Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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N. [Godefroy Loyer?] (detail)
Voyages aux côtes de Guinée & en Amerique. Par Mr. N***.
Amsterdam, aux depens d'Etienne Roger: 1-416. Frontisp. 38 pls.
–An extremely rare work. The copy I examined (in the library of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil) was accompanied by an excerpt from the catalog of an anonymous bookseller, who felt convinced after considerable research that the author was the Dominican priest Godefroy Loyer (born 1660 or 1666, died 1715). Loyer wrote a Relation du Royaume d'Issyny, Côte-d'Or, Pais de Guinée, avec ce qui s'y passé ... dans l'etablissement que les François y ont fait.... (Paris, 1714). I have not seen the latter, but the bookseller states that it is remarkably similar in content to the 1719 Amsterdam work, and he suggests that the latter was a version of Loyer's book adapted for a Protestant rather than Catholic audience, perhaps actually printed in France and sold in Amsterdam by Roger with his own title-page.
  Half the book is devoted to West Africa (Ghana, Gambia, Senegal, etc.) and the rest to the West Indies (Martinique, Cayenne, and St. Domingue). The following account of the (African?) manatee is on p. 70:
  {"Il y a plusieurs autres sortes de Poissons le Requiem, le Lamantin, la Bécasse de Mer, la Bécune.
  "Je parlerai du Requiem dans la suite, pour le Lamantin c'est un monstre marin, qui a la tête fort semblable à celle d'une vache; ce poisson monstrueux est fort bon à manger. Il vient d'une grandeur & d'une grosseur prodigieuse, la fémelle met ses petits dehors à la façon des vaches, & elles ont d'eux tetines avec lesquelles elles les allaitent; elles les portent entre deux petits bras qu'elles ont, comme vous le pouvez voir dans la Figure."}
  The plate facing p. 69 (labelled "Page 70") is redrawn and reversed from that in C. de Rochefort (1667 and earlier eds.).
N. N. (detail)
America: or an exact description of the West Indies: more especially of those provinces which are under the dominion of the King of Spain.
London, printed by Ric. Hodgkinsonne for Edw. Dod: 1-484. 1 map.
–Allen 78. Account of the Manati or Oxe-fish, based mainly on Hernandez and Laet (154-155).
Nabor, Peter; Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
Manatee aerial survey program 1987 final report: studies of the West Indian manatee, Anna Maria to northern Charlotte Harbor and the Myakka River.
Mote Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 127: v + 45 + 14. 13 tabs. 17 figs. + 14 figs. in appendix. July 5, 1988.
Nabor, Peter; Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
Aerial studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) from Anna Maria Florida to northern Charlotte Harbor including the Myakka River: recommended habitat protection and manatee management strategies.
Mote Marine Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 134: iv + 94. 9 tabs. 28 figs. Jan. 31, 1989.
Nachtigal, Gustav (detail)
Săharâ und Sûdân. Ergebnisse sechsjähriger Reisen in Afrika.
Berlin, Weidmann (2 vols., 1879-81): Vol. 2: xxiv + 790.
–Sirs., 670.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
On the teeth of Desmostylus.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 42(505): 605-614. 2 pls. Oct. 20, 1935.
–In Japanese.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
Desmostylus mirabilis sp. nov. from Keton in Saghalin.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 42(507): 822-824. Dec. 20, 1935.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
A new species of Desmostylus from Japanese Saghalien and its geological significance.
Proc. Imper. Acad. Tokyo 13(2): 46-49. 3 figs. Feb. 1937.
–Abstr.: Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr. 14(3/4): abstr.-page 58, Oct. 1937. Describes Desmostylus minor from the Lower Miocene of Sakhalin.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
Desmostylella, a new genus of Desmostylidae from Japan.
Proc. Imper. Acad. Tokyo 13(3): 82-85. 4 figs. Mar. 1937.
–Abstr.: Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr. 14(3/4): abstr.-page 58-59, Oct. 1937. Describes Desmostylella typica, n.gen.n.sp., from the Miocene of Honshu.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
A new occurrence of a small Desmostylus tooth in Hokkaidô.
Proc. Imper. Acad. Tokyo 13(4): 110-113. 9 figs. Apr. 1937.
–Abstr.: Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr. 14(3/4): abstr.-page 59, Oct. 1937. Describes a specimen of uncertain age that he refers to Desmostylus minor.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
Classification and geological distribution of the Desmostylidae.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 44(525): 533-534.
–Abstr.: Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr. 14(3/4): abstr.-page 59, Oct. 1937.
Nagao, Takumi (detail)
On the skeleton of Desmostylus.
Jubilee Publication in Commemoration of Prof. H. Yabe's 60th Birthday: 43-52.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
Nagao, Takumi; Oishi, Saburo (detail)
Newly discovered Desmostylus remains in the frontier district of south Sakhalin.
Jour. Geogr. (Tokyo) 46(541): 103-111. 1 map. Mar. 1934.
Nagao, Takumi; Oishi, Saburo (detail)
Geographical distribution of Desmostylus.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 42(497): 74-81. Feb. 20, 1935.
–In Japanese.
Nagasaki, Tasuku: SEE Uchida et al., 1999. (detail)
Nagasawa,Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shoji (detail)
A fossil sea cow from the Pliocene Nakawatari Formation in Tozawa-mura of the western part of the Shinjo Basin, Yamagata Prefecture, northeast Japan.
[Serial?] 1998: 9-25. 6 tabs. 5 figs. 1 pl. Mar. 1998.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes a rib of Hydrodamalis sp. (Pliocene, ca. 4 Ma) and compares it with other hydrodamalines.
Nagelschmid, F. (detail)
Seekühe. Die lustigen Dickerchen.
Tauchen 2(11): 56-59. Illus.
Nahke, P. (detail)
Sirenen in Not.
Tauchen 9(9): 27-31. Illus.
Naiff, R. D.: SEE Lainson et al., 1983. (detail)
Nair, R. V.; Lal Mohan, R. S. (detail)
Studies on the vocalisation of the sea cow Dugong dugon in captivity.
Indian Jour. Fish. 22(1/2): 277-278. 1 tab. Aug. 1977.
–Sound recordings in air showed "chirp-squeaks" from 3 to 8 kHz in frequency.
