Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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M

 
 
Maack, G. A. (detail)
   
1874
Report on the geology and natural history of the Isthmuses of Choco, of Darien, and of Panama. In: T. O. Selfridge, Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the practicability of a ship-canal between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by the way of the Isthmus of Darien.
Washington, Govt. Printing Off.: 155-175.
–Manatee, 171. See E.A. Goldman (1920).
 
 
Macarovici, Nec (detail)
   
1978
Sur la faune des mammifères fossiles neozoiques de la Roumanie. In: V. Ianovici (ed.), Le symposium sur "La geologie des Carpates Meridionales".
Rev. Roum. Geol. Geophys. Geogr., Ser. Geol. 22: 71-98.
x
 
Macarovici, Nec; Oescu, C. V. (detail)
   
1942
Quelques vertébrés fossiles trouvés dans les calcaires récifales de Chişinău (Bessarabie).
Acad. Român., Mem. Sect. Ştiinţifice (Bucharest) (3)17: 351-382. 8 figs. 7 pls.
–Reviews the Sarmatian fauna of Kishinev, including ribs of "Manatus maeoticus" (351, 353, 376-379, 382, pl. 7).
 
 
MacAvoy, Stephen E.; Bacalan, Vince; Kazantseva, Mary; Rhodes, Jon; Kim, Kiho (detail)
   
2014
Sulfur isotopes show importance of freshwater primary production for Florida manatees.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 720-725. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12166. Apr. 2015 (publ. online Sept. 2, 2014).
x
 
MacCreagh, Gordon (detail)
   
1926
White waters and black.
New York, Century Co.: 1-335.
–Repr.: Univ. Chicago Press, 1985. Brief accounts of manatees and manatee hunting (with harpoons and blowguns) by the Tiquié Tucana Indians of the Rio Uaupés region, Brazil (277, 311, 313, 323-324; fig. facing p. 309), including "feeling out" the manatee with a "long thin rod" before harpooning it!
MacDonald, B. W.: SEE Bryden et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
MacDougall, W. L. (detail)
   
1983
Wetlands in trouble - a rush to save them.
U.S. News & World Report 94: 77. June 1983.
 
 
Macedo, Lino de (detail)
   
1906
Amazonia: repositorio alphabetico de termos ... do grandioso valle do Amazonas.
Lisbon, Typ. Adolpho Mendonça: iv + 303. Illus.
–Manatee, 152, 189.
MacFadden, Bruce J.: SEE Webb et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
MacFadden, Bruce J.; Higgins, Pennilyn; Clementz, Mark T.; Jones, Douglas S. (detail)
   
2004
Diets, habitat preferences, and niche differentiation of Cenozoic sirenians from Florida: evidence from stable isotopes.
Paleobiology 30(2): 297-324. 4 tabs. 9 figs. 1 appendix. Spring 2004 (mailed Apr. 21, 2004).
x
 
Macfadyen, W. A. (detail)
   
1952
Note on the geology of the Daban area and the localities of the described nautiloids. In: O. Haas & A. K. Miller, Eocene nautiloids of British Somaliland.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 99(5): 347-349. 2 tabs. Aug. 5, 1952.
–Reports "sirenian remains" from the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) "Nautilus beds" of the Lower Daban series (348).
MacFarlane, W.: SEE Johannes & MacFarlane, 1991. (detail)
 
 
MacGillivray, John (detail)
   
1852
Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, commanded by the late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S., &c. during the years 1846-1850. Including discoveries and surveys in New Guinea, the Louisade Archipelago, etc. To which is added the account of Mr. E. B. Kennedy's expedition for the exploration of the Cape York Peninsula.
London, T. & W. Boone (2 vols.).
–Repr.: Adelaide, Libraries Board of South Australia, 1967. Dugong at Moreton Bay, 2: 22-25, 48.
Machado, A. B. M.: SEE Bernardes et al., 1990. (detail)
x
 
Machado, Francisco de Paula (detail)
   
1940
Peixe-boi da Amazonia.
A Voz do Mar 19(175): 246. Sept.-Oct. 1940.
–Notes the use of Amazonian manatee meat (for "mexira") and hide, and prices of the latter; details proposed regulations for hunting, especially during the Dec.-Feb. "breeding season", and proposals for increased efficiency in processing of hides.
 
 
Machuca-Coronado, O. Corona-Figueroa, M. F. (detail)
   
2019
El manatí antillano Trichechus manatus manatus (Sirenia: Trichechidae) en Guatemala: amenazas y procesos de conservación. Pp. 188-200 in: Kraker, C., Calderón, A. P. & Cabrera, A. A. (Eds.). Perspectivas de investigación sobre los mamíferos silvestres de Guatemala.
Guatemala, ASOGUAMA.
 
 
MacInnes, I. G. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1950?
Australian fisheries: a handbook prepared for the second meeting of the Indo-Pacific Council, Sydney, April 1950.
Sydney, Halstead Press Pty. Ltd.: 1-103. 6 figs. 6 pls. 1 map.
–Brief comment on dugongs in Australia (43).
 
 
Mackal, Roy P. (detail)
   
1976
The monsters of Loch Ness.
London, Futura Publications Ltd.: [xi] + 401. Illus.
–Considers (in rather surprising detail) Steller's sea cow and other sirs. as possible candidates for the Loch Ness monster, presents an odd and rather lumpy reconstruction of Hydrodamalis (136), discusses sir. behavior, environment, and morphology, and illustrates (158) a "Hypothetical (but unlikely) sirenian" with a giraffe-like neck (!) that might conceivably account for the monster sightings (135-137, 143-144, 148-149, 155, 157-159, 162, 166-167, 171-172, 177, 181, 185-186, 192, 195, 197, 204, 283, 310-312). The most noteworthy part of this quaint exercise in speculative sirenology is a calculation (311-312), based partly on Steller's measurements and partly on unsupported estimates, of the body volume and lung volume of Hydrodamalis, which concludes that lung gas volume was about 13% of body volume.
Mackay, Bruce: SEE Chua et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Mackay-Sim, Alan; Duvall, David; Graves, Brent M. (detail)
   
1985
The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) lacks a vomeronasal organ.
Brain Behav. Evol. 27(2-4): 186-194. 3 figs.
–Reports that a vomeronasal organ and nasopalatine ducts are absent in Florida manatees, but some olfactory epithelium and a rudimentary olfactory bulb are present.
x
 
MacKenzie, Debora (detail)
   
1985
In defence of the dugong, dolphin and manatee.
New Scientist 105(1447): 4. 1 fig. Mar. 14, 1985.
–Notice of a meeting held in Geneva to implement the United Nations Environment Programme plan for marine mammal conservation.
MacKenzie, Duncan S.: SEE Ortiz et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
MacKerras, M. J. (detail)
   
1958
Catalogue of Australian mammals and their recorded internal parasites. Part II. Eutheria.
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 83: 126-143.
 
 
Mackey, Daniel James (detail)
   
1979
Can the Florida manatee survive?
Natl. Parks & Conserv. Mag. 53(3): 14-17. 4 figs. Mar. 1979.
Macko, Stephen A.: SEE Walker & Macko, 1999. (detail)
x
 
MacLaren, James P. (detail)
   
1967
Manatees as a naturalistic biological mosquito control method.
Mosquito News 27(3): 387-393. 5 figs. Sept. 1967.
–Recounts the history of weed and insect control studies using manatees in Panama, including the introduction into the Canal Zone of nine T. manatus from Panama and one T. inunguis from Peru. Concludes that effective weed control by manatees would require an unrealistically large herd of the animals.
Maclatchy, A. R.: SEE ALSO Malbrant & Maclatchy, 1949. (detail)
 
 
Maclatchy, A. R. (detail)
   
1936
Dans la brousse gabonaise.
Terre et la Vie (Paris) 6: 360-369. 8 figs.
–Mentions T. senegalensis in the Ogowe River, 362.
 
 
Maclaud, C. (detail)
   
1908
La chasse du lamantin en Afrique occidentale.
La Nature (Paris) 36(= (2)20?): 289-290. 1 fig. Apr. 11, 1908.
x
 
MacMillan, L. (detail)
   
1955
The dugong.
Walkabout 21(2): 17-20. 2 figs. Feb. 1, 1955.
–Detailed account of the natural history of the dugong in northwestern Australia, including shark predation, Aboriginal hunting with harpoons, economic use, and eyewitness descriptions of calving and the mother's teaching the calf to swim.
 
D
MacNeil, F. S.; Wolfe, J. A.; Miller, D. J.; Hopkins, David M. (detail)
   
1961
Correlation of Tertiary formations of Alaska.
Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 45(11): 1801-1809. 2 figs. Nov. 1961.
 
 
MacNutt, F. A. (detail)
   
1912
De Orbe Novo: the eight decades of Peter Martyr d'Anghera.
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker Press.
MacPhee, Ross D. E.: SEE ALSO Greenwood et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel A. (detail)
   
1995
Origin of the Greater Antillean land mammal fauna, 1: New Tertiary fossils from Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Amer. Mus. Novit. 3141: 1-31. 3 tabs. 11 figs. June 30, 1995.
–Records the presence of indeterminate sir. bones in the Early Oligocene Juana Díaz Formation at Yauco, Puerto Rico (15-16).
x
 
MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Wyss, André R. (detail)
   
1990
Oligo-Miocene vertebrates from Puerto Rico, with a catalog of localities.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 2965: 1-45. 3 tabs. 12 figs. Feb. 27, 1990.
–Reviews Puerto Rican occurrences of fossil sirs. and other vertebrates ranging in age from Early Oligocene to Late Miocene or Early Pliocene, and describes new material tentatively referred to Caribosiren turneri and Metaxytherium cf. calvertense, as well as an unnamed species of small Miocene dugongid and indeterminate sir. remains (2, 14-17, 21-38, 41). Some of the specimens described are from the former fossil vertebrate collection of the late Narciso Rabell Cabrero, now housed at the American Museum of Natural History.
 
 
MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel A.; Gaffney, Eugene S. (detail)
   
2003
Domo de Zaza, an Early Miocene vertebrate locality in south-central Cuba, with notes on the tectonic evolution of Puerto Rico and the Mona Passage.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 3394: 1-42. 5 tabs. 16 figs. Feb. 19, 2003.
 
 
Macreadie, M. (detail)
   
1988
Plight of the dugong - what does the future hold?
Austral. Fish. 47(11): 24-26. Illus.
 
 
Macveigh, W. P. (detail)
   
1974a
[Letter on dugongs.]
Malayan Nature Jour. 28(1): 35. 1 pl. Sept. 1974.
x
 
Macveigh, W. P. (detail)
   
1974b
On the dugong.
Malayan Nature Jour. 28(2): 117. Dec. 1974.
–Letter to the editor commenting further (pursuant to Macveigh, 1974a) on Bland's (1970) report of a dugong in Johore Strait. Briefly discusses the reported countershading of dugongs and the possibility of confusing them with the porpoise Neomeris.
Macwilliams, Peter S.: SEE Converse et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Maden, Mary (detail)
   
1999
The great manatee rescue.
Kill Devil Hills (North Carolina), Dog and Pony Publishing (Earth/Ocean Adventures series, #2): [1-24.] Illus.
–Children's book about the rescue of a Florida manatee injured by a boat.
Madin, Stewart H.: SEE Morales et al., 1985. (detail)
Madsen, Ole: SEE Springer et al., 1997; Stanhope et al., 1998. (detail)
Maeda, Hiroshi: SEE Marshall et al., 2003. (detail)
Maeda, Toshitsugu: SEE Furusawa et al., 1993. (detail)
Magalhães de Gândavo, Pêro de: SEE Gândavo, Pêro de Magalhães de. (detail)
Magalhães, Couto de: SEE Couto de Magalhães. (detail)
Magalowski, G.: SEE Hunger & Magalowski, 1957. (detail)
 
 
Magnier, P. (detail)
   
1962
Étude géologique du gisement de vertébrés du Gebel Zelten (Libye).
C.R. Somm. Séanc. Soc. Géol. France 1962(2): 55-57. 3 figs.
 
 
Magnus, Richard W. (detail)
   
1978
The prehistoric and modern subsistence patterns of the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua: a comparison. In: B. L. Stark & B. Voorhies (eds.), Prehistoric coastal adaptations: the economy and ecology of maritime Middle America.
New York, Academic Press: 61-80.
Magnussen, Harro: SEE Soza de Castro, F. de, 1907. (detail)
Magor, Diana Marion: SEE Bengtson & Magor, 1979; Domning & Magor, 1977; Rainey et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Mahoney, J. A.; Ride, W. D. L. (detail)
   
1975
Index to the genera and species of fossil Mammalia described from Australia and New Guinea between 1838 and 1968.
West. Austral. Mus. Spec. Publ. No. 6: 1-249.
–Lists Chronozoon as probable synonym of Phascolomys gigas (152); also lists Halicore brevirostris (157).
 
 
Maia, Alvaro Botelho (detail)
   
1936
Mensagem do Governador ... á Assembléa Legislativa [do Estado do Amazonas], na abertura da sessão ordinaria, em 3 de Maio de 1936.
Manaus (Brazil), Secção de Obras da Imprensa Publica: 1-283 + tables.
–Lists, in an unnumbered table, the quantities of manatee hides, mixira, and lard exported from municipalities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil in 1935.
 
 
Maia, Alvaro Botelho (detail)
   
1944
Exposição ao Excelentissimo Senhor Doutor Getulio Vargas, Presidente da República.... (Maio de 1943-Julho de 1944). [Interventoria Federal no Estado do Amazonas.]
Manaus (Brazil), D.E.I.P.: 1-191.
–Lists, in an unnumbered table, statistics on exports of manatee hides from the state of Amazonas, Brazil in 1943.
Maigret, J.: SEE ALSO Dupuy & Maigret. (detail)
 
 
Maigret, J. (detail)
   
1982
Recherches scientifiques dans les parcs nationaux du Sénégal. XVIII. Les mammifères marins du Sénégal. Etat des observations dans les parcs nationaux.
Mem. Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire 92: 221-231.
x
 
Maio, Nicola; Picariello, Orfeo (detail)
   
2000
I pinnipedi e i sirenii del Museo Zoologico dell'Università di Napoli Federico II (Mammalia: Carnivora, Sirenia). Catalogo della collezione con note storiche e osteometriche.
Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 141(1): 1-18. Oct. 2000.
–Lists three sir. specimens in the museum's collection: a skeleton and a skull of Dugong dugon, and a plaster cast of a skull of Hydrodamalis gigas (13-15).
 
 
Maire, Frederic; Mejias, Luis; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Duclos, Gwenael (detail)
   
2013
Detection of dugongs from unmanned aerial vehicles.
2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS): pp. 2750-2756. 5 tabs. 5 figs. DOI:10.1109/IROS.2013.6696745. Nov. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Monitoring and estimation of marine populations is of paramount importance for the conservation and management of sea species. Regular surveys are used to this purpose followed often by a manual counting process. This paper proposes an algorithm for automatic detection of dugongs from imagery taken in aerial surveys. Our algorithm exploits the fact that dugongs are rare in most images, therefore we determine regions of interest partially based on color rarity. This simple observation makes the system robust to changes in illumination. We also show that by applying the extended-maxima transform on red-ratio images, submerged dugongs with very fuzzy edges can be detected. Performance figures obtained here are promising in terms of degree of confidence in the detection of marine species, but more importantly our approach represents a significant step in automating this type of surveys.
 
 
Maison, E. (detail)
   
1899
Sirénes et lamantins.
Cosmos (n.s.) 40: 106-108. 1 fig.
 
 
Maitland, R. N.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Sheppard, James K. (detail)
   
2006
Assessing the risk of boat strike on dugongs (Dugong dugon) at Burrum Heads, Queensland, Australia.
Pacif. Conserv. Biol. 12: 321-327.
 
 
Majewska, Roksana; Goosen, William E. (detail)
   
2020
For better, for worse: manatee-associated Tursiocola (Bacillariophyta) remain faithful to their host.
Jour. Phycology doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12993 Mar. 21, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: With the advent of more comprehensive research into the microbiome and interactions between animals and their microbiota, new solutions can be applied to address conservation challenges such as husbandry and medical care of captive animals. Although studies on epizoic algae are relatively rare, and the function and role of those mainly photosynthetic organisms in the animal microbiome is not well understood, recent surveys on epizoic diatoms show that some of them exhibit traits of obligate epibionts. This study explores diatom communities on captive–born manatees from the Africarium in Wroclaw, Poland. Light and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that skin of all animals sampled was dominated by apochlorotic Tursiocola cf. ziemanii, an epizoic species described recently from Florida manatees, that reached 99,9% of the total diatom abundance. Despite using media with a wide range of salinity (0–34), the isolated Tursiocola cells did not grow, whereas the normally pigmented Planothidium sp., that was only occasionally found on the animal substratum, survived in all culture media tested. Our observations provide direct evidence that manatee–associated Tursiocola endure the dramatic salinity changes that occur regularly during their host life cycle, and can thrive in an artificial captive setting, if the manatee substratum is available. The impact of practices and routines used by the Africarium on manatee–associated diatoms, as well as ultrastructure of areolae in Tursiocola, are briefly discussed.
 
 
Major, Charles Immanuel Forsyth (= C. J. Forsyth Major) (detail)
   
1899
Note on a table of contemporary geological deposits arranged stratigraphically, with their characteristic genera of mammals.
Geol. Mag. (4)6: 60-69.
–Sirs., 62.
Makuta, K.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
x
 
Malakar, Bitopan; Venu, S.; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Ram, B. Santhosh; Gogoi, Nitul Kumar; Lakra, Raj Kiran; Basumatary, Ganesh; Thomas, Liju; Nagesh, Rahul (detail)
   
2015
Recent sightings of marine mammals in Andaman Islands, India.
Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(5): 7175–7180. 1 tab. 4 figs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4168.7175-80 Apr. 26, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: This study reports opportunistic sightings of marine mammals between August 2013 and January 2014 in the Andaman region. Seven sightings were recorded during this period out of which one was of a Dugong, which is significant considering its small population size in India and limited data on its distribution and abundance. The rest were 24 dolphins (Tursiops sp.). Four sightings were of the same pod of dolphins on different days at the same location. Two sightings occurred during regular coral reef monitoring survey and the other five during fishery resource survey by trawling operations. These sightings are of great significance as there is a lack of studies on marine mammals from the region. Sighting records are useful for understanding aggregation site, behaviour, habits and habitat and residency patterns and provide important information for conservation of marine mammals.
 
 
Malbrant, René; Maclatchy, A. R. (detail)
   
1949
Faune de l'equateur africain français.
Paris, Lechevalier (Encyclopédie Biologique, vols. 35-36).
–Mentions the occurrence of manatees on the Sangha R., Congo.
x
 
Malde, Harold E. (detail)
   
1959
Geology of the Charleston phosphate area, South Carolina.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1079: 1-105. Illus.
–Reports the zygomatic process of a sir. [USNM no. 321754] from the Oligocene Cooper Marl (19, 21).
x
 
Maldonado-Koerdell, Manuel (detail)
   
1953
Segundo hallazgo de sirenidos fosiles en Mexico.
Ciencia (Mexico) 13(7/8): 146-148. 1 fig. Nov. 20, 1953.
–Reports sir. rib fragments and associated invertebrates from "Middle or Upper Oligocene" rocks of Chiapas, Mexico. These may instead be Eocene in age (Domning, Morgan & Ray, 1982: 7).
 
 
Malia, Michael J.; Adkins, Ronald M.; Allard, Marc W. (detail)
   
2002
Molecular support for Afrotheria and the polyphyly of Lipotyphla based on analyses of the growth hormone receptor gene.
Molec. Phylog. Evol. 24(1): 91-101. July 2002.
Malme, Charles I.: SEE Richardson et al., 1995. (detail)
Maloy, W. Lee: SEE Lew et al., 1986. (detail)
x
 
Maluf, N. S. R. (detail)
   
1989
Renal anatomy of the manatee, Trichechus manatus, Linnaeus.
Amer. Jour. Anat. 184(4): 269-286. 3 tabs. 43 figs. Apr. 1989.
–Detailed description of the Florida manatee's kidney, lavishly illustrated with line drawings and photographs, but with little discussion of function. Compares the kidney of T. manatus with those of other sirs. and other mammals, and concludes that its structure suggests "a mammal capable of forming a copious but only moderately hypertonic urine."
 
 
Malukovich, Vladimir (detail)
   
1977
[Where are you, Steller's sea cow?]
Kamchatsky Komsomolets (Petropavlovsk): 1 p. 1 fig. Jan. 1977.
–In Russian. Newspaper article, quoted in J.-P. Sylvestre (1983). Describes the supposed sighting of a live Hydrodamalis in Anapkinskaya Bay, Kamchatka, in the summer of 1976.
Manabe, Makoto: SEE Hasegawa et al., 1995. (detail)
Mandic, Oleg: SEE Pervesler et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Manger, Paul R.; Prowse, Michelle; Haagensen, Mark; Hemingway, Jason (detail)
   
2012
Quantitative analysis of neocortical gyrencephaly in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and six species of cetaceans: Comparison with other mammals.
Journal of Comparative Neurology 520(11): 2430-2439. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI:10.1002/cne.23046. August 1, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: This study provides quantitative data on the extent of gyrencephaly in the large-brained African elephant and several species of cetaceans (from smaller to larger brained) in comparison with other mammals. Across three mammalian orders (primates, carnivores, and artiodactyls), the species with the larger brains are more gyrencephalic with each order, exhibiting a specific negative allometry. The African elephant, with a 5-kg brain, has a gyrencephalic index (GI) of 3.89, which, though highly gyrencephalic, is not more so than would be predicted for a mammal with a 5-kg brain. The cetaceans had an average GI of 5.43, are the most gyrencephalic mammals studied to date, and are more gyrencephalic than one would predict based on comparison with other mammals. No relationship between brain mass and GI was evident in the cetaceans as seen in other mammals, with all cetaceans showing similar GIs irrespective of brain mass (range of GI 5.23–5.70, range of brain mass 577–5617 g). This is yet another parameter indicating cetaceans to be neuroanatomical outliers. Two species of pinnipeds studied had GIs that were well above those seen for terrestrial carnivores, and the aquatic manatee was close to lissencephalic. Thus, all three groups of marine mammals showed unusual extents of cortical gyrencephaly, indicating a morphological alteration of the telencephalon associated with the return to the marine environment. The analysis suggests that cortical thickness and neuronal density are important factors in determining the extent of gyrencephaly across mammalian species.
x
 
Mani, S. B. (detail)
   
1960
Occurrence of the sea cow, Halicore dugong (Erxl.), off the Saurashtra coast.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 57(1): 216-217.
–Reports the finding of a dead dugong and the capture of another (13 feet 4 inches in length) near Bedi Bunder (Jamnagar), northwestern India, at about 22° 30' N. This was considered by the journal's editor to be an extension of the recorded range in India. See also Silas (1961).
x
 
Manigault, Gabriel E. (detail)
   
1886
[Discovery of two unusual fossils.]
Proc. Elliott Soc. of Science and Art 2(12): 91-92. Apr. 1886 (read Mar. 12, 1885).
–Notice of the presentation of a "dugong" specimen (the holotype of Dioplotherium manigaulti Cope, 1883, from the bed of the Wando River near Cainhoy, South Carolina) to the Charleston Museum by Mr. G. W. Coxe in 1878. Manigault later exhibited this specimen to the Society on Sept. 29, 1887 (see Proc. Elliott Soc. 2(23): 177, March 1888).
Manire, Charles A.: SEE Colbert et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Manire, Charles A.; Walsh, Catherine J.; Rhinehart, Howard L.; Colbert, Debborah E.; Noyes, David R.; Luer, Carl A. (detail)
   
2003
Alterations in blood and urine parameters in two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from simulated conditions of release following rehabilitation.
Zoo Biology 22(2): 103-120.
Mann de Toledo, Peter: SEE Toledo, Peter Mann de (detail)
 
 
Mann, David A.; Colbert, Debborah E.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Casper, Brandon M.; Cook, Mandy L. H.; Reep, Roger Lyons; Bauer, Gordon Bruce (detail)
   
2005
Temporal resolution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) auditory system.
Jour. Comp. Physiol. A, Sensory, Neural & Behav. Physiol. 191(10): 903-908.
 
 
Mann, David A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Nowacek, Douglas P. (detail)
   
2006
Nonlinear dynamics in manatee vocalizations.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 22(3): 548-555. 2 tabs. 3 figs. July 2006.
 
 
Mann, E. W. (detail)
   
1903a
Dugongöl.
Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1903: 1357.
 
 
Mann, E. W. (detail)
   
1903b
[Title?]
Pharm. Jour. 71: 840.
–Abstr.: Analyst 29: 93, 1904.
Manning, Earl M.: SEE Prothero et al., 1988. (detail)
Manzij, Sawwa Filimonowitsch: SEE ALSO Sukhanov & Manzij, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Manzij, Sawwa Filimonowitsch; Piliptshuk, Oleg Yaroslawowitsch (detail)
   
1984
Morphologie und Funktionsanalyse des Axialskeletes des amerikanischen Lamantins Trichechus manatus Lin., 1758, Mammalia, Sirenia.
Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 111(3): 257-295. 17 figs.
–Engl. summ.
Marañón, Gregório: SEE Pires de Lima, F. de C., 1952. (detail)
 
 
Marburg, O. (detail)
   
1920
Neue Studien über die Zirbeldrüse.
Arb. Neurol. Inst. Wien. Univ. (Obersteiner's) 23(1).
 
 
Marcet-Riba, J. (detail)
   
1956
Sucesión estratigráfica y fósiles del Eoceno de la Zona de Palafrugell-Esclana-Regencós (Bajo Ampurdán, provincia de Gerona).
Notas y Com. Inst. Geol. y Minero España No. 42: 48-49.
–Reports sir. rib fragments from the Eocene of Esclanyà, Spain.
 
 
Marchand, Didier (detail)
   
1999
Restructuration crânienne chez les mammifères retournés à la vie marine.
Revue de Paléobiologie (Geneva) 18(1): 197-220.
–Engl. summ.
Marcondes, M. M. C.: SEE Vergara-Parente et al., 2003a, b. (detail)
 
 
Marcopoulou-Diacantoni, A.; Logos, E. (detail)
   
2004
The occurrence of the Metaxytherium cuvieri Christol in the Late Miocene sediments of Sitia, Crete.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece 36: 764-771. 5 figs.
–In Greek; Engl. summ.
x
 
Marcoy, Paul (pseudonym of Laurent Saint-Cricq) (detail)
   
1869
Voyage a travers l'Amerique du Sud.
Paris, L. Hachette & Cie. (2 vols.): Vol. 1: 1-704; Vol. 2: 1-519. Illus.
–Engl. transl.: Marcoy (1875). Interesting accounts of Amazonian manatees, including Indians' use of manatee-hide straps in wrapping the dead (1: 671-672), hunting (1: 673; 2: 149-153), possible fighting between male manatees (2: 151), a manatee fetus (2: 152, 155), anatomical and gastronomical comments (2: 155-157), and the capture of a manatee by a jaguar (2: 202-204). There are two pictures of hunting (1: 673; 2: 153), one of the fetus (2: 155), and a most dramatic one of the jaguar and his prey (2: 203). See also Van Bree & Duguy (1977).
x
 
Marcoy, Paul (pseudonym of Laurent Saint-Cricq) (detail)
   
1875
Travels in South America.
New York, Scribner, Armstrong, & Co. (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xii + 524; Vol. 2: viii + 496.
–A somewhat abridged and bowdlerized transl. of Marcoy (1869). "Lamantin" is incorrectly translated as "seal" (2: 42). Scientific names are added here and there (e.g., "Manatus americanus", 2: 187). The same illustrations are used as before. The sir. material is found in vol. 2: 42, 45, 187-194, 235-237.
x
 
Marcus, H. (detail)
   
1921a
Über die Zahl und die Verschiebung von Zähnen besonders bei Manatus.
Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organismen 47(4): 571-586. 4 tabs. 3 figs. Pls. 18-19. Apr. 18, 1921.
–Discusses the mode of tooth replacement in manatees in the light of a study of a series of T. senegalensis. Concludes that replacement is principally due to forward pressure from teeth erupting at the back of the toothrow, and that the number of teeth formed during the lifetime is at least 12-15 per jaw quadrant (274-286, pls. 18-19).
x
 
Marcus, H. (detail)
   
1921b
Über die Zähne und die Korrelation ihrer Zahl mit dem Alter, untersucht an Blindwühlen, Krokodilen und Seekühen. In: Deutsche Zahnheilkunde: Forschung und Praxis. Ein Band zu Ehren von O. Walkoff. Ed. 2. (Sonderheft von Deutsche Zahnheilkunde.)
Leipzig, Georg Thieme: 145-157. 6 figs. Pls. 5-6.
–First ed., 1920? Discusses the number of erupted and developing teeth in T. inunguis and T. senegalensis, and the process of tooth replacement (154-156).
x
 
Marden, Luis (detail)
   
1947
Guatemala revisited.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 92(4): 525-564. Illus. Oct. 1947.
–Account of harpooning a manatee in Lake Izabal, Guatemala (552, 558); photo, 546.
 
 
Marine Mammal Commission, U.S. (detail)
   
1986
Habitat protection needs for the subpopulation of West Indian manatees in the Crystal River area of northwest Florida.
NTIS Document No. PB 86-200250: iv + 46. 2 tabs. 7 figs.
–Written by David Laist, David Gluckman, Daryl Domning, and James Mead. Report originally issued Sept. 1984.
 
 
Marine Mammal Commission, U.S. (detail)
   
1988
Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia.
NTIS Document No. PB 89-162002: xi + 107. 9 tabs. 21 figs. Dec. 1988.
–Written mainly by David Laist.
 
 
Marion, R.; Sylvestre, Jean-Pierre (detail)
   
1993
De la sirène aux siréniens. In: R. Marion & J.-P. Sylvestre (eds.), Guide des otaries, phoques et siréniens.
Lausanne, Delachaux & Niestlé: 130-147.
 
 
Marius (pseudonym) (detail)
   
1917
The Australian dugong.
The Lone Hand, May 1, 1917: 300-301. 1 fig.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs and dugong hunting in Queensland.
Marivaux, L.: SEE Welcomme et al., 1999. (detail)
Markley, Susan: SEE Clark, M. G., 1990. (detail)
x
 
Marlow, B. J. (detail)
   
1962
A recent record of the dugong, Dugong dugon, from New South Wales.
Jour. Mamm. 43(3): 433. Aug. 20, 1962.
–Reports an adult male washed ashore near Sydney in 1959, possibly killed by cold (see also Anon., 1959b). It bore specimens of the barnacle Platylepas hexastylus, and its mouth contained the seagrasses Halophila ovalis and Zostera capricornii.
Mármol Burgos, Andrés E.: SEE ALSO Neville et al., 1976. (detail)
x
 
Mármol Burgos, Andrés E. (detail)
   
1976
Informe preliminar sobre las plantas que sirven de alimento al manati de la Amazonia (Trichechus inunguis). [Abstr.]
Resumenes del Primer Congreso Nacional de Bot nica (Lima, Peru, June 28-July 3, 1976): 31-32.
–Lists Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Echinochloa sp., Paspalum sp., and Convolvulaceae among manatee food plants in the Peruvian Amazon.
Marmontel, Miriam: SEE ALSO Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Hernandez et al., 1995; Rosas et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
1995
Age and reproduction in female Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 98-119. 13 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 16).
x
 
Marmontel, Miriam; Humphrey, Stephen R.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1997
Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Conserv. Biol. 11(2): 467-481. 3 tabs. 5 figs. Apr. 1997.
–Spanish summ. Computer modeling, based on data fron 1,212 salvaged carcasses, projects an unacceptably low probability of population persistence over 1,000 years. A 10% increase in adult mortality, or a 10% decrease in reproduction, would cause extinction within that period, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. Increasing numbers of people and boats portend an increase in manatee mortality; therefore, without effective regulation of boating, the Florida manatee is likely to decline slowly to extinction.
 
