaris halicoris from the intestine of a Red Sea dugong.
 
 
Linstow, Otto Friedrich Bernhard von (detail)
   
1904
Neue Helminthen.
Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenkunde und Infektionskrankheiten 37(1): 678-683. 11 figs.
–Describes Opisthotrema pulmonale, n.sp., from the lungs of a Torres Strait dugong (678-680).
x
 
Linstow, Otto Friedrich Bernhard von (detail)
   
1905
Ascaris halicoris Baird.
Jour. Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (n.s.) 1 [= Jour. 1(10)]: 258-260. Pl. 11. Dec. 1905.
–In German. Discusses the nomenclature and anatomy of the nematode A. halicoris, and mentions its occurrence in stomachs of dugongs from India, the Malay Peninsula, and the Red Sea (258).
 
 
Linstow, Otto Friedrich Bernhard von (detail)
   
1906
Neue und bekannte Helminthen.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. Ökol. Geogr. Thiere 24: 1-20.
–Records Ascaris halicoris from an Indian dugong.
Lioy, Paolo: SEE Capellini, G., 1865. (detail)
x
 
Lipkin, Yaacov (detail)
   
1976
Food of the Red Sea Dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia) from Sinai.
Israel Jour. Zool. 24: 81-98. 6 tabs. 1 fig. June 1976.
–Analyzes the stomach and intestinal contents of 6 dugongs from the northern Red Sea. Nearly all the contents were seagrasses, with some algal and animal material, probably ingested casually. Discusses the dugong's feeding habits and possible movements; concludes that dugongs eat whatever is available, but prefer delicate seagrasses.
Lipps, Jere H.: SEE Goodwin et al., 1998; Mitchell & Lipps, 1964, 1965. (detail)
Lisboa, Cristóvão de: SEE Walter, J., 1967. (detail)
Lisitsyna, T. Yu.: SEE Krushinskaya & Lisitsyna, 1983. (detail)
 
 
Lithgow, John (detail)
   
2003
I'm a manatee.
New York, Simon & Schuster Books for Young People: [32 pp.] Illus. Sept. 2003?
–Children's book for ages 5-8, describing a little boy's dream of becoming a manatee. Illus. by Ard Hoyt. The rhyming text forms the lyrics of a song whose score (by Bill Elliott) is also included. This paperback booklet was distributed in boxes of Cheerios cereal.
x
 
Little, E. C. S. (detail)
   
1966
The invasion of man-made lakes by plants. In: R. H. Lowe-McConnell (ed.), Man-made lakes (Proceedings of a symposium held at the Royal Geographical Society, London, Sept. 30-Oct. 1, 1965).
Symp. Inst. Biol. No. 15 (xiii + 218): 75-86.
–Gives a pessimistic view of the manatee's potential use for weed control (82). Includes a comment by G. C. L. Bertram on the usefulness of manatees and the proposed use of dugongs for fresh-water weed control in Australia (86).
 
 
Littlepage, Dean (detail)
   
2006?
Steller's island: adventures of a pioneer naturalist in Alaska.
[City?], The Mountaineer Books.
–Rev.: L.A. Marschall, Nat. Hist. 116(3): 46, 48, 50. 1 fig. Apr. 2007.
 
 
Littles, Chanda J.; Pilyugin, S. Sergei; Frazer, Thomas K. (detail)
   
2015
A combined inverse method and multivariate approach for exploring population trends of Florida manatees.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12247 Publ. online July 30, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Given the expense and time required to monitor marine mammal populations effectively, approaches that fully exploit the resulting data certainly are warranted. We employed a two-step modeling approach to estimate key demographic parameters, including immigration, from aerial surveys of manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Northwest management unit of Florida. Abundances of adults and calves were predicted by multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) models, after accounting for heterogeneous detection rates caused by variable environmental conditions. The resulting predictions were incorporated into a stage-structured, deterministic model that used an inverse method to estimate parameters with and without immigration. The model without immigration estimated mean survival probabilities of 0.966, 0.923, and 0.794 for adults, subadults and calves, respectively, with a per capita reproductive rate of 0.135. These parameter estimates yielded an overall mean population growth rate of approximately 1.037, which is comparable to rates from mark-recapture studies. When we added an immigration term that accounted for the greater slope in adult counts since 1999, as identified by the MARS model, the estimated per capita reproductive rate was 0.122, with survival probabilities for adults, subadults and calves of 0.926, 0.920, and 0.833, respectively. These rates were coupled with an estimated mean winter immigration rate corresponding to roughly 5.2% of the adult and subadult population. In this latter scenario, the number of manatees in the core population of the Northwest management unit was predicted to remain constant, with a population growth rate near one, and additional manatees counted during aerial surveys were deemed to be immigrants. While further studies could certainly expound on the potential effects of migrants on population indices, we present this first published immigration estimate for wintering manatees in northwest Florida.
 