Nair, R. V.; Lal Mohan, R. S.; Rao, K. Satyanarayana (detail)
The dugong Dugong dugon.
ICAR Bull., Central Marine Fisheries Res. Inst. (Cochin, India) 26: 1-42 + 2 appendices. 1 tab. 7 figs. 1 pl. Feb. 1975.
Nakamura, M.: SEE Itoigawa & Nakamura, 1978. (detail)
Nakamura, Takeshi: SEE Abe et al., 1982; Takayasu & Nakamura, 1984. (detail)
Nakaoka, Masahiro; Aioi, Keiko (detail)
Growth of seagrass Halophila ovalis at dugong trails compared to existing within-patch variation in a Thailand intertidal flat.
Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 184: 97-103. 2 tabs. 4 figs. July 28, 1999.
–Reports induction of adaptive morphological plasticity (e.g., in rhizome branching frequency and internode length) of Halophila in dugong feeding trails within 7-10 days. Growth and productivity did not show an increase on this short a time scale; but production rate was nonetheless great enough (7.5 g dry weight per square meter per day) to revegetate trails in less than 10 days, and much greater than a dugong's estimated daily consumption rate (ca. 0.06 g dry weight per square meter per day).
Nakaoka, Masahiro; Mukai, Hiroshi; Chunhabundit, Suraphol (detail)
Impacts of dugong foraging on benthic animal communities in a Thailand seagrass bed.
Ecol. Research 17(6): 625-638. Nov. 2002.
Nakashita, Shigeo: SEE Oishi et al., 1990. (detail)
Naora, Nobuo (detail)
[History of mammals in Japan.]
Nara, Yotoku-sha: 1-265.
–In Japanese.
Nasr, D.; Shawky, A. M.; Vine, P. (detail)
Status of Red Sea dugongs. In: Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea (Rasul, N. M. A. & Stewart, I. C. F., eds.).
Switzerland, Springer Oceanography.
Nateekanjanalarp, S.; Sudara, S. (detail)
Dugong protection awareness: an approach for coastal conservation.
Third ASEAN-Australia Symposium on Living Coastal Resources (Bangkok, Chulalongkorn Univ.), _ Proc. Vol. 2, Research Papers: 515-525.
Natiello, M.; Lewis, P.; Samuelson, Don A. (detail)
Comparative anatomy of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and selected species.
Veterinary Ophthalmology 8(6): 375-385.
Natiello, M.; Samuelson, Don A. (detail)
Three-dimensional reconstruction of the angioarchitecture of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Veterinary Ophthalmology 8(6): 367-373.
National Academy Of Sciences, U.S.A.: SEE Anonymous, 1973a, 1976g. (detail)
National Science Research Council Of Guyana: SEE Anonymous, 1973a, 1974c. (detail)
Natterer, Johann: SEE Diesing, C. M., 1839; Pelzeln, A. von, 1883. (detail)
Naumov, N. P.: SEE Heptner & Naumov, 1967. (detail)
Naumova, E. I. (detail)
[Functional morphology of the digestive tract.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 312-330.
Navarro-Martínez, Zenaida M.; Álvarez-Alemán, Anmari; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly (detail)
Componentes de la dieta en tres individuos de manatí en Cuba [Diet components in three manatees in Cuba].
Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 34(2): 1-11. 2 tabs. 4 figs. Jan.-June 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Manatees Trichechus manatus depend on aquatic vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the presence of diet items among different regions of the digestive tract with different levels of degradation, in three individuals. In addition, we developed a reference collection of images of seagrass fragments and other common diet items, which can be useful in studies of digestive material. We conducted microhistological analyses of manatee digestive samples(stomach, intestine, and feces) from manatees of southern Varadero (Matanzas)and northern coast of Villa Clara. The studied individuals used marine vegetation as food source. The abundance of rhizomes in feces suggests a rooting behavior. Despite the fact that the quantification of the diet components can be affected in several regions of the digestive tract, due to the differential degradation of the diet items along the tract, the identification of the main diet components was possible in all of these regions.
 RESUMEN: El manatí Trichechus manatus depende de vegetación acuatica como fuente de alimento. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos comparar la aparición de los componentes mas importantes de la dieta de tres individuos entre diferentes porciones de su tracto digestivo. Ademas, elaborar una colección de fotografías de referencia de los fragmentos de las fanerógamas marinas y otros elementos que pueden ser comúnmente observados en la dieta de individuos de esta especie, para su identificación en estudios de material digestivo. Para ello se realizó un analisis microhistológico del contenido digestivo (estómago, intestino y heces) de animales procedentes del sur de Varadero (Matanzas) y costa norte de Villa Clara. Todos los componentes encontrados fueron característicos de ecosistemas marinos, lo que indica el uso de este tipo de habitat como sitio de alimentación por estos individuos. Se encontró alta abundancia de rizomas en las muestras fecales de manatí, lo que sugiere la remoción de la planta completa durante su alimentación. A pesar de la variación observada en la composición de la dieta en diferentes regiones del tracto digestivo, esta parece estar influenciada por el nivel de degradación al que se somete el alimento en cada región, los componentes que pueden ser importantes para la alimentación de esta especie se mantienen hasta su expulsión en forma de heces.
Neal, F. C.: SEE ALSO Irvine et al., 1980. (detail)
Neal, F. C.; Irvine, A. Blair; Bachman, K. C.; Jenkins, Robert L. (detail)
Clinical data from free-ranging and captive West Indian manatees. [Abstr.]
Proc. 10th Ann. Meeting Internatl. Assoc. Aquatic Animal Medicine: 32.
Neame, Peter J.: SEE Barry et al., 1994. (detail)
Negus, V. E. (detail)
The comparative anatomy and physiology of the larynx.
New York & London, Hafner, xi + 230. 191 figs.
–P. 77: {"The Dugong and Manatee are also unprovided with more than a very small and low epiglottis; both are microsmatic, but herbivorous."} Fig. 89, on the same page, includes a simple sketch of the manatee "larynx looked at from above."
Neish, W. D. (detail)
The manatee, Manatus australis.
Jour. Inst. Jamaica 2(3): 287-288. "July, 1896" (issued Nov. 10, 1896).
