Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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O

 
 
O'Brien, Stephen J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Murphy, William J. (detail)
   
2001
On choosing mammalian genomes for sequencing.
Science (Washington, D.C.) 292(5525): 2264-2266. June 22, 2001.
 
 
O'Donnell, Dennis Joseph (detail)
   
1982
Manatees and man in Central America. [Abstr.]
Dissert. Abstrs. Internatl. (B)42(8): 3175.
O'Donoghue, Peter: SEE Morgan et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
O'Keefe, M. Timothy (detail)
   
1973
Haven for the manatee: Blue Springs.
Florida Sportsman 5(1): 10-14. 4 figs. Nov. 1973.
x
 
O'Keefe, M. Timothy (detail)
   
1977
Jacks or better for openers: let's take a dive at Crystal River.
Florida Sportsman 8(3): 64-65, 67-71. 5 figs. Feb.-Mar. 1977.
–Brief pop. acc. of manatees at Crystal River, Florida (65, 67).
 
 
O'Keefe, M. Timothy (detail)
   
1982a
The manatee in peril.
Florida Naturalist 55(1): 7, 11. Cover photo + 2 figs. Jan.-Mar. 1982.
 
 
O'Keefe, M. Timothy (detail)
   
1982b
Care and feeding of underwater orphans.
Florida Naturalist 55(1): 10-11. 2 figs. Jan.-Mar. 1982.
 
 
O'Keefe, M. Timothy (detail)
   
1987
Mandate without muscle.
Scubapro Diving & Snorkeling, Winter 1987: 72-75. 4 figs.
–Pop. acc. of manatee conservation problems in Florida, emphasizing the need for more state and federal money and the importance of habitat protection.
x
 
O'Keefe, M. Timothy (detail)
   
1993
Manatees: our vanishing mermaids.
Lakeland (Florida), Larsen's Outdoor Publishing: 1-127. 93 figs.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees, illustrated with numerous black-and-white photos. Includes a detailed description of captive facilities and other places to see manatees in Florida.
 
 
O'Leary, Maureen A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; + 21 other authors (detail)
   
2013
The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals.
Science 339: 662-667. 1 tab. 3 figs. + online supplementary material. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/662 Feb. 8, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: To discover interordinal relationships of living and fossil placental mammals and the time of origin of placentals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, we scored 4541 phenomic characters de novo for 86 fossil and living species. Combining these data with molecular sequences, we obtained a phylogenetic tree that, when calibrated with fossils, shows that crown clade Placentalia and placental orders originated after the K-Pg boundary. Many nodes discovered using molecular data are upheld, but phenomic signals overturn molecular signals to show Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) as the sister taxon of Primates, a close link between Proboscidea (elephants) and Sirenia (sea cows), and the monophyly of echolocating Chiroptera (bats). Our tree suggests that Placentalia first split into Xenarthra and Epitheria; extinct New World species are the oldest members of Afrotheria.
 
 
O'Malley, L. S. S. (detail)
   