 
Marmontel, Miriam; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Humphrey, Stephen R. (detail)
   
1990
An evaluation of bone growth-layer counts as an age-determination technique in Florida manatees.
NTIS Document No. PB 91-103564: x + 94. 9 tabs. 34 figs. Sept. 1990.
x
 
Marmontel, Miriam; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Kochman, Howard I.; Humphrey, Stephen R. (detail)
   
1996
Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(1): 54-88. 3 tabs. 17 figs. Jan. 2, 1996.
–Describes growth-layer groups in an enlarged sample of T. m. latirostris and T. m. manatus, showing that maximum layer counts are obtained from the middle third of the dome region (= pars temporalis or tegmen tympani) of the periotic bone, and that data from known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked animals are consistent with annual deposition of the layers. Bone resorption does not affect accuracy of layer counts until ages greater than about 15 years and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. Use of layer counts from the periotic bone is considered suitable for studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.
x
 
Marmontel, Miriam; Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1992
Reproductive biology of South American manatees. In: W. C. Hamlett (ed.), Reproductive biology of South American vertebrates.
New York, Springer-Verlag (1-328): 295-312. 1 tab. 9 figs.
–Reviews available data on sir. reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior and their implications for conservation, emphasizing T. manatus and T. inunguis.
 
 
Marmontel, Miriam; Reid, James; Sheppard, James K.; Morales-Vela, Benjamin (detail)
   
2012
Tagging and movements of sirenians. Chap. 13 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 116-125. 1 tab. 4 figs.
 
 
Marmontel, Miriam; Rosas, Fernando C. Weber; Kendall, Sarita (detail)
   
2012
The Amazonian manatee. Chap. 5 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 47-53. 1 map.
 
 
Marquardsen, Hugo (detail)
   
1920
Angola.
Berlin, D. Reimer (E. Vohsen): viii + 134. Frontisp. 12 pls. Maps.
–Sirs., 69.
x
 
Marra, Antonella Cinzia; Carone, Giuseppe; Agnini, Claudia; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Oms, Oriol; Rook, Lorenzo (detail)
   
2017
Stratigraphic and chronologic framework of the Upper Miocene Cessaniti succession (Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy).
Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Strat. 123(3): 379-393. 7 figs. Nov. 2017.
–ABSTRACT: This study revises the mammal-bearing stratigraphic succession of Cava Gentile, near Cessaniti (Calabria, southern Italy), with the aim of dating the Late Miocene fossiliferous succession by the integration of mammal biochronology with sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy and marine biostratigraphy. Since the first discovery of mammal remains at Cessaniti, the chronological framework of the sedimentary succession was based on the biochronological significance of the mammal assemblage and on the biostratigraphic characterisation of the capping unit. Chronological control of the sedimentary succession and the age range of the mammal faunal assemblage at Cessaniti is now possible by combining the mammal biochronological constraints with biostratigraphy and the characterisation of the magnetostratigraphy of the sedimentary succession. Our study allows the conclusion that: i) an overall transgressive trend is recorded at the late Tortonian succession of the Capo Vaticano area, with locally different depositional trends; ii) the late Tortonian transgression was punctuated by minor episodes of forced regression, as attested by soils and fluvial deposits intercalated within the Cava Gentile succession (documented here for the first time); iii) the relative sea level rises that characterised these sedimentation patterns allowed accumulation of marine and terrestrial fossils in specific transgressive horizons; iv) the combination of palaeomagnetic data and biostratigraphic analyses, together with the biochronological constraints offered by the Cessaniti mammal assemblage, allows the assignment of the basal unit of the Cessaniti (Cava Gentile) succession to the normal Chron C4n (8.1–7.5 Ma); and v) the maximum range of the Cessaniti land mammal assemblage from Cava Gentile is about 1 Ma, bracketed between 8.1 and 7.2 Ma.
  Metaxytherium serresii, 387-388, 390; M. medium, 387, 390.
 
 
Marriott, Sarah; Cowan, Emily; Cohen, Jacob; Hallock, Robert M. (detail)
   
2013
Somatosensation, echolocation, and underwater sniffing: Adaptations allow mammals without traditional olfactory capabilities to forage for food underwater.
Zoological Science 30(2): 69-75. 4 figs. DOI:10.2108/zsj.30.69
–ABSTRACT: Animals rely mainly on olfaction to locate and track food sources. However, mammals that have evolved to live partially or fully underwater are unable to use traditional olfaction in the foraging process. These animals have subsequently developed alternative underwater foraging techniques. Cetaceans (e.g. dolphins) live exclusively underwater, and most utilize a highly developed sonar system for navigation and tracking of prey. Pinnipeds (e.g. seals) live on land, but forage underwater. These animals' highly sensitive whiskers allow them to locate food sources. Sirenians (e.g. manatees), the only herbivorous aquatic mammals, also use highly developed whiskers during the grazing process. The semiaquatic mammals Condylura cristata (star-nosed mole) and Sortex palustris (water shrew) have developed the ability to sniff and detect semiochemicals underwater, a discovery that contradicts prior views on the evolutionary relationship between olfaction and aquatic adaptation. The current review details the anatomy of the olfactory systems of these mammals that live and/or forage underwater, and the adaptations they use to follow prey and forage underwater.
 
 
Marsden, William (detail)
   
1811
The history of Sumatra, containing an account of the government, laws, customs, and manners of the native inhabitants, with a description of the natural productions, and a relation of the ancient political state of that island. Ed. 3.
London, printed for the author by J. M'Creery: viii + 479.
–Allen 525. Duyong, 122 (not mentioned in ed. 1?).
Marsh, Helene D.: SEE ALSO Aragones & Marsh, 2000; Bryden et al., 1978, 1998; Corkeron et al., 1997; Denton et al., 1980; Elliott et al., 1979; Eros et al., 2000; Heinsohn et al.; Hernandez et al., 1995; Hudson & Marsh, 1986; Lanyon et al., 1989; Lanyon & Marsh, 1995; Leatherwood & Reeves, 1989; McCabe et al., 1978; Murray et al., 1977; Nishiwaki & Marsh, 1985; Ponte et al., 1994; Preen et al., 1989, 1997; Preen & Marsh, 1995; Rowlatt & Marsh, 1985; Smith & Marsh, 1990; Spain et al.; Tikel et al., 1996; Appendix 1, _Dugong Newsletter_. (detail)
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1977
The alimentary canal of the dugong. [Abstr.]
Bull. Austral. Mamm. Soc. 4(1): 32. Sept. 1977 (read May 1977).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1978
Age determination in the dugong Dugong dugon, using dentinal growth layers. [Abstr.]
Bull. Austral. Mamm. Soc. 5(1): 37-38. Read May 1978.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1980
Age determination of the dugong (Dugong dugon (Müller)) in northern Australia and its biological implications. In: W. F. Perrin & A. C. Myrick, Jr. (eds.), Age determination of toothed whales and sirenians.
Repts. Internatl. Whaling Comm., Special Issue 3: 181-201. 6 tabs. 19 figs.
–Describes in detail the morphology and internal structure of the incisors and cheek teeth, and correlates their growth layers, size, and eruption with season of death, body length, puberty, and closure of cranial sutures. Growth layers were also observed in the tympanic bones and ribs, but not the humerus or malleus. Concludes that the tusks are best for age determination, that one growth layer group is deposited in them per year, and that marked accessory layering probably represents individual rather than latitudinal variation. Life span is in excess of 50 years. Puberty in both sexes occurs at 9 or more years of age in the Townsville population, but several years later in the Mornington Island population. The tusks of males erupt at about 12 and 14+ years in these two populations, respectively. An age-length growth curve for both sexes, based on number of dentinal growth layer groups, is presented. Techniques used in aging dugong teeth are also described on pp. 41-45 of this volume.
n
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981b
The life history parameters of the dugong and their implications for conservation. [Abstr.] In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 88-90.
–Abstr. of Marsh (1980).
n
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981c
The food of the dugong. [Abstr.] In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 164-165.
–Abstr. of Marsh, Channells, Heinsohn & Morrissey (1982).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981d
Preliminary description of the reproductive organs of the female dugong and suggested methods of specimen collection as part of a carcass salvage program. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 248-259. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Describes the gross anatomy of the female reproductive tract, discusses the evidences of ovulation and pregnancy, and recommends procedures for specimen collection and preservation.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981e
Techniques used for determining age in dugongs based on the examination of layers in hard tissues. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 311-343. 1 fig.
–Describes in detail techniques for collecting, processing, sectioning, staining, and examining dugong teeth. Also discusses layering in bones and the use of aspartic acid racemization in teeth and eyelenses. Includes a glossary (335-339).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1983
Conserving the dugong (cowfish) in Vanuatu.
Naika, Jour. Vanuatu Nat. Sci. Soc. No. 9: 1-5. 1 fig. Mar. 1983.
–French & Pidgin summs. Gen. acc. of dugong biology, with some comments on dugongs in Vanuatu and recommendations for their protection.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984a
How Borroloola "May-Day" launched air rescue for dugongs and turtles.
Habitat Australia 12(4): 2-5. 4 figs. Aug. 1984.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984b
The dugong problem.
Queensland Fisherman, Sept. 1984: 8.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984c
Stranded!
Simply Living 2(5): 106-107. 6 figs.
–Pop. acc. of rescuing dugongs and turtles stranded by Cyclone Kathy in northern Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1984d
Marine mammals: gargantuan yet graceful. In: The Readers' Digest book of the Great Barrier Reef.
Sydney, Readers' Digest: 298-303. 10 figs.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986a
The status of the dugong in Torres Strait. In: A. K. Haines, G. C. Williams & D. Coates (eds.), Torres Strait Fisheries Seminar, Port Moresby, 11-14 February 1985.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (vii + 344): 53-76. 8 tabs. 4 figs.
–On the basis of an aerial survey, available life-history data, and available catch statistics, a population model is formulated that indicates that the Torres Strait dugong population has been seriously overexploited in the recent past, is insufficient to support the present catch level, and is in danger of extermination.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986b
'Dugong is Number One Tucker.'
Oceanus 29(2): 102. 1 fig. Summer 1986.
–See also B.E.T. Hudson (1986).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986c
Dugong life history: implications for management of Australian populations. In: S. Burgin (ed.), Endangered species: social, scientific, economic and legal aspects in Australia and the South Pacific. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Sydney, May 11 and 12, 1984.
Sydney, Total Environment Centre (iv + 231): 163-187. 5 tabs.
–Abstr.: Austral. Mar. Science Assoc. Bull. 79: 26-27, 1982.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1986d
Research on dugongs and other marine mammals by James Cook University of North Queensland. In: P. D. Shaughnessy (ed.), Report of CSIRO Marine Mammal Workshop.
CSIRO Tech. Memo. No. 26: 42-43. Mar. 1986.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988a
An ecological basis for dugong conservation in Australia. In: M. L. Augee (ed.), Marine mammals of Australasia: field biology and captive management.
Sydney, Roy. Zool. Soc. New South Wales (vii + 140): 9-21. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Mar. 1988.
–Gen. acc. of dugong biology, ecology, and status in Australia, with preliminary data from a radiotracking study and dugong population estimates for several parts of the northern coast.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988b
Dugong research: current status and opportunities. In: A. J. Dartnall (ed.), Australian tropical marine science and technology: current status and opportunities.
[Canberra], Austral. Marine Sciences & Technologies Committee, Austral. Inst. Marine Science, Dept. of Science, & Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (1-260): 128-130.
–Short summary of the types and results of dugong research being conducted in Australia.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988c
Dugongs of the southeast coast.
Whalewatcher 22(4): 8-10. Cover illus. + 3 figs. Winter 1988.
–Detailed gen. acc. of dugongs in Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988d
The dugong problem. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 120-131.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1988e
The importance of marine parks for the management of dugongs in Australian waters.
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985) 1: 495-502. 1 fig. Oct. 1988.
–Reviews dugong life history, causes of mortality, and the role of marine parks and other conservation measures needed for dugong protection.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989a
Mass stranding of dugongs by a tropical cyclone in northern Australia.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 5(1): 78-84. 1 tab. 4 figs. Jan. 1989.
–Reports the stranding of at least 27 dugongs in the Northern Territory in 1984, of which 23 were rescued. Describes the condition, behavior, sex, and reproductive status of the stranded animals, and gives data on the age, reproductive status, stomach contents, and heavy metal status of 3 that were necropsied.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989b
Tracking dugongs by satellite.
The Pilot (Newsletter of the UNEP Marine Mammal Action Plan) No. 3: 10-11. 1 fig. Apr. 1989.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1989c
Dugongidae. Chapter 57 in: D. W. Walton & B. J. Richardson (eds.), Fauna of Australia, Vol. 1B. Mammalia.
Canberra, Austral. Govt. Publ. Serv. (ix + 401-1227): 1030-1038. 3 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1990
Sea cows. In: E. Gould & G. McKay (eds.), Mammals.
New York & Sydney, Mallard Press (Encyclopedia of Animals) (240 pp.): 164-166. 4 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1991
Our tropical siren.
Austral. Geogr. No. 21: 42-57. Cover illus. + 30 figs. Jan.-Mar. 1991.
–See also Preen (1991).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995a
Fixed-width aerial transects for determining dugong population sizes and distribution patterns. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 56-62. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 11).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995b
The life history, pattern of breeding, and population dynamics of the dugong. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 75-83. 7 tabs. 3 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 10-11).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1996
Progress towards the sustainable use of dugongs by Indigenous peoples in Queensland. In: M. Bomford & J. Caughley (eds.), Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders.
Canberra, Australian Govt. Publ. Service (ix + 216): 139-151. 3 figs. 2 pls.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1997
Going, going, dugong.
Nature Australia 25(9): 50-57. 8 figs. Winter 1997.
–Gen. acc. of dugong population biology, status, and conservation in Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2000
Evaluating management initiatives aimed at reducing the mortality of dugongs in gill and mesh nets in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16(3): 684-694. 1 tab. 1 fig. July 2000.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2002
Dugong (Dugong dugon). In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wrsig, & J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 344-347. 2 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2008
Marine mammals. In: P. Hutchings, M. Kingsford, & O. Hoegh Guldberg (eds.), A field guide to the Great Barrier Reef.
CSIRO Publishing.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2012
Are dugongs fussy eaters?
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 106. 5 figs. June 2012.
–Dietary diversity of dugongs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2014
Impacts on dugongs. In: B. Daley (ed.), Great Barrier Reef: an environmental history.
London, Earthscan Publications Ltd.: 95-112.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D. (ed.) (detail)
   
1981a
The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979.
[Townsville, Australia], James Cook Univ.: vii + 400. Illus.
–The "second ed." of this work (1984) is essentially identical in content, but is typeset rather than reproduced from typescript and has different pagination (viii + 240), and the paper by Blair has been updated with newly published names of parasites. The original pagination is used here for indexing. Contains 22 seminar papers and abstracts, listed in this bibliography by their authors (1-203); two sets of conservation recommendations (205-216); 10 background papers, listed here by author (217-343); 2 workshop reports, listed here by author (345-368); and, as appendices, sample data sheets for carcass salvage and aerial surveys used by the James Cook University and Papua New Guinea dugong projects (369-398) and a list of participants in the conference (399-400). See also Marsh, Channells, & Morrissey (1979).
  The seminar papers and abstracts are by Bertram, Nishiwaki et al., Hendrokusumo et al., Brownell et al., Jones, Heinsohn (2), Elliott, Prince et al., Marsh (2), Anderson, Chase, Hudson, Spain & Marsh, Murray, Denton, Miyazaki et al., Campbell & Ladds, Yamasaki et al., Kamiya & Yamasaki, and Kataoka & Asano. The background papers are by Heinsohn (2), Denton, Rainey, Marsh (2), Marsh & Glover, Blair, Spain & Marsh, and Channells & Morrissey. The workshop reports are by Marsh & Heinsohn and Marsh & Kasuya.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D. (ed.) (detail)
   
2022
Ethology and Behavioral Ecology of Sirenia
Springer
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Anderson, Paul K. (detail)
   
1983
Probable susceptibility of dugongs to capture stress.
Biol. Conserv. 25(1): 1-3. Jan. 1983.
–Reports an elevated blood serum potassium level in a dugong chased by a speedboat and harpooned; recommends caution in research and management actions that may result in stress to dugongs.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Eisentraut, M. (detail)
   
1984
Die Gaumenfalten des Dugong.
Zs. Säugetierk. 49(5): 314-315. 1 fig.
–Illustrates and briefly describes the rather reduced pattern of palatal ridges in a dugong.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Giffney, Siriol (detail)
   
1999
The biology and conservation of dugong.
Sphere Square Newsletter 16: 2-3. 4 figs. May 1999.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Glover, Timothy D. (detail)
   
1981
A preliminary description of the reproductive organs of the male dugong and suggested methods of specimen collection. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 261-273. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Proc. Soc. Study Fert. Camb. 1979: 16. Describes the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract, and recommends procedures for tissue and blood collection and preservation. Also suggests topics and approaches for future study.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981
Report of the aerial survey workshop. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 345-353. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Describes a workshop on aerial survey techniques, consisting of flights over the Cleveland Bay area (Queensland). Dugong sightings by different teams of observers are tabulated and compared, showing repeatability of the results.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1982
Conserving the dugong: Australia's responsibility.
Bull. Austral. Littoral Soc. 5(5): 1-5. 2 figs. Nov. 1982.
–Text reprinted: Marsh & Heinsohn (1983). Gen. acc. of dugong biology, threats to dugong survival, and conservation needs in Australia and Papua New Guinea.
n
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1983
Conserving the dugong: Australia's responsibility.
Habitat Austral. 11(2): 28-30. 1 fig. Apr. 1983.
–Repr. of Marsh & Heinsohn (1982).
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Kasuya, Toshio (detail)
   
1981
Report of the age determination workshop. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 354-368. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Describes a workshop on the preparation and reading of growth layers in dugong tusks, with tabulation and comparison of the results obtained by experienced and inexperienced readers. Tusks from lower latitudes tended to be harder to score due to their numerous accessory layers.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lefebvre, Lynn W. (detail)
   
1994
Sirenian status and conservation efforts.
Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 155-170. 2 tabs. 9 figs.
–Summarizes published and unpublished data on the status of the living taxa of sirs., emphasizing T. m. manatus, T. m. latirostris, and D. dugon (155-164); outlines conservation efforts in Florida and Australia (164-165); and reports the outcomes of three recent international meetings on sir. rersearch and conservation (165-168).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1987
Tracking dugongs.
Argos Newsletter No. 29: 8-9. 1 fig. Mar. 1987.
–Text in French & Engl.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1990
Development and application of conventional and satellite radio tracking techniques for studying dugong movements and habitat use.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 17(1): 83-100. 4 tabs. 8 figs.
–Describes techniques used on, and data obtained from, 6 male dugongs radiotagged in North Queensland and tracked for 1-16 months. Their movement patterns were surprisingly similar to those of Florida manatees; all spent most of their time in relatively small and overlapping home ranges near inshore seagrass beds. Only one pubertal male undertook long-distance movements (>140 km in 2 days). Another dugong repeatedly travelled 10 km up a tidal creek. Concludes that conventional transmitters are better for behavioral observations, but satellite transmitters are better for tracking movements.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Saalfeld, W. Keith (detail)
   
1989
Distribution and abundance of dugongs in the northern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 16(4): 429-440. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Saalfeld, W. Keith (detail)
   
1990
The distribution and abundance of dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park south of Cape Bedford.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 17(5): 511-524. 4 tabs. 8 figs.
–Aerial surveys in 1986-87 gave a population estimate of 3,479 ± S.E. 459 dugongs in the region. Highest densities were observed on inshore seagrass beds and in waters less than 5 m deep. Maps of dugong density and distribution are given, and recommendations are made on the timing of future surveys.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Saalfeld, W. Keith (detail)
   
1991
The status of the dugong in Torres Strait. In: D. Lawrence & T. Canfield-Smith (eds.), Sustainable development for traditional inhabitants of the Torres Strait region.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 16: 187-194. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Aerial survey data from 1987-88, and earlier catch statistics, indicate a minimum population estimate of 12,522 ± S.E. 1,487 dugongs in the region but are deemed insufficient to determine either the current catch level or the maximum sustainable harvest.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Sinclair, D. F. (detail)
   
1989a
Correcting for visibility bias in strip transect aerial surveys of aquatic fauna.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 53(4): 1017-1024. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Reports on the procedures used to develop survey-specific perception-bias and availability-bias correction factors in surveys of dugongs in northern Australia.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Sinclair, D. F. (detail)
   
1989b
An experimental evaluation of dugong and sea turtle aerial survey techniques.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 16(6): 639-650. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Arnold, P. W.; Limpus, Colin J.; Birtles, Alastair; Breen, Barbara; Robins, J.; Williams, R. (detail)
   
1997
Endangered and charismatic megafauna. In: The Great Barrier Reef: science, use and management. A national conference.... [Held] 25-29 November 1996, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Proceedings, Volume 1, Invited Papers.
Townsville: 124-138.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Arnold, P.; Freeman, M.; Haynes, D.; Laist, David; Read, A.; Reynolds, John E., III; Kasuya, Toshiro (detail)
   
2003
Strategies for conserving marine mammals. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell, & R. Kirkwood (eds.), Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues.
Collingwood (Australia), CSIRO Publ. (xii + 446): 1-19.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Arraut, Eduardo Moraes; Keith Diagne, Lucy; Edwards, Holly H.; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
2017
Impact of climate change and loss of habitat on sirenians. Chap. 19 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 333-357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Although the impacts of climate change on the welfare of individual manatees and dugongs are still uncertain, the effects are likely to be through indirect interactions between meteorological and biotic factors and the human responses to climate change. We divided the potential impacts into (1) those that will potentially affect sirenians directly including temperature increases, sea-level rise, increased intensity of extreme weather events and changes in rainfall patterns and (2) indirect impacts that are likely to cause harm through habitat loss and change and the increase in the likelihood of harmful algal blooms and disease outbreaks. The habitat modification accompanying sea-level rise is likely to decrease the welfare of sirenians including increased mortality. Many species of tropical seagrasses live close to their thermal limits and will have to up-regulate their stress-response systems to tolerate the sublethal temperature increases caused by climate change. The capacity of seagrass species to evoke such responses is uncertain, as are the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on such acclimation responses. The increase in the intensity of extreme weather events associated with climate change is likely to decrease the welfare of sirenians through increased mortality from strandings, as well as habitat loss and change. These effects are likely to increase the exposure of sirenians to disease and their vulnerability to predators, including human hunters. Climate-related hazards will also exacerbate other stressors, especially for people living in poverty. Thus the risks to sirenians from climate change are likely to be greatest for small populations of dugongs and manatees occurring in low-income countries. The African manatee will be particularly vulnerable because of the high levels of human poverty throughout most of its range resulting in competition for resources, including protein from manatee meat.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Beck, Cathy A.; Vargo, Tim (detail)
   
1998
Comparison of the capabilities of dugongs and West Indian manatees to masticate seagrasses.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(1): 250-255. 1 tab. 2 figs. "Jan. 1999" (mailed Dec. 3, 1998).
–Compares fragment sizes of seagrasses (Halodule and Thalassia) in stomach contents of dugongs and of Florida and Puerto Rican manatees. The fragments from dugong stomachs were smaller despite the dugong's simpler teeth, indicating that other parts of the masticatory apparatus are also important in fragmentation of food.
x
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Marsh, Helene D.; Channells, Peter W.; Morrissey, Janice (detail)
   
1979
A bibliography of the Recent Sirenia.... Prepared for the Dugong Seminar Workshop held at James Cook University, May 8-13th 1979.
Townsville (Australia), James Cook Univ.: i + 163.
–Lists 1,746 titles alphabetically by author; no index. Some entries are annotated. The preface states that "This bibliography was prepared as a background paper for the Dugong Workshop .... It was prepared in a limited time and without access to a major library. Accordingly, we were forced to rely on previous published and unpublished bibliographies of the recent Sirenia." This was the most comprehensive sirenian bibliography compiled prior to the present one, and it contains many paleontological and desmostylian as well as neontological references.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Channells, Peter W.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Morrissey, Janice (detail)
   
1982
Analysis of stomach contents of dugongs from Queensland.
Austral. Wildl. Res. 9(1): 55-67. 3 tabs. 4 figs.
–Abstr.: Marsh (1981c). Stomach contents of 96 dugongs confirmed that the diet consists almost entirely of seagrasses of all available genera, and probably reflects the generic composition of the beds where the animals were captured. Rhizomes were present in all stomachs, including that of a neonatal calf. Non-epiphytic algae were found in 51% of stomachs, but in small amounts. Also discusses the effects of cyclones on dugong feeding areas and diet, and the dietary importance of seagrass rhizomes vs. leaves and stems.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1996
The status of the dugong in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publ. No. 41: 1-80. 7 tabs. 7 figs. 2 appendix tabs. 7 appendix figs. Oct. 1996.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas; Ward, T. M. (detail)
   
1993
Conserving marine mammals and reptiles in Australia and Oceania. In: C. Moritz & J. Kikkawa (eds.), Conservation biology in Australia and Oceania.
Chipping Norton (New South Wales), Surrey Beatty & Sons (xii + 403 pp.): 225-244. 3 tabs. 8 figs.
–?Repr.: Marsh, Corkeron et al., 1995. Gen. acc. of dugong biology, status, and conservation problems, based mainly on data from Australia (232-234).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas; Ward, T. M. (detail)
   
1995
The reptiles and mammals in Australian seas: their status and management. In: State of the marine environment report for Australia, Technical Annex 1.
Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: 151-166.
–Reprint of Marsh et al., 1993?
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; De'ath, Glenn; Gribble, N.; Lane, B. (detail)
   
2005
Historical marine population estimates: triggers or targets for conservation? The dugong case study.
Ecol. Applics. 15: 481-492.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; De'ath, Glenn; Gribble, Neil; Lane, Baden (detail)
   
2001
Shark control records hindcast serious decline in dugong numbers off the urban coast of Queensland.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 70: 1-24. 1 tab. 8 figs.
–Publ. together with Marsh & Lawler (2001).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Eros, Carole; Corkeron, Peter J.; Breen, Barbara (detail)
   
1999
A conservation strategy for dugongs: implications of Australian research.
Mar. Freshwater Res. 50(8): 979-990.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Freeland, W. J.; Limpus, Colin J.; Reed, P. C. (detail)
   
1986
The stranding of dugongs and sea turtles resulting from Cyclone Kathy, March 1984: a report on the rescue effort and the biological data obtained.
Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (Darwin, Australia), Tech. Rept. No. 25: iv + 60. 8 tabs. 24 figs. May 1986.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Gardner, Blair R.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1981
Present-day hunting and distribution of dugongs in the Wellesley Islands (Queensland): implications for conservation.
Biol. Conserv. 19(4): 255-267. 2 tabs. 4 figs. Apr. 1981.
–Describes present hunting techniques using harpoons and outboard motors, and the results of aerial surveys of the Wellesley Islands area. Peak hunting activity coincides with seasonal movements of dugongs; 374 animals were counted, of which about 40 are taken each year. Hunting is now easier and less dangerous, but some sociological factors discourage it, and some hunters try to avoid taking pregnant females.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Grech, A.; McMahon, K. (detail)
   
2018
Dugongs: seagrass community specialists. In: Larkum, A.; Kendrick, G.; & Ralph, P. (eds.) Seagrasses of Australia.
Springer, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71354-019.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Harris, A. N. M.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
1997
The sustainability of the indigenous dugong fishery in Torres Strait, Australia/Papua New Guinea.
Conserv. Biol. 11(6): 1375-1386. 8 tabs. 4 figs. Dec. 1997.
–Spanish summ. On the basis of aerial surveys in 1987 and 1991 and catch statistics, concludes that the annual catch approximates 5% of the estimated dugong population and is likely to be unsustainable. An increase in the Torres Strait population between the aerial surveys is thought to have been due to redistribution of dugongs within the survey region or to immigration, probably from Irian Jaya. For effective dugong management, the Torres Strait Islanders must be involved in management decisions and efforts.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Channells, Peter W. (detail)
   
1984
Changes in the ovaries and uterus of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugongidae), with age and reproductive activity.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 32(6): 743-766. 4 tabs. 13 figs.
–Gross and histological studies of 49 female reproductive tracts showed extreme flattening of the ovaries, a high frequency of sterile cycles, low fecundity, greater activity of the right ovary than the left, and the presence of ovarian cysts and parasites. The dugong appears to be polyovular and polyestrous. Placental scars are considered the best index to parity. Similarities of reproductive biology between dugongs and elephants are pointed out.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Glover, Timothy D. (detail)
   
1984
Changes in the male reproductive organs of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugondidae [sic]) with age and reproductive activity.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 32(6): 721-742. 5 tabs. 12 figs.
–Gross and histological studies of 59 male reproductive tracts showed wide variation in testicular activity; many males in a population at any given time seem not to be producing sperm. Differences from and resemblances to other "paenungulates" and other mammals are discussed.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Lachlan M. (detail)
   
1984
Breeding cycle, life history and population dynamics of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugongidae).
Austral. Jour. Zool. 32(6): 767-788. 5 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports that fertility is discontinuous in both males and females; calving is diffusely seasonal; neonates are 1.0-1.3 m long; sexual maturity is attained at 2.2-2.5 m and at least 9-10 years; gestation lasts about 1 year and lactation at least 1.5 years; the sex ratio is 1:1; the calving interval is 3-7 years; mortality is more important than the age of maturity in influencing population dynamics; estrus can occur during lactation; the low nutritive value of seagrasses may explain the discontinuous fertility; and the delay in maturity may be density-dependent. Gives original accounts of three births, one shark attack, and one case of males fighting with their tusks.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1977
The stomach and duodenal diverticula of the dugong (Dugong dugon). In: R. J. Harrison (ed.), Functional anatomy of marine mammals.
London, Academic Press: Vol. 3: 271-295. 1 tab. 10 figs.
–Describes the gross anatomy, histology, and histochemistry of the stomach and diverticula and discusses their functional and ecological implications. Reports occurrences of the parasites Paradujardinia halichoris and Lankatrema sp.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Kwan, D. (detail)
   
2008
Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: the likely role of sea grass dieback.
Continental Shelf Research 28: 2152-2159.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2001
Dugong distribution and abundance in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Hervey Bay: results of an aerial survey in October-December 1999.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 70: 25-87. 8 tabs. 3 figs. 3 appendix tabs.
–Publ. together with Marsh et al. (2001).
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2002
Dugong distribution and abundance in the Northern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: November 2000.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication 77.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Kwan, Donna; Delean, Steve; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Alldredge, Matthew W. (detail)
   
2004
Aerial surveys and the potential biological removal technique indicate that the Torres Strait dugong fishery is unsustainable.
Animal Conservation 7: 435-443. 5 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Morales-Vela, Benjamín (detail)
   
2012
Guidelines for developing protected areas for sirenians. Chap. 25 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 228-234. 1 tab.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1986
Research on sirenians.
Ambio 15(3): 177-180. 4 figs.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2011
Ecology and conservation of the Sirenia: dugongs and manatees.
Cambridge (U.K.), Cambridge Univ. Press (Conservation Biology Series No. 18): xvi + 521. Illus. Dec. 1, 2011.
–Revs.: R.K. Bonde, Ecology 93(9): 2127-2128, Sept. 2012; D.P. Domning, Jour. Mamm. 93(5): 1405-1406, Oct. 19, 2012; R.L. Reep, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 29(4): 780-782, Oct. 2013.
 Japanese transl. by Toshio Kasuya, Univ. of Tokyo Press, 2021; includes an extra chapter (Chap. 10) on "Dugongs of Okinawa" by T. Kasuya and Taro Hosokawa. An Engl. abstract of this chapter was published in Sirenews No. 74: 3-8, Nov. 2021.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Penrose, H.; Eros, C. (detail)
   
2003
A future for the dugong? In: N. Gales, M. Hindell, & R. Kirkwood (eds.), Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues.
Collingwood (Australia), CSIRO Publ. (xii + 446): 383-399. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
 
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Penrose, Helen; Eros, Carole; Hugues, Joanna (detail)
   
2002
Dugong: status reports and action plans for countries and territories in its range.
Cambridge (U.K.), IUCN: viii + 162. 2 tabs. Illus.
–Also publ. as: Dugong: status reports and action plans for countries and territories. UNEP Early Warning and Assessment Report Series 1 (Cambridge, UNEP), 2002.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Prince, Robert I. T.; Saalfeld, W. Keith; Shepherd, R. (detail)
   
1994
The distribution and abundance of the dugong in Shark Bay, Western Australia.
Wildl. Res. 21(2): 149-161. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
–Aerial surveys in winter 1989 gave a minimum population estimate of 10,146ñ1,665 (s.e.) dugongs at an overall density of 0.71ñ0.12 (s.e.) dugongs/kmý, the highest density ever recorded on a large-scale survey. The high proportion of calves (19%) suggested an exceptionally high calving rate in 1988. Dugong density was highest in relatively deep water (12-16 m). Surveys in summer 1990 and 1991 confirmed that dugong distribution in Shark Bay varies seasonally with water temperature.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Rathbun, Galen B.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1995
Can dugongs survive in Palau?
Biol. Conserv. 72(1): 85-89. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–An aerial survey of Palau in 1991 found even fewer dugongs per flight-hour than earlier surveys, while interviews indicated that regular poaching continued along with illegal sale of jewellery made from dugong ribs. The authors believe that dugongs will go extinct in Palau unless poaching is stopped immediately.
x
 
Marsh, Helene D.; Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1978
Minireview: physiology of the dugong.
Compar. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 61(2): 159-168. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Briefly summarizes published literature and some unpublished data on dugong anatomy, feeding, digestion, fat composition, excretion, reproduction, respiration, circulation, nervous and endocrine systems, social behavior, and vocalizations.
 