–Gen. acc. of West Indian manatees, with comments on some specimens recently captured, and measurements of one animal. States that the manatee is uncommon but not rare in Jamaica.
Nelson, Edward William (detail)
The larger North American mammals.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 30(5): 385-472. 73 figs. Nov. 1916.
–Repr. in his Wild Animals of North America (Washington, Natl. Geogr. Soc., 1918). Florida manatee, 465, 467-468.
Nelson, Michael S. (detail)
Save the Manatee Club.
Florida Naturalist 65(2): 18. Summer 1992.
–Summarizes the Club's activities over the previous year.
Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V. (detail)
The gut bacterial community of mammals from marine and terrestrial habitats.
PLoS ONE 8(12). 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083655. Dec. 30, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness.
Nemoto, H. (detail)
A desmostylid excavation trip to Hatsuyukizawa, Keton, Saghalin.
Warera-no-Kobutsu 5(1): 10-18.
Nemoto, Takabumi: SEE Shibata et al., 1981; Yamaguchi et al., 1981. (detail)
Nery, Frederico José de Santa-Anna: SEE Santa-Anna Nery, Frederico José de. (detail)
Ness, P. S. (detail)
Introducing the West Indian manatee.
Freshwater Mar. Aquar. 9(10): 50-51. Illus.
Ness, Traci L.: SEE ALSO Cashman et al., 1996. (detail)
Ness, Traci L.; Bradley, W. Guy; Reynolds, John E., III; Roess, William B. (detail)
Isolation and expression of the interleukin-2 gene from the killer whale, Orcinus orca.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(3): 531-543. 1 tab. 3 figs. "July 1998" (mailed June 16, 1998).
–Reports that killer whale IL-2 displays 80% nucleotide sequence homology and 64% amino acid homology with that of the Florida manatee (538-539).
Netto, Felippe Joaquim de Souza (detail)
Relatorio da Recebedoria do Estado do Amazonas. In: A. C. R. Bittencourt, Mensagem lida perante o Congresso dos Representantes por occasião da abertura da primera sessão ordinaria da setima legislatura em 10 de Julho de 1910.
Manaus (Brazil), Secção de Obras da Imprensa Official (387 pp.), Annexo no. 29: 1-16. Tabs.
–Gives some statistics on the production of mixira (canned manatee meat) in the State of Amazonas during 1909 and 1910 (in annexos 1, 1ABC, 2, and 2C).
Neumann (detail)
Jour. Geogr. Soc. Irkutzk
–Publ. before 1883.
Neumann, Dietrich (detail)
Das Handskelett von Halitherium schinzi Kaup.
Pal. Zs. (Berlin) 18(3/4): 257-291. 4 figs. 2 pls. Dec. 31, 1936.
Neumayer, E. (detail)
Prehistoric Indian rock paintings.
Bombay, Oxford Univ. Press: vii + 159. 17 pls.
–Interprets rock paintings at Gandhi Sagar, Rajasthan, India as Mesolithic representations of dugongs (41, 146).
Neviani, Antonio (detail)
Sui giacimenti dei cetacei fossili nel Monteleonese con indicazioni di altri rinvenuti nelle Calabrie.
Bol. Soc. Geol. Ital. 5(1): 61-73.
Neviani, Antonio (detail)
Mammiferi marini che si rinvennero fossili nelle Calabrie.
Il Calabro (Catanzaro, Italy) 59(2): 1-12. June 19, 1886.
–Engl. summ. Also publ. as a separate: Catanzaro, Tipografia del "Calabro", 1886: 1-12. Reports the first fossil sir. remains found in Calabria, from two Middle Miocene localities: two rib fragments from Baracche di Catanzaro, and a tusk with a third rib fragment, from Crichi (7-9).
Neviani, Antonio (detail)
Contribuzione alla paleontologia della provincia di Catanzaro.
Bol. Soc. Geol. Ital. 6(1): 63-69.
–Mentions fragmentary remains (ribs and tusks) of Metaxytherium sp. found in a Miocene conglomerate near Crichi, Italy (68-69).
Nevill, H. (Ed.) (detail)
The Taprobanian (London, Trubner & Co.) 1(1): 2.
Neville, Melvin; Castro, Napoleón; Mármol Burgos, Andrés E.; Revilla, Juan (detail)
Censusing primate populations in the reserved area of the Pacaya and Samiria Rivers, Department Loreto, Peru.
Primates 17(2): 151-181. Apr. 1976.
–Notes that T. inunguis seemed to be abundant in the Santa Elena R., a tributary of the Samiria, and that one was drowned in a net (155).
Newman, Lucy A.; Robinson, Phyllis R. (detail)
The visual pigments of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Vision Research 46(20): 3326-3330.
Newsome, Seth D.; Clementz, Mark T.; Koch, Paul L. (detail)
Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to study the ecology of marine mammals.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 26(3): 509-572. 3 tabs. 8 figs. July 2010.
Newton, Edwin Tulley (detail)
The Vertebrata of the Pliocene deposits of Britain.
Gen. Mem. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom 12: xi + 138. 10 pls.
–Sirs., 48, pl. 5.
Newton, Michael A.: SEE Craig et al., 1997. (detail)
Ngafack, R. (detail)
Predicting seasonal presence of the African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis, Link 1795) according to water physico-chemical characteristics: the case of Lake Ossa, Cameroon.
University of Dschang, Cameroon 2014..
Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat (detail)
What the skull and scapular morphology of the dugong (Dugong dugon) can tell us: sex, habitat and body length?
Scientific Reports (Nature) 7(1964): 17 pp. 8 tabs. 11 figs. + online supplemental materal. May 16, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong (Dugong dugon, Müller) is an endangered marine mammal species. We examined the relationship between sex, habitat and body length based on the skull and scapular morphology and morphometrics of 81 dugong samples in Thailand. A total of 58 parameters from the skull and scapula (25 from the cranium, 23 from the mandible and 10 from the scapula) as well as tusks were used in this study. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis, followed by discriminant analysis and multivariate linear regression. Here we show, 100% and 98.5% accuracy rates for sexing using large tusks and the skull, respectively. Scapular morphology using the caudal border tubercle and coracoid process showed 91.30% and 96.15% accuracy rates for identifying males and females. Skull morphometrics could categorize dugong habitat, i.e. living in the Andaman Sea or Gulf of Thailand, with 100% accuracy. Moreover, our model could be used to estimate body length with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.985. The results of our study showed that skull morphology and morphometric measurements could be used as a tool for sex identification, location identification and estimation of body length. But scapular morphology is the best tool for sex identification in dugongs.
Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, K.; Piboon, P.; Euppayo, T.; Kaewmong, P.; Cherdsukjai, P.; ... Thitaram, C. (detail)
Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species.
Scientific Reports 7: 46167: 10 tabs. 5 figs.
–ABSTRACT: The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.
Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Boonsri, B.; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Patchaaraporn, K.; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat (detail)
Pelvic bone morphometric analysis in the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Science Reports 10: 19350.
Nichelson, W.: SEE Herbert & Nichelson, 1780. (detail)
Nichols, James D.: SEE Packard & Nichols, 1983. (detail)
Nicholson, Henry Alleyne; Lydekker, Richard (detail)
A manual of palaeontology, for the use of students; with a general introduction on the principles of palaeontology. Ed. 3.
Edinburgh & London, W. Blackwood & Sons (2 vols.): Vol. 2: xi + 889-1624. Figs. 813-1354.
–Rev.: Rev. Quest. Sci. 28: 327-342, 1891? The first and second eds. were by Nicholson alone (1872, 1879). Sirs., 212.
Nickel, Birgit (detail)
Zur palynostratigraphischen Einstufung des Sirenen-Fundortes Schauenburg-Hoof bei Kassel.
Philippia 7(2): 165-167. Illus.
–Engl. summ. Discusses a ?middle Rupelian (Oligocene) locality of ?Halitherium.
Nico, Leo G. (detail)
Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Neotropical Ichthyology 8(4): 893-898. 3 figs.
–Portuguese summ.
Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, W. F.; Reid, James P. (detail)
Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs.
Aquatic Invasions 4(3): 511-519.
Nicole, M.; Egnankou-Wadja, M.; Schmidt, M. (eds.) (detail)
A preliminary inventory of coastal wetlands of Côte d'Ivoire.
Gland, IUCN: viii + 80. Illus.
Nicorici, Eugen; Popovici, Nicolae (detail)
Sirenid endocranial cast from the Upper Eocene of Transylvania.
Dari Seama Şedinţelor Inst. Geol. Geofiz. Rom. 68(3): 91-95. 2 pls.
–In Romanian; Engl. and French summs.
Nieda, Kurt von: SEE Wagner et al., 1983. (detail)
Nielsen, Klaus A.; Owen, H. C.; Mills, P. C.; Flint, Mark; Gibson, J. S. (detail)
Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(1): 35-41.
Nieremberg, Juan Eusebio (detail)
Historia naturae, maxime peregrinae, libris XVI. distincta. In quibus rarissima naturae arcana, etiam astronomica, & ignota Indiarum animalia, quadrupedes, aues, pisces, reptilia, insecta, zoophyta, plantae, metalla, lapides, & alia mineralia, fluuiorumq'ue & elementorum conditiones, etiam cum proprietatibus medicinalibus, describuntur; nouae & curiosissimae quaestiones disputatur, ac plura sacrae Scripturae loca eruditè enodantur. Accedunt de miris & miraculosis naturis in Europâ libri duo: item de iisdem in Terrâ Hebraeis promisâ liber vnus.
Antwerp, ex officina Plantiniana Balthasaris Moreti: [8] + 502 + [104]. Illus.
–Sirs., lib. 11, cap. 9, p. 269.
Nietschmann, Bernard: SEE ALSO Smethurst & Nietschmann, 1999. (detail)
Nietschmann, Bernard (detail)
Hunting and fishing focus among the Miskito Indians, eastern Nicaragua.
Human Ecology 1(1): 41-67.
–States that manatees make up less than 3% of the meat poundage obtained by hunting.
Nietschmann, Bernard (detail)
Between land and water: the subsistence ecology of the Miskito Indians, eastern Nicaragua.
New York & London, Seminar Press: xiv + 279.
Nietschmann, Bernard (detail)
The wind caller.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 86(3): 10-12, 14, 16. 1 fig. Mar. 1977.
–Repr.: Reader's Digest, Canadian ed., Oct. 1977. Pop. acc. of the Torres Strait area, including traditional lore on the feeding behavior of dugongs and their movements with respect to the tides (10-12, 14).
Nietschmann, Bernard (detail)
Hunting and ecology of dugongs and green turtles, Torres Strait, Australia.
Natl. Geogr. Soc. Res. Rept. 17: 625-651. 5 tabs. 11 figs.
–Relatively non-detailed account of a year-long research visit to Mabuiag Is., with catch statistics and measurements on dugongs and turtles caught (1976-79), percentages of seagrass species found in dugong stomachs, lists of Islander terms for categories of dugongs and turtles, and other data on natural history and human ecology.
Nietschmann, Bernard; Nietschmann, Judith (detail)
Good dugong, bad dugong; bad turtle, good turtle.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 90(5): 54-63. 11 figs. May 1981.
–Gen. acc. of dugong and turtle ecology and hunting, and their role in Torres Strait society and economy.
Nieuhof, Johan (= Jean Nieuhoff) (detail)
L'ambassade de la Companie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, ou Grand Cam de Tartarie, faite par les Srs. Pierre de Goyer, & Jacob de Keyser, illustrée d'une tres-exacte description des villes, bourgs, villages, ports de mers, & autres lieux plus considerables de la Chine: enrichie d'un grand nombre de tailles douces. Le tout recueilli par le Mr. Jean Nieuhoff, ...: mis en francois, orné, et assorti de mille belles particularitez tant morales que politiques, par Jean le Carpentier, historiographe.
Leiden, J. de Meurs (2 parts in 1 vol.): xii + 290 + 134. Illus.
–Sirs., 2: 100.
Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf (detail)
Chapter 7 – The insular cortex: a review.
Progress in Brain Research 195: 123-163. 1 tab. 14 figs. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-53860-4.00007-6.