 
Littles, Chanda J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Butler, Susan M.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Notestein, Skye K.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Frazer, Thomas K. (detail)
   
2019
Coastal habitat change and marine megafauna behavior: Florida manatees encountering reduced food provisions in a prominent winter refuge.
Endangered Species Research 38: 29-43. 3 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00933 Jan. 24, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: A decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) within Florida's spring-fed, thermal refuges raises questions about how these systems support winter foraging of Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris. We analyzed telemetry data for 12 manatees over 7 years to assess their use of Kings Bay, a winter refuge with diminished SAV. After accounting for the effect of water temperature, we hypothesized that the number of trips out of Kings Bay would increase and the time wintering manatees spent in Kings Bay would decrease. Trips out of and into Kings Bay also were compared to assess potential influences on exiting or entering. There were no detectable differences in the number of trips out of the bay or overall time manatees spent in Kings Bay across winters. The percentage of time water temperatures were below 20oC was the single best predictor of increased time spent in Kings Bay. Trips out of Kings Bay were more likely to occur after 12:00 h and during a high but ebbing tide, compared to trips into the bay. Nine manatees tracked for longer than 75 days in winter spent 7–57% of their time in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 of these manatees spent 7–65% of the winter >80 km from the mouth of Kings Bay. Results suggest the low amount of SAV in Kings Bay does not obviate its use by manatees, though there are likely tradeoffs for manatees regularly foraging elsewhere. Accounting for movements of Florida manatees through a network of habitats may improve management strategies and facilitate desirable conservation outcomes.
  Note correction on website: "February 22, 2019: Substantial changes were made throughout the article after publication: to the text, Tables 1 & 2, and Fig. 4 (see .pdf 'Original text with edits')."
 
 
Liu, Fu-guo Robert; Miyamoto, Michael M. (detail)
   
1999
Phylogenetic assessment of molecular and morphological data for eutherian mammals.
Syst. Biol. 48(1): 54-64. 1 tab. 2 figs. Mar. 1999.
x
 
Liu, Zhenhe (detail)
   
1998
Dugong dugon. In: S. Wang (ed.), China Red Data Book of endangered animals. Mammalia.
Beijing, Hong Kong, & New York, Science Press (xviii + 417 pp.): 208-210.
–In Chinese and Engl. Briefly summarizes distribution and status. The dugong is considered "extremely rare" in China, and said to have decreased in numbers since 1958 due to hunting for meat and teeth. Protective legislation is cited, and a "Hepu Dugon Reserve" is said to have been established.
 
 
Livermore, Beth (detail)
   
1994
Tracking the elusive manatee.
Sea Frontiers 40(6): 40-47, 54-55. 8 figs. + cover photo. Dec. 1994.
–Pop. acc. of aerial surveys for manatees in Honduras and neighboring areas, emphasizing the logistical difficulties encountered.
x
 
Liverseege, J. F. (detail)
   
1904
Cod-liver oil and other fish oils.
Analyst 29: 210-215. July 1904.
–Analyzes and compares a variety of animal and plant oils, including dugong oil (211-214).
 
 
Livingston, A. D.; Livingston, Helen (detail)
   
1993
Edible plants and animals: unusual foods from aardvark to zamia.
New York, Facts on File. Illus.
–Manatees & dugongs, 84-85, 1 fig.
Livingston, Helen: SEE Livingston, A. D. (detail)
x
 
Lluch Belda, Daniel (detail)
   
1965
Algunas notas sobre la biologia del manati.
An. Inst. Nac. Invest. Biologico-Pesqueras (Mexico) 1: 405-419. 7 figs. Dec. 1965.
–Very good gen. acc. of sirs., the occurrences of manatees in Mexico, their food, probable seasonal migrations, live capture and transport, and their attempts at locomotion out of the water.
Llueca, Federico Gómez: SEE Gómez Llueca, Federico. (detail)
Lobão Tello, José L. P.: SEE Tinley et al., 1976. (detail)
Lobão Tello, José L. P.: SEE Smithers & Lobão Tello, 1976. (detail)
 
 
Lobley, J. Logan (detail)
   
1908
The American fauna and its origin.
Jour. Victoria Inst. 40: 190-221.
–Sirs., 109?
x
 
Lockett, Jerry (detail)
   
1996
Dugongs dine with the herd.
BBC Wildlife 14(1): 20-21. 2 figs. Jan. 1996.
–Pop. acc. of cultivation grazing by dugongs, based on Preen (1995).
 