 
Marsh, Helene; Grayson, Jillian; Grech, Alana; Hagihara, Rie; Sobtzick, Susan (detail)
   
2015
Re-evaluation of the sustainability of a marine mammal harvest by indigenous people using several lines of evidence.
Biological Conservation 192:324-330. 1 table. 3 figures. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.10.007. December 2015.
–ABSTRACT- People in 114 countries have consumed meat and other products from similar to 87 species of marine mammals since 1990. Nonetheless, assessment of the sustainability of most harvests is very difficult because information on the target populations and harvest numbers is inadequate. Dugongs have been harvested by the indigenous peoples of Torres Strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea, for at least 4000 years; the harvest has been substantial for at least the last 400-500 years. We use several lines of evidence to re-evaluate the sustainability of this harvest in the absence of robust data on the absolute size of this dugong population or the harvest. The evidence suggests that the harvest is sustainable. Dugong relative density was significantly higher in 2013 than in any other survey year and their Area of Occupancy has trended slightly upward since 1987. The proportion of calves in 2013 was the highest recorded. Genetic diversity is high. Dugongs are caught in only 5.0% of the 5268 km(2) of very high dugong density habitat as the result of the controls on the harvest and socio-economic factors. Nonetheless, many in the wider Australian community disapprove of this harvest and demand that hunting be banned. Enhancing culturally-appropriate spatial controls may be a more practical approach to managing this harvest than a more data-demanding Total Allowable Catch approach and may also be appropriate for some other indigenous harvests of marine mammals.
Marsh, Lachlan M.: SEE Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh, 1984. (detail)
 
 
Marsh, Othniel Charles (detail)
   
1877
Introduction and succession of vertebrate life in America.
Amer. Jour. Sci. (3)14: 337-378.
–Repr.: Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 26: 211-258, 1878. Sirs. in latter, 234, 252.
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Marsh, Othniel Charles (detail)
   
1888
Notice of a new fossil sirenian, from California.
Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts (3)35(205)(whole vol. no. 135): 94-96. 3 figs. Jan. 1888.
–This, the first scientific paper published on desmostylians, describes Desmostylus hesperus, n.gen.n.sp., from Alameda County, Calif., on the basis of isolated teeth and a lumbar vertebra deposited in the Yale Peabody Museum. It was believed to be Pliocene in age and related to Metaxytherium and Halicore. In fact it is Miocene in age, and according to Merriam (1911: 404) the type was actually collected in Contra Costa County.
 
 
Marshall, A. G. (detail)
   
1970
The life cycle of Basilia hispida Theodor, 1967 (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) in Malaysia.
Parasitology 61(1): 1-18.
x
 
Marshall, Alan J. (detail)
   
1978
People of the Dreamtime. Ed. 2.
Melbourne, Hyland House: 1-104. Illus.
–Ed. 1, Melbourne, Cheshire: iv + 88, illus., 1952. Recounts an Aboriginal story, collected in Arnhem Land, of "The bittern who caught a dugong" (80-84).
 
 
Marshall, C. D.; Pyenson, N. D. (detail)
   
2019
Feeding in aquatic mammals: an evolutionary and functional approach. Pp. 743-785 in: Bels, V., & Whishaw, I.Q. (eds.) Feeding in vertebrates: evolution, morphology, behavior, biomechanics.
Springer, Cham.
 
 
Marshall, Christoper D.; Cullen, J. A.; Al Ansi, M.; Dupont, J. (detail)
   
2015
Iconic marine vertebrates of the Qatari Arabian Gulf: preliminary data on sea turtle and dugong morphometrics, movement, and strandings.
Integrative & Comparative Biology 55, Suppl. 1: 297. Apr. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The marine environment of Qatar is ideal for supporting large populations of dugongs and sea turtles. In fact, Arabian dugongs (Dugong dugon) constitute the world's 2nd largest population. However, little is known regarding their natural history in the region. Therefore, we have begun collecting life history data that will provide information to wildlife managers within Qatar. Dugong work focused on beach surveys for stranded animals where we collected morphometrics, determined gender, and collected tissues for reproductive staging and genetic analyses. Dugongs range from Saudi Arabia to the UAE. The region between Qatar and Bahrain has been reported as particularly important for dugongs. Our data shows a high frequency of strandings on the northwest Qatari coast and supports this observation. All strandings have been female, including one pregnant dugong. Longer-term studies have been ongoing in the region on hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green sea turtles(Chelonia mydas). Turtles were captured, fitted with satellite tags and released after morphometrics and tissue were collected. Morphometrics of mature hawksbill sea turtles suggest they are among the smallest of their species worldwide. Hawksbills use both coastal and shallow offshore habitats throughout the southern Arabian Gulf. Green sea turtles were young juveniles, stayed within coastal waters, and are likely using Qatar as developmental habitat. Interestingly, sea turtle telemetry suggests a strong affinity of sea turtles for this same area off the Qatari northwest coast that is known to be important for dugongs. This region may be a hotspot for both sea turtles and dugongs and warrants further investigation.
Marshall, Christopher D.: SEE ALSO Reep et al., 1998, 2001, 2002. (detail)
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Marshall, Christopher D. (detail)
   
1996
The West Indian manatee in Florida.
Isana-Kai: Cetaceans, Pinnipeds and Sirenians (Tokyo) 24(24): 6-10.
–Gen. acc. of manatee biology, ecology, and physiology and of threats to manatee survival in Florida, written for a Japanese popular science magazine.
 
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Al Ansi, Mehsin; Dupont, Jennifer; Warren, Christopher; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Cullen, Joshua (detail)
   
2018
Large dugong (Dugong dugon) aggregations persist in coastal Qatar.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 34: 1154-1163. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12497. Feb. 2018.
x
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
1995
Manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the caudal region in Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Brain Behav. Evol. 45: 1-18. 11 figs.
–Maps and describes cortical areas in the caudal region, and discusses their possible functional roles.
x
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Clark, L. A.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
1998
The muscular hydrostat of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris): a functional morphological model of perioral bristle use.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2): 290-303. 3 figs. Mar. 31, 1998.
–Describes the anterior facial muscles in serial section; recognizes a new muscle (M. centralis nasi); shows that these muscles meet the definition of a muscular hydrostat; and hypothesizes a sequence of muscle contractions to explain the observed movements of the snout and bristles while feeding. See also Reep et al. (1998) and Marshall et al. (1998).
x
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Huth, Glenn D.; Edmonds, Virginia M.; Halin, Deborah L. ("D. M. Halin"); Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
1998
Prehensile use of perioral bristles during feeding and associated behaviors of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2): 274-289. 4 figs. Mar. 31, 1998.
–Reports observations of captive and wild manatees feeding on 6 species of aquatic plants, attempting to manipulate inanimate objects, and in social interactions. Describes details of both prehensile and tactile lip and vibrissal movements. See also Reep et al. (1998) and Marshall, Clark & Reep (1998).
x
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Kubilis, Paul S.; Huth, Glenn D.; Edmonds, Virginia M.; Halin, Deborah L.; Reep, Roger L. (detail)
   
2000
Food-handling ability and feeding-cycle length of manatees feeding on several species of aquatic plants.
Jour. Mamm. 81(3): 649-658. 3 tabs. 3 figs. Aug. 18, 2000.
–Captive experiments on Florida manatees using Hydrilla, Myriophyllum, Vallisneria, Syringodium, & Thalassia quantified variations in handling time according to plant species. Plants with tubular stems & numerous branches were consumed faster than ones with flat blades.
 
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Maeda, Hiroshi; Iwata, Matsumitsu; Furuta, Masami; Asano, Shiro; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2003
Orofacial morphology and feeding behaviour of the dugong, Amazonian, West African, and Antillean manatees (Mammalia: Sirenia): functional morphology of the muscular-vibrissal complex.
Jour. Zool. 259(3): 245-260. 2 tabs. 7 figs. Mar. 2003.
 
 
Marshall, Christopher D.; Vaughn, Susan D.; Sarko, Diana K.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2007
Topographical organization of the facial motor nucleus in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Brain Behav. Evol. 70(3): 164-173. 4 figs.
 
 
Marshall, Larry G.; Hoffstetter, Robert; Pascual, Rosendo (detail)
   
1983
Mammals and stratigraphy: geochronology of the continental mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America.
Palaeovertebrata, Mém. Extraord. 1983: 1-93.
–Mentions Ribodon magdalenensis (n.comb.), 52.
 
 
Marshall, W. (detail)
   
1887
Atlas der Tierverbreitung. (Berghaus "Physikalischer Atlas", Abt. 6.)
Gotha: 1-10. 45 figs., Maps 52-60.
–Sirs., map 53f.
x
 
Marshall, W. (detail)
   
1896
Über Waltiere.
Zool. Garten (Frankfurt) 37: 17-25, 40-48.
–Notes the value to sirs. of a heavy skeleton in aiding submergence with large, air-filled lungs (46).
 
 
Marston, Hope Irvin (detail)
   
2007
My little book of manatees.
Lakeville (Minnesota), Windward Publishing (Finney Co.): [1-30.] Illus.
–Book for young children.
 
 
Martenstyn, H. (detail)
   
2019
Sri Lanka marine mammal research and conservation 1560-2019.
Colombo (Sri Lanka), publ. by author: Vol. I: 1-258; Vol. II: 1-280.
 
 
Martin, E. (detail)
   
1930
A journal of a slave dealer - Nicholas Owen. A view of some remarkable axcedents in the life of Nics. Owen on the coast of Africa and America from the year 1746 to the year 1757.
London, George Routledge & Sons.
–While living near Bonthe, Sierra Leone, Owen recorded that "3 or 4 days past there has been a great take of manatee or sea cow in our river, a creature of a very ugly form but good eating, about the size of a cow but rather resembles hog in all but its tail and want of feet. It's monstrous fat, having a skin an inch thick."
x
 
Martin, J. H. D. (detail)
   
1975
A list of mammals from Stradbroke Island.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 86(12): 73-76. Mar. 1, 1975.
–P. 74: {"There is one Queensland Museum record of a dugong juvenile (J4391, Moreton Bay) and one record of a 'Porpoise' skull (J21718). Dugong (Dugong australis Owen, 1847) were common in the waters around Stradbroke Island (the Amity Banks) at the turn of the century, but in latter years sightings have been infrequent."} See also H. Kirkman (1975).
x
 
Martin, Johann Karl (detail)
   
1887
Westindische Skizzen; Reise-Erinnerungen.
Leiden, E. J. Brill: vii + 186. 22 pls.
–"Seperatausgabe des 1sten Theils" of Martin (1888). Discusses food plants of "Manatus latirostris" (mentioning Montrichardia by name) and its range in Suriname (27).
 
 
Martin, Johann Karl (detail)
   
1888
Bericht über eine Reise nach Niederländisch West-Indien und darauf gegründete Studien. Zweite Teil. Geologie.
Leiden, E. J. Brill: ix + 238. 41 figs. 3 pls. 4 maps.
–See also Martin, 1887. Fossil sirs., Aruba & ?Bonaire, 89, 101-103, pl. 1.
 
 
Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Harmak, Craig W.; Dane, Teri M. (detail)
   
2015
Combining information for monitoring at large spatial scales: First statewide abundance estimate of the Florida manatee.
Biological Conservation 186: 44-51. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.02.029 June 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Monitoring abundance and distribution of organisms over large landscapes can be difficult. Because of challenges associated with logistics and data analyses uncorrected counts are often used as a proxy for abundance. We present the first statewide estimate of abundance for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using an innovative approach that combines multiple sources of information. We used a combination of a double-observer protocol, repeated passes, and collection of detailed diving behavior data to account for imperfect detection of animals. Our estimate of manatee abundance was 6350 (95%CI: 5310–7390). Specifically, we estimated 2790 (95%CI: 2160–3540) manatees on the west coast (2011), and 3560 (95%CI: 2850–4410) on the east coast (2012). Unlike uncorrected counts conducted since 1991, our estimation method considered two major sources of error: spatial variation in distribution and imperfect detection. The Florida manatee is listed as endangered, but its status is currently under review; the present study may become important for the review process. Interestingly, we estimated that 70% (95%CI: 60–80%) of manatees on the east coast of Florida were aggregated in one county during our survey. Our study illustrates the value of combining information from multiple sources to monitor abundance at large scales. Integration of information can reduce cost, facilitate the use of data obtained from new technologies to increase accuracy, and contribute to encouraging coordination among survey teams from different organizations nationally or internationally. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our work to other conservation applications (e.g., risk assessment) and to other systems.
 
 
Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R. (detail)
   
2014
Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
PLoS ONE 9(3): e91683. 6pp. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091683. Mar. 26, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95% CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95% CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.
 
 
Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Burgess, Matthew A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Fagan, Daniel E.; Gardner, Beth E.; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G.; Ifju, Peter G.; Evers, Brandon S.; Rambo, Thomas J. (detail)
   
2012
Estimating distribution of hidden objects with drones: from tennis balls to manatees.
PLoS One 7(6):e38882. 8 pp. 7 figs. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038882. June 25, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), or drones, have been used widely in military applications, but more recently civilian applications have emerged (e.g., wildlife population monitoring, traffic monitoring, law enforcement, oil and gas pipeline threat detection). UAV can have several advantages over manned aircraft for wildlife surveys, including reduced ecological footprint, increased safety, and the ability to collect high-resolution geo-referenced imagery that can document the presence of species without the use of a human observer. We illustrate how geo-referenced data collected with UAV technology in combination with recently developed statistical models can improve our ability to estimate the distribution of organisms. To demonstrate the efficacy of this methodology, we conducted an experiment in which tennis balls were used as surrogates of organisms to be surveyed. We used a UAV to collect images of an experimental field with a known number of tennis balls, each of which had a certain probability of being hidden. We then applied spatially explicit occupancy models to estimate the number of balls and created precise distribution maps. We conducted three consecutive surveys over the experimental field and estimated the total number of balls to be 328 (95%CI: 312, 348). The true number was 329 balls, but simple counts based on the UAV pictures would have led to a total maximum count of 284. The distribution of the balls in the field followed a simulated environmental gradient. We also were able to accurately estimate the relationship between the gradient and the distribution of balls. Our experiment demonstrates how this technology can be used to create precise distribution maps in which discrete regions of the study area are assigned a probability of presence of an object. Finally, we discuss the applicability and relevance of this experimental study to the case study of Florida manatee distribution at power plants.
 
 
Martin, Julien; Fackler, Paul L.; Nichols, James D.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Runge, Michael C.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A. (detail)
   
2011
Structured decision making as a proactive approach to dealing with sea level rise in Florida.
Climate Change 107(1-2): 185-202. 5 figs. DOI:10.1007/s10584-011-0085-x. July 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Sea level rise (SLR) projections along the coast of Florida present an enormous challenge for management and conservation over the long term. Decision makers need to recognize and adopt strategies to adapt to the potentially detrimental effects of SLR. Structured decision making (SDM) provides a rigorous framework for the management of natural resources. The aim of SDM is to identify decisions that are optimal with respect to management objectives and knowledge of the system. Most applications of SDM have assumed that the managed systems are governed by stationary processes. However, in the context of SLR it may be necessary to acknowledge that the processes underlying managed systems may be non-stationary, such that systems will be continuously changing. Therefore, SLR brings some unique considerations to the application of decision theory for natural resource management. In particular, SLR is expected to affect each of the components of SDM. For instance, management objectives may have to be reconsidered more frequently than under more stable conditions. The set of potential actions may also have to be adapted over time as conditions change. Models have to account for the non-stationarity of the modeled system processes. Each of the important sources of uncertainty in decision processes is expected to be exacerbated by SLR. We illustrate our ideas about adaptation of natural resource management to SLR by modeling a non-stationary system using a numerical example. We provide additional examples of an SDM approach for managing species that may be affected by SLR, with a focus on the endangered Florida manatee.
 
 
Martin, Julien; Royle, J. Andrew; Mackenzie, Darryl I.; Edwards, Holly H.; Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth (detail)
   
2011
Accounting for non-independent detection when estimating abundance of organisms with a Bayesian approach.
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2: 595-601. 1 tab. DOI: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00113.x.
–ABSTRACT:
 1. Binomial mixture models use repeated count data to estimate abundance. They are becoming increasingly popular because they provide a simple and cost-effective way to account for imperfect detection. However, these models assume that individuals are detected independently of each other. This assumption may often be violated in the field. For instance, manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may surface in turbid water (i.e. become available for detection during aerial surveys) in a correlated manner (i.e. in groups). However, correlated behaviour, affecting the non-independence of individual detections, may also be relevant in other systems (e.g. correlated patterns of singing in birds and amphibians).
 2. We extend binomial mixture models to account for correlated behaviour and therefore to account for non-independent detection of individuals. We simulated correlated behaviour using beta-binomial random variables. Our approach can be used to simultaneously estimate abundance, detection probability and a correlation parameter.
 3. Fitting binomial mixture models to data that followed a beta-binomial distribution resulted in an overestimation of abundance even for moderate levels of correlation. In contrast, the beta-binomial mixture model performed considerably better in our simulation scenarios. We also present a goodness-of-fit procedure to evaluate the fit of beta-binomial mixture models.
 4. We illustrate our approach by fitting both binomial and beta-binomial mixture models to aerial survey data of manatees in Florida. We found that the binomial mixture model did not fit the data, whereas there was no evidence of lack of fit for the beta-binomial mixture model. This example helps illustrate the importance of using simulations and assessing goodness-of-fit when analysing ecological data with N-mixture models. Indeed, both the simulations and the goodness-of-fit procedure highlighted the limitations of the standard binomial mixture model for aerial manatee surveys.
 5. Overestimation of abundance by binomial mixture models owing to non-independent detections is problematic for ecological studies, but also for conservation. For example, in the case of endangered species, it could lead to inappropriate management decisions, such as downlisting. These issues will be increasingly relevant as more ecologists apply flexible N-mixture models to ecological data.
 
 
Martin, Julien; Sabatier, Quentin; Gowan, Timothy A.; Giraud, Christophe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Calleson, Charles Scott; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Rycyk, Athena M.; Koslovsky, Stacie M. (detail)
   
2015
A quantitative framework for investigating risk of deadly collisions between marine wildlife and boats.
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7: 42-50. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12447. Published online Nov. 12, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: 1. Speed regulations of watercraft in protected areas are designed to reduce lethal collisions with wildlife but can have economic consequences. We present a quantitative framework for investigating the risk of deadly collisions between boats and wildlife.
 2. We apply encounter rate theory to demonstrate how marine mammal–boat encounter rate can be used to predict the expected number of deaths associated with management scenarios. We illustrate our approach with management scenarios for two endangered species: the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris and the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis. We used a Monte Carlo simulation approach to demonstrate the uncertainty that is associated with our estimate of relative mortality.
 3. We show that encounter rate increased with vessel speed but that the expected number of encounters varies depending on the boating activities considered. For instance, in a scenario involving manatees and boating activities such as water skiing, the expected number of encounters in a given area (in a fixed time interval) increased with vessel speed. In another scenario in which a vessel made a transit of fixed length, the expected number of encounters decreases slightly with boat speed. In both cases, the expected number of encounters increased with distanced travelled by the boat. For whales, we found a slight reduction (˜0·1%) in the number of encounters under a scenario where speed is unregulated; this reduction, however, is negligible, and overall expected relative mortality was ˜30% lower under the scenario with speed regulation. The probability of avoidance by the animal or vessel was set to 0 because of lack of data, but we explored the importance of this parameter on the model predictions. In fact, expected relative mortality under speed regulations decreases even further when the probability of avoidance is a decreasing function of vessel speed.
 4. By applying encounter rate theory to the case of boat collisions with marine mammals, we gained new insights about encounter processes between wildlife and watercraft. Our work emphasizes the importance of considering uncertainty when estimating wildlife mortality. Finally, our findings are relevant to other systems and ecological processes involving the encounter between moving agents.
Martin, Larry D.: SEE Whetstone & Martin, 1979. (detail)
Martin, Lawrence: SEE Raza et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Martin, R. M. (detail)
   
1977
Mammals of the seas.
London, Batsford: 1-208.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs and manatees, chap. 8.
 
 
Martínez, A. (detail)
   
1995
Algunos aspectos biológicos del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en cautiverio.
Caracas, Simp. Intl. sobre Delfines y otros Mamíferos Acuaticos de Venezuela, Memorias: 145-158.
Martini, Erlend: SEE Cappetta et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Martins, Charles (detail)
   
1857
Nouvelle comparaison des membres pelviens et thoraciques chez l'homme et chez les mammifères déduite de la torsion de l'humerus.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (4)8: 45-110. Pls. 2-3.
–Sirs., 69.
Martius, Carl Friedr. Phil. von: SEE Spix & Martius, 1831. (detail)
 
 
Martony, Molly E.; Isaza, Ramiro; Erlacher-Reid, Claire D.; Peterson, Jon; Stacy, Nicole I. (detail)
   
2019
Esophageal measurement of core body temperature in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 56(1): 27-33. DOI: 10.7589/2019-02-049 Jan. 2020 (publ. online July 11, 2019).
–ABSTRACT: Cold-stress syndrome (CSS) is one of the leading natural threats to free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Cold water exposure below the species' acceptable physiologic range is a frequent occurrence for manatees during cold weather months causing CSS-induced systemic illness and significant annual mortality. Although CSS is a commonly presented condition at manatee rehabilitation facilities, the core body temperatures in CSS manatees are currently unknown due to the lack of clinically applicable and accurate temperature measurement methodologies. Our objective was to establish a clinically applicable measurement methodology of core body temperature in manatees. A novel, minimally invasive temperature technique to obtain esophageal temperature by placing a temperature sensor within an orogastric tube was compared to current oral and nasal methods in 20 clinically healthy manatees. Results identified the esophageal measurement as the best performing and most precise temperature methodology. The superior performance of esophageal temperature measurements differed significantly from both nasal and oral measurements, although nasal and oral measurements did not differ when compared with each other. The esophageal measurements were consistent with manatee core body temperature, facilitating generation of a reference interval for core body temperature in healthy manatees (35.0-35.8°C). Four CSS medical cases were evaluated with the newly validated esophageal temperature method, facilitating diagnosis of hypothermia. The application of this temperature measurement technique to CSS manatees in field or rehabilitation settings will help in understanding CSS pathophysiology, improve medical assessments during rehabilitation, and contribute to conservation efforts.
 
 
Martony, Molly; Hernandez, Jorge A.; de Wit, Martine; St. Leger, Judy; Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Vandenberg, Jacob; Stacy, Nicole I. (detail)
   
2019
Clinicopathological prognostic indicators of survival and pathological findings in cold-stressed Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 132(2): 85-97. 3 tabs. 1 fig. DOI: 10.3354/dao03306
–ABSTRACT: Cold-stress syndrome (CSS) is a leading natural cause of mortality in free-ranging Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris, but comprehensive investigations into blood analyte derangements and prognostic indicators in CSS are lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare admission blood analyte data of manatees pre and post rehabilitation for CSS to identify clinicopathological derangements, (2) identify blood analyte prognostic indicators for survival, and (3) correlate post-mortem anatomic pathological changes with clinicopathological findings to improve the understanding of CS pathophysiology. CSS manatees admitted to a rehabilitation facility between 2007 and 2017 were included: 59 manatees with data for clinicopathological analysis (7 non-survivors and 49 survivors) and 14 manatees with necropsy data (7 with and 7 without blood analyte data). Main interpretive clinicopathological findings indicated systemic inflammation, bone marrow damage, diuresis, malnutrition, tissue necrosis, fat mobilization, hepatic impairment, acid-base imbalances, and gastrointestinal ulceration. The best diagnostically performing prognostic indicators for survival included platelet concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and blood urea nitrogen. The main anatomic pathological findings were cutaneous lesions (n = 14), lipid depletion (n = 12), upper gastrointestinal ulceration and/or hemorrhage (n = 9), and pneumonia (n = 5). Based on the identified blood prognostic indicators interpreted in the context of anatomic pathological findings, multi-organ tissue injury, gastrointestinal ulceration and/or hemorrhage, and hemodynamic and platelet derangements are the presumptive major factors of CSS manatee mortality. These results contribute to the understanding of the complex CSS pathophysiology and offer the use of blood analyte prognostic indicators as a clinically applicable tool for the medical care of manatees during rehabilitation, thereby contributing to increased rehabilitation success and conservation of the Florida manatee.
 
 
Martyr, Peter (= Martire D'Anghiera, Pietro) (detail)
   
1516
De orbe novo decades.
Alcalá, A. Guillelmi: 67 leaves.
–First printing of the Second and Third Decades. The First Decade was first published in 1511, but does not seem to refer to manatees. Manatee, dec. III, lib. VIII, cap. 1 (reprinted in Durand, 1983: 43-45).
 
 
Martyr, Peter (= Martire D'Anghiera, Pietro) (detail)
   
1533
De rebus oceanis & orbe nouo decades tres: quibus quicquid de inuentis nuper terris traditum, nouarum rerum cupidum lectorem retinere possit, copiose, fideliter, eruditique docetur. Eivsdem praeterea Legationis Babylonicae libri tres: vbi praeter oratorii mvneris pulcherrimum exemplum, etiam quicquid in uariarum gentium moribus & institutis insigniter praeclarum uidit queque terra marique acciderunt, omnia lectu mirè iucunda, genere dicendi politissimo traduntur.
Basileae [= Basel], Ioannem Bebelium: leaves 1-92.
–Allen 4. First ed.: Martyr (1516). Engl. transl.: London, William Powell, 1555; repr. in E. Arber, The first three English books on America..., Birmingham, 1885, repr. New York, Krauss Repr. Co., 1971. Manati, leaf 60, C, D (in the Eighth Book of the Third Decade). Durand (1983: 82-84) quotes manatee passages from dec. I, lib. III, cap. v and dec. VII, lib. VIII, cap. 1 of a Spanish edition.
  "Peter Martyr has the distinction of being the earliest historian of the New World ..., a term coined by him" (Morison, 1942).
Maruyama, Toshiaki: SEE Oishi et al., 1990. (detail)
Marvanek, Steven: SEE Kemper et al., 1994. (detail)
Marx, Preston A.: SEE Greenwood et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Masini, Raymond J.; Anderson, Paul K.; McComb, Arthur J. (detail)
   
2001
A Halodule-dominated community in a subtropical embayment: physical environment, productivity, biomass, and impact of dugong grazing.
Aquatic Botany 71: 179-197. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–Observations at Shark Bay, Australia, suggested that local dominance of a Halodule-Penicillus community is dependent on exclusion of competitots by freshwater and sediment inflows. High levels of UV radiation may set the latitudinal limit of H. uninervis distribution. Dugong rooting may redistribute nutrients and stimulate nitrogen fixation and productivity. Halodule rhizomes may provide dugongs with maximal energy return for foraging effort, and be more important to dugongs than Halodule leaves.
 
 
Mass, Alla M.; Ketten, Darlene R.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Supin, Alexander Ya. (detail)
   
2012
Ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Anat. Rec. 295(2): 355-368.
x
 
Mass, Alla M.; Odell, Daniel Keith; Ketten, Darlene R.; Supin, Alexander Ya. (detail)
   
1997
Retinal topography and visual acuity in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. [Title of Engl. transl.: Ganglion layer topography and retinal resolution of the Caribbean manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris.]
Doklady Akademii Nauk (Rossiiskaya Akad. Nauk) 355(3): 427-430. 3 figs. July 1997.
–In Russian. Engl. transl.: Doklady Biological Sciences 355: 392-394; this version is the one indexed here. Describes the shape and proportions of the eyeball and its major components, as well as ganglion cell density and distribution on the retina. The retina contains no area centralis or visual streak, merely an area of slightly increased cell density in the ventral sector. The manatee has the lowest degree of retina differentiation among all marine mammals studied, and its retinal resolution value (20') is also much lower than those of nearly all other marine mammals. Concludes that the manatee can probably distinguish only nearby objects.
 