–ABSTRACT: The human insular cortex forms a distinct, but entirely hidden lobe, situated in the depth of the Sylvian fissure. Here, we first review the recent literature on the connectivity and the functions of this structure. It appears that this small lobe, taking up less than 2% of the total cortical surface area, receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei, is (mostly reciprocally) connected with the amygdala and with many limbic and association cortical areas, and is implicated in an astonishingly large number of widely different functions, ranging from pain perception and speech production to the processing of social emotions. Next, we embark on a long, adventurous journey through the voluminous literature on the structural organization of the insular cortex. This journey yielded the following take-home messages: (1) The meticulous, but mostly neglected publications of ??? and ??? are still invaluable for our understanding of the architecture of the mammalian insular cortex. (2) The relation of the insular cortex to the adjacent claustrum is neither ontogenetical nor functional, but purely topographical. (3) The insular cortex has passed through a spectacular progressive differentiation during hominoid evolution, but the assumption of Craig (2009) that the human anterior insula has no homologue in the rhesus monkey is untenable. (4) The concept of Mesulam and Mufson (1985), that the primate insula is essentially composed of three concentrically arranged zones, agranular, dysgranular, and granular, is presumably correct, but there is at present much confusion concerning the more detailed architecture of the anterior insular cortex. (5) The large spindle-shaped cells in the fifth layer of the insular cortex, currently known as von Economo neurons (VENs), are not only confined to large-brained mammals, such as whales, elephants, apes, and humans, but also occur in monkeys and prosimians, as well as in the pygmy hippopotamus, the Atlantic walrus, and Florida manatee. Finally, we point out that the human insula presents a unique opportunity for performing an in-depth comparative analysis of the relations between structure and function in a typical sensory and a typical cognitive cortical domain.
Niezrecki, C.; Phillips, R.; Meyer, M.; Beusse, D. O., Jr. (detail)
Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations.
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 114(3): 1640-1647.
Nifong, James C.; Frick, Michael G. (detail)
First record of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) as a host to the sea turtle barnacle (Chelonibia testudinaria).
Southeastern Naturalist 10(3): 557-560. 2 figures. DOI: 10.1656/058.010.0316. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Chelonibia testudinaria (Sea Turtle Barnacle) and other closely related barnacle species of the genus Chelonibia are known to utilize a variety of organisms for their attachment substrate. These include the calcified exoskeleton of marine crustaceans and chelicerids, the epidermis of manatees, and the carapace regions of all extant sea turtle species. Here, we present the first records of an Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator; Alligatoridae) as a host for C. testudinaria.
Nigrelli, R. F. (detail)
Mortality statistics for specimens in the New York Aquarium, 1939.
Zoologica 25: 525-552.
–Amphistome parasite in cecum of T. manatus, 550.
Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Fukumoto, Yukio; Okada, Norihiro (detail)
Ancient SINEs from African endemic mammals.
Molec. Biol. Evol. 20(4): 522-527.
–Correction of author name "Hukumoto": Molec. Biol. Evol. 20(7): 1181, 2003.
Nimuendajú, Curt (detail)
The Tukuna. [Ed. by R. H. Lowie; transl. by W. D. Hohenthal.]
Univ. California Publ. Amer. Archaeol. Ethnol. 45: x + 209. 13 figs. 18 pls. 1 map. Apr. 16, 1952.
–P. 26: {"The peixe-boi, or manatee (Manatus inunguis; T[ukuna]., a'iruvë), is rarely caught. The Tukuna do not kill the red dolphin (Delphinus sp.), notwithstanding their dislike for it because it scares away the fish."} This relates to the region of the Rio Solimões or Amazon between Leticia and Tonantins, Brazil.
Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Garcia-Rivas, Maria del Carmen; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth Adriana; Blanco-Parra, Maria del Pilar; de la Parra-Venegas, Rafael (detail)
Aquatic mammals from the Mexican Caribbean; a review.
Hidrobiologica 25(1):127-138. April 2015.
–ABSTRACT: We present a review of the aquatic mammal species occurring in the Mexican Caribbean. Several published sources were reviewed to find information about aquatic mammals reported for the Mexican Caribbean. Additionally, we consulted 29 national and international collections and museums. Based on documents, collections, direct records and local news, we analyzed 18 confirmed species of aquatic mammals for the study area [Tursiops truncatus, Stenella clymene, S. frontalis, S. longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Peponocephala electra; Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon europaeus, Trichechus manatus manatus, Lontra longicaudis annectens and Monachus tropicalis (extinct)]. In order to gather solid baseline information that enhances efficient long-term management, regular and systematic population censuses of the aquatic mammal community are recommended. We recommend the use of the "Mexican Caribbean" area as a separate unit of management and conservation, differently as has been included in the macro region "Gulf of Mexico/Mexican Caribbean".
Nishimura, H.; Asano, Shiro; Sekido, M.; Kitamura, S.; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
On the Mermaid Hall, new keeping pool of dugong, and its control system at Toba Aquarium.
Jour. Jap. Assoc. Zool. Gardens & Aquariums 23(4): 107-111.
Nishinakagawa, Hayao; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Otsuka, Jun-ichi; Kawaguchi, Sadanori (detail)
Mammals from archaeological sites of the Jomon Period in Kagoshima Prefecture.
Jour. Mamm. Soc. Japan 19(1): 57-66. 2 tabs. 2 figs. June 1994.
–Reports "Dugongidae, gen. et sp. indet." from the Uwaigusku site, Yoron Is., Amami Shoto (Late Jomon Period).
Nishiwaki, Masaharu: SEE ALSO Kasuya & Nishiwaki, 1978. (detail)
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
Distribution and migration of marine mammals in the North Pacific area.
Bull. Ocean Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo No. 1: 1-64. 22 figs. 8 pls. Dec. 1967.
–Sirs., 7-8?
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
Dugong and manatee.
Animals and Zoo 20(2): 48-51.
–In Japanese.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
General biology. In: S. H. Ridgway (ed.), Mammals of the sea: biology and medicine.
Springfield (Illinois), Charles C Thomas (812 pp.): 3-204.
–Sirs., 192-200.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
Ecology of the dugong and its management.
Mar. Res. Indonesia No. 19: 1-6. 1 tab. 1 fig.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
Recent distribution and status of Dugong. [Abstr.]
Congressus Theriol. Internatl. 2: 94. Illus.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
Current status of the African manatee.