1908
Eastern Bengal District gazetteers: Chittagong.
Calcutta, The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot: 1-13.
–Reports of dugongs in Bangladesh in the nineteenth century.
O'Shea, Thomas J.: SEE ALSO Beeler & O'Shea, 1988; Bonde et al., 1983; Buergelt et al., 1984, 1990; Bullock et al., 1982; Correa-Viana et al., 1990; Deutsch et al., 2003; Eberhardt & O'Shea, 1995; Eros et al., 2000; Langtimm et al., 1998; Lefebvre et al., 1989; Lefebvre & O'Shea, 1995; Marmontel et al., 1990, 1996, 1997; Marsh et al., 1986, 1995; McClenaghan & O'Shea, 1988; Mou Sue et al., 1990; Packard, Rathbun et al., 1984; Ralph et al., 1985; Reep & O'Shea, 1990; Reid & O'Shea, 1989; Reid et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1983
A review of three aquatic herbicides in relation to their potential hazards to the endangered West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 159-173. Dec. 1983.
–Discusses the three herbicides used most heavily at Crystal River, Florida (Aqua-k [endothall], Diquat, and Komeen [copper salts]), with regard to the residue concentrations reached in aquatic plants, the likely duration of exposure of manatees to contaminated plants, the concentrations producing toxic effects in mammals, and the potential for residues to be detected in manatee tissues. Concludes that only copper salts might be potentially hazardous to manatees.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1986
Mast foraging by West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Mamm. 67(1): 183-185. Feb. 25, 1986.
–Describes manatees' feeding on acorns of Quercus virginiana at Blue Spring, Florida.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1988a
The past, present, and future of manatees in the southeastern United States: realities, misunderstandings, and enigmas. In: R. R. Odom, K. A. Riddleberger, & J. C. Ozier (eds.), Proc. Third Southeastern Nongame & Endangered Wildlife Symposium.
Social Circle (Georgia), Georgia Dept. Nat. Resources, Game & Fish Div. (253 pp.): 184-204. 6 tabs. 4 figs.
–Reviews historical records and recent data on manatee distribution, abundance, and mortality in the U.S., outlines future conservation needs, and presents biological, legal, and humanistic justifications for protecting manatees. Concludes there is no evidence that the manatee population is reduced in range or numbers compared with the past, or that it approached extinction at the turn of the century. Manatees may have become more numerous since the 1950's, but this trend is probably over, and a future decline is increasingly likely if strenuous efforts are not made to reduce or alleviate the effects of human population growth.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1988b
Manatee research efforts under way on Florida's east coast.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 13(2): 3-4. 3 figs.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1994
Manatees.
Sci. Amer. 271(1): 66-72. 8 figs. July 1994.
–French transl.: Pour La Science No. 203: 78-84, Sept. 1994. German transl.: Spektrum der Wissenschaft 9: 82-88, 1994.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1995
Waterborne recreation and the Florida manatee. In: R. L. Knight & K. J. Gutzwiller (eds.), Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research.
Washington, D.C. & Covelo, Calif., Island Press: 297-311. 5 figs.
–Outlines conflicts between manatees and recreation in Florida (including boat collisions, noise pollution, entanglement in fishing gear, and harassment by swimmers), possible remedies and management options, and gaps in present knowledge.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1999
Environmental contaminants and marine mammals. Chap. 10 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 485-563. 5 tabs. 6 figs. 1 appendix.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
2003
Toxicology of sirenians. In: J. G. Vos, G. D. Bossart, M. Fournier, & T. J. O'Shea (eds.), Toxicology of marine mammals.
London & New York, Taylor & Francis (xi + 643): 270-287. 4 tabs.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
2014
Family Trichechidae (Manatees); pp. 548–562 in D. E. Wilson & R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Volume 4: Sea Mammals.
Barcelona, Lynx Edicions.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, Bruce B. (detail)
   
1995
Population biology of the Florida manatee: an overview. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 280-287. Aug. 1995.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Aguilar, Alex (detail)
   
2001
Cetacea and Sirenia. In: R. F. Shore & B. A. Rattner (eds.), Ecotoxicology of wild mammals.
Chichester, etc., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: 427-496. 3 tabs.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, Wayne C. (detail)
   
1995
Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, upper St. Johns River, Florida. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 157-170. 4 tabs. 3 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Summarizes more than 20 years of data on mating, gestation, parturition, litter size, sex ratio, early survival of calves, age at first reproduction, birth intervals, duration of dependency, proportion of reproductive females, and longevity of reproduction of Blue Spring manatees, and compares them with data from Crystal River and the Atlantic coast.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Kochman, Howard I. (detail)
   
1990
Florida manatees: distribution, geographically referenced data sets, and ecological and behavioral aspects of habitat use. In: J. E. Reynolds, III & K. D. Haddad (eds.), Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 11-22. 1 tab. Dec. 1990.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Langtimm, Catherine A. (detail)
   
1995
Estimation of survival of adult Florida manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on the Atlantic coast. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 194-222. 9 tabs. 3 figs. 1 app. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 21). Application of Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models to manatee photoidentification databases and radiotelemetry studies indicated that survival at Crystal River and Blue Spring may be high enough for population growth, while the Atlantic Coast population may be in decline. Adult survivorship seemed to be constant with age in all three study groups.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ludlow, Mark E. (detail)
   
1992
Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. In: S. R. Humphrey (ed.), Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Volume I. Mammals.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xxviii + 392): 190-200. 2 figs.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
1990
Encephalization quotients and life-history traits in the Sirenia.
Jour. Mamm. 71(4): 534-543. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Dec. 7, 1990.
–Presents data on brain and body size in Recent sirs., and on growth rates and closure of cranial sutures in wild Florida manatees. Concludes that low encephalization quotients in sirs. are due to low metabolic rate and prolonged postnatal growth, leading to a post-weaning increase in body size that is decoupled from brain growth.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Salisbury, Charles A. "Lex' (detail)
   