 
Massette, Barbara (detail)
   
1994
At home with the manatees.
Dive Travel 9(6): 14, 16. 2 figs. Summer 1994.
 
 
Masterson, James Raymond; Brower, Helen (detail)
   
1948
Bering's successors, 1745-1780; contributions of Peter Simon Pallas to the history of Russian exploration toward Alaska.
Seattle, Univ. Washington Press: 1-96.
 
 
Mastrorilli, V. I. (detail)
   
1973
Rinvenimento di resti schletrici di sirenidi nel bacino oligocenico Ligure-piemontese presso Millesimo (Savona).
Doriana (Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. "G. Doria") 5(205): 1-6. 2 figs. July 15, 1973.
–Engl. & German summs.
 
 
Mate, Bruce R. (detail)
   
1986
Tracking marine mammals by satellite: identification of critical habitats.
Whalewatcher 20(2): 8-9. 1 fig. Summer 1986.
 
 
Mate, Bruce R.; Rathbun, Galen B. ("Geylen Rathburn"); Reid, James P. ("James Reed") (detail)
   
1986
An Argos-monitored radio tag for tracking manatees.
Argos Newsletter No. 26: 2-7. 1 tab. June 1986.
–Text in French & Engl.
 
 
Mate, Bruce R.; Reid, James P.; Winsor, M. (detail)
   
1987
Long-term tracking of manatees through the Argos satellite system. In: Proc. Argos Internatl. Users Conference
(Greenbelt, Maryland): 211-220.
 
 
Mathews, Edward Davis (detail)
   
1879
Up the Amazon and Madeira rivers, through Bolivia and Peru.
London, S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington: xv + 402. Illus.
 
 
Mathews, Patrick D.; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Ribeiro, Daniella C.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Gennari, Solange M. (detail)
   
2012
Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(1): 85-88. 1 table. DOI: 10.1638/2011-0178.1 Mar. 2012.
Matoba, N.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
Matschie, Paul: SEE ALSO Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828-99. (detail)
 
 
Matschie, Paul (detail)
   
1893
Die Säugethiere des Togogebietes.
Mitt. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (Berlin) 6: 162-180.
–Sirs., 180.
x
 
Matson, George Charlton (detail)
   
1915
The phosphate deposits of Florida.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 604: 1-101. Tabs. 2 figs. 17 pls.
–Illustrates the "jawbone of a manatee" (pl. 12) that was later made the holotype of Metaxytherium floridanum Hay, 1922; from the Bone Valley Formation.
 
 
Matson, George Charlton; Clapp, F. G. (detail)
   
1909
A preliminary report of the geology of Florida, with special reference to the stratigraphy.
Florida Geol. Surv. Rept. 2: 25-173. 2 figs. 8 pls.
–Sirs., 136.
x
 
Matson, George Charlton; Sanford, Samuel (detail)
   
1913
Geology and ground waters of Florida.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Paper 319: 1-445. 7 figs. 17 pls.
–P. 146: {"The Bone Valley gravel, however, contains many fossils which are contemporaneous with the deposition of the beds, among them being teeth of horses, rhinoceroses, mammoths, sharks, and manatees."} "Manatees" here refers to Miocene dugongids, principally Metaxytherium floridanum.
 
 
Matsubara, S. (detail)
   
1881
[On the dugong of Japan.]
Dobutsugaku Zasshi (Tokyo, Zool. Soc. Japan) 1: 93-96.
–In Japanese.
Matsuda, G.: SEE Czelusniak et al., 1990. (detail)
Matsuda, T.: SEE Nojo et al., 1999. (detail)
 
D
Matsui, Kumiko (detail)
   
2017
How can we reliably identify a taxon based on humeral morphology? Comparative morphology of desmostylian humeri.
PeerJ 5: e4011.
 
D
Matsui, Kumiko; Kawabe, Soichiro (detail)
   
2015
The oldest record of Paleoparadoxia from the Northwest Pacific with an implication on the early evolution of Paleoparadoxiinae (Mammalia: Desmostylia).
Paleontological Research 19(3): 251-265. 4 tabs. 6 figs. DOI: 10.2517/2015PR007. July 1, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: A new specimen of Paleoparadoxia found from a marine lower Miocene deposit in the Chikubetsu area, Hokkaido, Japan, is described. The material consists of a distal part of the scapula, proximal end of the humerus from the right side, as well as a fragmentary rib, preserved in a float of calcareous fine sandstone. The specimen is referred to the order Desmostylia and subsequently to the genus Paleoparadoxia sp. The well preserved shoulder girdle of this specimen provides the first detailed morphology of this anatomical region in Paleoparadoxia. We compared the specimen with a wide range of desmostylid samples to reveal new diagnostic characters for the genus, such as the greater tubercle extending toward the proximal side above the head and the distinct lesser tubercle located on the medial side, projected medially. The lower Miocene Sankebetsu Formation outcrops in the area where the float was found, and the lithology and associated fossil fauna of the float indicate that it was derived from there. The fossil pollen assemblages and molluscs found in the formation indicate that it was deposited under cool to temperate conditions. The new specimen thus suggests that Paleoparadoxia had inhabited a cool environment in addition to warm areas, as suggested in previous studies. The published age estimate of the formation places the present specimen between 23.8±1.5 and 20.6±1.0 Ma. This represents the oldest record of the genus Paleoparadoxia, exceeding the previous record of ca. 19 Ma for a specimen found from the Chichibu Basin, and nearly matches the oldest record of Paleoparadoxiinae in the Northwestern Pacific. This indicates that the ages of the oldest occurrences of basal and derived paleoparadoxiines overlapped (i.e., Archaeoparadoxia from the Northeastern Pacific Region and Paleoparadoxia from the Northwestern Pacific, respectively). It is also likely that the geographic range of Paleoparadoxiinae had already expanded from the Northeast Pacific to the Northwest Pacific in the early stage of their evolution.
 
D
Matsui, Kumiko; Kimura, Yuri; Nagata, Mitsuhiro; Inose, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kazuya; Beatty, Brian Lee; Obayashi, Hideyuki; Hirata, Takafumi; Otoh, Shigeru; Shinmura, Tatsuya; Agematsu, Sachiko; Sashida, Katsuo (detail)
   
2018
A long-forgotten 'dinosaur' bone from a museum cabinet, uncovered to be a Japan's iconic extinct mammal, Paleoparadoxia (Desmostylia, Mammalia).
Royal Society Open Science 5: 172441. 1 tab. 7 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.17244. Supplementary material available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4175684.
–ABSTRACT: Here, we report a new 'discovery' of a desmostylian fossil in the geological collection at a national university in Japan. This fossil was unearthed over 60 years ago and donated to the university. Owing to the original hand-written note kept with the fossil in combination with interview investigation, we were able to reach two equally possible fossil sites in the town of Tsuchiyu Onsen,Fukushima. Through the interviews, we learned that the fossil was discovered during construction of a debris flow barrier and that it was recognized as a 'dinosaur' bone among the locals and displayed in the Village Hall before/until the town experienced a fire disaster in 1954. As scientific findings, the fossil was identified to be a right femur of Paleoparadoxia (Desmostylia), which shows well-preserved muscle scars on the surface. The age was estimated to be 15.9 Ma or younger in zircon-dating. This study shows an excellent case that historical and scientific significances could be extracted from long-forgotten uncatalogued specimens as long as the original information is retained with the specimens.
 
D
Matsui, Kumiko; Sashida, Katsuo; Agematsu, Sachiko; Kohno, Naoki (detail)
   
2017
Habitat preferences of the enigmatic Miocene tethythere[s] Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia (Desmostylia; Mammalia) inferred from the depositional depth of fossil occurrences in the Northwestern Pacific realm.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 471: 254-265. 7 tabs. 7 figs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.02.005. Published online Feb. 8, 2017; Apr. 1, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia are extinct marine mammals belonging to the order Desmostylia that existed in the period between the late Oligocene and middle Miocene. All occurrences of their fossils are limited to marine strata along the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean. Although these two genera have similar body form, their paleoecologies including habitat preferences are thought to be different because their cranial structures are distinctive as well as they have been known separately in different localities. We estimated the depositional depths of their fossil occurrences on the basis of the associated mollusks and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from 45 desmostylian localities. Only data on complete or partial skeletal specimens were considered in order to exclude cases of reworking and pre-burial drift of carcasses that would confound our inference.
  Our results indicate that the depositional environment of Desmostylus specimens was restricted to the inner sublittoral zone shallower than 30 m in depth whereas that of Paleoparadoxia specimens ranged from the inner sublittoral (0–50 m) to upper bathyal zone (between 150 and 400 and 500 m). This finding indicates that Desmostylus lived in nearshore water while Paleoparadoxia foraged in a relatively deep, offshore water. The depositional segregation of these two genera most likely reflects their different habitat preferences.
 
D
Matsui, Kumiko; Tsuihiji, Takanobu (detail)
   
2019
The phylogeny of desmostylians revisited: proposal of new clades based on robust phylogenetic hypotheses.
PeerJ 7: e7430 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7430. 4 figs. + 15 online supplemental files.. Published online Oct. 17, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Background: Desmostylia is a clade of extinct aquatic mammals with no living members. Today, this clade is considered belonging to either Afrotheria or Perissodactyla. In the currently-accepted taxonomic scheme, Desmostylia includes two families, 10 to 12 genera, and 13–14 species. There have been relatively few phylogenetic analyses published on desmostylian interrelationship compared to other vertebrate taxa, and two main, alternative phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed in previous studies. One major problem with those previous studies is that the numbers of characters and OTUs were small.
  Methods: In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic interrelationship of Desmostylia based on a new data matrix that includes larger numbers of characters and taxa than in any previous studies. The new data matrix was compiled mainly based on data matrices of previous studies and included three outgroups and 13 desmostylian ingroup taxa. Analyses were carried out using five kinds of parsimonious methods.
  Results: Strict consensus trees of the most parsimonious topologies obtained in all analyses supported the monophyly of Desmostylidae and paraphyly of traditional Paleoparadoxiidae. Based on these results, we propose phylogenetic definitions of the clades Desmostylidae and Paleoparadoxiidae based on common ancestry.
Matsui, Masaru: SEE ALSO Kimura et al., 1987; Minato et al., 1957; Uozumi et al., 1966; Yamaguchi et al., 1981. (detail)
 
D
Matsui, Masaru; Ganzawa, Y. (detail)
   
1987
Oligo-Miocene Kawakami Group in eastern Hokkaido. - The age and horizon of Ashoro fossil fauna. In: Professor Masaru Matsui Memorial Volume.
Sapporo: 137-143. May 1987.
 
D
Matsui, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
1984
On the Desmostylus found from Hokkaido and Sakhalin, with stratigraphical and sedimentary environmental remarks.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 51-61. 1 tab. 5 figs. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Matsumoto, Hikoshichiro (detail)
   
1918a
On a new fossil Trionyx from Hokkaido.
Sci. Rept. Tohoku Imper. Univ. (Ser. 2, Geol.) 3: 57-60. Pl. 21.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 25: 467? Desmostylians, 59.
 
D
Matsumoto, Hikoshichiro (detail)
   
1918b
A contribution to the morphology, palaeobiology and systematics of Desmostylus.
Sci. Rept. Tohoku Imper. Univ. (Ser. 2, Geol.) 3(2): 61-74. Pl. 22.
 
D
Matsumoto, Hikoshichiro (detail)
   
1923a
Mammalian horizons in the Japanese Tertiary revised stratigraphically, and the interrelation of the terrestrial and marine deposits.
Proc. Pan-Pacif. Sci. Congr., Australia 2(1): 887-896. 2 figs.
–Desmostylians, 891-892.
 
 
Matsumoto, Hikoshichiro (detail)
   
1923b
A contribution to the knowledge of Moeritherium.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 48(4): 97-140. 5 tabs. 11 figs. Sept. 21, 1923.
–Sirs., 111, 123-124.
Matsumoto, Mitsuharu: SEE Nishinakagawa et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Matsuo, Yuuki; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Arai, Nobuaki (detail)
   
2014
Measurement of fecal progesterone in female dugong (Dugong dugon).
Proc. Design Symposium on Conservation of Ecosystem (The 13th SEASTAR2000 workshop) 2: 55-58. 1 tab. 2 figs. March 2014.
–ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigate the possibility of measuring fecal progesterone (P4) of dugongs in captivity. Fecal samples were collected from a captive adult female dugong kept at Toba aquarium in November 2012 and February 2013, and fecal P4 of these samples was measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To establish a measuring system, we compared the results of measurements applying different dilution rates of primary antibody and enzyme linked antigen, and decided the best experimental condition for accurate measurement. We then measured P4 concentrations of the dugong's fecal samples. Significant difference in the P4 concentrations was not found among the samples collected in November and February. Thus it is suggested the dugong was not in estrous period when the samples were collected. We succeeded in extracting and measuring fecal P4 of the dugong, and for further study, we plan to apply this method to monitoring of estrous cycle of dugongs.
 
D
Matsuuda, Nobuomi (detail)
   
1988
[Neogene fauna and mammal fossils from Ishikawa Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 22-28. 4 tabs. 1 fig. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1912a
Einige Bemerkungen über das Gehörorgan von Walen und Sirenen.
Anat. Anz. 41(20/22): 594-599. July 27, 1912.
–Criticizes Abel's (1912) statements on the hearing of marine mammals, and supports Boenningshaus (1904). Concerning sirs., Matthes concludes (597-599) that their ears are adapted only for hearing in the water and not in the air.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1912b
Zur Entwicklung des Kopfskelettes der Sirenen. 1. Die Regio ethmoidalis des Primordialkraniums von Manatus latirostris.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 48: 489-514.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1915
Beiträge zur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sirenen. 1: Die äussere Körperform eines Embryos von Halicore dugong von 15 cm Rückenlänge.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 53(= n.s. 46): 557-580. Pl. 8.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1921a
Eine bemerkenswerte Eigentümlichkeit am Meckel'schen Knorpel eines Säugethieres: Zusammensetzung des Meckel'schen Knorpels bei Halicore dugong aus zwei hintereinander liegenden Teilstücken.
Anat. Anz. 54(11): 209-229. 6 figs. Aug. 1, 1921.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1921b
Einige Beobachtungen über die Entwicklung des Schädels der Sirenen.
Verh. Deutsch. Zool. Ges. (Berlin) 26: 73-75.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1921c
Zur Kenntniss des Knorpelschädels von Halicore dugong.
Zool. Anz. 52: 139-151. 2 figs.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1921d
Zur Entwicklung des Kopfskelettes der Sirenen. II. Das Primordialcranium von Halicore dugong.
Zs. Ges. Anat. 60(1): 1-304. 36 figs. 6 pls.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1921e
Neuere Arbeiten über das Primordialkranium der Säugethiere.
Zs. Ges. Anat., Abt. 3, 23: 669-912. 13 figs.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1929
Die Dickenverhältnisse der Haut bei den Mammalia im allgemeinen, den Sirenia im besonderen.
Zs. Wiss. Zool. 134(2/3): 345-357. 1 fig.
 
 
Matthes, Ernst (detail)
   
1945
Zur Embryologie und Systematik der Gattung Manatus.
Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra 164: 1-43. 3 figs. 2 pls.
–Synonymizes Manatus koellikeri Kükenthal with T. m. manatus (42).
 
 
Matthew, William Diller (detail)
   
1912
Symposium on ten years' progress in vertebrate paleontology. African mammals.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 13: 156-162.
–Sirs., 156.
 
 
Matthew, William Diller (detail)
   
1915
Climate and evolution.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 24: 171-318. 33 figs.
–Rev.: Amer. Jour. Sci. (4)40: 83-85. Sirs., 256, 314.
x
 
Matthew, William Diller (detail)
   
1916a
New sirenian from the Tertiary of Porto Rico, West Indies.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 27: 23-29. 2 figs. Jan. 28, 1916 (read Nov. 8, 1915).
–Abstr.: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 26: 439, May 12, 1915? Describes ?Halitherium antillense, n.sp., and compares it with other sirs.; discusses sir. affinities and phylogeny, distribution, and cheek tooth formulae. The age of the new species is given only as "Tertiary"; it is Middle Oligocene according to Reinhart (1959: 21).
 
D
Matthew, William Diller (detail)
   
1916b
Recent progress in vertebrate palaeontology. Mammals.
Science (n.s.) 43: 107-110.
–Desmostylians, 109.
x
 
Matthies, Enrico (detail)
   
1994
Vom "lachenden" Manati - zu einigen bemerkenswerten, historischen Sirenendarstellungen.
Milu (Berlin) 8(2): 186-193. 11 figs.
–Reproduces 11 illustrations of manatees and dugongs from 19th-century German books on natural history, and discusses their authorship.
 
 
Mattila, D. K.; Clapham, P. J.; Vasquez, O.; Bowman, R. S. (detail)
   
1994
Occurrence, population composition, and habitat use of humpback whales in Samana Bay, Dominican Republic.
Canad. Jour. Zool. 72(11): 1898-1907. Illus. Nov. 1994.
 
 
Mattioli, Stefano (detail)
   
1981
È veramente scomparsa la ritina?
Geodes, La Terra che Vive 3(3): 88-96. 9 figs. July-Aug. 1981.
–Pop. acc. of Steller's sea cow.
 
 
Mattioli, Stefano (detail)
   
2019
Ecology and biogeography in the introduction to "De Bestiis Marinis" by Georg Wilhelm Steller.
Archives of Nat. Hist. 46(1): 63-74. 3 figs. DOI: 10.3366/anh.2019.0554 Apr. 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The rediscovery of the original, unedited Latin manuscript of Georg Wilhelm Steller's "De bestiis marinis" ("On marine mammals"), first published in 1751, calls for a new translation into English. The main part of the treatise contains detailed descriptions of four marine mammals, but the introduction is devoted to more general issues, including innovative speculation on morphology, ecology and biogeography, anticipating arguments and concepts of modern biology. Steller noted early that climate and food have a direct influence on body size, pelage and functional traits of mammals, potentially affecting reversible changes (phenotypic plasticity). Feeding and other behavioural habits have an impact on the geographical distribution of mammals. Species with a broad diet tend to have a wide distribution, whereas animals with a narrow diet more likely have only a restricted range. According to Steller, both sea and land then still concealed countless animals unknown to science.
 This paper is supplemented by a file presenting the critical edition of the original Latin text of the introduction to "De Bestiis Marinis" (see https://www.euppublishing.com/doi/suppl/10.3366/anh.2019.0554).
 
 
Mattioli, Stefano; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2006
An annotated list of extant skeletal material of Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) (Sirenia: Dugongidae) from the Commander Islands.
Aquatic Mammals 32(3): 273-288. 5 tabs.
 
 
Maupin, B. (detail)
   
1969
Blood platelets in man and animals. Vol. 1.
Oxford, Pergamon Press: 1-541.
–Considers the manatee blood smear reported by Knoll (1958) to be inconclusive.
 
 
Maureta, J.; Thos y Codina, S. (detail)
   
1881
Descripción física, geológica y minera de la provincia de Barcelona.
Mem. de la Comisión del Mapa Geol. España: 1-487. 8 pls.
–Reports the discovery of fossil bones and teeth, which later proved to be sirenian and were made the holotype of Metaxytherium catalaunicum Pilleri et al., 1989.
x
 
Maw, Henry Lister (detail)
   
1829
Journal of a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, crossing the Andes in the northern provinces of Peru, and descending the River Marañon, or Amazon.
London, John Murray: xv + 486.
–Account of a manatee harpooned at Tabitinga, Brazil (near the border with Peru and Colombia), with general remarks on its appearance and gross anatomy (237-239).
 
 
Mawdesley, Thomas L. E. (detail)
   
1974
Some aspects of neoplasia in marine animals. In: F. S. Russell & M. Yonge (eds.), Advances in marine biology, Vol. 12.
New York & London, Academic Press (xii + 436): 151-231.
Mawson, Patricia M.: SEE Johnston & Mawson, 1941. (detail)
 
 
May, James H. (detail)
   
1974
Wayne County geology.
Mississippi Geol. Surv. Bull. 117: 13-194. Illus.
–Mentions sir. ribs from the Upper Oligocene Chickasawhay Formation (96).
May, L. P.: SEE Schiro et al., 1996. (detail)
May, R. M.: SEE Dayton, P. K., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Mayaka, T. B.; Awah, H. C.; Ajonina, G. (detail)
   
2013
Conservation status of manatee (Trichechus senegalensis Link 1795) in Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon: an ethnobiological assessment.
Tropical Conservation Science 6(4): 521-538.
 
 
Mayaka, Theodore B.; Kamla, Aristide Takoukam; Self-Sullivan, Caryn (detail)
   
2015
Using Pooled Local Expert Opinions (PLEO) to discern patterns in sightings of live and dead manatees (Trichechus senegalensis, Link 1785) in lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon.
PLOS ONE 10(7): 23 pp. 4 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128579. July 21, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: We aimed at unveiling patterns in live and dead manatee sightings in the Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon. For this purpose, the expert opinions of 133 local fishers were collected during in-person interviews, distilled using categorical data analysis, and checked against scientific literature. The five main results are as follows: manatees were sighted averagely once a week in lakes, rivers, and the coast & estuaries, mostly in group sizes of 2-3; the odds of sighting live manatees (respectively dead manatees) decreased (respectively increased) from inland lakes to estuaries and the coast, via rivers; manatee carcasses were reported in all habitats, albeit more frequently in rivers; a distribution map based on fishers' reports show two manatee concentration areas: Lake Ossa and the Malimba-Mbiako section of River Sanaga; the number of manatees was perceived as increasing despite incidental and directed catches. Thus, our findings corroborate earlier assessments of the Lower Sanaga Basin as being a major manatee conservation area. Additionally, from these results and the literature, we identified three hypotheses about local manatee persistence: deep pools such as lakes offer year round sanctuaries, not just dry-season refugia; seasonality of specific habitat variables determine manatee occurrence patterns; and local variability in habitat encroachment mediate the meta-population dynamics of manatee in the Lower Sanaga Basin. Finally, we examine the implications for data requirements in light of the small ecological scale at which the surveyed fishers ply their trade. Thus, consonant with the Malawi principles for the ecosystem approach to management (www.cbd.int/ecosystem), we recommend collecting data preferably at landscape scale, through a participatory monitoring program that fully integrates scientific and traditional knowledge systems. This program should include, amongst others, a standardised necropsy protocol for collecting mortality and biological data together with sonar and radio-telemetry technology to discern manatee use and movements between critical habitat components.
 
 
Mayaka, Theodore B.; Koh-Dimbot, Jean P.; Keith-Diagne, Lucy W. (detail)
   
2019
Occurrence patterns of African manatees, conflicts with humans, and local perception in the Southern Korup Area, Cameroon.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems Early Release, pages 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3210. Published online Aug. 30, 2019.
–ABSTRACT--1. The African manatee has been poorly studied throughout its range and is heavily hunted. This study aimed at discerning patterns in manatee sightings and emerging conflicts with humans, as well as the local perception of manatees, outside the southern periphery of Korup National Park, Cameroon.
  2. The study investigated whether patterns in manatee sightings and manatee?related conflicts differ between aquatic systems in southern Korup, and which demographic variables determine perceptions of the manatee in the study area. For this purpose, the study used a three?stage stratified random sampling design with a structured questionnaire to survey 101 local fishers.
  3. The reported patterns of manatee sightings and manatee?related conflicts were as follows: in the Nyangorobe River during the wet season only, where crop raiding and net destruction by manatees were reported; in the Ndian River and the mangrove estuary only during the dry season, where fish theft and net damage were reported; and in the Moko River during both seasons, where crop raiding, fish theft, and net destruction were reported. Reducing these conflicts is likely to increase local support for the conservation of manatees, because fishermen kill them in response to net destruction and fish loss.
  4. Most reported sightings were at waterway intersections and river bends, suggesting that waterway connectivity is important to manatees for dispersal, foraging, and escape from danger.
  5. The log?odds probability of negative perception decreased significantly with awareness of manatee protected status but increased with age and primary or higher education level. These findings have implications for community outreach focused on raising awareness of the importance of manatee conservation by schoolchildren and the public.
x
 
Mayer, Johann (detail)
   
1784
Nachricht von verschiedenen Knochen nicht einheimischer Thiere, so in Böhmen gefunden werden.
Abh. einer Privatgesellschaft in Böhmen (Prague) 6: 260-267. Pls. 3-4.
–Reports teeth and bones of "Mannatus" found in excavations at Leutmeriz (Litomerice) and Theresienstadt (Terezin?), Czechoslovakia (262-263). With them were found "verschiedene dünne spitzige stark gebogene Zähne"; could these have been Rytiodus-like tusks?
Mayerson, Evelyn: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Mayet, Lucien; Lecointre, Comtesse Pierre (detail)
   
1909
Étude sommaire des mammifères fossiles des faluns de la Touraine, proprement dite.
Ann. Univ. Lyon, Sci. Med. (n.s.) 1, fasc. 26: 1-72. 30 figs.
x
 
Maynard, C. J. (detail)
   
1872
Catalogue of the mammals of Florida, with notes on their habits, distribution, etc. ... [Continued.]
Bull. Essex Inst. 4(10): 137-150. Oct. 1872.
–Briefly notes the occurrence of Trichechus manatus in the Indian River and between Tampa Bay and Cape Sable, but not in Mosquito or Halifax Lagoons. It is also "said to feed upon leaves of the mangrove during the night" (142-143).
 
 
Maynard, C. J. (detail)
   
1883
The mammals of Florida.
Quart. Jour. Boston Zool. Soc. 2(2): 20.
x
 
Maynard, Thane (detail)
   
1999
Manatees: sweet potatoes that swim!
Land's End Catalog 36(5): 34-37. 5 figs. + photo on contents page. May 1999.
–Pop. acc. of manatees in Florida and Belize, with several glaring inaccuracies.
x
 
Maynes, G.; Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1981
The mammals on our stamps. Descriptions of the mammals featured on Papua New Guinea's October 1980 stamps issue.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 81/6: 1-6. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of the dugong, with an illustration of the 7-toea stamp depicting it (4-6).
x
 
Mayor, Adrienne (detail)
   
2000
The first fossil hunters: paleontology in Greek and Roman times.
Princeton, Princeton Univ. Press: xx + 361. 77 figs. 7 maps.
–Speculates (at the suggestion of Eric Buffetaut) that ancient reports of "sea monster remains" on the French coast may have been inspired by skeletons of the "Miocene dugong Halitherium" seen south of the Gironde estuary (145, 259, 325). Also states that Paleolithic hunters in the same region made tools from Halitherium ribs (166).
Mazza, Paul: SEE Bianucci et al., 2001. (detail)
Mazzeo, Jeff: SEE Dierauf, L. A., 1990. (detail)
McAllister, A.: SEE Patton et al., 1989. (detail)
 
D
McAnally, Lee McKenzie (detail)
   
1993
Fallacy, felony and fossils from the Sooke Formation.
Vancouver Island Paleontological Society Newsletter No. 3: 8-9. 4 figs. Spring 1993.
–Slightly altered repr.: McAnally, 1996. Relates the history of the type and other specimens of Cornwallius sookensis, including their apparent theft from the British Columbia Provincial Museum in 1928 and their mysterious return in 1932.
x
D
McAnally, Lee McKenzie (detail)
   
1996
Paleogene mammals on land and at sea. Chap. 16 in: R. Ludvigsen (ed.), Life in stone: a natural history of British Columbia's fossils.
Vancouver, Univ. Brit. Columbia Press (viii + 310 pp.): 202-211. ?? figs.
–Contains an account of the discovery and subsequent history of the type material of Cornwallius sookensis, slightly modified from McAnally (1993).
x
 
McAtee, W. L. (detail)
   
1950
Possible early record of a manatee in Virginia.
Jour. Mamm. 31(1): 98-99. Feb. 21, 1950.
–Calls attention to the account by Glover (1676) of an animal seen in the Rappahannock River, which may have been a manatee, or, in my opinion, perhaps a pinniped.
x
 
McBain, James (detail)
   
1860
Notice of a skull of a manatee from Old Calabar.
Rept. 29th Meeting Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Notices: 150-152. Read Sept. 1859, _fide_ McBain (1863).
–Describes in detail a skull of T. senegalensis.
x
 
McBain, James (detail)
   
1863
Remarks on some comparative anatomical distinctions between the skull of the Manatus Senegalensis and that of a manatee from the Bay of Honduras.
Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh 2: 261-267. Read Mar. 27, 1861.
–Compares a skull of "Manatus australis" with the skull described by McBain (1860).
x
 
McCabe, M.; Hamilton, R.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1978
Some studies on the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin from the dugong.
Compar. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 61(1): 19-22. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports that the oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium curves did not show the pronounced sigmoidality seen in humans; the oxygen affinities were rather high; and the Bohr effect was not very marked. Significant subunit dissociation of dugong hemoglobin may occur at low concentrations.
 
 
McCarthy, T. J. (detail)
   
1986
The gentle giants of Belize. Part II: Distribution of manatees.
Belize Audubon Soc. Bull. 18: 1-4.
McCleery, D. P.: SEE Oldham et al., 1938. (detail)
x
 
McClenaghan, Leroy R., Jr.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1988
Genetic variability in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Mamm. 69(3): 481-488. 4 tabs. Aug. 30, 1988.
–Reports that gel electrophoresis of tissues of salvaged carcasses from 20 counties in Florida showed normal to high levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, and considerable genetic homogeneity across regions. The latter is attributed to high gene flow. An excess of homozygotes within regions may be due to natal-area fidelity.
 
 
McClintock, Jack (detail)
   
1990
Too nice to live.
Life 13(14): 42-43, 45-48. 8 figs. Nov. 1990.
–Sequel: Life 14(9): 19, 1 fig., July 1991.
McClune, Michael C.: SEE Bullock et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
McClung, Robert M. (detail)
   
1969
Lost wild America: The story of our extinct and vanishing wildlife.
New York, William Morrow & Co.: 1-240. Illus.
–Brief pop. acc. of manatees in Florida (165-166).
 
 
McClung, Robert M. (detail)
   
1977
Man and manatee.
Defenders Mag. 52(3): 187-189. 2 figs.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and their conservation.
x
 
McClung, Robert M. (detail)
   
1978
Sad songs for the siren seacows.
Defenders Mag., Feb. 1978: 46-47. 2 figs.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and the discovery of Hydrodamalis.
McComb, Arthur J.: SEE Masini et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
McCook, Laurence J.; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J. Howard; Evans, Richard D.; De Freitas, Debora M.; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene D.; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Pressey, Robert L.; Russ, Garry R.; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R.; Williamson , David H.; Gaines, Steven D. (detail)
   
2010
Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(43): 18278-18285. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0909335107. Oct. 26, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.
 