Acta Zool. Fennica No. 172: 135-136.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu (detail)
Significance of 55° S in the 'Indian Ocean Sanctuary of Whales' in relation to the distribution of marine mammals.
Mem. Natl. Inst. Polar Res., Special Issue No. 32: 122-129. Illus.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
Dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776). In: S. H. Ridgway & R. J. Harrison (eds.), Handbook of marine mammals. Vol. 3.
London, Academic Press: 1-31. 1 tab. 10 figs.
–Rev.: G.B. Rathbun, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(3): 236-237, Jul. 1986.
Nishiwaki, Masaharu; Kasuya, Toshio; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tobayama, Teruo; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
Present distribution of the dugong in the world.
Sci. Rept. Whales Res. Inst. No. 31: 133-141. 2 figs. Dec. 1979.
–Abstr.: Nishiwaki et al. (1981). Summarizes dugong distribution based on interview surveys, and recognizes 5 more or less discrete areas of relatively continuous distribution: eastern Australia, eastern Papua New Guinea, and Melanesia; western Australia, Moluccas, and Philippines; Sumatra, Malaysia, and Andamans; India and Sri Lanka; and East Africa and Madagascar. Suggests that dugong populations in the latter two regions are declining, and offers a population guesstimate of 30,000 animals worldwide. Cites records of rare dugong occurrences at Guam and Yap; discusses the roles of water temperature and ocean currents in dugong distribution; and notes the issuance of dugong postage stamps by the Ryukyus (in 1966) and Tanzania (in 1977).
Nishiwaki, Masaharu; Kasuya, Toshio; Tobayama, Teruo; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
Distribution of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in the world. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 8-9.
–Abstr. of Nishiwaki et al. (1979).
Nishiwaki, Masaharu; Yamaguchi, M.; Shokita, S.; Uchida, Senzo; Kataoka, Teruo (detail)
Recent survey on the distribution of the African manatee.
Sci. Rept. Whales Res. Inst. No. 34: 137-147. 2 figs. Dec. 1982.
–An interview survey in 1980-81 found evidence of T. senegalensis mainly in the Niger River and its tributaries; also in the Sanaga and Ivindo Rivers in Cameroon and Gabon, respectively; and in Gambia, Ivory Coast, and Ghana to some extent. They were found to be scarce or absent elsewhere, and not found at all in salt water. [More recent work by J. A. Powell, Jr., casts doubt on the accuracy of many statements in this report.] Points out the need for an international conservation strategy for the manatee.
Noack, Th. (detail)
Lebende Manati.
Zool. Garten (Frankfurt) 28(10): 293-302.
Noack, Th. (detail)
Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Säugethierfauna von Süd- und Südwestafrika.
Zool. Jahrb. 4(1): 94-261.
–Sirs., 105.
Nohara, Tomohide: SEE Hasegawa & Nohara, 1982. (detail)
Nojima, Takao (detail)
Developmental pattern of the bony falx and bony tentorium of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and the relationship between degree of development and age.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(4): 312-322. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Oct. 1988.
–Mentions the presence of a bony falx cerebri of the "carnivore type" in Dugong and Trichechus; i.e., a bony falx that is an integral part of the skull bones and not an ossification seen only in old age (315, 320).
Nojo, Ayumu: SEE ALSO Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
Nojo, Ayumu; Hasegawa, S.; Okasa, H.; Togo, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Matsuda, T. (detail)
Interregional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Pleistocene Setana Formation, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 105(5): 370-388.
–Discusses a specimen of Hydrodamalis ?gigas 1.2 million years old.
Nokariya: SEE Hasegawa & Nokariya, 1979. (detail)
Nolan, T. B. (detail)
Areal and stratigraphic range of desmostylians. In: Geological Survey research, 1964.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 501A: A136-A137.
–Summarizes the known ranges of desmostylians and their possible geologic and biogeographic implications.
Nontji, A. (detail)
Dugong Bukan Putri Duyung.
Nopcsa, Franz von (detail)
Vorläufige Notiz über die Pachyostose und Osteosklerose einiger mariner Wirbeltiere.
Anat. Anz. 56(15/16): 353-359. Feb. 26, 1923.
–Discusses pachyostosis and related physiological phenomena with reference to adaptation to air-breathing and submergence in sirs. and other marine vertebrates. Concludes that heavy bones serve as ballast, at least in earlier stages of aquatic adaptation, but that pachyostosis and osteosclerosis are basically disturbances of function that might in some cases bring about extinction.
Nopcsa, Franz von; Heidsieck, E. (detail)
Ueber eine pachyostotische Rippe aus der Kreide Rügens.
Acta Zool. 15: 431-455. 13 figs.
Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik (detail)
The voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe with a historical review of previous journeys along the north coast of the Old World. [Transl. by A. Leslie.]
London, Macmillan & Co. (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xxv + 524; Vol. 2: xvii + 646 [464?]. Figs. Maps.
–This was the first Engl. ed.; original ed. in Swedish, 1880. American ed., New York, Macmillan: xxvi + 756, 1882. German eds., Leipzig, Berlin, Vienna, 1882; St. Petersburg, 1883. Extract: Korresp.-Bl. Deutsch. Ges. Anthrop. 13: 20-21, 30-32, 39, 1 fig., 1882?
  Gen. acc. of Steller's sea cow and the history of its hunting (2: 272-276); reports of live sea cows at Bering Island ca. 1780 and 1854 (276-278); account of collecting sea cow bones (278, 280); mention of the natives' use of sea cow ribs for making sledge runners and carvings (280); and mention of the abundance of seaweed at Bering Is. (292). The figs. include illustrations of the Stockholm skeleton of Hydrodamalis (279), reconstructions of the animal by earlier authors (279, 280), and a frond of the alga Thalassiophyllum clathrus (293). See also E.H. Yarnall (1879).
  Nordenskiöld's claim in this work that the sea cow survived into the nineteenth century led to several years of dispute between himself (see also Nordenskiöld, 1885b) and L. Stejneger (1884, 1886, 1887). The issue was eventually settled in Stejneger's favor by the paucity and weakness of evidence for sightings after 1768.
Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik (detail)
Ein Besuch auf der Bering-Insel.
Petermann's Geogr. Mitt. 27: 26-30.