 
Lockwood, C. C. (detail)
   
1974
America's vacationland or extinctionland.
Internatl. Wildlife Mag. Summer 1974.
–Brief mention of manatees in Florida, 353.
Lodi, Liliane Ferreira: SEE Borobia & Lodi, 1992. (detail)
x
 
Loerzel, S.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
1991
Rindenkerne: unusual neuron aggregates in manatee cerebral cortex.
Internatl. Assoc. Aquatic Animal Med. Proc. 22: 166-171. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Describes the morphology and distribution of Rindenkerne in the brain of a Florida manatee, and discusses their possible developmental history and possible association with functions of the vibrissae.
n
 
Loftin, Horace (detail)
   
1956
Mermaids.
Science News Letter 69(22): 350. 1 fig. June 2, 1956.
–Brief pop. acc. of sirs.
x
 
Loftin, Horace (detail)
   
1958
Some sirens!
Science News Letter 73(16): 256. 1 fig. Apr. 19, 1958.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, including their teaching of their young to breathe.
Lombardo, Ralph: SEE Lewis et al., 1984. (detail)
x
 
Lomolino, Mark V.; Ewel, Katherine Carter (detail)
   
1984
Digestive efficiencies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Florida Scientist 47(3): 176-179. 2 tabs.
–In a captive adult female Florida manatee fed lettuce and water hyacinth, the consumption rate was low relative to body size but digestive efficiencies were high (about 80% for Eichhornia, 90% for lettuce), due to the low fiber content of the plants, the long passage time (about 6 days), and the long gut.
 
 
Lonati, Gina L.; Howell, Amber R,; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Schueller, Paul; de Wit, Martine; Bassett, Brandon L.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I. (detail)
   
2019
Accuracy, precision, and error in age estimation of Florida manatees using growth layer groups in earbones.
Jour. Mammalogy 100(4):1350-1363. 5 tabs. 7 figs. + online supplementary files. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz079 July 27, 2019 (publ. online May 30, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Ages of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) can be estimated by counting annual growth layer groups (GLGs) in the periotic dome portion of the tympanoperiotic complex of their earbones. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages an archive of more than 8,700 Florida manatee earbones collected from salvaged carcasses from 1989 to 2017. Our goal was to comprehensively evaluate techniques used to estimate age, given this large sample size and changes to processing protocols and earbone readers over time. We developed new standards for estimating ages from earbones, involving two independent readers to obtain measurements of within- and between-reader precision. To quantify accuracy, precision, and error, 111 earbones from manatees with approximately known ages (first known as calves: "KAC") and 69 earbones from manatees with minimum known ages ("MKA," based on photo-identification sighting histories) were processed, and their ages were estimated. There was greater precision within readers (coefficient of variation, CV: 2.4–8.5%) than between readers (CV: 13.1–13.3%). The median of age estimates fell within the true age range for 63.1% of KAC cases and was at least the sighting duration for 75.0% of MKA cases. Age estimates were generally unbiased, as indicated by an average raw error ± SD of ?0.05 ± 3.05 years for the KAC group. The absolute error (i.e., absolute value of raw error) of the KAC data set averaged 1.75 ± 2.50 years. Accuracy decreased and error increased with increasing known age, especially for animals over 15 years old, whose ages were mostly underestimated due to increasing levels of resorption (the process of bone turnover that obscures GLGs). Understanding the degree of uncertainty in age estimates will help us assess the utility of age data in manatee population models. We emphasize the importance of standardizing and routinely reviewing age estimation and processing protocols to ensure that age data remain consistent and reliable.
x
 
Long, Austin (detail)
   
1965
Smithsonian Institution radiocarbon measurements II.
Radiocarbon 7: 245-256.
–Reports that the Hydrodamalis skull fragment from Monterey Bay, California (see R.E. Jones, 1967) was dated at 18,940 ± 1100 years B.P. (254).
 
 
Lönnberg, Einar (detail)
   
1907
Barkdjuret eller "Stellers sjö-ko". [Bark-animal or Steller's sea cow.]
Fauna och Flora (Uppsala) 2(1): 1-13. 1 fig.
–In Swedish. The fig. is reproduced from E. Büchner (1891).
Looze, Yvan: SEE Jacquet et al., 1989. (detail)
x
 
Lopes, Alberto Peão (detail)
   
1936
Fauna Moçambicana. Sirenios.
Moçambique, Document rio Trimestral (Lourenço Marques) 2(6): 27-36. 2 pls. 1 map. June 30, 1936.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. in general and the dugong (31-36) in particular. Reports that a herd of "more than 50" was seen at Inhambane in early 1936.
Lord, R.: SEE Fernandez Badillo et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Lorenz, Ludwig von (detail)
   
1904
Das Becken der Stellerschen Seekuh.
Abh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 19(3): 1-11. 2 figs. 1 pl. Apr. 1904 (read Feb. 10, 1904).
–Abstrs.: Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 54: 142-143; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 10(3): 124-125? Describes the innominate bone of Hydrodamalis and compares it in detail with those of the other Recent sirs., also mentioning some fossil forms.
 
 
Loth, Edward (detail)
   
1923
Kanal trous transversaires des vertébres cervicales des cetacés et siréniens.
Arch. Biol. Soc. Sci. Varsovie 1(20): 1-14. 14 figs.
–In Polish; French summ. Published 1925?
 
 
Loth, Edward (detail)
   
1924
Les trous transversaires des vertébres cervicales des cetacés et siréniens.
Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco No. 403: 1-12. 14 figs.
–Published 1921? Reprinting of Loth (1923)?
 