D
McCornack, Ellen Condon (detail)
   
1914
A study of the Oregon Pleistocene; the Oregon Desmostylus skull.
Oregon Univ. Bull. (n.s.) 12(2): 1-16. Illus.
 
 
McCue, J. (detail)
   
1971
Dugong tusks?
Jour. Arabian Nat. Hist. Assoc. (Dhahran) 1: 10.
 
 
McDonald, Pete (detail)
   
2014
ON BOARD WITH ... Patrick Rose.
Boating 87(4): 14.
–ABSTRACT: In an interview, Patrick Rose, aquatic biologist and executive director of the Save the Manatee Club, talks about manatees and best ways to protect them. He shares that it was in the late 1960s when he first saw a manatee underwater. The experience had left him committed to learning more about them and their aquatic world. He tells that the best way to protect manatees is for people to learn about their plight and to know that protecting them is beneficial for a healthy ecosystem.
McEachran, J. D.: SEE Miyake et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
McGill, Tom (detail)
   
2004
The Florida manatee conspiracy of ignorance.
Merritt Island (Florida), Ralco.
–Anti-manatee tract by one of the founders of Citizens for Florida Waterways.
McGregor, R. C.: SEE Dickerson et al., 1928. (detail)
McGrigor-Croft, John: SEE ALSO Anon., 1872. (detail)
x
 
McGrigor-Croft, John (detail)
   
1860
The dugong: the valuable medicinal properties of its oil in consumption and various diseases.
Zoologist 18: 7166-7169.
–Describes the marked improvement produced by dugong oil in two cases of scrofula and consumption. Also notes that it helps in treating chronic dyspepsia and dysentery.
McGuire, Peter M.: SEE ALSO Bradley et al., 1993; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
McHale, M.; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2008
A multiplexed PCR assay for sex assignment in dugong (Dugong dugon) and West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Molecular Ecology Notes 8(3): 669-670. May 2008.
 
 
Mchedlidze, Guram Andreyevich (detail)
   
1976
[Features of the evolution of cetacean fauna from the Black Sea and Caspian Sea regions in the late Oligocene-early Miocene.]
Proc. Congr. Regional Committee on Mediterranean Neogene Stratigraphy No. 6: 185-187.
 
 
McIntosh (detail)
   
1911
A brief sketch of the toothed whales (Odontoceti).
Zoologist (4)15: 81-103.
–Sirs., 81.
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie: SEE ALSO Domning et al., 1986; Novacek et al., 1988; Ray et al., 1994; Shoshani & McKenna, 1998; Wyss et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1956
Survival of primitive notoungulates and condylarths into the Miocene of Colombia.
Amer. Jour. Sci. 254: 736-743. 2 figs. Dec. 1956.
–P. 739, note: {"Stirton (1947) has described a new genus, Lophiodolodus, from the Oligocene Chaparral fauna, found near Tolima, Colombia, comparing it with the didolodonts. I suspect that Lophiodolodus is a sirenian; for this reason the genus does not enter into the present discussion."}
 
 
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1969
The origin and early differentiation of therian mammals.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 167(1): 217-224.
 
D
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1975
Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia. In: W. P. Luckett & F. S. Szalay (eds.), Phylogeny of the primates.
New York & London, Plenum Publ. Corp.: 21-46. 3 figs. Dec. 1975.
–Introduces the taxon Tethytheria with the rank of "mirorder" to include the Sirenia, Desmostylia, and Proboscidea, and discusses the cladistic relationships of these orders with other mammals.
x
 
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1980
Early history and biogeography of South America's extinct land mammals. In: R. L. Ciochon & A. B. Chiarelli (eds.), Evolutionary biology of New World monkeys and continental drift.
New York, Plenum Publ. Corp.: 43-77.
–Suggests that Florentinoameghinia and Lophiodolodus are both sirs. (66).
x
D
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1987
Molecular and morphological analysis of high-level mammalian interrelationships. In: C. Patterson (ed.), Molecules and morphology in evolution: conflict or compromise?
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press: 55-93. 2 tabs. 7 figs.
–Summarizes the evidence tending to place sirs. and desmostylians together with other "paenungulates" in a very early, probably Cretaceous, side-branch of the Eutheria (61-63, 70-71, 79-82).
x
 
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1992
The alpha crystallin A chain of the eye lens and mammalian phylogeny. In: A. Forstén, M. Fortelius, & L. Werdelin (eds.), Björn Kurtén - a memorial volume.
Ann. Zool. Fennici 28(3-4): 349-360. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Feb. 19, 1992.
–Presents a new cladogram based on eye-lens protein sequence data, showing Trichechus closest to hyracoids and tubulidentates and farther from elephants (350, 354-355, 357).
 
D
McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie; Bell, Susan K. (detail)
   
1997
Classification of mammals above the species level.
New York, Columbia Univ. Press: xii + 631. 1 fig.
–Introduces a new, cladistically-based classification in which the Sirenia and Desmostylia are radically demoted in taxonomic rank. A new Order Uranotheria includes the suborders Hyracoidea, Embrithopoda, and Tethytheria; the latter includes the infraorders Sirenia and Behemota (new); and the Behemota comprises the parvorders Desmostylia and Proboscidea (490-497).
McKenzie, L. J.: SEE Lee Long et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Rob G.; Johns, Louise; Leech, Jessica (detail)
   
2014
Post Tropical Cyclone Ita assessment of intertidal seagrass status in dugong and green turtle feeding grounds - Jeannie River to Cape Bedford (Cape York).
TropWATER Report 14. 31 figs. May 2014.
 
 
McKenzie, Len; Johns, Louise; Yoshida, Rudi; Smith, Naomi; Langlois, Lucas (detail)
   
2014
Indigenous community capacity building to assess dugong and sea turtle seagrass habitats for sea country management. A report to the Threatened Species Division, Queensland Department of Environment & Heritage Protection (EHP).
Centre for Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research (TropWATER) Report No. 14/58. 7 tabs. 30 figs. Dec. 2014.
 
 
McKillop, Heather I. (detail)
   
1984
Prehistoric Maya reliance on marine resources: analysis of a midden from Moho Cay, Belize.
Jour. Field Archaeol. 11(1): 25-35.
x
 
McKillop, Heather I. (detail)
   
1985
Prehistoric exploitation of the manatee in the Maya and circum-Caribbean areas.
World Archaeology 16(3): 337-353. 7 figs. Feb. 1985.
–Reviews historical, ethnographic, and archaeological records of manatee exploitation in the Caribbean; discusses the manatee remains found at Moho Cay, Belize, and other Mayan sites; illustrates manatee-bone carvings from Moho Cay; and offers generalizations about patterns of marine and terrestrial resource exploitation in the region.
McLachlan, Michael S.: SEE ALSO Haynes et al., 1999; Muller et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
McLachlan, Michael S.; Haynes, David; Muller, Jochen F. (detail)
   
2001
PCDDs in the water/sediment-seagrass-dugong (Dugong dugon) food chain on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).
Envir. Pollut. 113(2): 129-134.
x
 
McLaren, Suzanne B.; Schlitter, Duane A.; Genoways, Hugh H. (detail)
   
1986
Catalog of the Recent marine mammals in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
Ann. Carnegie Mus. 55(11): 237-296. Nov. 7, 1986.
–Lists 2 T. inunguis from Brazil, 26 T. manatus latirostris from Florida, and 1 T. senegalensis from Cameroun in the Carnegie Museum collection (293-296).
 
 
McLarty, Mindy J.; Gonzalez-Socoloske, Daniel; Alvarez Alemán, Anmari; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. (detail)
   
2019
Manatee habitat characterization using side-scan sonar.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 100(1): 173-179. 3 tabs. 7 figs. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315419000973 Feb. 2020
–ABSTRACT: Identifying benthic substrates is important to researchers studying aquatic organisms in fresh and salt water systems. Benthic substrates are often not visible from the surface making it necessary to find another method to gather these data. Previous research has demonstrated that low cost side-scan sonar is a reliable way to identify hard substrates, such as rock and gravel, in a small, freshwater stream. In this study, the reliability of the side-scan sonar to accurately identify softer substrates such as grass and mud was tested in a large, brackish lagoon system. A total area of 11.55 km ² was surveyed with the sonar. Videos and pictures were taken at various points to groundtruth the sonar images and provide a measure of accuracy. Five substrate types were identified: dense seagrass, sparse seagrass, mangrove soil, mangrove soil with rock, and silt. Unidentifiable substrates were classified as unknown. A manually zoned benthic substrate map was created from the sonar recordings. Dense seagrass was most accurately identified. Sparse seagrass was the least accurately identified. A bathymetric map was also created from the sonar recordings.
McLellan, William A.: SEE Kipps et al., 2002; Rommel et al., 2001. (detail)
McLeod, Samuel A.: SEE ALSO Domning, D.P., 1994b. (detail)
 
D
McLeod, Samuel A.; Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
1984
Fossil desmostylians.
Mem. Nat. Hist. Foundation of Orange County (California) 1: 39-44. 6 figs. Jan. 1, 1984.
McMillan, K.: SEE Barile et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
McNally, Robert (detail)
   
1984
The short, unhappy saga of Steller's sea cow.
Sea Frontiers 30(3): 168-172. 4 figs. May-June 1984.
–Pop. acc. of Hydrodamalis and the Bering expedition.
 
 
McNerney, B. B. (detail)
   
1982
Birth of a manatee: an eyewitness account.
Oceans 15(6): 12. Nov.-Dec. 1982.
–Describes the birth of a wild manatee in the Tomoka R., Florida.
 
 
McNiven, Ian J. (detail)
   
2013
Ritualized middening practices.
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20(4): 552-587. 12 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s10816-012-9130-y. Dec. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Practice theory focuses attention on agency and the generative dimensions of sites and material culture in terms of social formation and reproduction. This approach is applied to the ritualization of midden deposits by Torres Strait Islanders of northeast Australia. Ritualization of middens was achieved by three depositional strategies of privileged differentiation: referencing of mortuary remains, discrimination of animal bones and mounding of deposits. In addition, ritualized middens were spatially separated into small residential mounds and large communal feasting mounds. Ritualized middening was part of a broader social process of maintaining the biographical status of midden materials as a dimension of community socialization, identity and cohesion.
 
 
McNiven, Ian J.; Bedingfield, Alice C. (detail)
   
2008
Past and present marine mammal hunting rates and abundances: dugong (Dugong dugon) evidence from Dabangai Bone Mound, Torres Strait.
Jour. Archaeol. Science 35: 505-515. 3 tabs. 9 figs.
 
 
McNiven, Ian J.; Feldman, R. (detail)
   
2003
Ritually orchestrated seascapes: bone mounds and dugong hunting magic in Torres Strait, NE Australia.
Cambriidge Archaeological Journal 13: 169-194.
 
 
McNulty, Faith (detail)
   
1979
Manatees.
New Yorker 55(2): 83-89. 1 fig. Feb. 26, 1979.
–Repr. in The wildlife stories of Faith McNulty, Garden City (New York), Doubleday & Co. (470 pp.): 49-57, 1980.
McPherson, G.: SEE Gribble et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
McSpadden, J. (detail)
   
1947
Animals of the world.
Garden City (New York), Garden City Publ. Co.: 1-345.
 
 
McTurk, William H. (detail)
   
1960
Stories of the manatees.
Jour. Brit. Guiana Mus. & Zoo No. 26: 34. June 1960.
–Material in No. 23 also? Stories of people killed by manatees' upsetting canoes.
Mead, James G.: SEE ALSO Allen, J.A., 1882; Marine Mammal Commission, 1986. (detail)
x
 
Mead, James G. (detail)
   
1983
Ri or dugong? (Comment on Wagner [1982])
Cryptozoology 2: 161-162. Winter 1983.
–Concludes that the "ri" of New Ireland is not a porpoise, and suggests some sorts of evidence that would help determine whether it is a dugong.
 
 
Meares, J. (detail)
   
1790
Voyages made in the years 1788 and 1789 from China to the north west coast of America: to which are prefixed an introductory narrative of a voyage performed in 1786 from Bengal in the ship Nootka, observations on the probable existence of a north west passage, and some account of the trade between the north west coast of America and China, and the latter country and Great Britain.
–Mentions sea cows on the coast of western Canada?
 
 
Meckel, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1806
Abhandlungen aus der menschlichen und vergleichenden Anatomie und Physiologie.
Halle, Hemmerde & Schwetschke: 1-381.
–Describes the thymus in a manatee fetus.
 
 
Meckel, Johann Friedrich (detail)
   
1825
System der vergleichenden Anatomie. 2. Theil.
Halle, Renger: 1. Abt. (1824): x + 542; 2. Abt. (1825): x + 638.
 
 
Medeiros, Aury Felix de (detail)
   
1972
Couros e peles silvestres.
Rio de Janeiro, ?publ. by the author: 1-40.
 
 
Medem, F. (detail)
   
1968
Caza - exterminación de nuestra fauna.
Revista Pispesca (Bogotá) No. 17: 12-14.
Meduna, A. J.: SEE Osakwe et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Medway, Lord (detail)
   
1965
Mammals of Borneo: field keys and an annotated checklist.
Jour. Malayan Branch, Roy. Asiatic Soc. 36(3)(203): xiv + 193. 5 tabs. Frontisp. 9 figs. 34 pls. 1 map.
–Reports dugong specimens from Sandakan and Kotawaringin; discusses their local distribution and exploitation (154).
 
 
Medway, William; Geraci, Joseph R. (detail)
   
1986
Clinical pathology of marine mammals. In: M. F. Fowler (ed.), Zoo and wild animal medicine. 2nd. revised ed.
Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders (xxiv + 1127): 791-797. Illus.
x
 
Medway, William; Bruss, M. L.; Bengtson, John L.; Black, D. J. (detail)
   
1982
Blood chemistry of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 18(2): 229-234. 3 tabs. Apr. 1982.
–Blood of 8 wild manatees from Blue Spring, Florida, and 2 captives was similar to samples analyzed by White et al. (1976), but with increased anion gaps, protein, and albumin/globulin ratios. Some values were probably affected by the animals' struggling. A narrow range of serum osmolality may reflect the Blue Spring population's freshwater habitat.
x
 
Medway, William; Dodds, W. Jean; Moynihan, Ann C.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1982
Blood coagulation of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Cornell Veter. 72(2): 120-127. 4 tabs. Apr. 1982.
–Blood samples from 10 Florida manatees showed the presence of clotting factor XII; intrinsic system activities were much higher and extrinsic activities lower than those of the dog; and factor X activity was about the same as in the dog.
x
 
Medway, William; Rathbun, Galen B.; Black, D. J. (detail)
   
1982
Hematology of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Veter. Clin. Pathol. 11(2): 11-15. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Hemograms on blood of 10 Florida manatees showed that the red cells were large and fewer in number than in most land mammals; neutrophils and reticulocytes were absent; eosinophils were hard to distinguish from heterophils; large and small lymphocytes, monocytes, and basophils were present; and the total numbers of white cells and platelets were comparable to those in common domestic mammals.
x
 
Meek, Charles Kingsley (detail)
   
1931
A Sudanese kingdom: an ethnographical study of the Jukun-speaking peoples of Nigeria.
London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.: xxxiv + 548. Numerous figs. 64 pls. 2 maps.
–Lists clans having manatee taboos, and mentions a couple of manatee myths and superstitions (76-78); gives the formula for a virility charm made from a manatee penis (304).
Meelis, E.: SEE De Iongh et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Megasthenes (detail)
   
1877
Indika. In: Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian. Translated and edited by J. W. McCrindle.
Calcutta & Bombay, Thacker, Spink: 30-174.
–P. 55 (RE: "monsters of the deep" in the sea around the island of Taprobane=Ceylon): {"Others are in appearance like women, but, instead of having locks of hair, are furnished with prickles."}
  This account of the island of Ceylon by the Greek ambassador and historian Megasthenes (ca. 350-290 B.C.E.) was preserved by the Roman author Aelian (Claudius Aelianus; ca. 175-ca. 235 C.E.) in his De Natura Animalium, Book 16, chapter 18). The quoted passage (from Indika, Fragm. LIX, 34, "Of the beasts of India") is taken to refer to the dugong with its "prickly" vibrissae. This appears to be the earliest reference to the dugong, or any sirenian, in European literature.
 
 
Meggers, Betty J. (detail)
   
1971
Amazonia: man and culture in a counterfeit paradise.
Chicago & New York, Aldine-Atherton: ix + 182.
–Manatees, 25, 33-35, 127, 134, 154, 176.
x
 
Meggers, Betty J. (detail)
   
1977
Estéril Amazônia.
Veja No. 456: 48-49. 2 figs. June 1, 1977.
–In Portuguese. A magazine interview in which she urges the raising of manatees in Amazonia as an alternative to cattle raising (49).
x
 
Meggers, Betty J.; Evans, Clifford (detail)
   
1957
Archeological investigations at the mouth of the Amazon.
Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 167: xxviii + 664. 112 pls.
–P. 570: {"According to La Barre (1666, p. 14), the Aracaret and Palicour hunted the manatee with a harpoon and traded their catch to the French, English, and Dutch."}
 
 
Meinertz, Th. (detail)
   
1956
Beitrag zur Kenntniss vom Bau des Magens beim Dugong.
Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 97: 202-219. 12 figs.
 
 
Meinertz, Th. (detail)
   
1969
Eine vergleichende Untersuchung über die Säugetiere besonders im Hinblick auf die Nierentypen, das Nierenbecken und die Verzweigungen der grosseren Gefässe.
Gegenbaurs Morph. Jahrb. 113(1): 78-146.
 
 
Meirelles, A. C. O. de (detail)
   
2008
Mortality of the Antillean manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Ceará State, north-eastern Brazil.
Jour. Marine Biol. Assoc. United Kingdom 88: 1133-1137.
 
 
Meirelles, A. C. Oliveira de; dos Santos, Lima D.; de Oliveira Alves, M. D.; Borges, J. C. Gomes; Marmontel, M.; Carvalho, V. L.; Rodrigues dos Santos, F. (detail)
   
2022
Don't let me down: West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus, is still Critically Endangered in Brazil.
Journal for Nature Conservation 67: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2022.126169
Meisner, René A.: SEE Bossart, Meisner et al., 2003; Falcón et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Mekayev, Yu. A. (detail)
   
2002
The faunogenesis and classification of mammals.
St. Petersburg, Petrov's Acad. Scis. & Arts: 1-895.
 
D
Mel'nikov, O. A.; Shustov, L. N. (detail)
   
1969
O novoĭ nakhodke ostatkov kosteĭ drevnikh krupnykh pozvonochnykh na Sakhaline. [On a new finding of bone remains of ancient large vertebrates in Sakhalin.]
Akad. Nauk SSSR, Sibirsk. Otd., Sakhalinsk. Kompleks. Nauch.-Issled. Inst., Trudy 21: 41-43. 3 figs.
 
 
Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Reid, James P.; Gittens, Lester; Adimey, Nicole M.; Dillet, Jared Z. (detail)
   
2011
Observations and relocation of a West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) off Bimini, The Bahamas.
Aquatic Mammals 37(4):502-505. 1 fig. (DOI 10.1578/AM.37.4.2011.502)
–Abstract: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are uncommon in the Bahamas, including in Bimini where only three sightings have been reported in the last century. The close proximity of the Bahamas to the United States necessitates cooperation on many issues, including the management of protected or listed marine mammals. An adult male manatee was observed and monitored from 28 November 2008 to 24 January 2009, enabling us to present details on this rare occurrence and the subsequent bi-national management of this errant individual. TBH-02 "Harold" (aka "Kodi") was radio tagged with an Argos-linked GPS tag and monitored for 41 days. Observations and photo documentation revealed the animal to be in good body condition. Despite five distinctive scar patterns, no match to previously photo-cataloged Florida or Bahamian manatees was possible. Frequent daily GPS tag location fixes were associated with local resources including foraging and resting areas within the North Bimini harbor, and periodic trips to seagrass beds and canals of South Bimini. Despite his frequent visits to specific sites, adequate freshwater sources for drinking could not be identified. His tolerance for human presence, multiple propeller markings, close proximity to peninsular Florida, and preliminary genetic analyses strongly suggested an association with the Florida subspecies Trichechus manatus latirostris. Based on evidence of a Florida origin, the rare occurrence of manatees in Bimini and an apparent absence of conspecifics and reliable natural fresh water, the Bahamas Department of Marine Resources and US Fish and Wildlife Service arranged capture and transport to Florida. The US Coast Guard, Miami Seaquarium and local volunteers conducted the capture and transport. Assessed to be in good health, after a brief rehabilitation, he was radio tagged and released in Crystal River, Florida. This process marks successful marine mammal stranding cooperation between individuals, private businesses and government agencies in two countries.
 
 
Mellett, James S. (detail)
   
1982
Body size, diet, and scaling factors in large carnivores and herbivores.
Proc. North Amer. Pal. Conv. 3: 371-376.
 
 
Mello-Leitão, Candido Firmino de (detail)
   
1947
Zoogeografia do Brasil.
Rio de Janeiro, Comp. Editôra Nac.: 1-649.
Mellors, J. E.: SEE Lee Long et al., 1993. (detail)
 
 
Mellors, J.; Waycott, Michelle; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2005
Variation in biogeochemical parameters across intertidal seagrass meadows in the central Great Barrier Reef region.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 51: 335-342.
Melo Carvalho, José Cândido de: SEE Carvalho, José Cândido de Melo. (detail)
 
 
Melville, Herman (detail)
   
1851
Moby-Dick; or, the whale.
New York, Harper & Bros.: xxiii + 634.
–A footnote to Chap. 32 ("Cetology") reads as follows: {"I am aware that down to the present time, the fish styled Lamatins [sic] and Dugongs (Pig-fish and Sow-fish of the Coffins of Nantucket) are included by many naturalists among the whales. But as these pig-fish are a nosy, contemptible set, mostly lurking in the mouths of rivers, and feeding on wet hay, and especially as they do not spout, I deny their credentials as whales; and have presented them with their passports to quit the Kingdom of Cetology."} But then, that is a Kingdom they never wished to enter in the first place!
x
 
Melville, Richard V. (detail)
   
1985
Opinion 1320: Hydrodamalis Retzius, 1794 and Manatus inunguis Natterer in Pelzeln, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia): conserved.
Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 42(2): 175-176. June 1985.
–Pursuant to the petitions of Domning (1981c), Hydrodamalis, (Manati) gigas, and (Manatus) inunguis are placed on the Official Lists of Names in Zoology, and Manati and (Manatus) exunguis are placed on the Official Indexes of Rejected and Invalid Names.
 
 
Mendes, Amando (detail)
   
1938
As pescarias amazonicas e a piscicultura no Brasil (notas e sugestões).
São Paulo, Livr. Editora Record: 1-181. Pls.
–Manatees, 21, 24-25, 34, 47-53, 75-81, 109-111, 173; pls. facing 30 & 46.
x
 
Mendes, Amando (detail)
   
1948
Vamos criar o peixe-boi na represa de Santo Amaro?
Chácaras e Quintais (São Paulo) 78(3): 325-327. 3 figs. Sept. 15, 1948.
–Pop. acc. of hunting Amazonian manatees (called T. manatus) with harpoons and nets, and the use of their meat, oil, and hides. Repeats his earlier suggestion (Mendes, 1938) that manatees be raised commercially.
 
 
Méndez, Eustorgio (detail)
   
1970
Los principales mamíferos silvestres de Panamá.
Panama, privately published: 1-283. Illus.
–Manatees, 227-230.
Méndez-Matos, Irma: SEE Jiménez-Marrero et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Mendonça, Marcos A.; Santos, Marcone L.; Barral, Thiago D.; Attademo, Fernanda L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Meyer, Roberto; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M.; Portela, Ricardo D. (detail)
   
2019
Affinity of Staphylococcal a and Streptococcal G proteins to West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) immunoglobulins.
Jour. Wildlife Diseases 55(2): 421-424. doi.org/10.7589/2018-02-061 Apr. 9, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies that inhabits coastal areas of Central and South America, has been listed as a vulnerable species because of the rapid decline in its population. Commercially available immunologic reagents specific for sirenians are lacking, limiting the development of sensitive immunodiagnostic assays. We observed the affinity of the microbial proteins A and G to T. m. manatus immunoglobulins. Manatee serum pools were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the affinity intensity followed by western blotting to confirm the specific binding of proteins A and G to immunoglobulins. The ELISA demonstrated maximum affinity of both proteins until the serum dilution of 1:12,800, with a similar affinity for both proteins. Because both A and G proteins exhibited affinity to manatee immunoglobulins, they can be used to develop sensitive immunodiagnostic assays for this species, contributing to manatee conversation procedures.
x
 
Ménégaux, A. (detail)
   
1918
Élevage possible des lamantins comme animaux de boucherie.
C.R. Séanc. Acad. Agric. France 4(24): 698-705. Séance of July 3, 1918.
–Summ.: Bull. Internatl. Inst. Agric., Rome? Abridged transl. in Beal (1939). Discusses the potential for raising manatees for meat and other products, especially in West Africa. Concludes with some comments by Jean Dybowski (704-705).
Menon, Gopinathan K.: SEE Elias et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Mercadillo-Elguero, Maria Isabel; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana (detail)
   
2008
Behavioral patterns of a manatee in semi-captivity: implications for its adaptation to the wild.
Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 7(2): 31-41. 2 tabs. 6 figs. https://www.academia.edu/15454572/Behavioralpatternsofamanateeinsemicaptivityimplicationsforitsadaptationtothewild?emailworkcard=view-paper
–ABSTRACT: Rehabilitation of orphaned endangered Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) enhances in situ conservation. We investigated the behavior of a five year-old male manatee rescued in Quintana Roo (Mexico) in relation to its failed rehabilitation. This is a unique case of a semi-captive manatee in the Caribbean, and the first endeavor to release a rehabilitated orphan in Mexico. Through 134 hours of direct and ad libitum observations, we described the manatee's behavior and assessed his behavioral time budget. The frequency of states was determined by instantaneous sampling, while the frequency of events was defined by the number of events per time unit. We designed an ethogram of 105 behaviors (56 states and 49 events), distributed in six behavioral categories. Compared with previous catalogs designed for manatees, the subject displayed 43 new behaviors (24 states and 19 events). The manatee showed indications of a daily rhythm; the animal consistently performed displacement behaviors in daytime hours, while engaged in comfort behaviors mainly at night. The use of space depended on the behavioral category and the time of day. The manatee showed dietary preference for the food provided by the caretakers, and virtually no consumption of native aquatic plants. This inadequate feeding behavior, along with a strong attachment with people, made the individual completely dependent on human care. Therefore, despite being free to explore natural areas, the animal remained close to the facilities after release. Future recommendations on the management of rescued manatees are discussed.
x
 
Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Murphy, William J.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Springer, Mark S. (detail)
   
2009
Molecular decay of the tooth gene enamelin (ENAM) mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals.
PLoS Genetics 5(9): 1-12. 6 figs. e1000634. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000634 Sept. 4, 2009.
–Includes Dugong dugon in cladogram (fig. 1, p. 3), showing that its enamelin gene is not degenerate (despite the vestigial state of its tooth enamel). Sirs. are not mentioned in the text.
Mergner, W.: SEE Kaiser et al., 1981. (detail)
Merill, E. D.: SEE Dickerson et al., 1928. (detail)
Merola, Donato: SEE Bianucci et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Merolla Da Sorrento, Jerom (detail)
   
1814
A voyage to Congo, and several other countries, chiefly in southern Africk. In: J. Pinkerton (ed.), A general collection of ... voyages and travels ....
London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown and Cadell & Davies: Vol. 16: 195-316.
–Transl. from Italian; repr. from Churchill's collection of voyages, vol. 1, p. 521ff. An account of a voyage made in 1682, including a story of manlike "sea-monsters" (210) and a somewhat more credible description of "water-monsters" said to live in a lake at the source of the river Zaire, as well as the "mermaid" which lives throughout the course of the Zaire (216-217). Both these latter possibly, and the "mermaid" certainly, are to be identified as manatees; the description of the "mermaid", being at least in part first-hand, is fairly accurate.
x
D
Merriam, John C. (detail)
   
1906
On the occurrence of Desmostylus, Marsh.
Science 24(605): 151-152.
–Discusses earlier finds, and two new ones in San Luis Obispo and Orange Counties, California. Comments on the paleoecology of Desmostylus and concludes that it was aquatic and hence probably a sir. rather than a proboscidean.
x
D
Merriam, John C. (detail)
   
1911
Notes on the genus Desmostylus Marsh.
Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. California 6(18): 403-412. 11 figs. Nov. 1, 1911.
–Summarizes the knowledge of Desmostylus to date; concludes that it is Miocene in age and a sir., though possibly of a new family. States (404) that the type locality of the genus is in Contra Costa County, California, not Alameda Co. as stated by Marsh (1888).
 
D
Merriam, John C. (detail)
   
1915
Tertiary vertebrate faunas of the North Coalinga region of California. A contribution to the study of palaeontologic correlation in the Great Basin and Pacific Coast provinces.
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (2)22: 191-234. 49 figs.
–Desmostylians, 196, 208.
 
 
Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol V.; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2014
Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 87(3): 601-615. 5 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12248. Mar. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.
x
 
Mertens, Robert (detail)
   
1925
Verzeichnis der Säugetier-Typen des Senckenbergischen Museums.
Senckenbergiana 7(1/2): 18-37. Feb. 12, 1925.
–Lists Senckenberg Museum no. 1510, the skin and skeleton of a female dugong from Noura Is., Dahalak Archipelago, Red Sea, as the type specimen of Halicore tabernaculi Rüppell (30).
 
 
Méry, Sophie; Charpentier, V.; Auxiette, G.; Pelle, E. (detail)
   
2009
A dugong bone mound: the Neolithic ritual site on Akab in Umm al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates.
Antiquity 83(321): 696-708. 1 tab. 5 figs. Sept. 2009.
 
 
Meshida, Keiko; Lin, Stephen; Domning, Daryl Paul; Reidenberg, Joy S.; Wang, Paul C.; Gilland, Edwin (detail)
   
2022
The unique rectus extraocular muscles of cetaceans: Homologies and possible functions.
Jour. Anatomy 240(6): 1075-1094. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13628 Jan. 19, 2022.
–Includes comparisons with muscles of Trichechus manatus latirostris.
 
 
Meshida, Keiko; Lin, Stephen; Domning, Daryl Paul; Wang, Paul; Gilland, Edwin (detail)
   
2021
The oblique extraocular muscles in cetaceans: Overall architecture and accessory insertions.
Journal of Anatomy 238(4): 917-941. 3 tabs. 8 figs. + online supplementary information. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13347 April 2021.
–ABSTRACT: The oblique extraocular muscles (EOMs) were dissected in 19 cetacean species and 10 non-cetacean mammalian species. Both superior oblique (SO) and inferior oblique (IO) muscles in cetaceans are well developed in comparison to out-groups and have unique anatomical features likely related to cetacean orbital configurations, swimming mechanics, and visual behaviors. Cetacean oblique muscles originate at skeletal locations typical for mammals: SO, from a common tendinous cone surrounding the optic nerve and from the medially adjacent bone surface at the orbital apex; IO, from the maxilla adjacent to lacrimal and frontal bones. However, because of the unusual orbital geometry in cetaceans, the paths and relations of SO and IO running toward their insertions onto the temporal ocular sclera are more elaborate than in humans and most other mammals. The proximal part of the SO extends from its origin at the apex along the dorsomedial aspect of the orbital contents to a strong fascial connection proximal to the preorbital process of the frontal bone, likely the cetacean homolog of the typical mammalian trochlea. However, the SO does not turn at this connection but continues onward, still a fleshy cylinder, until turning sharply as it passes through the external circular muscle (ECM) and parts of the palpebral belly of the superior rectus muscle. Upon departing this "functional trochlea" the SO forms a primary scle-ral insertion and multiple accessory insertions (AIs) onto adjacent EOM tendons and fascial structures. The primary SO scleral insertions are broad and muscular in most cetacean species examined, while in the mysticete minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) the muscular SO bellies transition into broad fibrous tendons of insertion. The IO in cetaceans originates from an elongated fleshy attachment oriented laterally on the maxilla and continues laterally as a tubular belly before turning caudally at a sharp bend where it is constrained by the ECM and parts of the inferior rectus which form a functional trochlea as with the SO. The IO continues to a fleshy primary insertion on the temporal sclera but, as with SO, also has multiple AIs onto adjacent rectus tendons and connective tissue. The multiple IO insertions were particularly well developed in pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), minke whale and fin whale. AIs of both SO and IO muscles onto multiple structures as seen in cetaceans have been described in humans and domesticated mammals.
  Also contains comparative data on the Florida manatee.
 