–?Review: D. Ausland 1881: 86-89?
Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik (detail)
Bemötande af anmärkningar, som riktats mot min skildring af Vegas färd kring Asien och Europa.
Ymer (Stockholm, Swedish Soc. Anthrop. Geogr.) 5: 246-267.
–Engl. transl.: Nordenskiöld (1885b).
Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik (detail)
Reply to criticisms upon "The voyage of the Vega around Asia and Europe".
Jour. [Bull.] Amer. Geogr. Soc. 17: 267-298. 2 maps.
–Transl. of Nordenskiöld (1885a) by V. A. Elfwing. Replies to Stejneger's (1884) criticisms of Nordenskiöld's (1881a) reports of Steller's sea cow alive at Bering Island after 1768 (280-284). States that the bones he collected were distributed to the museums at Uppsala, Gothenburg, Lund, and principally Stockholm (284-285). Those deposited in Stockholm are said to have included a metacarpal, but this was actually the transverse process of a sacral vertebra (Domning, 1978b: 97-98, pl. 17).
Nordmann, Alexander von (detail)
Palaeontologie Südrusslands. IV. Elephas, Mastodon, Dinotherium, Phoca, Manatus, Cetotherium, Balaena, Balenoptera und Delphinus.
Helsinki, H. C. Friis: 271-360. Pls. 18-28.
–Revs.: Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 33(3): 377-487?; J. J. Nöggerath, Westermanns Monatsh. 6: 48-50, 1859? Describes scapulae, ribs, and vertebrae of "Manatus maeoticus" from Bessarabia (328-333, pl. 25).
Nordmann, Alexander von (detail)
Zur Paläontologie Südrusslands. Notiz ueber eine Sendung fossiler Knochen aus den Steinbruechen um Kischinew in Bessarabien.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 34(1): 577-586. Pls. 11-12.
–Discusses scapulae, vertebrae, ribs, and sterna of "Manatus maeoticus" (581-582), and illustrates a scapula (pl. 11). The remains are Late Miocene (Sarmatian) in age.
Nordmann, Alexander von (detail)
Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Knochen-baues der Rhytina Stelleri.
Acta Soc. Sci. Fennicae 7: 1-33. Pls. 1-5.
–?Rev.: Arch. Naturgesch. 28: 153? Describes in detail the skeleton of an immature Steller's sea cow in the Helsinki museum. This skeleton was collected by a Finnish expedition on Bering Island, and appears to be genuinely associated, unlike all the other Hydrodamalis skeletons in museums, which are composite. See also P.J. Van Beneden (1862a).
Nordmann, Alexander von (detail)
Rhytina stelleri und deren vollständiges Skelet.
Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, July 1862: 1.
Noreno-Barroso, E.; Zapata-Perez, O.; Ceja-Moreno, V.; Gold-Bouchot, G. (detail)
Hydrocarbon and organochlorine residue concentrations in sediments from Bay of Chetumal, Mexico.
Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 61(1): 80-87. Illus. July 1998.
Norkin, M. (Ed.) (detail)
Permanent protection areas proposed for manatee.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 5(8): 15.
Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, J.; Viana, P. C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, Richard A.; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Ladle, Richard James (detail)
Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme.
Animal Conservation 19: 235–246. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12236. Published online September 22, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long-term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus reintroduced into selected sites in north-east Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the centres of activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home-range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.
Normande, Iran Campello; Luna, Fabia De Oliveira; Mendes Malhado, Ana Claudia; Gomes Borges, Joao Carlos; Viana Junior, Pitagoras Carlos; Niemeyer Attademo, Fernanda Loeffer; Ladle, Richard J. (detail)
Eighteen years of Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus releases in Brazil: lessons learnt.
Oryx 49(2): 338-344. 1 tab. 2 figs. 1 pl. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605313000896. April 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus was once widespread from the south-eastern coast of Brazil to Central America and the Caribbean. In Brazil habitat destruction and overhunting severely reduced and fragmented the wild population, restricting extant subpopulations to the north and north-east coast. In response to these threats an ambitious government-led programme was initiated in 1994, with the aim of rehabilitating orphaned manatee calves and releasing them into the southernmost subpopulation. The programme is unique within Brazil, and has invested unprecedented resources in post-release monitoring. So far 30 manatees have been released at three sites, with a high rate of success (> 75%). Time in captivity appears to be a key variable determining post-release success: too long or too short a time in captivity decreasing the probability of survival. We describe the main features of this long-term programme and identify six key lessons learnt: (1) close monitoring, health assessments and rescues can significantly increase the success of releases, (2) combining different monitoring techniques results in high-quality data and reduces tracking costs, (3) long-term studies are needed to effectively evaluate the results, (4) releasing manatees at c. 5 years of age can increase chances of success, (5) soft-release is important to aid acclimatization, and (6) the programme has been effective in raising awareness among the general public, supporting education and fund-raising.
Noronha, José Monteiro de (detail)
Roteiro da cidade do Pará até as últimas colônias dos domínios Portuguêzes em os rios Amazonas e Negro.
Collecção de noticias para a historia e geografia das nações ultramarinas que vivem nos domínios Portuguêzes (Lisbon, Acad. Real das Sciencias) 6: 1-85.
–Written in 1768 and originally published anonymously. Mentions manatees of the Rio Nhamundá region, Brazil, which furnish unusual amounts of oil (28).
Norris, C. E. (detail)
The dugong. The distribution of the dugong in Ceylon.
Loris 8(5): 296-300. 3 tabs. June 1960.
–Tabulates and analyzes records of dugongs captured in Ceylon in 1957-59. Concludes that the breeding rate is insufficient to offset mortality.
Norris, H. T. (detail)
Saharan myth and saga.
Oxford, Clarendon Press: xv + 240. Frontisp. Figs. 5 pls. Maps.
–Suggests that the "fishes in human form" mentioned in the tale of the City of Brass and the Cupola of Lead in the 1001 Nights may have been Mauretanian manatees (1-4).
Norris, Kenneth S. (detail)
Some problems of echolocation in cetaceans. In: W. N. Tavolga (ed.), Marine bio-acoustics. Proceedings of a symposium held at the Lerner Marine Laboratory, Bimini, Bahamas, April 11 to 13, 1963.