 
Loth, Edward (detail)
   
1931
Sur les fractures guériés des os des cétacés et des siréniens.
Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco No. 571: 1-8. 10 figs.
 
 
Loth, Edward (detail)
   
1940
Sur les fractures guériés des os des cétacés et des siréniens.
Résult. Camp. Sci. Prince Albert I Monaco 103: 247-254. 10 figs.
–Reprinting of Loth (1931)?
 
 
Lothrop, Samuel Kirkland (detail)
   
1937
Coclé: an archaeological study of central Panama.
Mem. Peabody Museum Archaeol. & Ethnol. (Harvard Univ.), vols. 7 & 8. Illus.
x
 
Louette, Michel (detail)
   
1999
La faune terrestre de Mayotte.
Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent., Sci. Zool. (Tervuren) 284: 1-248. 6 tabs. 160 figs.
–Louette is both editor of the entire volume and author of the chapter on mammals of Mayotte, Comoro Islands. The dugong is considered "very rare at Mayotte" (58).
x
 
Loughman, William D.; Frye, Fredric L.; Herald, Earl S. (detail)
   
1970
The chromosomes of a male manatee Trichechus inunguis.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbk. 10: 151-152. 1 tab. Pl. 49.
–Describes and illustrates the karyotype of the Steinhart Aquarium's manatee. He was found to have 56 chromosomes, like both species of elephants, but of different types, indicating a rather distant relationship.
Lounsbury, Valerie J.: SEE Geraci & Lounsbury, 1993; St. Aubin & Lounsbury, 1990. (detail)
 
 
Lourie, Peter (detail)
   
2011
The manatee scientists: saving vulnerable species.
New York, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (Scientists in the Field series): Illus.
–Describes field studies of TI, TML, and TS by Fernando Rosas, John Reynolds, and Lucy Keith, respectively, and their associates.
Loveland, Franklin O.: SEE ALSO Bradley et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Loveland, Franklin O. (detail)
   
1976
Tapirs and manatees: cosmological categories and social process among the Rama Indians of eastern Nicaragua. In: M. W. Helms & F. O. Loveland (eds.), Frontier adaptations in lower Central America.
Philadelphia, Inst. for Study of Human Issues: 67-82. 1 tab.
–Describes the symbolic significance, hunting, and carcass utilization of manatees and rituals and myths concerning manatees among the Rama. Manatees symbolize culture, society, and order, in contrast to untamed nature and disorder, represented by tapirs. [The Rama are evidently people of great discernment.]
x
 
Loveless, J. R. (detail)
   
1949
Dugongs.
Walkabout 15(3): 8. 1 fig. Mar. 1, 1949.
–Letter to the editor, reporting the deliberate netting of dugongs for oil on the Queensland coast north of Maryborough.
 
 
Loven, Sven (detail)
   
1935
Origins of the Tainan culture, West Indies.
Goteborg, Elanders Boktryckeir Aktiebolag.
 
 
Lovisato, D. (detail)
   
1902
Le specie fossili sinora trovate nel calcare compatto di Bonaria e di San Bartolomeo.
Cagliari, Tipo-Litografia Commerciale: 1-21.
–Attributes fragmentary ribs from the upper Miocene limestone of Bonaria and San Bartolomeo (near Cagliari) to Halitherium sp. and Metaxytherium sp., and a tooth to "Felsinotherium cf. F. gastaldi" = Metaxytherium subapenninum. [fide Carone & Rizzo, 2020]
x
 
Lovisato, Domenico (detail)
   
1902
Le specie fossili finora trovate nel calcare compatto di Bonaria e di San Bartolomeo.
Cagliari, Tipo-Litografia Commerciale: 1-21.
–Mentions the occurrence of sir. remains at Bonaria (Sardinia), and refers a single tooth to "Felsinotherium cfr. Gastaldii" (5).
x
 
Lovisek, James (detail)
   
1977
Man and manatee.
Wildlife 19(2): 62-64. 5 figs. Feb. 1977.
–Pop. acc. of manatees and their conservation problems in the Amazon region.
Lowe, F.: SEE Smyth & Lowe, 1836. (detail)
Lowe, Mark: SEE Bossart et al., 2002. (detail)
Lowe, Mark T.: SEE Odell et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Lowell, W. R.; Flanigan, W. F., Jr. (detail)
   
1980
Marine mammal chemoreception.
Mammal Review 10(1): 53-59. Mar. 1980.
–Briefly comments on the lack of knowledge of sir. chemoreception beyond anecdotal reports (56-57).
Lowenstein, Jerold M.: SEE ALSO Rainey et al., 1984; Shoshani et al., 1986. (detail)
x
 
Lowenstein, Jerold M. (detail)
   
1985
Molecular approaches to the identification of species.
Amer. Scientist 73(6): 541-547. 6 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1985.
–Presents a phylogeny of sirs., proboscideans, and hyraxes based on immunological distances. It shows the sir.-proboscidean divergence at about 55 Ma, but the dugongid-trichechid divergence at only 17-20 Ma and the Hydrodamalis-Dugong divergence at only 4-8 Ma. It also shows T. senegalensis as the sister group of T. manatus + T. inunguis.
 