 
Meunier, Stanislas (detail)
   
1903
Le rôle des êtres vivants dans la physiologie générale de la terre.
Rev. Scient. (Paris) (4)20: 769-779.
–Sirs., 772.
Meyer, Grant E.: SEE Raza et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1832
Palaeologica zur Geschichte der Erde und ihrer Geschöpfe.
Frankfurt am Main, Siegmund Schmerber: xii + 560.
–Allen 779. Extracts: Mag. Nat. Hist. (n.s.) 1: 281-293, 341-353, 1837? Manatus fossilis, 98; 410?
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1837
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, Dec. 4, 1837.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 8: 674-677.
–Gives the name Manatus Studeri (nomen nudum) to a skull fragment from the Molassen-Sandstein (Burdigalian, Lower Miocene) of Mäggenwyl bei Lenzburg, Canton Aargau, Switzerland (677).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1838
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, Sept. 18, 1838.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1838: 667-669.
–Allen 939. Considers Halicore Cuvieri de Christol, Hippopotamus medius and H. dubius Cuvier, and Manatus Studeri von Meyer to be synonymous, and proposes for them the new generic name Halianassa in the combination Halianassa Studeri (667).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1839a
Die fossilen Säugethiere, Reptilien und Vögel aus den Molasse-Gebilden der Schweitz.
Neues. Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1839: 1-9.
–Allen 968. ?Repr.: Verh. Schweiz. Ges. Natw. 23: 60-71, 1838? Lists Halianassa Studeri and "Ein noch nicht näher anzugebendes Genus" from Mäggenwyl, Canton Aargau, Switzerland (4).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1839b
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, Dec. 1, 1838.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1839: 76-79.
–Allen 967. Considers Pugmeodon Schinzii and Halytherium referable to Halianassa Studeri; mentions a single-rooted premolar like the holotype of Pugmeodon from the "Molasse von Lörrach", Germany (77).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1840a
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, June 26, 1840.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1840: 576-587.
–Allen 1000. Mentions the acquisition of additional material of Halianassa (587).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1840b
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, July 23, 1840.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1840: 587-588.
–Allen 1001. Considers Cheirotherium subapenninum Bruno synonymous with Halianassa von Meyer, Halitherium Kaup, and Halicore Cuvierii de Christol (587).
 
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1842
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, Nov. 23, 1841.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1842: 99-102.
–Reports a humerus of Metaxytherium from Baltringen, Germany (101).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1843
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, July 20, 1843.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1843: 698-704.
–Mentions skull fragments of "Halianassa" from Flonheim, Germany (702), and considers Halitherium Christoli Fitzinger likewise referable to Halianassa (704).
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1846
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, Feb. 26, 1846.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1846: 327-328.
–Synonymizes Pugmeodon Schinzi (= Manatus Schinzi) with his Halianassa Collinii (328). This was apparently the first use of the latter name, which was based on unspecified material from Flonheim, Germany.
x
 
Meyer, Hermann von (detail)
   
1847
[Letter to H. G. Bronn, Jan. 4, 1847.]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geogn. Geol. Pet. 1847: 181-196.
–Reports a Metaxytherium-like humerus from the "Molasse von Otmarsingen", Switzerland, and a parietal and scapula of Halianassa Collinii from Linz, Austria (189-190).
 
 
Meyer, Wynn K.; Jamison, Jerrica; Richter, Rebecca; Woods, Stacy E.; Partha, Raghavendran; Kowalczyk, Amanda; Kronk, Charles; Chikina, Maria; Bonde, Robert K.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaspard, Joseph; Lanyon, Janet M.; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E.; Clark, Nathan L. (detail)
   
2018
Ancient convergent losses of Paraoxonase 1 yield potential risks for modern marine mammals.
Science 361(6402): 591-592. doi:10.1126/science.aap7714. Aug. 10, 2018.
Michael, M. A.: SEE Waxell, S., 1962. (detail)
 
 
Michaelis, Johann David (detail)
   
1762
Fragen an eine Gesellschaft gelehrter Männer, die auf Befehl Ihro Majestät des Königes von Dännemark nach Arabien reisen.
Frankfurt am Mayn, Johann Gottlieb Garbe. [70] + 397.
–Poses a series of questions for the explorers of Arabia to investigate. Question 8 of the Instruction directs their attention particularly to the philology of words in the Bible pertaining to natural history. The meaning of the Hebrew word tachash (Ezekiel 16:10), and related comments on sirs., are addressed in Question 37 (pp. 112-118).
x
 
Michelson, R. C. (detail)
   
1982
Tracking of the Florida manatee.
ISA Trans. (Instrument Soc. Amer.) 21(1): 79-85. 5 figs.
–Discusses the technical problems associated with automated remote tracking of manatees in the Banana R.-Indian R. area, and recommends a VHF time-of-arrival radiotracking system with time-segmented identification.
x
 
Micklich, Norbert; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H. (detail)
   
2010
Emergency excavation in the Grube Unterfeld (Frauenweiler) clay pit ((Oligocene, Rupelian; Baden-Württemberg, S Germany): new records and palaeonvironmental information.
Kaupia: Darmstädter Beitr. Naturgesch. 17: 3-21. 1 tab. 11 figs. Dec. 17, 2010.
–German summ. Reports the recovery of a complete skeleton of cf. Halitherium schinzii (3, 13, 18, 19).
Micloucho-Maclay, N. de: SEE Miklouho-Maclay, N. de. (detail)
 
 
Middendorf, Alexander Theodor von (detail)
   
1847-75
Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens während der Jahre 1843 und 1844.
St. Petersburg (4 vols. in 5 + atlas): 1-841.
–Sirs., 4(2): 841.
 
 
Migeod, Frederick William Hugh (detail)
   
1924
Through Nigeria to Lake Chad.
London, Heath Cranton Ltd.: 1-330. 11 figs. 38 pls. 2 maps.
–Sirs., 147, 167.
 
 
Migeod, Frederick William Hugh (detail)
   
1926
A view of Sierra Leone.
London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co. Ltd.
–Repr.: New York, Negro Universities Press, 1970. Manatee in Lake Mabesi, 154.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Cabrias-Contreras, L. J.; Dennis, M. M.; Escobar-Torres, S. M.; Ghim, S.; Howerth, E. W.; Landrau-Giovannetti, N.; Rivera-Guzmán, A. L.; Rivera-Pérez, C. I.; Joh J. J. (detail)
   
2022
Characterization of a novel papillovirus from free-ranging Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus with genital papillomatosis.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 149: 1-10. doi.org/10.3354/dao03656
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A,; Iglesias-Escabi, Chabeli; Rosario-Delestre, Raúl J.; Alsina-Guerrero, Mayela (detail)
   
2018
Variación en la distribución del manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus manatus) en la costa sur de Puerto Rico a través de censos aéreos en helicóptero. [Variation in the distribution of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the southern coast of Puerto Rico through helicopter aerial surveys.]
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 10(1): 97-121. 4 tabs. 7 figs. DOI: 10.15359/revmar.10-1.6
–RESUMO: El manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus manatus) está en peligro de extinción debido a actividades antrópicas, las cuales afectan tanto su salud como el uso de hábitats requeridos para su supervivencia. El presente estudio detalla la distribución espacial y uso de hábitat del manatí en la costa sur de Puerto Rico al hacer censos aéreos en helicóptero y relacionarlos con aspectos zoogeográficos, ambientales y oceanográficas. Se realizaron 33 censos aéreos en helicóptero, paralelos a la costa sur, desde el año 2001 al año 2015. Hubo un total de 488 avistamientos y 914 individuos, lo cual representa 13 manatíes por hora de esfuerzo y 12.4% de crías. No se encontró que factores de temporada, temperatura superficial del mar o las corrientes afecten su presencia. El uso de recursos de agua dulce y praderas de yerbas no presentó estadísticamente una relación, pero si es claro que son parte de su naturaleza y necesarios para su sobrevivencia. Sin embargo, la profundidad y el grado de protección que ofrecen las bahías si es determinante para predecir la presencia de manatíes. Un marcado incremento en el número de manatíes por hora de esfuerzo entre el año 2007 y año 2015 representa un posible aumento poblacional. Dado que la supervivencia de los manatíes en Puerto Rico está amenazada por diferentes factores naturales y antrópicos, este estudio, junto a los de telemetría y uso de hábitat, deben ayudar a designar en el futuro áreas protegidas críticas para su supervivencia.
 ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is endangered due to anthropogenic activities, which affect both the manatee's health and use of habitats required for their survival. The spatial distribution and use of the manatee habitat on the southern coast of Puerto Rico was obtained using helicopter aerial surveys and was related to zoogeographic, environmental and oceanographic factors. A total of 33 surveys were conducted along the southern coast from 2001 to 2015. There was a total of 488 sightings and 914 individuals, which represents 13 manatees per hour of effort, 12.4% being calves. No correlation was found between their presence and seasons, sea surface temperature, or currents. The use of freshwater and seagrass bed resources did not present a statistical relationship, but it is clear that they are part of their nature and necessary for their survival. However, the depth and degree of protection offered by the bays is decisive to predict the presence of manatees. A marked increase in the number of manatees per hour of effort between 2007 and 2015 represents a possible population growth. Given that the survival of manatees in Puerto Rico is threatened by different natural and anthropogenic factors, this study, together with studies on telemetry and habitat use, should help designate future protected areas critical for their survival.
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.: SEE ALSO Falcón et al., 2003; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Jiménez-Marrero et al., 1998; Montoya et al., 2001; Morales-V. et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
1990
Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico: urgent need for assessment and preventive action.
Whalewatcher 24(1): 10-12.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
1998
Marine mammal captivity in the northeastern Caribbean, with notes on the rehabilitation of stranded whales, dolphins, and manatees.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 34(3-4): 191-203.
–Spanish summ.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2010
El manatí de Puerto Rico.
San Juan, Red Caribeña de Varamientos & Univ. Interamericana de Puerto Rico: iv + 56. Illus.
–Informative children's book, well illustrated with color photos, on the natural history and conservation of TM in Puerto Rico.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
1998
The diet of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2): 394-397. 1 tab. Mar. 31, 1998.
–Stomach contents of 8 manatees included mainly Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme, with small amounts of mangroves, algae, hydroids, and ascidians.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
   
1999
Parasites and commensals of the West Indian manatee from Puerto Rico.
Jour. Helminth. Soc. Wash. 66(1): 67-69. Jan. 1999.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Velasco-Escudero, Mario (detail)
   
2003
Status of semi-captive manatees in Jamaica.
Latin Amer. Jour. Aquat. Mamms. 2(1): 7-12. 3 figs. Jan./June 2003.
–Spanish summ. Reports on the captivity of 4 female manatees in the Alligator Hole River, Jamaica, since 1981. As of June 2003, three of these were thought to still survive; their release and radiotracking is recommended.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Jiménez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2000
Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico.
Envir. Management 25(2): 189-198. Feb. 2000.
x
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Toyos-González, Gian M.; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr. (detail)
   
1997
First osteological collection of marine mammals for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 33(3-4): 288-292. 1 tab.
–Lists 32 specimens of T. manatus from Puerto Rico cataloged in the University of Puerto Rico Biology Museum, Rio Piedras Campus, and in other museums.
 
 
Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Toyos-González, Gian M.; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Rodríguez-López, Marta A.; Vega-Guerra, Monica B.; Ventura-González, Margarita (detail)
   
1999
Helminths from a stranded manatee in the Dominican Republic.
Veter. Parasitol. 81(1): 69-71. Feb. 1, 1999.
Mikhelson, Viktor M.: SEE Ozawa et al., 1997; Shoshani et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Miklouho-Maclay, N. de (= Micloucho-Maclay) (detail)
   
1886
Note on the brain of Halicore australis. Owen.
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 10(2): 193-196. Pl. 24. Read May 27, 1885.
–Account of a dissection of the brain of a dugong from Mabiak, Torres Straits.
 
 
Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, P. L.; Miller, J. H.; Tyack, P. L.; Nystuen, J. A. (detail)
   
2007
Noise level correlates with manatee use of foraging habitats.
Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 121(5): 3011-3020.
 
 
Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, P. L.; Miller, J. H.; Tyack, P. L.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2007
Simulated vessel approaches elicit differential responses from manatees.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(3): 629-649. 2 tabs. 6 figs. July 2007.
–Errata for Fig. 2: Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(4): 1001, Oct. 2007.
 
 
Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Miller, J. H. (detail)
   
2006
Transmission loss in manatee habitats.
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 120: 2320-2327.
 
 
Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Tyack, Peter L. (detail)
   
2009
Manatee (Trichechus manatus) vocalization usage in relation to environmental noise levels.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125(3): 1806-1815. DOI: 10.1121/1.3068455. Mar. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Noise can interfere with acoustic communication by masking signals that contain biologically important information. Communication theory recognizes several ways a sender can modify its acoustic signal to compensate for noise, including increasing the source level of a signal, its repetition, its duration, shifting frequency outside that of the noise band, or shifting the timing of signal emission outside of noise periods. The extent to which animals would be expected to use these compensation mechanisms depends on the benefit of successful communication, risk of failure, and the cost of compensation. Here we study whether a coastal marine mammal, the manatee, can modify vocalizations as a function of behavioral context and ambient noise level. To investigate whether and how manatees modify their vocalizations, natural vocalization usage and structure were examined in terms of vocalization rate, duration, frequency, and source level. Vocalizations were classified into two call types, chirps and squeaks, which were analyzed independently. In conditions of elevated noise levels, call rates decreased during feeding and social behaviors, and the duration of each call type was differently influenced by the presence of calves. These results suggest that ambient noise levels do have a detectable effect on manatee communication and that manatees modify their vocalizations as a function of noise in specific behavioral contexts.
 
 
Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler (detail)
   
2011
Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 27(1): 130-148. 3 tabs. 3 figs. Jan. 2011.
 
 
Milani, A.; Vialli, M. (detail)
   
1928
L'anatomia radiologica della mandibola nei mammiferi.
Ric. Morfol. 8: 323-364. 16 figs.
Millán-Sánchez, Sandra L.: SEE Montoya et al., 2001. (detail)
Miller, Bruce W.: SEE Platt et al., 2000. (detail)
Miller, Carolyn M.: SEE Platt et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Miller, D. L.; Dougherty, M. M.; Decker, Susan J.; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
2001
Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa from a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 30(4): 253-256. 4 figs. Aug. 2001.
x
 
Miller, David J.; Donovan, Stephen K. (detail)
   
1996
Geomorphology, stratigraphy and palaeontology of Wait-A-Bit Cave, central Jamaica.
Tertiary Research 17(1-2): 33-49. 4 figs. 4 pls. Nov. 1996.
–Records the presence of indet. sir. ribs, "possibly Prorastomus sirenoides", in the Early Eoc. Stettin Member, Chapelton Formation, at Wait-A-Bit Cave, Trelawny Parish (38, 46).
 
 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr. (detail)
   
1902
The mammals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 24(1269): 752.
–Mentions dugong bones found in a native hut in the Andaman Islands in 1859.
x
 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr. (detail)
   
1916
Bones of mammals from Indian sites in Cuba and Santo Domingo.
Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 66(12): 1-10. 1 pl.
–Reports bones of Trichechus sp. collected from kitchen middens at San Pedro de Macoris, Santo Domingo, by Theodoor de Booy (9).
x
 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr. (detail)
   
1918
Mammals and reptiles collected by Theodoor de Booy in the Virgin Islands.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 54(2244): 507-511. Pl. 81. Oct. 15, 1918.
–Reports bones of T. manatus collected from a midden near the mouth of the Salt River, St. Croix, in 1917 (509).
 
 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr. (detail)
   
1924
List of North American Recent mammals.
U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 128: xvi + 673.
–Sirs., 503.
x
 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr. (detail)
   
1929
Mammals eaten by Indians, owls, and Spaniards in the coast region of the Dominican Republic.
Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 82(5)(3030): 1-16. Pls. 1-2. Dec. 11, 1929.
–Records remains of T. manatus from three Indian village sites (11-12).
x
 
Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr.; Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1955
List of North American Recent mammals.
U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 205: xii + 954.
–Gives the synonymies, type localities, and ranges of the subspecies of T. manatus (790-791).
x
 
Miller, Johnna (detail)
   
1996
Manatees in crisis.
Quest (Washington, Smithsonian Inst., Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 5(3): 6. 1 fig. Summer 1996.
–Brief account of manatees and of a traveling exhibit of photographs of Florida manatees by Karen Glaser, "Mysterious Manatees", displayed at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (see Glaser & Reynolds, 2003).
x
 
Miller, Karl E.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Clifton, Kari P. (detail)
   
1999
An evaluation of strip-transect aerial survey methods for monitoring manatee populations in Florida.
Wildl. Soc. Bull. 26(3): 561-570. 3 tabs. 3 figs. "Fall 1998"; publ. 1999.
–Surveys of the Banana River, Florida, in 1993-94 were the first to use replicated strip-transect methods on manatees. Concludes that this protocol could detect a 5% annual rate of change in <4 years with power of 0.75 or more, and recommends that such surveys be used in the Banana River to corroborate other evidence of population trends on the east coast of Florida.
 
 
Miller, Karl E.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Clifton, Kari B. (detail)
   
1996
Use of aerial survey and aerophotogrammetry methods in monitoring manatee populations.
U.S. Department of the Interior National Biological Service (RWO-116: Aerial Survey objective): 1-45. 7 tabs. 5 figs. 2 appendices. June 1996.
 
D
Miller, Loye Holmes (detail)
   
1915
The fauna of California. In: Z. S. Eldredge (ed.), History of California.
New York, The Century History Co. (5 vols.): Vol. 5: 51-76.
–Desmostylians, 72.
x
 
Miller, Ronald R. (detail)
   
1981
The beach seiners of New Jersey.
National Fisherman 61(13): 51-53. 6 figs.
–P. 53: {"What they would find there [in "pounds" or funneled nets set ½-3 miles offshore at Long Beach Is., New Jersey] was always a surprise. There were the usual blues, stripers, weakfish, mackerel, sea bass, etc., in season, but sometimes they found huge shark, tuna, rays, sea turtles and even small manatees."}
Miller, Theophile H.: SEE Floyd et al., 1958. (detail)
x
 
Miller, W. D. (detail)
   
1894
Caries der Thierzähne.
Verh. Deutsch. Odont. Ges. 5: 15-24. 2 figs. Read Apr. 7, 1893.
–Illustrates "caries" in T. senegalensis in microscopic section, with a drawing of their associated bacteria(!). The location of these "caries" on the tooth is not specified, but a number of teeth of one dry skull are said to have had them (15-18).
x
 
Miller, William A.; Sanson, Gordon D.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1980
Molar progression in the manatee (Trichechus manatus). [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 196(3): 128A.
–Notes the presence of enlarged transseptal fibers connecting the teeth (as in kangaroos with molar progression), and suggests they play a role in manatee tooth replacement; assumes the motive force to be due to propalinal occlusion.
 
 
Millett, Marcus W. (detail)
   
1914
Jungle sport in Ceylon from elephant to snipe.
London, Methuen & Co.: xv + 267. Illus.
Millsap, Brian A.: SEE Wood et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Milne, Lorus Johnson; Milne, Margery Joan Greene (detail)
   
1982
A time to be born: an almanac of animal courtship and parenting.
San Francisco, Sierra Club Books: 1-218. Illus.
–Pop. acc. of breeding and care of young among Florida manatees (154-158, 1 fig.).
Milne, Margery Joan Greene: SEE Milne, Lorus Johnson (detail)
 
 
Milne-Edwards, Alphonse (detail)
   
1875
Nouveaux documents sur l'époque de la disparition de la faune ancienne de l'île Rodrigue.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) (6)2(4): 1-20.
–Abstr.: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)15: 436-439.
 
 
Milne-Edwards, Henri (detail)
   
1834
Élémens de zoologie, ou leçons sur l'anatomie, la physiologie, la classification et les moeurs des animaux.
Paris, Crochard: viii + 1066. Illus.
–Allen 816. Issued in 4 parts, 1834-37. "Famille des Cétacés herbivores", 471-472.
Miloche, M.: SEE Giraud-Sauveur & Miloche, 1968. (detail)
Minato, M.: SEE ALSO Desmostylus Research Committee. (detail)
 
D
Minato, M.; Matsui, Masaru; Ishii, J. (detail)
   
1957
On the stratigraphical position of the Desmostylus tooth found in Tokachi Province, Hokkaido.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 63(740): 308-316.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. The tooth is identified as Desmostylus cf. minor, possibly Oligocene in age.
x
D
Minch, John A.; Schulte, Kenneth C.; Hofman, George (detail)
   
1970
A Middle Miocene age for the Rosarito Beach Formation in northwestern Baja California, Mexico.
Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 81(10): 3149-3154. 2 figs. Oct. 1970.
–Reports "Desmostylus sp." associated with a ?Hemingfordian camelid and a diverse warm marine fauna of Middle Miocene vertebrates and invertebrates. The age of the fauna is now considered to be Barstovian.
x
D
Minkoff, Eli A. (detail)
   
1976
Mammalian superorders.
Zool. Jour. Linn. Soc. 58(2): 147-158. Mar. 1976.
–Places the Sirenia and Desmostylia in the Superorders Paenungulata and Amblypoda, respectively; suggests that desmostylians were the amblypod equivalents of sirs. (151-154).
 
 
Minnegal, Monica (detail)
   
1984a
Dugong bones from Princess Charlotte Bay.
Austral. Archaeology 18: 63-71.
x
 
Minnegal, Monica (detail)
   
1984b
A note on butchering dugong at Princess Charlotte Bay.
Austral. Archaeology No. 19: 15-20. 1 tab. Dec. 1984.
–Describes the condition of bones of 3 dugongs found at an archeological site, and speculates on butchering techniques.
Minoshima, Ai: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Miranda Neto, M. J. (detail)
   
1976
Marajó: desafio da Amazônia. Aspectos da reação a modelos exógenos de desenvolvimento.
Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo, Distribuidora Record, 1-178.
–Mentions that manatees were rare in the Marajó Island in the late 1970's: "... e o peixe-boi – muito procurado, mas já raro nas imediações de Marajó."
Miranda, Vicente Chermont de: SEE Chermont de Miranda, Vicente. (detail)
 
 
Mirzaie Ataabadi, Majid; Orak, Zahra; Paknia, M.; Alizadeh, J.M.; Gholamalian, H., Mojib, I.; Mirzaie, J.; Yazdi, M. (detail)
   
2014
First report of marine mammal remains from the Oligo–Miocene deposits of central Iran and Zagros basins. In: N. Abbassi (ed.) Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium of the Iranian Paleontological Society, University of Zanjan, 21 May 2014 (198 pp.):
124–129. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–In Persian; Engl. summ.
Mishima, Hiroyuki: SEE Kozawa et al., 1988, 1996. (detail)
Mishra, Vijay Prakash: SEE Sahni & Mishra, 1975. (detail)
x
 
Missimer, Thomas M.; Tobias, Amy E. (detail)
   
2004
Geology and paleontology of a Caloosahatchee Formation deposit near Lehigh, Florida.
Florida Scientist 67(1): 48-62. 8 figs.
–Records "cf. Dugongidae" with a Blancan (Late Pliocene) vertebrate fauna at the base of a channel deposit incised into the Tamiami Formation (m62).
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr. (detail)
   
1963
Contributions from the Los Angeles Museum-Channel Islands Biological Survey. 37. Brachydont desmostylian from Miocene of San Clemente Island, California.
Bull. So. California Acad. Sci. 62(4): 192-201. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Oct.-Dec. 1963.
–Reports teeth and bone fragments of Paleoparadoxia sp., compares them with other desmostylians, and reviews distribution records of the order. States that pachyostosis occurs in bones referred to Paleoparadoxia.
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr. (detail)
   
1964
Pachyostosis in desmostylids. [Abstr.]
Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper No. 76: 214.
–Concludes that desmostylians are pachyostotic.
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr. (detail)
   
1965
History of research at Sharktooth Hill, Kern County, California.
Spec. Publ. Kern Co. Hist. Soc.: vi + 45. 14 figs.
–Reports a tooth of Desmostylus hesperus from Sharktooth Hill (iii, 3, 7, 21, 26-29, 36).
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr. (detail)
   
1966
Faunal succession of extinct North Pacific marine mammals.
Norsk Hvalfangst-Tidende 1966(3): 47-60. 19 figs.
–Gen. acc. of desmostylians (50, 53, 56, 57, 59) and of North Pacific sirs. (56, 59, 60), with figs. of a Desmostylus tooth and humerus (56) and life restorations by Bonnie Dalzell of Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia (57), and Halianassa (59).
 
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr. (detail)
   
1978
Origins of eastern North Pacific sea mammal fauna. In: D. Haley (ed.), Marine mammals.
Seattle, Pacific Search Press (256 pp.): 13-20. 9 figs.
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr.; Lipps, Jere H. (detail)
   
1964
Miocene marine vertebrates from San Clemente Island, California. [Abstr.]
Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper No. 76: 214-215.
–Summarizes the fauna, which includes a "brachyodont desmostylid, and paenungulate aff. Desmostylia", and considers it comparable to the Sharktooth Hill fauna in age and paleoecology.
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr.; Lipps, Jere H. (detail)
   
1965
Fossil collecting on San Clemente Island.
Pacif. Discovery 18(3): 2-8. 19 figs. May-June 1965.
–Includes a brief account of desmostylians, with photos of Paleoparadoxia bones from the island and of their collection, and a restoration of the animal by C.A. Repenning (4-6).
x
D
Mitchell, Edward D., Jr.; Repenning, Charles A. (detail)
   
1963
The chronologic and geographic range of desmostylians.
Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci. No. 78: 3-20. 4 figs. Dec. 30, 1963.
–Summarizes the records of Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia, Cornwallius, Vanderhoofius, and other nominal genera of desmostylians, plus those of North Pacific sirs. Concludes that desmostylians lived in the North Pacific from the Late Oligocene to the end of the Miocene.
x
 
Mitchell, Janet (detail)
   
1973
Determination of relative age in the dugong Dugong dugon Müller from a study of skulls and teeth.
Zool. Jour. Linn. Soc. 53(1): 1-23. 10 figs. Aug. 1973.
–A study of skull, mandible, and dental variates in 41 northeastern Australian dugongs indicated the presence of three age classes, "juveniles", "adolescents", and "adults". Several of these features may reflect sexual dimorphism.
x
 
Mitchell, Janet (detail)
   
1976
Age determination in the dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller).
Biol. Conserv. 9(1): 25-28. 1 fig. Jan. 1976.
–Summary of Mitchell (1978).
x
 
Mitchell, Janet (detail)
   
1978
Incremental growth layers in the dentine of dugong incisors (Dugong dugon (Müller)) and their application to age determination.
Zool. Jour. Linn. Soc. 62: 317-348. 10 figs. 2 pls. Apr. 1978.
–Concludes from a study of Australian dugong tusks that sexual maturity is reached at about 10 growth layers (= 5 or 10 years of age) and that the life span is just under either 30 or 60 years. Tooth succession in the upper jaw is correlated with number of growth layers in the tusks.
x
 
Mitchell, Janet (detail)
   
1981
The coincidence between a distinct accessory groove in young dugong teeth and a tropical cyclone.
Biol. Conserv. 20(2): 99-109. 1 tab. 3 figs. June 1981.
–Analyzes the annual layers in the tusks of 4 young Queensland dugongs, discusses the formation and identification of neonatal lines and other types of layering, and shows that a growth disturbance coincided with a cyclone in January 1965.
x
 
Mitchell, P. Chalmers (detail)
   
1905
On the intestinal tract of mammals.
Trans. Zool. Soc. London 17(5): 437-536. 50 figs. Dec. 1905 (read June 6, 1905).
–Describes the intestine and cecum of T. inunguis and compares them with those of other sirs., other mammals, and birds (464-465, 516, 523, 525, 530). Concludes that with regard to the intestinal tract, the Sirenia, Hyracoidea, and Proboscidea are linked only by shared primitive characteristics.
 
 
Mitchell-Hedges, Frederick Albert (detail)
   
1931
Land of wonder and fear.
New York & London, Century Co.: xviii + 265. Illus.
–Mentions Central American manatees.
x
 
Mitchill, Samuel Latham; Smith, J. A.; Cooper, William (detail)
   
1828
Discovery of a fossil walrus in Virginia. Report of Messrs. Mitchill, J. A. Smith, and Cooper, on a fossil skull sent to Dr. Mitchill by Mr. Cropper of Accomac County, Virginia.
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New-York 2: 271-272. Read Aug. 7, 1827.
–Notice: Edinb. New Philos. Jour. 5: 325. Mentions "ribs and other parts ... supposed to be those of a species of Lamantin or Manati" found in the vicinity of the walrus locality (272).
Mitra, Harish Chandra: SEE Sahni & Mitra, 1980. (detail)
Mitra, S.: SEE Ramakrishna et al., 1999. (detail)
Mitra, S. K.: SEE Sarkar & Mitra, 1962. (detail)
 
 
Mittermeier, Russell A. (detail)
   
1972
The Amazon: monkeys, manatees ... and men.
Not Man Apart 2(12): 10-11. 4 figs. Dec. 1972.
Miyahara, Hirokazu: SEE Uchida et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Miyake, T.; McEachran, J. D.; Walton, P. J.; Hall, B. K. (detail)
   
1992
Development and morphology of rostral cartilages in batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea), with comments on homology within vertebrates.
Biol. Jour. Linn. Soc. 46(3): 259-298.
–Discusses formation of rostral cartilages in cetaceans and sirs.
Miyamoto, Michael M.: SEE ALSO Liu & Miyamoto, 1999. (detail)
x
 
Miyamoto, Michael M.; Goodman, Morris (detail)
   
1986
Biomolecular systematics of eutherian mammals: phylogenetic patterns and classification.
Syst. Zool. 35(2): 230-240. 2 tabs. 3 figs. June 1986.
–Supports the grouping of the Sirenia (represented by T. inunguis) with the Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Tubulidentata in the Paenungulata, based on protein sequences; but concludes that paenungulates and ungulates are not closely related.
Miyazaki, Nobuyuki: SEE ALSO Nishiwaki et al., 1979. (detail)
n
 
Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Itano, Kazuomi; Fukushima, Minoru; Kawai, Shin-ichiro (detail)
   
1981
Contamination by mercury and organochlorine compounds in the muscle of the dugong on Celebes Island. [Abstr.] In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 175.
–Abstr. of Miyazaki et al. (1979).
x
 
Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Itano, Kazuomi; Fukushima, Minoru; Kawai, Shin-ichiro; Honda, Katsuhisa (detail)
   
1979
Metals and organochlorine compounds in the muscle of dugong from Sulawesi Island.
Sci. Rept. Whales Res. Inst. No. 31: 125-128. 3 tabs.
–Abstr.: Miyazaki et al. (1981). Reports that metal and residue levels in two female dugongs were much lower than in carnivorous marine mammals.
Miyazaki, Shigeo: SEE ALSO Kobayashi et al., 1993, 1995. (detail)
 
 
Miyazaki, Shigeo; Horikawa, Hideo; Aizu Fossil Research Group (detail)
   
1988
[Skull of fossil sirenian from Takasato, Fukushima Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 100-101. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
Miyazawa, Yuzuru: SEE Hasegawa et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Mizuno, K.; Asada, A.; Matsumoto, Y.; Sugimoto, K.; Fujii, T.; Yamamuro, M.; ... Jimenez, L. A. (detail)
   
2017
A simple and efficient method for making a high-resolution seagrass map and quantification of dugong feeding trail distribution: A field test at Mayo Bay, Philippines.
Ecological Informatics 38: 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2017.02.003
x
 
Möbius, K. (detail)
   
1861
Die hornigen Kieferplatten des amerikanischen Manatus.
Arch. Naturgesch. 27(1): 148-156. Pl. 7.
–Describes the gross and microscopic anatomy of the rostral pads of a manatee from Belize, and gives measurements of the skull.
 