Oxford, Pergamon Press (xii + 413): 317-336. 5 figs.
–Suggests that the mandibular canal of manatees may function as a wave guide for echolocation signal echoes (334).
Northridge, S. P. (detail)
World review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries.
U.N. Food & Agric. Organization Fisheries Tech. Paper 251: vii + 190. Illus.
Norwood, Victor George Charles (detail)
Jungle life in Guiana.
London, Robert Hale: 1-191. Illus.
Notarbartolo Di Sciara, Guiseppe (detail)
L'elefante che scelse di vivere sott'acqua. [The elephant who chose to live underwater.]
Airone (Milan) 100: 90-107. Illus. Aug. 1989.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and sir. evolution.
Nourisson, Coralie; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth A.; Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Clark, AnnMarie; Olivera-Gómez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation.
Genetica 139: 833-842. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI 10.1007/s10709-011-9583-z.
Novacek, Michael J.: SEE ALSO Wyss et al., 1987. (detail)
Novacek, Michael J. (detail)
Information for molecular studies from anatomical and fossil evidence on higher eutherian phylogeny. In: M. Goodman (ed.), Macromolecular sequences in systematic and evolutionary biology.
New York & London, Plenum Publ. Co.: 3-41. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–Considers sirs. to be most closely related to proboscideans and (possibly) less close to hyracoids (13, 25-28, 35).
Novacek, Michael J. (detail)
The skull of leptictid insectivorans and the higher-level classification of eutherian mammals.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 183(1): 1-111. 4 tabs. 35 figs. Apr. 29, 1986.
Novacek, Michael J. (detail)
Higher mammal phylogeny: the morphological-molecular synthesis. In: B. Fernholm, K. Brenner, & H. Jörnvall (eds.), The hierarchy of life.
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division): 421-435. 4 figs.
Novacek, Michael J. (detail)
Morphology, paleontology, and the higher clades of mammals. In: H. H. Genoways (ed.), Current mammalogy. Vol. 2.
New York, Plenum Publ. Corp.: 507-543. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
Novacek, Michael J. (detail)
Fossils, topologies, missing data, and the higher level phylogeny of eutherian mammals.
Syst. Biol. 41(1): 58-73. 2 tabs. 12 figs. Mar. 1992.
–Concludes that the Tethytheria (Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Desmostylia) are cladistically a well-supported and stable grouping, and that the Paenungulata (Tethytheria + Hyracoidea) are supported when fossil data are included but are considerably less stable than the Tethytheria.
Novacek, Michael J.; Wyss, André R. (detail)
Higher-level relationships of the Recent eutherian orders: morphological evidence.
Cladistics 2(3): 257-287. 1 tab. 12 figs. Summer 1986.
Novacek, Michael J.; Wyss, André R. (detail)
Origin and transformation of the mammalian stapes.
Univ. Wyoming Contr. Geol., Special Paper 3: 35-53. 10 figs. Oct. 1986.
Novacek, Michael J.; Wyss, André R. (detail)
Selected features of the desmostylian skeleton and their phylogenetic implications.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 2870: 1-8. 3 figs. Apr. 6, 1987.
Novacek, Michael J.; Wyss, André R.; McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
The major groups of eutherian mammals. In: M. J. Benton (ed.), The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods, Volume 2: Mammals.
Systematics Assoc. Special Vol. No. 35B: 31-71. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
Novoselova, I. L.: SEE Umnova & Novoselova, 1986. (detail)
Nowacek, D.: SEE Flamm et al., 2000. (detail)
Nowacek, Douglas P.; Casper, B. M.; Wells, Randall S.; Nowacek, Stephanie M.; Mann, D. A. (detail)
Intraspecific and geographic variation of West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus spp.) vocalizations.
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 114(1): 66-69.
Nowacek, Stephanie M.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Johnson, M. P.; Shorter, K. A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Wells, Randall S. (detail)
Manatee behavioral responses to vessel approaches: results of digital acoustic logger tagging of manatees in Belize.
Mote Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 847: 1-61.
Nowacek, Stephanie M.; Wells, Randall S.; Owen, Edward C. G.; Speakman, Todd R.; Flamm, Richard O.; Nowacek, Douglas P. (detail)
Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, respond to approaching vessels.
Biol. Conserv. 119: 517-523.
Nowicki, Robert J.; Thomson, Jordan A.; Fourqurean, James W.; Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R. (detail)
Loss of predation risk from apex predators can exacerbate marine tropicalization caused by extreme climatic events.
Jour. Animal Ecology DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.13424 Feb. 22, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Extreme climatic events (ECEs) and predator removal represent some of the most widespread stressors to ecosystems. Though species interactions can alter ecological effects of climate change (and vice versa), it is less understood whether, when and how predator removal can interact with ECEs to exacerbate their effects. Understanding the circumstances under which such interactions might occur is critical because predator loss is widespread and ECEs can generate rapid phase shifts in ecosystems which can ultimately lead to tropicalization. Our goal was to determine whether loss of predation risk may be an important mechanism governing ecosystem responses to extreme events, and whether the effects of such events, such as tropicalization, can occur even when species range shifts do not. Specifically, our goal was to experimentally simulate the loss of an apex predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier effects on a recently damaged seagrass ecosystem of Shark Bay, Australia by applying documented changes to risk-sensitive grazing of dugong Dugong dugon herbivores. Using a 16-month-field experiment established in recently disturbed seagrass meadows, we used previous estimates of risk-sensitive dugong foraging behaviour to simulate altered risk-sensitive foraging densities and strategies of dugongs consistent with apex predator loss, and tracked seagrass responses to the simulated grazing. Grazing treatments targeted and removed tropical seagrasses, which declined. However, like in other mixed-bed habitats where dugongs forage, treatments also incidentally accelerated temperate seagrass losses, revealing that herbivore behavioural changes in response to predator loss can exacerbate ECE and promote tropicalization, even without range expansions or introductions of novel species. Our results suggest that changes to herbivore behaviours triggered by loss of predation risk can undermine ecological resilience to ECEs, particularly where long-lived herbivores are abundant. By implication, ongoing losses of apex predators may combine with increasingly frequent ECEs to amplify climate change impacts across diverse ecosystems and large spatial scales.
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Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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