 
Lowenstein, Jerold M.; Scheuenstuhl, Gary (detail)
   
1991
Immunological methods in molecular paleontology.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, B. Biol. Sci. 333(1268): 375-380.
–Discusses proteins extracted from bones of Hydrodamalis gigas.
 
 
Lowenstein, Jerold M.; Sarich, Vincent M.; Richardson, B. J. (detail)
   
1981
Albumen systematics of the extinct mammoth and Tasmanian wolf.
Nature (London) 291(5814): 409-411. 4 tabs. 2 figs. June 4, 1981.
x
 
Lowery, George Hines, Jr. (detail)
   
1943
Check-list of the mammals of Louisiana and adjacent waters.
Louisiana St. Univ. Mus. Zool., Occas. Paper No. 13: 213-257. 4 tabs. 5 figs. Nov. 22, 1943.
–Records (253-254) two Louisiana occurrences (one on the Texas border) of T. m. latirostris, the same as those cited by Gunter (1941a). However, he misquotes Gunter; the 1937 Cow Bayou specimen is confused with the 1928 Copano Bay specimen. One of these animals may have been killed by petroleum-survey blasting.
 
 
Lowery, George Hines, Jr. (detail)
   
1974
The mammals of Louisiana and its adjacent waters.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana St. Univ. Press: xxiv + 565. Aug. 16, 1974.
x
 
Lowes, R. H. G. (detail)
   
1970
Destruction in Sierra Leone.
Oryx 10(5): 309-310. Sept. 1970.
–"The manatee" is said to still occur "in the maze of creeks and waterways between the mouths of the Sewa and Pampana rivers" (310).
 
 
Lowry, Billie H. (detail)
   
1979
Marine mammals in captivity - keeping them healthy.
Sea Grant 70's (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ.) 9(3): 3-5. 2 figs. Mar. 1979.
–Includes a short report on clinical studies of Florida manatees conducted by Paul Cardeilhac.
 
 
Lowry, Lloyd; Laist, David W.; Taylor, Elizabeth (detail)
   
2007
Endangered, Threatened, and Depleted Marine Mammals in U.S. Waters: A Review of Species Classification Systems and Listed Species.
U.S. Marine Mammal Commission: viii + 79. 6 tabs. https://www.academia.edu/24947777/EndangeredThreatenedandDepletedMarineMammalsinUSWatersAReviewofSpeciesClassificationSystemsandListedSpecies?emailworkcard=view-paper
–Reviews conservation status and history of listing for Florida and Antillean manatees (8-12, 72, 74, 76).
x
 
Loyau, George E. (detail)
   
1897
The history of Maryborough and Wide Bay and Burnett Districts from the year 1850-1895.
Brisbane, Pole, Outridge: 1-385.
–Gives a one-paragraph account of the early years of the dugong fishery in Queensland, Australia (365).
x
 
Loyer, Bertrand (detail)
   
1993
How now, sea cow?
BBC Wildlife 11(10): 54-55. 2 figs. Oct. 1993.
–Describes the unusual behavior of a lone dugong encountered by a film crew in Vanuatu, including poking divers with its tusks and "trying to drown" turtles. Notes a movement of the top of the nasal passages associated with the animal's production of "chirping sounds".
Loyer, Godefroy: SEE N., 1719. (detail)
 
 
Lucas, A. H. S.; Le Souëf, W. H. Dudley (detail)
   
1909
The animals of Australia. Mammals, reptiles and amphibians.
Melbourne, Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd.
–Dugong, 60-62.
x
 
Lucas, Frederic August (detail)
   
1891
Animals recently extinct or threatened with extermination, as represented in the collections of the U.S. National Museum.
Rept. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1888-89: 609-649. 22 figs. Pls. 95-105. 7 maps.
–Account of the extermination of Rytina and the collection of specimens of it (623-627, pl. 99). Includes a transl. of L. Stejneger's (1885) description of the excavation of a skeleton on Bering Island.
x
 
Lucas, Frederic August (detail)
   
1916
Sea cows, past and present.
Amer. Mus. Jour. [= _Nat. Hist._] (New York) 16(5): 315-318. 3 figs. May 1916.
–Pop. acc. of sirs.
 
 
Lucas, Frederic August (detail)
   
1923
Modern mermaids.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 23(2): 122-124. 3 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1923.
x
 
Lucas, Spencer G.; Kordikova, Elena G.; Emry, Robert J. (detail)
   
1998
Oligocene stratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, and mammalian biochronology north of the Aral Sea, western Kazakstan. In: C. Beard & M. Dawson (eds.), Dawn of the Age of Mammals in Asia.
Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 34: 313-348. 2 tabs. 12 figs.
–Illustrates and discusses an indeterminate sir. rib fragment (U.S. National Museum no. 482244) from the upper Chilikta Formation (Early Olig., late Rupelian?) (320, 325-326, 346).
 