 
Moeller, Heinz F. (detail)
   
1996
Seekühe - aquatische Weidegänger.
Manati (Nuremberg) 11(1): 4-11. 13 figs. June 1996.
–Gen. acc. of Recent sirs.
 
 
Mohadin, K. (detail)
   
1993
Conservation of freshwater ecosystems in Suriname.
Monographiae Biologicae 70: 275-284. Illus.
Mohan: SEE Lal Mohan. (detail)
 
 
Mohr, Erna (detail)
   
1923
Die Säugethiere der Südsee-Expedition der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Stiftung 1908-1909.
Mitt. Zool. Staatsinst. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 40: 67-78.
–Dentition of "Sirenia australis", 68.
x
 
Mohr, Erna (detail)
   
1950
Ein Hautstück der Stellerschen Seekuh, Rhytina gigas Zimm. 1780.
Zool. Anz. 145(7/8): 181-185. 6 figs. Sept. 1950.
–Illustrates and discusses the Hamburg skin fragment of Hydrodamalis; also illustrates skulls of Dugong and Hydrodamalis in the Hamburg Museum. Reprints Zimmermann's (1780) description of Manati gigas (184).
 
 
Mohr, Erna (detail)
   
1957
Sirenen oder Seekühe.
Wittenberg-Lutherstadt, A. Ziemsen Verlag (Die neue Brehm-Bücherei, No. 197): 1-61. Illus.
 
 
Mojica-Figueroa, Beatriz H.; Arévalo-González, Katherine; González, Fabio A.; Murillo, James (detail)
   
2014
Caracterización de la calidad del agua en sitios de preferencia del manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus) en la ciénaga de Paredes, Magdalena Medio, Santander, Colombia [Water quality characterization of sites preferred by the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Paredes Wetlands of the middle Magdalena River Basin in Santander state, Colombia].
Biota Colombiana 15, Suplemento 1: 174-187. 5 tabs. 6 figs.
–ABSTRACT: This study characterized water quality at sites of preference of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Cienaga of Paredes, an area recognized as of great ecological importance for the establishment of the species within the Middle Magdalena of Santander state (Colombia). From previous work and structured interviews eight locations were identified of which four sites were selected: Los Pozos, La Chorola and Quebrada La Gómez for greater sighting reports for shelter and food and the Punta del Roblar site for reproductive activities. The environmental quality of these sites was assessed using the physicochemical index ICA and biological BMWP/col both agree that the site with the worst water quality corresponds to the Quebrada Gomez with acceptable and very critical appraisals, respectively; the other sites were very similar to this assessment. The results of the analysis of repeated measures (ANOVA) showed no significant differences between these, but did find differences between seasons with the lowest value assigned to the last month of the year of sampling (ICA X = 0.62 ± 0.15). Continuous monitoring of the environmental conditions of Manatee habitat is urgent, to allow us to obtain an adequate understanding of the relationship between ecosystem health and animal health, in order to establish management strategies that contribute to the conservation of the species at the regional scale.
 RESUMEN: Este estudio caracterizó la calidad del agua en sitios de preferencia del manatí antillano (Trichechus manatus) en la ciénaga de Paredes, reconocida como área de gran importancia ecológica para la especie, dentro de la región del Magdalena Medio santandereano (Colombia). A partir de trabajos previos y entrevistas estructuradas se identificaron ocho localidades de las cuales se seleccionaron cuatro: Los Pozos, La Chorola y la quebrada La Gómez (reportes de mayor avistamiento para refugio y alimentación), y Punta del Roblar, importante para actividades reproductivas. La calidad ambiental de estos sitios fue evaluada utilizando el índice fisicoquímico (ICA) y el índice biológico (BMWP/col). Ambos coinciden que el sitio con la peor calidad de agua corresponde a la quebrada La Gómez con valoración aceptable (ICA) y muy crítica (BMWP/col); los sitios restantes se mantienen muy cercanos a esta evaluación. Los resultados del análisis de medidas repetidas ANOVA no mostraron diferencias significativas entre stios, por el contrario de lo encontrado entre temporadas, identificándose con la valoración más baja el último mes del año de muestreo (ICA X=0,62 ± 0,15). Estos resultados pueden identificar una amenaza para esta población de manatí y es importante complementarlos con estudios en diferentes temporadas climáticas relacionados con las comunidades asociadas a las macrófitas, las cuales ampliarían el conocimiento de las relaciones ecológicas entre un vertebrado herbívoro y los demás niveles tróficos, y así establecer estrategias de manejo que contribuyan a la conservación de la especie a nivel regional.
x
 
Mok, Wai-yin; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1979
Saprophytic colonization of a hyphomycete on the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia; Sirenia).
Aquatic Mammals 7(3): 79-82. 4 figs.
–Reports a skin fungus resembling Cercospora in captive and wild T. inunguis calves.
Moka, Willem: SEE Erftemeijer et al., 1993. (detail)
 
 
Molnár, Gábor (detail)
   
1970?
Aventuras na mata amazônica.
São Paulo, Livros Irradiantes S.A.: 1-198.
–Transl. of the author's Kalandok a braziliai öserdöben, 1940. Manatee, 93-97.
x
 
Molnar, Ralph E. (detail)
   
1982
A longirostrine crocodilian from Murua (Woodlark), Solomon Sea.
Mem. Queensland Mus. 20(3): 675-685. 3 figs. Pls. 1-2.
–Describes material from Papua New Guinea associated with the type specimen of Halicore brevirostre [sic] De Vis, 1905, and considers the fauna Pleistocene in age (676, 679). Also notes Etheridge's (1900) report of fossil vertebrae of Halicore dugong from Murua (680).
x
 
Moloney, C. A. (detail)
   
1883
International Fisheries Exhibition, London, 1883.... On West African fisheries, with particular reference to the Gold Coast colony.
London, Wm. Clowes & Sons, Ltd.: 1-79. Read Oct. 24, 1883.
–Describes a manatee trap and its use, mentions vernacular names and seasonal movements of manatees in the Gold Coast, and gives measurements of one that was caught in a drift-seine near Lagos (27-29).
 
 
Monard, A. (detail)
   
1938
Résultats de la mission scientifique du Dr. Monard en Guinée Portugaise. 1937-1938. II. Ongulés.
Arq. Mus. Bocage (Lisbon) 9: 150-196. 9 figs.
 
 
Moncharmont Zei, Maria; Moncharmont, Ugo (detail)
   
1987
Il Metaxytherium medium (Desmarest) 1822 (Sirenia, Mammalia) delle arenarie tortoniane (Miocene sup.) di S. Domenica di Ricardi (Catanzaro, Italia).
Mem. Sci. Geol. (Univ. Padova) 39: 285-341. 2 tabs. 3 figs. 14 pls. Dec. 1987.
–Describes a Late Miocene skeleton of M. medium. Also includes a detailed catalog of Eocene-to-Pliocene sirenian remains known from Italy (306-310).
x
 
Mondolfi, Edgardo (detail)
   
1974
Taxonomy, distribution and status of the manatee in Venezuela.
Mem. Soc. Cient. Nat. La Salle 34(97): 5-23. 11 figs. Jan.-Apr. 1974.
–Spanish summ. Reports on the examination of 3 specimens, and concludes that only T. manatus and not T. inunguis occurs in the lower Orinoco River. Discusses the movements, feeding, hunting, economic uses, and conservation problems of manatees in Venezuela.
 
 
Mondolfi, Edgardo (detail)
   
1995
Plan de acción para la investigación y protección de poblaciones de manatí (Trichechus manatus) en Venezuela.
Caracas, Simp. Intl. sobre Delfines y otros Mamíferos Acuáticos de Venezuela, Memorias: 97-108.
 
 
Monod, Théodore (detail)
   
1925
Notes sur le dugong de Madagascar.
Revue Gen. Sci. No. 6: 163. Mar. 30, 1925.
 
 
Monod, Théodore (detail)
   
1928
L'industrie des pêches au Cameroun.
Paris, Soc. d'Éditions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales: 1-504. Illus.
x
 
Monroe, Watson Hiner (detail)
   
1980
Geology of the Middle Tertiary formations of Puerto Rico.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 953: iv + 93. 8 tabs. 50 figs. 1 pl.
–Reports sir. rib fragments from the upper member of the Cibao Formation (Early Miocene) near Corozal (38), and from the Ponce Limestone (Miocene) near Ponce, Puerto Rico (78).
 
 
Montanus, Arnoldus (detail)
   
1673
Die unbekante Neue Welt, oder Beschreibung des Welt-Teils Amerika, und des Sud-Landes: darinnen vom Uhrsprunge der Ameriker und Sudländer, und von den gedenckwürdigen Reysen der Europer darnach zu. Wie auch von derselben festen Ländern, Jnseln, Städten, Festungen, Dörfern, vornähmsten Gebeuen, Bergen, Brunnen, Flüssen, und Ahrten der Tiere, Beume, Stauden, und anderer fremden Gewächse; als auch von den Gottes- und Götzendiensten, Sitten, Sprachen, Kleider-trachten, wunderlichen Begäbnissen und so wohl alten als neuen Kriegen, ausführlich gehandelt wird; durch und durch mit vielen nach dem Leben in Ameriken selbst entworfenen Abbildungen gezieret.
Amsterdam, J. von Meurs: 658 + 11. Illus.
–Transl. by Olfert Dapper of a Dutch ed., 1671. Sirs., 219. See also J. Ogilby (1671).
Monteiro, H.: SEE Silva et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Monteiro, Joachim John (detail)
   
1875
Angola and the River Congo.
London, Macmillan & Co. (2 vols.): Vol. 2: iv + 340.
–Sirs., 17.
 
 
Montenegro-Paredes, Maureen Irina (detail)
   
1994
Distribucion espacial de la vaca marina Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia) en el Rio Amazonas, Trapecio Amazonico.
Trianea 5: 323-334. Illus. Sept. 30, 1994.
Montgomery, G. Gene: SEE ALSO Best et al., 1981; Muizon & Domning, 1985; Schad et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Montgomery, G. Gene; Best, Robin Christopher; Yamakoshi, Megumi (detail)
   
1981
A radio-tracking study of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Biotropica 13(2): 81-85. 1 tab. 1 fig. June 1981.
–Describes the freeze-branding and radiotagging of a juvenile manatee, its release in a lake near the Rio Solimões, Brazil, and its movements and habitat use during 20 days of radiotracking. Concludes that radiotracking is a practical means of studying manatee ecology in the Amazon Basin. Includes a list of plants thought to be eaten by manatees in the study area. For a slightly expanded Portuguese version of this paper, with illustrations of the tagging equipment, see Best, Montgomery & Yamakoshi (1981).
x
 
Montgomery, G. Gene; Gale, N. B.; Murdoch, W. P., Jr. (detail)
   
1982
Have manatee entered the eastern Pacific Ocean?
Mammalia 46(2): 257-258. 1 fig.
–Reports that T. manatus, originally introduced into the Panama Canal in 1963 (see MacLaren, 1967), have increased in numbers to about 25 and have been seen in Miraflores Lake, only one lock away from the Pacific; hence if they have not entered the Pacific yet, they soon could.
 
 
Montgomery, Sy (detail)
   
2000
Journey of the pink dolphins: an Amazon quest.
New York, Simon & Schuster: 1-317. Illus.
–The story of an American nature writer's four trips to different parts of the Amazon region to commune with river dolphins. Includes anecdotes of manatees and manatee researchers she met along the way (122, 159, 205, 216, 222, 224, 232-234, 236, 238-239, 241, 244, 249).
 
 
Monti, D. J.; Wollrab, T. I. (detail)
   
1999
AVMA hosts a whale of a welfare forum.
Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 214(1): 10-14. Jan. 1, 1999.
 
 
Montoya, Plinio (detail)
   
1997
Los yacimientos con mamíferos Neógenos de la comunidad Valenciana.
Cidaris (Revista Ilicitana de Paleontología y Mineralogía) Nos. 11-12: 24-47. Illus. Jan.-July 1997.
–Fossil sirs. of Alicante, Spain, 40-41, 1 fig.
Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.: SEE ALSO Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998; Jiménez-Marrero et al., 1998; Mignucci et al., 1997, 2000, 2003; Mignucci, Beck et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A.; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Millán-Sánchez, Sandra L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Lefebvre, Lynn W. (detail)
   
2001
Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia.
Biol. Conserv. 102(1): 117-129. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Montserrat Landero, M.; Liceaga-Correa, Maria de Los Ángeles; Morales-Vela, Benjamín (detail)
   
2014
Ecological distribution of manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 30(4): 1581-1588. 4 figs. DOI:10.1111/mms.12127. Oct. 2014 (publ. online Apr. 2, 2014).
 
 
Mooney, T. Aran; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Taylor, Kristen A.; Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Miller, Lee A. (detail)
   
2009
Auditory temporal resolution of a wild white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris).
Journal of Comparative Physiology A - Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 195(4): 375-384. 7 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s00359-009-0415-x. April 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Adequate temporal resolution is required across taxa to properly utilize amplitude modulated acoustic signals. Among mammals, odontocete marine mammals are considered to have relatively high temporal resolution, which is a selective advantage when processing fast traveling underwater sound. However, multiple methods used to estimate auditory temporal resolution have left comparisons among odontocetes and other mammals somewhat vague. Here we present the estimated auditory temporal resolution of an adult male white-beaked dolphin, (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), using auditory evoked potentials and click stimuli. Ours is the first of such studies performed on a wild dolphin in a capture-and-release scenario. The white-beaked dolphin followed rhythmic clicks up to a rate of approximately 1,125–1,250 Hz, after which the modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) cut-off steeply. However, 10% of the maximum response was still found at 1,450 Hz indicating high temporal resolution. The MRTF was similar in shape and bandwidth to that of other odontocetes. The estimated maximal temporal resolution of white-beaked dolphins and other odontocetes was approximately twice that of pinnipeds and manatees, and more than ten-times faster than humans and gerbils. The exceptionally high temporal resolution abilities of odontocetes are likely due primarily to echolocation capabilities that require rapid processing of acoustic cues.
 
 
Moore, Abigail M.; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Ali, Yusuf (detail)
   
2017
"The Lost Princess (putri duyung)" of the Small Islands: dugongs around Sulawesi in the Anthropocene.
Frontiers in Marine Science 4(284): 4 tabs. 1 fig. + online supplementary material. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00284 Sept. 21, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: In the Spermonde as in the other main island groups around Sulawesi, seagrass and coral ecosystems are intimately linked ecologically and overlap extensively on the shallow water shelves surrounding most islands. One keystone species living in these shallow waters is the dugong (Dugong dugon). Officially fully protected under Indonesian Law (PP7/1999), published data on dugongs in the islands around Sulawesi are extremely limited. In this research, we collected, compiled and evaluated data and information (mostly unpublished) on the distribution, exploitation and community perceptions of dugongs around Sulawesi, including the Togean, Banggai, Spermonde, Taka Bone Rate/Selayar, and Tanakeke Islands. Opportunities for dugong conservation, and potential benefits for coral reef ecosystems in a small island socio-ecological context, were considered. Once common within living memory, socio-economic data indicate that Sulawesi dugongs are now rare and under severe threat. Many fishing communities consider dugong meat superior to beef, and see it as a welcome change from fish, while certain body parts fetch a high price, as do dugong tears. In the Spermonde Islands, dugongs may already have been extirpated; the most recent reported sighting was in 1993 when the capture of an adult dugong by fishermen of Barranglompo Island resulted in an impromptu festival. All these Sulawesi small islands communities have dugong princess (putri duyung) legends with potential as an entry-point to hearts and minds. Preventing further extirpations and striving to bring back the "lost princess" could be an iconic component of moving toward sustainability in small-island socio-ecological systems.
 
 
Moore, D. P.; Tippett, F. E.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Montoya-Ospina, Ruby A. (detail)
   
2008
Cardiac failure of an Antillean manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Puerto Rico.
Jour. Trop. Biol. 56 (Suppl. 1): 277-283.
 
 
Moore, David R. (detail)
   
1971
The traditional culture and prehistory of Cape York, North Queensland.
Sydney: 1-10.
–Mentions dugong hunting and the construction of mounds of dugong and turtle bones on high points as lookouts for the animals.
 
 
Moore, David R. (detail)
   
1979
Islanders and Aborigines at Cape York: an ethnographic reconstruction based on the 1848-1850 'Rattlesnake' journals of O. W. Brierly and information he obtained from Barbara Thompson.
Canberra, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (AIAS New Ser. No. 3): xii + 340. Frontisp. 11 figs. 15 pls. 5 maps.
Moore, John F.: SEE O'Shea et al., 1984. (detail)
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1946
Mammals from Welaka, Putnam County, Florida.
Jour. Mamm. 27(1): 49-59. "Feb. 1946" (mailed Mar. 14, 1946).
–Reports sightings of manatees in the St. Johns River, including an observation of possible mating behavior (58).
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1951a
The range of the Florida manatee.
Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 14(1): 1-19. 1 tab. 1 fig. "Mar. 1951" (mailed Aug. 8, 1951).
–Presents data from interviews and sightings, showing that manatee winter range in Florida lies south of the Sebastian River (east coast) and Charlotte Harbor (west coast); that many manatees migrate north in summer but seldom leave Florida; and that they use springs as natural warm-water refuges. Discusses the osteological basis for distinguishing Trichechus m. manatus and T. m. latirostris, concludes that Texan manatees represent the former, and suggests that the northern Gulf Coast acts as a barrier separating the two subspecies.
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1951b
The status of the manatee in the Everglades National Park, with notes on its natural history.
Jour. Mamm. 32(1): 22-36. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Feb. 15, 1951.
–Includes notes on habitat, reproduction, respiration, behavior, body size and measurements, intelligence, food, and effects of cold. Gives further details of the captive birth recorded by Barbour, 1937 (26).
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1953
Distribution of marine mammals to Florida waters.
Amer. Midland Naturalist 49(1): 117-158. 19 figs. Jan. 1953.
–Reports (for the first time?) aggregations of manatees during cold snaps (120-121, 156); records sightings of calves in all months except December (121-122). Manatees also mentioned in key to marine mammals, 153.
 
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1954
Want to see a Florida manatee?
Animal Kingdom 54 [or 57?] (1): 11-13. 1 fig. Jan. 1954.
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1956
Observations of manatees in aggregations.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 1811: 1-24. 5 figs. Dec. 23, 1956.
–Reports the first detailed observations of wild manatees, based on studies of the population in the Miami River, Florida, 1949-55, using scars from boat collisions and other naturally-occurring marks to identify individuals. Includes some records of numbers of manatees observed, observations on relationship of aggregations to temperature, attendance records of manatees at aggregations, and behavioral observations regarding play, greeting, courtship, reproduction, behavior of young, suckling posture, and locomotion.
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1957
Newborn young of a captive manatee.
Jour. Mamm. 38(1): 137-138. Feb. 25, 1957.
–Reports on a Florida manatee calf born in 1955 at Ojus, Florida, and compares its behavior to observations in earlier reports.
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1961
Sailors' siren.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 70(1): 54-55. 2 figs. Jan. 1961.
–Pop. acc. of dugongs, with two photos of African specimens in captivity at Mombasa, Kenya.
x
 
Moore, Joseph Curtis (detail)
   
1964
A mysterious encounter.
Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. Bull. 35(11): 7-8. 1 fig. + cover photo. Nov. 1964.
–Pop. acc. of observations of a manatee with its tail badly mangled by a boat propeller, and other scarred individuals, in the Miami River, Florida.
 
 
Moore, R. J.; Balzarotti, M. A. (detail)
   
1976
Report of 1976 expedition to the Suakin Archipelago (Sudan).
Privately published.
 
 
Moore, S. S.; Hale, P.; Byrne, K. (detail)
   
1998
NCAM: a polymorphic microsatellite locus conserved across eutherian mammal species.
Animal Genetics 29(1): 33-36. Feb. 1998.
x
 
Moore, W. Robert (detail)
   
1936
Beyond Australia's cities.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 70(6): 709-747. Illus. Dec. 1936.
–Photograph of a captured Queensland dugong (746); the caption comments on local economic uses of the animal.
x
 
Moraes, Raymundo (detail)
   
1931
O meu diccionario de cousas da Amazonia. Vol. 2.
Rio de Janeiro, Alba Officinas Graphicas: 1-206.
–Includes a note on the manufacture of mixira (fried meat preserved in manatee fat) in the Brazilian Amazon (67).
x
 
Moraes, Raymundo (detail)
   
1939a
Na planície amazônica. Ed. 5.
São Paulo, Cia. Editora Nacional (Bibliotheca Pedagogica Brasileira, Série 5, Vol. 63): xx + 227.
–Ed. 6: Rio de Janeiro, Conquista, 1968. Notes the export of manatee meat from Gurupá, Brazil, in the 17th century, and the former occurrence of manatees south of Marajó and in the lower Rio Tocantins (91-92).
 
 
Moraes, Raymundo (= Morais, Raimundo) (detail)
   
1939b
O homem do Pacoval.
São Paulo, Cia. Melhoramentos de São Paulo: 1-297.
–Manatee, 190-193.
 
 
Moraes-Arraut, Eduardo; Ortega-Argueta, Alejandro; Olivera-Gómez, Leon D.; Sheppard, James K. (detail)
   
2012
Delineating and assessing habitats for sirenians. Chap. 18 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 157-167. 3 tabs.
–Includes box essay by Moraes-Arraut & Miriam Marmontel (p. 164, "Case study: Seasonal migrations by Amazonian manatees").
x
 
Morais Rêgo, Aurora Ramos de (detail)
   
1944
O peixe-boi.
Rev. Mus. Nac. (Rio de Janeiro) 1(2): 10-12. 2 figs. Dec. 1944.
–Pop. acc. of Amazonian manatees, including information on their natural history (inaccurate), economic use, and hunting, with a photo of hunters using a barricade of stakes. Recommends the commercial raising of manatees.
 
D
Morales, J. (detail)
   
1990
Sirenios, Desmostilios y Tubulidentados. In: B. Meléndez (ed.), Tratado de Paleontologia 3(2).
Madrid, Editorial Parainfo: 355-380.
x
 
Morales, Patricia (detail)
   
1986
The life and death of an Amazon manatee.
Proc. Internatl. Assoc. Aquatic Animal Medicine (17th Annual Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi) 1(3): 43-48. 2 tabs. May 1986.
–Describes the captive medical care, diet, and necropsy findings in "Butterball", the T. inunguis which lived at San Francisco's Steinhart Aquarium, 1967-84. In addition to skin and bone damage from a harpoon wound and skin lesions possibly due to nutritional deficiencies, the main findings were pyogranulomatous pneumonia, cirrhosis, testicular necrosis, and other effects of infection by Mycobacterium marinum. Cause of death was cardiac failure associated with the pneumonia.
x
 
Morales, Patricia; Madin, Stewart H.; Hunter, Aline (detail)
   
1985
Systemic Mycobacterium marinum infection in an Amazon manatee.
Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 187(11): 1230-1231. Dec. 1, 1985.
–An abbreviated version of Morales (1986). Describes the illness, death, and necropsy of the Steinhart Aquarium's manatee.
 
 
Morales-Serna, F. Neptali; Gomez, Samuel; De Leon, Gerado Perez-Ponce (detail)
   
2012
Parasitic copepods reported from Mexico.
Zootaxa 3234: 43-68. March 14, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: One hundred and forty identified and 26 unidentified species of copepods reported from 120 fish species, two turtle species, one manatee species, four crab species, four mollusk species, two polychaete species, four ascidian species, and 21 from plankton samples from Mexico are listed. The list contains information about the site of infection, host habitat, localities and references. In addition, a host-parasite list is also provided. Most reports (97%) are from marine or brackish habitats infecting fish hosts (71% of all reports). This information shows that knowledge about the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in Mexico is in its infancy.
Morales-Vela, Benjamín: SEE ALSO Axis-Arroyo et al., 1998; Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Olivera-Gómez, León David (detail)
   
1991
Mamíferos acuáticos. In: T. Camarena-Luhrs & S. Salazar-Vallejo (eds.), Estudios ecológicos preliminares de la zona sur de Quintana Roo.
Chetumal (Mexico), Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo: 172-185. Figs. 27-29. Sept. 1991.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Olivera-Gómez, León David (detail)
   
1992
De sirenas a manatíes.
Chetumal (Mexico), Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo (Cuaderno de Divulgación 4): 1-30. 17 figs. Nov. 1992.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Olivera-Gómez, León David (detail)
   
1997
Distribución del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en la costa norte y centro-norte del Estado de Quintana Roo, México.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México, Ser. Zool. 68(1): 153-164. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Engl. summ.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Olivera-Gómez, León David (detail)
   
1994
Distribución espacial y estimación poblacional de los manatíes en la Bahia de Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México.
Revista de Investigación Científica 2 (Número Especial SOMEMMA 1): 27-34.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Olivera-Gómez, León David; Reynolds, John E., III; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
2000
Distribution and habitat use by manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize and Chetumal Bay, Mexico.
Biol. Conserv. 95(1): 67-75. 3 tabs. 3 figs. "Aug. 2000" (publ. July 2000).
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth A. (detail)
   
2001
Los manatíes en Quintana Roo. Ecofronteras.
Gaceta ECOSUR 14: 7-9.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2003
Status of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) along the northern and western coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula, México.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 39(1): 42-49. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
 
 
Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Suarez-Morales, E.; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A.; Heard, R. W. (detail)
   
2008
The tanaid Hexapleomera robusta (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Caribbean manatee, with comments on other crustacean epibionts.
Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 88(3): 591-596.
 
 
Moreau, Laurent J. (detail)
   
1900
L'extinction des espèces animaux.
Bull. Soc. Zool. France 25: 109-117.
–Sirs., 109.
Moreira, G. R. S.: SEE Colares et al., 1987. (detail)
Morel, G.: SEE Bourlière et al., 1976. (detail)
 
 
Moreno, F.; Hendy, A.J.W.; Quiroz, L.; Hoyos, N.; Jones, D.S.; Zapata, V.; Zapata, S.; Ballen, G.A.; Cadena, E.; C´ardenas, A.L.; Carrillo-Briceno, J.D.; Carrillo, J.D.; Delgado-Sierra, D.; Escobar, J.; I, M.J.; Martinez, C.; Montes, C.; Moreno, J.; Perez, N.; Sanchez, R.; Suarez, C.; Vallejo-Pareja, M.C.; Jaramillo, C. (detail)
   
2015
Revised stratigraphy of Neogene strata in the Cocinetas basin, La Guajira, Colombia.
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 134: 5-43.
–Mentions undescribed sirenian remains in the Castilletes Formation on the Guajira Peninsula of Colombia (late early to early middle Miocene, c. 17.3–14.5 Ma).
Morera, Ramón Jordana Y: SEE Jordana y Morera, Ramón. (detail)
 
 
Moresby, J. (detail)
   
1875
Recent discoveries at the eastern end of New Guinea.
Jour. Royal Geographical Soc. 44: 1-14.
–Mentions the catching of 7 and 6 dugongs on two successive nights in 1873 at Saibai Island (NE of Mabuyag) in Torres Strait (p. 4).
x
 
Morgan, Gary S.; Portell, Roger W. (detail)
   
1996
The Tucker Borrow Pit: paleontology and stratigraphy of a Plio-Pleistocene fossil site in Brevard County, Florida.
Papers in Florida Paleontology No. 7: 1-24. 2 tabs. 7 figs. April 1996.
–Mentions indeterminate sir. remains, probably reworked from the Late Pliocene Nashua Formation (m11).
Morgan, Gary Scott: SEE ALSO Domning, Morgan & Ray, 1982; Hulbert & Morgan, 1989; Hulbert et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Morgan, Gary Scott (detail)
   
1989
Miocene vertebrate faunas from the Suwannee River basin of north Florida and south Georgia. In: G. S. Morgan (ed.), Miocene paleontology and stratigraphy of the Suwannee River basin of north Florida and south Georgia.
Southeastern Geol. Soc. Guidebook No. 30: 26-53. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Oct. 7, 1989.
–Describes the stratigraphic context, associated faunas, age, and paleoecology of specimens of Halitherium olseni, Dioplotherium manigaulti, and Metaxytherium sp. from the Suwannee River basin. See also Domning (1989b).
 
D
Morgan, Gary Scott (detail)
   
1994
Miocene and Pliocene marine mammal faunas from the Bone Valley Formation of central Florida. In: A. Berta & T. A. Deméré (eds.), Contributions in marine mammal paleontology honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr.
Proc. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 29: 239-268. 2 tabs. 13 figs. May 1, 1994.
–Revs.: S. A. McLeod, Jour. Vert. Pal. 16(1): 183-185, Mar. 19, 1996; J. E. Heyning, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(2): 326-329, "Apr. 1996" (publ. Mar. 29, 1996). Reviews the occurrences of Neogene sirs. throughout Florida, and debunks the report of Desmostylus in the state.
x
 
Morgan, Gary Scott; Pratt, Ann E. (detail)
   
1983
Recent discoveries of Late Tertiary marine mammals in Florida.
The Plaster Jacket (Florida State Museum) No. 43: 4-30. 15 figs. Sept. 1983.
–Updated account of sirs.: Hulbert et al. (2001). Describes the discovery of an Early Miocene Metaxytherium skeleton in the Suwannee River in June 1982 (4, 16-23), and other discoveries of sir. fossils (24-25).
 