 
Lucchini, K.; Umeed, R.; Guimaraes, L.; Santos, P.; Sommer I.; Bezerra, B. (detail)
   
2021
The role of touch in captive and semi-captive Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).
Behaviour doi:10.1163/1568539X-bja10069
Ludlow, Mark E.: SEE Correa-Viana et al., 1991; O'Shea et al., 1988; O'Shea & Ludlow, 1992. (detail)
Ludwig, Hubert: SEE Leunis & Ludwig, 1883. (detail)
 
 
Lueders, Imke; Niemuller, Cheryl; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie; Hermes, Rober; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B. (detail)
   
2012
Gestating for 22 months: luteal development and pregnancy maintenance in elephants.
Proc. R. Soc. B 279(1743): 3687-3696. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1038. September 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The corpus luteum, a temporally established endocrine gland, formed on the ovary from remaining cells of the ovulated follicle, plays a key role in maintaining the early mammalian pregnancy by secreting progesterone. Despite being a monovular species, 2–12 corpora lutea (CLs) were found on the elephant ovaries during their long pregnancy lasting on average 640 days. However, the function and the formation of the additional CLs and their meaning remain unexplained. Here, we show from the example of the elephant, the close relationship between the maternally determined luteal phase length, the formation of multiple luteal structures and their progestagen secretion, the timespan of early embryonic development until implantation and maternal recognition. Through three-dimensional and Colour Flow ultrasonography of the ovaries and the uterus, we conclude that pregnant elephants maintain active CL throughout gestation that appear as main source of progestagens. Two LH peaks during the follicular phase ensure the development of a set of 5.4 ± 2.7 CLs. Accessory CLs (acCLs) form prior to ovulation after the first luteinizing hormone (LH) peak, while the ovulatory CL (ovCL) forms after the second LH peak. After five to six weeks (the normal luteal phase lifespan), all existing CLs begin to regress. However, they resume growing as soon as an embryo becomes ultrasonographically apparent on day 49 ± 2. After this time, all pregnancy CLs grow significantly larger than in a non-conceptive luteal phase and are maintained until after parturition. The long luteal phase is congruent with a slow early embryonic development and luteal rescue only starts 'last minute', with presumed implantation of the embryo. Our findings demonstrate a highly successful reproductive solution, different from currently described mammalian models.
 
 
Luiselli, Luca; Akani, Godfrey C.; Ebere, Nwabueze; Angelici, Francesco Maria; Amori, Giovanni; Politano, Edoarto (detail)
   
2012
Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications.
Web Ecology 12: 39-48. DOI:10.5194/we-12-39-2012 July 2012.
–ABSTRACT: African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis) and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis) in the Niger Delta (Nigeria), testing the hypotheses that (i) manatees may avoid crocodiles in order to minimize risks of predation, and (ii) the two crocodile species do compete. The study was carried out between 1994 and 2010 with a suite of different field techniques. We observed that the main macro-habitat types were freshwater rivers and coastal lagoons for manatees, mangroves for West African crocodiles, and rivers and creeks for dwarf crocodiles, with (i) the three species differing significantly in terms of their macro-habitat type selection, and (ii) significant seasonal influence on habitat selection of each species. Null models for niche overlap showed a significantly lower overlap in macro-habitat type use between manatee and crocodiles, whereas the two crocodiles were relatively similar. Null model analyses did not indicate any competitive interactions between crocodiles. On the other hand, manatees avoided macro-habitats where crocodiles, and especially West African crocodiles, are abundant.
 
 
Lukaszewicz, Karol (detail)
   
1965
Sto lat osiagniec hodowlanych Wroclawskiego Ogrodu Zoologicznego. [A hundred years of animal breeding in the Wroclaw Zoological Garden.]
Prezegl. Zool. 9(2): 191-198. Illus.
–In Polish; Engl. summ. Mentions manatees.
 
 
Luke, H. C. (detail)
   
1925
A bibliography of Sierra Leone.
Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press.
–Records an extract from A visit of General Edward Fenton, August 1582, written by Luke Ward, Vice-Admiral, which states "Much interest was excited by the capture of a sea calfe with haire and lympits and barnacles upon him." According to Grubb et al. (1998), this is the oldest record of the manatee in Sierra Leone.
 
 
Lull, Richard Swann (detail)
   
1908
The evolution of the elephant.
Amer. Jour. Sci. (4)25: 169-212. 27 figs. 4 charts.
–Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 13: 203?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 14(3): 162?; Sci. Prog. 4: 663? ?Repr.: Ann. Rept. Smithson. Inst. 1908: 641-675. 25 figs. 2 pls. 4 charts. 1909 (sirs., 641); Yale Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide No. 2: 1-44. Illus.
x
 
Lull, Richard Swann (detail)
   
1910
Relation of embryology and vertebrate paleontology.
Pop. Sci. Monthly 77: 150-153. Aug. 1910.
–Mentions the lack of hind limbs in sir. embryos, their gross similarity to ungulates, and the development of their caudal flukes (152-153).
 