 
Morgan, Lee W.; Musick, John A.; Potter, Charles W. (detail)
   
2002
Temporal and geographic occurrences of cetacean strandings and manatee sightings in Virginia, with notes on adverse human-cetacean interactions, from 1983-1989.
Jour. North Carolina Acad. Sci. 118(1): 12-26.
–Records 5 confirmed manatee sightings.
Morgan, Margaret A.: SEE ALSO Kadel, Morgan & Patton, 1991. (detail)
 
 
Morgan, Margaret A.; Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
   
1990
Aerial studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) on the west coast of Florida.
Mote Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 167: iv + 21 + [53]. 2 tabs. 23 figs. Mar. 28, 1990.
Morgan, Una: SEE Fayer et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Morgan, Una M.; Xiao, Lihua; Hill, Bruce D.; O'Donoghue, Peter; Limor, Josef; Lal, Altaf; Thompson, R. C. Andrew (detail)
   
2000
Detection of the Cryptosporidium parvum "human" genotype in a dugong (Dugong dugon).
Jour. Parasitol. 86(6): 1352-1354. 2 figs. Dec. 28, 2000.
 
 
Morgan-Ryan, Una M.; Fall, Abbie; Ward, Lucy A.; Hijjawi, Nawal; Sulaiman, Irshad; Fayer, Ronald; Thompson, R. C. Andrew; Olson, M.; Lal, Altaf; Xiao, Lihua (detail)
   
2002
Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens.
Jour. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 49(6): 433-440. Nov.-Dec. 2002.
Mori, G.: SEE Fujii & Mori, 1964. (detail)
Mori, Takuya: SEE Asano et al., 1978; Kataoka et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Moriceau (detail)
   
1902
Pêche de dugongs d'Ambanja.
Revue Madagascar (Paris) 1902: 538-539.
x
 
Morison, Samuel Eliot (detail)
   
1942
Admiral of the Ocean Sea: a life of Christopher Columbus.
Boston, Little, Brown & Co.: xx + 680. Illus. Feb. 1942.
–Also publ. simultaneously in a 2-vol. ed. that includes notes and other material (vol. 1: xlv + 448; vol. 2: vii + 445). Describes Columbus' sighting of "mermaids" off the coast of Haiti on his first voyage in 1493 (309-310); describes the use of remoras to catch manatees and turtles on the southern coast of Cuba in 1494 (457); states that "swarms of manatee are attracted to quench their thirst" at freshwater springs in the Gulf of Cochinos, Cuba, visited in 1494 (459); and mentions a manatee caught in 1502 at Azua, Dominican Republic, "which Ferdinand [Columbus] was clever enough to identify as a mammal, not a fish" (592). The description of a "sea monster" seen near Hispaniola in 1494 (478) may also refer to a manatee. In the 2-vol. ed. the identical statements are found on the following pages, respectively: 1: 397-398; 2: 131, 134, 327, 158.
  The above information on Columbus's voyages is based on Columbus's own journal of the first voyage (which survives only in the form of an abstract and paraphrase by Bartolomé de Las Casas and which has appeared in various editions and translations) and on other documents, many of which Morison published in new translations in 1963 (q.v.).
 
 
Morison, Samuel Eliot (detail)
   
1963
Journals and other documents on the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus.
New York, Limited Editions Club: xv + 417. Illus.
–Includes new transls. of, among other documents: the Diario, the Las Casas abstract of Columbus's journal of the first voyage, 1492-93 (41-179); Syllacio's letter to the Duke of Milan describing the second voyage, 1493-96 (229-245); and Ferdinand Columbus's account of the fourth voyage, 1502-04 (321-370). Manatees, 84, 148, 243, 245, 325, 328.
  P. 84: "He [Columbus] ... says that they must have cows in it [Cuba] and other cattle, for he saw skulls which appeared to be those of cows." Las Casas suggested that these were manatees.
  P. 148: "The day before, when the Admiral went to the Rio del Oro [on the north coast of the Dominican Republic] he said that he saw three mermaids who rose very high from the sea, but they were not as beautiful as they are painted, although to some extent they have a human appearance in the face. He said that he had seen some in Guinea on the coast of Malagueta." This latter observation, made on the Grain Coast (Liberia) probably between 1482 and 1484 (Morison, 1942: 42), may well have been the earliest recorded European observation of an African or any other manatee.
  P. 243: "Huge fish as large as cattle are caught here [near Isabela, on the north coast of the Dominican Republic]; they are eaten avidly (after their legs have been removed) and have the taste of veal." A note on p. 245 presumes these to have been manatees.
  P. 325 (chap. 89 of Ferdinand Columbus's Historie): "The other fish was taken [near Azua, Dominican Republic] through another device; the Indians call it the manati, and there are none of that kind in Europe. It is as big as a calf, resembling one both in color and flavor, except that perhaps it is somewhat better and fatter. Therefore, those who declare that there are in the sea all sorts of creatures which live on land, say that these fishes are real calves, since inside they are nothing like a fish, and feed only on the grass they find along shore." Ferdinand accordingly deserves credit for realizing that the manatee is a mammal.
Morissette, Nina M.: SEE Corkeron et al., 1997. (detail)
Morita, M.: SEE Edmonds et al., 1997. (detail)
Mornand, J.: SEE Ginsburg et al., 1979. (detail)
Moroto, Yasuhiro: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Morris, J. K.; Jacobson, S. K.; Flamm, Richard O. (detail)
   
2007
Lessons from an evaluation of a boater outreach program for manatee protection.
Envir. Management 40(4): 596-602.
Morris, John G.: SEE Curran & Morris, 1988; Silverberg & Morris, 1988; Steel & Morris, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Morris, William J. (detail)
   
1983
A paleontologic reconnaissance of Baja California, Mexico, 1974.
Natl. Geogr. Soc. Res. Rept. 15: 157-174. Illus.
Morrison-Scott, T. C. S.: SEE Ellerman & Morrison-Scott, 1951; Ellerman et al., 1953. (detail)
Morrissey, Janice: SEE Channells & Morrissey, 1981; Marsh et al., 1979, 1982. (detail)
x
 
Morse, Douglass H. (detail)
   
1975
Ecological aspects of adaptive radiation in birds.
Biol. Rev. 50: 167-214.
–Suggests that manatees and turtles in tropical waters are "at least a fortuitous ecological replacement" of herbivorous aquatic birds in temperate regions (173).
 
 
Mortensen, Th. (detail)
   
1933a
On the "manatee" of St. Helena.
Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Forening (Copenhagen) 97: 1-9. 2 figs.
x
 
Mortensen, Th. (detail)
   
1933b
On the "solitaire" of the island of Rodriguez.
Ardea 22(1-2): 21-29. 4 figs. 2 pls. July 1933.
–Concludes (23-26) that Leguat's Voyages et avantures was based on actual experiences, though embellished with fictitious additions, including the account of sea cows at Rodriguez. Reproduces Leguat's illustration of a quadrupedal "Vache Marine" (fig. 3).
x
 
Mortensen, Th. (detail)
   
1934a
The "manatee" of St. Helena.
Nature (London) 133: 417. Mar. 17, 1934.
–Quotes Dampier's (1703-05) observations to demonstrate that the "manatee" was actually a sea lion (Arctocephalus).
x
 
Mortensen, Th. (detail)
   
1934b
On François Leguat and his "Voyage et Avantures", with remarks on the dugong of Rodriguez and on Leguatia gigantea Schlegel.
Ardea 23(1-2): 67-77. 3 figs. June 1934.
–Concludes (71-72, 76) that Leguat's account is not fictitious and that its zoological data were based on actual observations, probably including observations of the dugong. Reproduces Leguat's illustration of a "Lamentin" (fig. 1).
 
 
Mortola, Jacopo P. (detail)
   
2015
The heart rate - breathing rate relationship in aquatic mammals: A comparative analysis with terrestrial species.
CURRENT ZOOLOGY 61 (4):569-577. August 2015.
–ABSTRACT- Aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals, while resting at the water surface or ashore, breathe with a low frequency (f) by comparison to terrestrial mammals of the same body size, the difference increasing the larger the species. Among various interpretations, it was suggested that the low-f breathing is a consequence of the end-inspiratory breath-holding pattern adopted by aquatic mammals to favour buoyancy at the water surface, and evolved to be part of the genetic makeup. If this interpretation was correct it could be expected that, differently from f, the heart rate (HR, beats/min) of aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals at rest would not need to differ from that of terrestrial mammals and that their HR-f ratio would be higher than in terrestrial species. Literature data for HR (beats/min) in mammals at rest were gathered for 56 terrestrial and 27 aquatic species. In aquatic mammals the allometric curve (HR=191.M-0.18; M= body mass, kg) did not differ from that of terrestrial species (HR=212.M-0.22) and their HR-f ratio (on average 32+/-5) was much higher than in terrestrial species (5+/-1) (P<0.0001). The comparison of these HR allometric curves to those for f previously published indicated that the HR-f ratio was body size-independent in terrestrial species while it increased significantly with M in aquatic species. The similarity in HR and differences in f between aquatic and terrestrial mammals agree with the possibility that the low f of aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals may have evolved for a non-respiratory function, namely the regulation of buoyancy at the water surface.
 
 
Mortola, Jacopo P.; Seguin, Julie (detail)
   
2009
End-tidal CO2 in some aquatic mammals of large size.
Zoology 112(2): 77-85. 1 tab. 6 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2008.06.001. Mar. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: While resting on land or at the water surface, the breathing frequency (f) of aquatic mammals of medium and large size is lower than in terrestrial mammals of similar body weight (W), the difference widening with the increase in W. The allometric function for aquatic mammals is f?W?0.42 (f, breaths/min, W, kg) and that of terrestrial species is f?W?0.25. We asked whether or not resting breathing at such low f would entail high values of alveolar CO2. End-tidal alveolar CO2 pressure, taken as representative of alveolar CO2 pressure, PaCO2, was measured from the expired gas during resting breathing in captive specimens of aquatic species trained to rest in proximity of their keepers, either on land (walrus and sea lion) or at the water surface (dolphin, orca, beluga and hippopotamus). Their f during the recordings ranged from less than 1 (orca) to 6 (walrus) breaths/min. The average PaCO2 values ranged from 32 to 42 mm Hg, the peaks being a few mm Hg higher. These values were similar or slightly higher than literature data of many terrestrial species, with no relation to the animal f or W. The quasi-normality of PaCO2 in large aquatic species breathing at rest, despite their exceptionally low f and normal metabolism, can be explained mainly by two factors, their large tidal volume/W, about three times the average terrestrial value, and their peculiar breathing pattern with sustained high lung volume during the expiratory pause. This latter is key in avoiding a substantial rise in PaCO2 during the inter-breath pause.
x
 
Morton, B. S. (detail)
   
1974
Is it a dugong or a porpoise?
Malayan Nature Jour. 27(3-4): 172. June 1974.
–Suggests that the animal seen in Johore Strait by Bland (1970) was Neophocaena, not Dugong.
 
 
Morton, Brian (detail)
   
2001
China's dugongs.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42(6): 419-420. June 2001.
Mosbach, E. H.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Moses, S. T. (detail)
   
1942
The fisheries of the Gujarat coast.
Jour. Gujarat Res. Soc. 4(2): 61-82.
–Dugong, 75.
 
 
Mosgovoy, A. A. (detail)
   
1950
[Ascaridata of animals.]
Trudy Helmintol. Lab. Akad. Nauk SSSR 4: 263-269.
–In Russian. Refers Typhlophorus hagenbecki to Plicatolabia.
x
 
Mossman, H. W. (detail)
   
1987
Vertebrate fetal membranes.
New Brunswick (New Jersey), Rutgers Univ. Press.
–Gen. acc. of dugong and manatee fetal membranes, based on previous literature (267-270).
 
 
Mossman, H. W.; Duke, K. L. (detail)
   
1973
Comparative morphology of the mammalian ovary.
Madison, Univ. Wisconsin Press: 1-461.
–Describes a mutilated ovary of T. inunguis (381).
Motolinía: SEE Benavente, T. de, 1903. (detail)
 
 
Mottl, Mária von (= Gy?rffy-Mottl, Maria) (detail)
   
1944
Egy új trichechoid sirena-lelet Üröm fels? eocénjéb?l. (Ein neuer, trichechoider Sirenenfund aus dem Obereozän von Üröm in Budapest.)
Földt. Intézet, Évkön: 171-205. 1 tab. Figs. 19-21.
–Text in Hungarian (173-185) and German (186-203). According to L. Kordos (pers. commun.), this paper was typeset but, on account of the war, was never published, and exists in proofsheets only. Describes vertebrae, ribs, and a scapula from the Late Eocene of Hungary and compares them with other sirs.; the comparisons of the scapulae are particularly detailed. Concludes that the specimens from Üröm are probably referable to Sirenavus.
 
 
Mou Sue, Luis L.; Chen, David H.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1990
Distribution and status of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Panama.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 6(3): 234-241. 1 tab. 1 fig. July 1990.
 
 
Mountford, Charles P. (detail)
   
1956
Records of the American-Australian scientific expedition to Arnhem Land. 1. Art, myth and symbolism.
Melbourne, Melbourne Univ. Press: xxx + 513. 68 figs. 157 pls. 2 color pls.
 
 
Mountford, Charles P. (detail)
   
1964
The art of Arnhem Land. In: R. M. Berndt (ed.), Australian Aboriginal art.
Sydney, Ure Smith: 20-32.
–Dugong, 25.
 
 
Moustafa, Y. Shawki (detail)
   
1974
Critical observations on the occurrence of Fayum fossil vertebrates.
Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4: 41-78. 11 figs.
–Discusses Fayum stratigraphy and depositional environments, and the occurrence of partly articulated skeletons of Eotheroides libyca [sic] (49, 50, 52, 60, 72).
x
 
Moutou, François (detail)
   
2002
Monk seals in the Indian Ocean?
Monachus Guardian 5(2): [50]-[51]. Nov. 2002.
–Available at http://www.monachus-guardian.org/mguard10/1032scien.htm. Mentions dugongs as an alternative explanation of some supposed Indian Ocean sightings of pinnipeds (m50).
Moynihan, Ann C.: SEE Medway, Dodds et al., 1982. (detail)
Mozgovoy, A. A.: SEE Skrjabin et al., 1951. (detail)
 
 
Muanke, P. B.; Niezrecki, C. (detail)
   
2007
Manatee position estimation by passive acoustic localization.
Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 121(4): 2049-2059.
Mudaliyar, C.: SEE Rasanayagam & Mudaliyar, 1926. (detail)
Mueller, Jochen F.: SEE ALSO Muller, Jochen F.; Gaus et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Mühling, Peter (detail)
   
1985
Zum ersten Mal: Drei Seekuhgeburten in einem Zoo. Erfolgreiche Haltung und Zucht von Rundschwanz-Seekühen (Trichechus manatus).
Tiergarten Aktuell (Nuremberg) 1(1): 8-16. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 25, 1985.
–Summarizes the history of keeping and breeding manatees in captivity in Europe and elsewhere from 1875 onward (9-10), and describes the birth and rearing of three male calves born to Guyanese manatees in Nuremberg, 1981-1984 (10-15).
x
 
Mühling, Peter (detail)
   
1987
Bemerkungen zu Säugetier-Geburten des Jahres 1986: Zwillingsgeburt bei den Seekühen.
Tiergarten Aktuell (Nuremberg) 3(1): 18-19. July 25, 1987.
–Reports the birth of twins (a male and a female) to a captive Guyana manatee at Nuremberg on Apr. 27, 1986.
  The same issue contains a briefer notice of this birth (M. Kraus, 1987), and a copy of a two-page worksheet on seacows for the use of schoolchildren visiting the Nuremberg Zoo (pp. 16-17).
 
 
Muir, Catharine E.; Kiszka, Jeremy J. (detail)
   
2012
Eastern African dugongs. Chap. 9 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 84-90. 1 tab. 1 fig. 1 map.
x
 
Muizon, Christian de (detail)
   
1984
Les vertébrés fossiles de la Formation Pisco (Pérou). Deuxième partie: Les odontocètes (Cetacea, Mammalia) du Pliocène inférieur de Sud-Sacaco.
Inst. Franç. d'Études Andines, Mém. No. 50: 1-183. 98 figs. 17 pls.
–Notes the presence of Metaxytherium calvertense in Peru as evidence of a northwest Atlantic-southeast Pacific axis of faunal distribution, and discusses other evidence supporting Domning's postulated ecological barrier between the northeast and southeast Pacific (171).
x
 
Muizon, Christian de; De Vries, T. J. (detail)
   
1985
Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru).
Geol. Rundschau 74(3): 547-563. 1 tab. 4 figs. 2 pls. Dec. 1985.
–Mentions sirs. from the Sacaco and Montera Formations, and faunal similarities to eastern North America (560).
x
 
Muizon, Christian de; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1985
The first records of fossil sirenians in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (4)7, Sect. C, no. 3: 189-213. 2 tabs. 14 figs.
–French & Spanish summs. Reports skulls of Metaxytherium calvertense from the Early to Middle Miocene Montera Formation (190-206), and a rib of an undescribed dugongid from the Early Pliocene Pisco Formation (206-209), Peru. Compares these specimens with other sirs., and discusses (209-211) their biogeographic and phylogenetic implications. Also reports the recent entry of T. manatus into the Pacific via the Panama Canal, based on a personal communication from G. G. Montgomery (209).
 
 
Muizon, Christian de; Guérin, Claude (detail)
   
1996
Les mammifères marins. Chap. 8 in: C. Guérin & M. Patou-Mathis (eds.), Les grands mammifères Plio-Pléistocènes d'Europe.
Paris, Masson (Collection Préhistoire): 231-242.
 
 
Mukai, Hiroshi; Aioi, K.; Lewmanomont, K.; Matsumasa, M.; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Nojima, S.; Supanwanid, C.; Suzuki, T.; Toyohara, T. (detail)
   
1999
Dugong grazing on Halophila beds in Haad Chao Mai National Park, Trang Province, Thailand: how many dugongs can survive? In: I. Koike (ed.), Effects of grazing and disturbance by dugongs and turtles on tropical seagrass ecosystem.
Tokyo, Univ. of Tokyo: 239-254.
x
 
Mukerjee, Madhusree (detail)
   
1998
Stalking the wild dugong: an undersea elephant remains elusive.
Sci. Amer. 279(3): 20-21. 1 fig. Sept. 1998.
–Brief and pessimistic pop. acc. of the status of dugongs in the Andaman Islands.
Mukhametov, L. M.: SEE ALSO Galantsev & Mukhametov, 1984; Sokolov & Mukhametov, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Mukhametov, L. M.; Galantsev, V. P. (detail)
   
1986
[Investigation of certain physiological features of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 377-384.
–In Russian.
 
 
Mukhametov, L. M.; Lyamin, O. I.; Chetyrbok, I. S.; Vassilyev, A. A.; Pezo Diaz, Roberto (detail)
   
1992
Sleep in an Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis.
Experientia (Basel) 48(4): 417-419. 2 figs.
 
 
Mukhametov, L. M.; Lyamin, O. I.; Chetyrbok, I. S.; Vassilyev, A. A.; Pezo Diaz, Roberto (detail)
   
1994
Sleep in an Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis. In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Mlekopitayushchie Peruanskoi Amazonii. [Mammals of Peruvian Amazonia.]
Moscow, Nauka (301 pp.): 283-288. Illus.
Muku, Tatsunori: SEE Tabuchi et al., 1974. (detail)
Mulholland, Rosemarie: SEE Packard & Mulholland, 1983. (detail)
x
 
Müller, Arnold (detail)
   
1983
Fauna und Palökologie des marinen Mitteloligozäns der Leipziger Tieflandsbucht (Böhlener Schichten).
Altenburger Natw. Forsch. 2: 1-152. 3 tabs. 14 figs. 35 pls.
–Engl. summ. Reports isolated bones and partial skeletons of Halitherium schinzi from the Leipzig Bight, Germany (71-72; pl. 27, figs. 1-6).
 
 
Müller, Arnold (detail)
   
2008
Obereozäne bis oligozäne marine Faunen Mitteldeutschlands - eine Übersicht. Mit einer lithostratigrafischen Neugliederung des Unteroligozäns im Südraum Leipzig.
Zs. Deutsch. Ges. Geowiss. 159(1): 23-79. 1 tab. 19 figs. 10 pls. Mar. 2008.
–Engl. summ. Halitherium schinzi, 36.
 
 
Müller, Gerhard Friedrich (detail)
   
1758
Nachrichten von Seereisen, und zur See gemachten Entdeckungen, die von Russland aus längst den Küsten des Eissmeeres und auf dem Ostlichen Weltmeere gegen Japon und Amerika geschen sind.... In: Müller's Sammlung Russicher Geschichte.
St. Petersburg, Kayserl. Akad. Wiss. (9 vols., 1732-1764): Vol. 3 (Parts 1-3): 1-304.
–Engl. transls.: Müller (1761); Fairbanks, Univ. Alaska Press, 1986. French transl.: Amsterdam, 2 vols., 1766. Danish transl.: Copenhagen, 1784. Account of Rhytina, based on Waxell's information, 251-259.
 
 
Müller, Gerhard Friedrich (detail)
   
1761
Voyages from Asia to America, for completing the discoveries of the north west coast of America. To which is prefixed, a summary of the voyages made by the Russians on the Frozen Sea, in search of a north east passage. Serving as an explanation of a map of the Russian discoveries, published by the Academy of Sciences at Petersburgh. Translated from the High Dutch of S. [i.e., G.] Muller, of the Royal Academy of Petersburgh.... By Thomas Jefferys...
London, T. Jefferys: viii + xliii + 76. Frontisp. 3 maps.
–Edited transl. of Müller (1758). Sea-cow, 60-62.
Muller, Jochen F.: SEE ALSO Mueller, Jochen F.; Haynes et al., 1999; McLachlan et al., 2001; Vetter et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Muller, Jochen F.; Haynes, David; McLachlan, Michael S. (detail)
   
1998
PCDD/Fs in the Great Barrier Reef environment of Australia.
Organohalogen Compounds 39: 105-108. Illus.
 
 
Müller, Otto (detail)
   
1898
Untersuchungen über die Veränderungen, welche die Respirationsorgane der Säugetiere durch die Anpassung an das Leben im Wasser erlitten haben.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 32: 95-230. Pls. 3-6.
x
 
Müller, Philipp Ludwig Statius (detail)
   
1773
Des Ritters Carl von Linné ... vollständiges Natursystem nach der zwölften lateinischen Ausgabe und nach Anleitung des holländischen Houttuynischen Werks mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung.... Erster Theil. Von den säugenden Thieren....
Nuremberg, Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe: [20] + 508 + [17]. Frontisp. 32 pls.
–Allen 323. Gen. acc. of "Trichecus Manatus" (which here includes the dugong), based on earlier writers (174-176; pl. 29, after Clusius). Also lists vernacular names of manatees and dugongs in various languages.
x
 
Müller, Philipp Ludwig Statius (detail)
   
1776
Des Ritters Carl von Linné ... vollständigen Natursystems Supplements- und Register-Band über alle sechs Theile oder Classen des Thierreichs. Mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung....
Nuremberg, Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe: 1-384. 3 pls.
–A sketchy account of the dugong based on previous writers, which bestows a Linnaean name (Trichecus [sic] Dugon) on the species for the first time (21-22). A somewhat overgenerous geographic range is attributed to the animal, extending from the Cape of Good Hope and the Philippine Islands to the Strait of Magellan and the South Pole! For the probable source of the Cape of Good Hope "record", see D. Beeckman (1812).
x
 
Müllerried, Federico K. G. (detail)
   
1932
Primer hallazgo de un sirénido fósil en la República Mexicana.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. México 3(1): 71-73. 2 figs.
–Reports sir. rib fragments from Chiapas, Mexico, said to be Oligocene in age although they were associated with Eocene fossils.
 
 
Mummery, John Howard (detail)
   
1924
The microscopic & general anatomy of the teeth, human and comparative. Ed. 2.
London, H. Milford (Oxford Medical Publs.): xvi + 618. Tabs. Figs. 41 pls.
Mundkur, Taej: SEE Frazier & Mundkur, 1991. (detail)
 
 
Munroe, Kirk (detail)
   
1892
Canoemates: a story of the Florida reef and Everglades.
New York & London, Harper & Bros. Illus.
–Children's book of fictional adventures in Florida, with a story of a manatee encounter in Chap. 36.
Muntz, W. R. A.: SEE Piggins et al., 1983. (detail)
Murai, Takefumi: SEE Inuzuka & Murai, 1980. (detail)
Muraishi, Yasushi: SEE Kimura et al., 1998. (detail)
Muramatsu, Takeshi: SEE Hasegawa et al., 1995. (detail)
Murdoch, W. P., Jr.: SEE Montgomery et al., 1982. (detail)
Murelaga, X.: SEE Astibia et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Murie, Adolph (detail)
   
1935
Mammals from Guatemala and British Honduras.
Misc. Publs. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 26: 1-30. July 15, 1935.
–P. 30: {"Trichechus manatus Linnaeus / Manatee / On a key about one-half mile from Belize, I picked up a number of water-worn manatee bones. This key is said to have been formerly used for preparing manatees for market. The market master at Belize informed me that, although at one time they were often brought to market, of late only one or two are received during a year. A few manatees are said to occur in the Belize River."}
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Murie, James (detail)
   
1872a
On the form and structure of the manatee (Manatus americanus).
Trans. Zool. Soc. London 8(3): 127-202. Pls. 17-26. Sept. 1872 (read Nov. 15, 1870).
–Notice: Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1870(3): 747-748, Apr. 1871. The outstanding nineteenth-century work on sirenian gross anatomy, still valuable for the detail of the illustrations as well as the anatomical descriptions. The colored plates are reproduced in black and white in Ronald et al. (1978).
  Describes in detail the external and internal anatomy of a female T. m. manatus from Puerto Rico and a male from Suriname (127-189). Discusses the relationships of sirs., concluding that they lie somewhere between cetaceans and proboscideans (189-191). Finally, describes the provenance of his two specimens and the efforts made to bring them alive to England, concluding with recommendations for care of captive animals to be followed in future attempts of this nature (191-193).
  James Murie (1832-1925) was a controversial and irascible character who worked under Sir Richard Owen as Prosector of the Zoological Society of London, 1865-1870. Later he served as Librarian and Principal Executive Officer of the Linnean Society of London, and in retirement he worked on fisheries biology. See articles on him in The Linnean 13(3): 23-24, Oct. 1997, and 17(1): 21-23, Jan. 2001.
 
 
Murie, James (detail)
   
1872b
On the skin &c. of the Rhytina, suggested by a recent paper of Dr. A. Brandt's.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)9(52): 306-313. Pl. 19. Apr. 1872.
–Discusses A. Brandt (1871a).
 
 
Murie, James (detail)
   
1874
[Title?]
Proc. Geol. Soc. London, Nov. 18, 1874.
 
 
Murie, James (detail)
   
1879
Cause of death of the manatee at Westminster Aquarium.
Field 53(1373): 442. Apr. 19, 1879.
–Repr. in Murie (1880: 23-24).
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Murie, James (detail)
   
1880
Further observations on the manatee.
Trans. Zool. Soc. London 11(2): 19-48. Pls. 5-9. Aug. 1880 (read June 17, 1879).
–Notices: Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1879(3): 552, Oct. 1879; Hardwicke's Science-Gossip 15(176): 186, 1879. A sequel to Murie (1872a), giving additional anatomical details based on the dissection of another manatee, which had recently died in the Westminster Aquarium. Reviews recent literature on manatees (19-21); describes the captive history, behavior, and death of the female T. m. manatus brought to London from British Guiana (21-26), its external anatomy and measurements (27-32), including structure and movements of the lips; gives addenda on myology (32-35) and the nervous system (35-44), emphasizing the cervical nerves and brain. The plates include drawings from life of the animal in different postures (pls. 5-7), details of muscles and nerves (pl. 8), and views of the brain and cranial arteries (pl. 9).
  The above-cited notice in Proc. Zool. Soc. (for June 17, 1879) is immediately followed by this related notice on p. 552: {"Mr. F. D. Godman exhibited and made remarks on a drawing of the Manatee by Mr. Wolf, taken from the specimen lately living in the Westminster Aquarium."}
 
 
Murie, James (detail)
   
1896
Sirenia. In: P.M. Duncan (ed.), Cassell's Natural History. Vol. II.
London, Paris, & Melbourne, Cassell & Co. Ltd. (6 vols. in 3) (Vol. II: x + 360).
–Said to contain material on sir. stomachs not published elsewhere.
x
 
Murie, Olaus Johan (detail)
   
1937
Notes on the mammals of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. In: O. W. Geist & F. G. Rainey (eds.), Archaeological excavations at Kukulik, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.
Univ. Alaska Misc. Publ. No. 2, Appendix 3: 335-346. 3 figs.
–P. 345: {"Family TRICHECHIDAE, Manatees / Rhytina gigas, Steller's Sea cow. / Mr. [Otto William] Geist reports that the Eskimo "talk about a 'real walrus' obtained in olden days, without tusks." This would indicate the Steller's sea cow and is most interesting information. However, no bones have been obtained as yet. This Eskimo tradition may, of course, have come originally from some other locality, yet it deserves special attention in future work on the island."}
 
 
Murie, Olaus Johan (detail)
   
1959
Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula.
North American Fauna (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) No. 61: xiv + 364.
–Steller's sea cow, 332-333.
Murphy, C. J.: SEE West et al., 1991. (detail)
Murphy, David: SEE Walsh et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Murphy, Mary Jane T. (detail)
   
1983
Manatee talk.
Omni 5: 45. Sept. 1983.
Murphy, William J.: SEE O'Brien et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Murray, Andrew (detail)
   
1866
The geographical distribution of mammals.
London, Day & Son, Ltd.: xvi + 420. 2 pls. 101 maps.
x
 
Murray, R. M. (detail)
   
1981
The importance of VFA in dugong nutrition. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 166-168.
–Discusses the production of volatile fatty acids in the dugong's intestine, and calculates that they could provide some 25% of the dugong's digestible energy intake.
x
 
Murray, R. M.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Spain, Alister V. (detail)
   
1977
The role of the midgut caecum and large intestine in the digestion of sea grasses by the dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Compar. Biochem. Physiol. 56A: 7-10. 2 tabs.
–Reports on the analysis of gut contents for plant species, apparent digestibilities, and volatile fatty acids; the blood was analyzed for phosphorus and urea. Digestion was found to occur principally in the hindgut.
 
 
Muschett, Giselle; Bonacic, Cristian; Vianna, Juliana A. (detail)
   
2009
A noninvasive sampling method for genetic analysis of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 25(4): 955-963. 3 figs. Oct. 2009.
Musick, John A.: SEE Morgan et al., 2002. (detail)
Mustafa, Muslimin: SEE Whitten et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Myers, H. M.; Myers, P. V. N. (detail)
   
1871
Life and nature under the tropics.
New York, D. Appleton & Co.: xvi + 358.
–Brief account of the Orinoco manatee, its uses by the natives (102), and their methods of hunting it (103).
Myrick, Albert C., Jr.: SEE ALSO Domning & Myrick, 1980. (detail)
 
 
Myrick, Albert C., Jr. (detail)
   
1984
Time significance of layering in some mammalian hard tissues and its application in population studies.
Acta Zool. Fennica No. 171: 217-220.
 
 
Myroniuk, P. (detail)
   
1988
A survey of mammals on Hinchinbrook Island, north Queensland.
Austral. Zool. 25(1): 6-10. Illus.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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