 
Lull, Richard Swann (detail)
   
1912
Symposium on ten years' progress in vertebrate paleontology. Cretaceous dinosaurs.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 23: 208-212.
–Sirs., 220, 246??
 
 
Lull, Richard Swann (detail)
   
1917
Organic evolution. A text-book.
New York: xviii + 729. 253 figs. 30 pls.
–Rev.: Jour. Geol. 26: 285? Sirs., 322.
 
 
Luna, F. de O.; Araújo, J. P.; Passavante, J. Z. O.; Mendes, P. P.; Pessanha, M.; Soavinski, R.; Oliveira, E. M. (detail)
   
2010
Distribuição do peixe-boi marinho, Trichechus manatus, no litoral norte do Brasil.
Arquivos de Ciências do Mar 43(2): 79-86. 10.32360/acmar.v43i2.
 
 
Luna, F. de O.; Passavante, J.Z.O. (detail)
   
2010
Projeto peixe-boi/ICMBio. 30 Anos de conservação de uma espécie ameaçada. 1. ed.
Brasília: Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. 1-108.
 
 
Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Araújo, J. P.; Passavante, José; Mendes, P.; Pessanha, M.; Soavinski, R.; Oliveira, E. (detail)
   
2008
Occorência do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus manatus) no litoral norte do Brazil.
Boletim do Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão 23: 37-49.
 
 
Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Beaver, Caitlin E.; Nourisson, Coralie; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L. N.; Miranda, Adriana Vieira; Torres-Florez, Juan Pablo; Sousa, Glaucia Pereira de; Passavante, José Zanon; Hunter, Margaret E. (detail)
   
2021
Genetic connectivity of the West Indian Manatee in the southern range and limited evidence of hybridization with Amazonian manatees.
Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 574455. 4 tabs. 4 figs. + online supplementary material. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.574455 Jan. 6, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee is classified as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. In Brazil, the manatee population is listed as endangered with an estimated population size of 500–1,000. Historic hunting, recent habitat degradation, and fisheries bycatch have decreased the population size. The Amazonian manatee is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN with unknown population sizes within Brazil. The Antillean manatee occurs in sympatry with the Amazonian manatee in Brazil and hybridization has been previously indicated. To provide information on the genetic structure, diversity, and degree of hybridization in the sympatric zone near the Amazon River mouth, the mitochondrial DNA control region and 13 nuclear microsatellite markers were assessed on the two species. Samples were analyzed from the Antillean subspecies across its distribution in Brazil (n = 78) and from the Amazonian species (n = 17) at the Amazon River mouth and inland mainstem river. To assess the previously defined evolutionary significant units of Antillean manatees in the area, an additional 11 samples from Venezuela and Guyana were included. The Antillean manatee was found to be a single population in Brazil and had lower than average number of alleles (3.00), expected heterozygosity (0.34), and haplotype diversity (0.15) when compared to many other manatee populations. The low values may be influenced by the small population size and extended pressures from anthropogenic threats. Gene flow was identified with Venezuela/Guyana in admixed Antillean Brazil samples, although the two populations were found to be moderately divergent. The nuclear loci in Venezuela/Guyana Antillean manatee samples indicated high differentiation from the samples collected in the Amazon River (FST = 0.35 and RST = 0.18, p = 0.0001). No indication of nuclear hybridization was found except for a single sample, "Poque" that had been identified previously. The distribution of Antillean manatees in Brazil is extensive and the areas with unique habitat and threats would benefit from independent management and conservation actions. Gene flow, resulting in genetic diversity and long-term population stability, could be improved in the southern range through habitat restoration, and the establishments of travel corridors and protected areas, which are particularly important for successful parturition and neonatal calf survival.
 
 
Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L. N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E. (detail)
   
2012
Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in northeast Brazil.
Aquatic Conserv.: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 22(5): 665–672. 2 tabs. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2260 Publ. online July 4, 2012 in wileyonlinelibrary.com.
–ABSTRACT: 1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear.
 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.
 3. Since 1989 the calves have been rescued (N=67), rehabilitated, and released (N=25) to supplement the small wild manatee population. The rescued calves, and those born in captivity, are typically, not released to their rescue location, mainly for logistical reasons. Therefore, phylogeographic analyses can help to identify related populations and appropriate release sites.
 4. Here, mitochondrial DNA analyses identified low haplotype (h=0.08) and nucleotide (p=0.0026) genetic diversity in three closely related haplotypes. All three haplotypes (M01, M03, and a previously unidentified haplotype, M04) were found in the northern portion of the region, while only a single haplotype (M01) was represented in the south. This suggests the presence of two genetic groups with a central mixing zone. Release of rehabilitated calves to unrelated populations may result in genetic swamping of locally adapted alleles or genotypes, limiting the evolutionary potential of the population.
 5. The small population size coupled with low genetic diversity indicates that the Northeast Brazil manatee population is susceptible to inbreeding depression and possible local extinction. Further conservation measures incorporating genetic information could be beneficial to the critically endangered Brazilian manatee population.
 
 
Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Pinto de Lima, Régis; Araújo, J. P.; Passavante, José Zanon O. (detail)
   
2008
Status de conservação do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758) no Brasil.
Rev. Brasileira de Zoociências 10(2): 145-153.
x
 
Lungu, Aleksandru; Rzebik-Kowalska, Barbara (detail)
   
2011
Faunal assemblages, stratigraphy and taphonomy of the Late Miocene localities in the Republic of Moldova.
Krakow, Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences: 1-62. 18 figs.
–Lists "?Halitherium maeoticus" (sic; n.comb.) as occurring with other Mioc. fauna at the localities of Prunkul, Gidigich, Mikeuts, Poshta Veke, Visternichen, and Yaloven in the Urban Kishinev region (30).
 
 
Luszczynski, J. (detail)
   
1994
Costs of manatee rehabilitation at the Lowry Park Zoo.
Amer. Zoo & Aquarium Assoc. Regional Conf. Proc. 1994: 121-123. Illus.
x
 
Lütken, Christian Frederik (detail)
   
1873
Bidrag til Kundskab om Arterne af Slaegten Cyamus Latr. eller Hvallusene.
Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (5)10(3): 229-284. 4 pls.
–In Danish; French summ. Regards "Cyamus Rhytinae" as a synonym of C. ovalis, and considers the St. Petersburg "Rhytina" skin fragment to be that of a Balaena. Suggests that the crustaceans described by Steller as parasitic on Hydrodamalis were not cyamids, but rather caprellids like Leptomera or Proto (270-274, pl. 2).
x
 
Lütken, Christian Frederik (detail)
   
1893
Andet Tillaeg til "Bidrag til Kundskab om Arterene af Slaegten Cyamus Latr. eller Hvallusene".
Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (6)7(9): 421-434. 1 pl.
–In Danish; French summ. Suggests that modern sir. parasites could throw light on the affinities of "Sirenocyamus Rhytinae" (433).
Lyamin, O. I.: SEE Mukhametov et al., 1992, 1994. (detail)
Lydekker, Richard: SEE ALSO Flower & Lydekker, 1891; Nicholson & Lydekker, 1889; Thomas & Lydekker, 1897, 1898. (detail)
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1887
Catalogue of the fossil Mammalia in the British Museum. Part V. Containing the group Tillodontia, the orders Sirenia, Cetacea, Edentata, Marsupialia, Monotremata and Supplement.
London: xxxv + 345. 55 figs.
–Rev.: E. D. Cope, Amer. Naturalist 22: 164-165, 1888. Sirs., 7-13.
x
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1892
On a remarkable sirenian jaw from the Oligocene of Italy, and its bearing on the evolution of the Sirenia.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1892(1): 77-83. 2 figs. June 1892 (read Feb. 2, 1892).
–Discusses a specimen [probably of Late Eocene age] which he assigns to Halitherium veronense, while referring the latter species to Prorastomus and calling the new combination Prorastoma veronense. Concludes that the Sirenia are descended from selenodont artiodactyls.
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1896
A geographical history of mammals.
Cambridge: xii + 400. 82 figs. 1 map.
–German transl., Jena, 1897. Reviews: Naturaliste (2)11: 138-140, 1897?; Rev. Sci. Nat. 9: 292-293?; Science (n.s.) 5: 26-32, 1897?
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1899
On the supposed former existence of a sirenian in St. Helena.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1899(3): 796-798. Oct. 1899 (read June 20, 1899).
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
18??
Royal natural history.
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1901
Some animals exterminated during the nineteenth century.
Nature 58: 252-254.
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1903
The palaeontological case for evolution.
Knowledge 26(= n.s. 18): 73-76, 100-102, 123-126.
–Sirs., 124.
 
 
Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1907
The recently discovered Tertiary Vertebrata of Egypt.
Sci. Prog. 1: 668-682.
–Sirs., 673.
x
 
Lyman, Charles P. (detail)
   
1939
A vestigial lower incisor in the dugong.
Jour. Mamm. 20(2): 229-231. 1 fig. May 14, 1939.
–Reports a vestigial I/3 in a dugong from Tagbac Bay, Philippines.
x
 
Lynd, Warden (detail)
   
1975
Thanks, guys, said the seacows.
Florida Sportsman 6(5): 28-29. 2 figs. June-July 1975.
–Pop. acc. of the rescue and rehabilitation of two cow-calf pairs by the Miami Seaquarium, Florida.
 
 
Lyons, E. (detail)
   
1969
My Florida.
Port Salerno (Florida), Valentine Books.
–Manatee, chap. 24.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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