1991
Belize - a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean.
Oryx 25(3): 156-164. 2 tabs. 4 figs. July 1991.
–Aerial surveys in May 1989 resulted in sightings of 102 manatees (including 5 calves), suggesting no change in population size since 1977. Survey results from the entire Caribbean region are summarized. Belize appears to harbor the largest number of manatees in the region, due to good habitat and lack of hunting. Recommendations for improved manatee conservation are offered.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Percival, H. Franklin (eds.) (detail)
   
1992
Interim report of the Technical Workshop on Manatee Population Biology.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 10: ii + 83. 1 tab. Apr. 21, 1992.
–Described in its Introduction as "an interim document designed to provide preliminary information to parties interested in the overall structure and outcome" of a workshop held at the University of Florida on Feb. 4-6, 1992. Includes 15 abstracts by various participants, as well as "Topics for consideration by the working groups", reports of the latter, conclusions, and lists of the participants. "A peer-reviewed and professionally edited volume containing the full text of the presented scientific papers will be forthcoming..."; this was published as O'Shea et al. (1995).
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Percival, H. Franklin (eds.) (detail)
   
1995
Population biology of the Florida manatee.
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) 1: vi + 289. Aug. 1995.
–Preliminary versions of this volume's contents were published in O'Shea et al. (1992). Comprises an Introduction by the editors and 18 articles, listed in this bibliography by their authors, as follows: Reynolds, J.E., III; Ackerman, B.B.; Garrott et al.; Marsh, H. (2 articles); Lefebvre et al.; Hernandez et al.; Marmontel, M.; Beck & Reid; Rathbun et al.; O'Shea & Hartley; Reid et al.; Odell et al. (abstr. only); O'Shea & Langtimm; Ackerman et al.; Wright et al.; Eberhardt & O'Shea; and O'Shea & Ackerman.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Kochman, Howard I.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1985
An analysis of manatee mortality patterns in Florida, 1976-81.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 49(1): 1-11. 5 tabs. 1 fig.
–Summarizes and statistically analyzes the causes of death of 406 manatees, with regard to season, location, size, and other variables. Winter mortality is considered to be largely attributable to hypothermia and cachexia in newly independent and inexperienced subadults who fail to find warm-water refugia. Sources of human-related mortality and possible means of mitigating them are discussed, and the importance of habitat protection to long-term manatee survival is stressed.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G. (detail)
   
1988
Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela.
Biol. Conserv. 46: 281-301. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Abridged Spanish transl.: Correa-Viana et al. (1990). Presents results of interview and aerial surveys, and describes hunting methods, use of manatee products, and traditional beliefs. Some manatees were found in Lake Maracaibo, but they are most abundant in eastern Venezuela and the Orinoco. Hunting seems to be declining. The Caribbean coast of Venezuela may be a barrier to manatee gene flow. Evidence for seasonal movements is weak, and Orinoco manatees may undergo dry-season fasting. Ends with recommendations for improved conservation measures.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Beck, Cathy A. (detail)
   
2001
Florida manatees: perspectives on populations, pain, and protection. In: L. A. Dierauf & F. M. D. Gulland (eds.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton, CRC Press: 31-43. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Calls attention to the pain suffered by manatees that survive boat strikes, provides "a simple primer on concepts and uncertainties in manatee population biology", and argues that these uncertainties are no excuse for failing to take management actions.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Moore, John F.; Kochman, Howard I. (detail)
   
1984
Contaminant concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 48(3): 741-748. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–An earlier version of this paper was publ. in J.M. Packard (1983c: 133-158. 2 tabs. 2 figs.). Analyses of tissue samples from salvaged carcasses showed no excessive contamination by metals or organochlorines, except that unprecedentedly high copper concentrations were found in livers of manatees from Crystal River, where copper is heavily used in herbicides. These copper levels exceeded those reported for any other wild mammals, and were comparable to levels associated with toxic effects in domestic species.
 
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Poche, L. B., Jr. (detail)
   
2006
Aspects of underwater sound communication in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Mammal. 87(6): 1061-1071.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Asper, Edward D.; Searles, Stan W. (detail)
   
1985
Tolerance of West Indian manatees to capture and handling.
Biol. Conserv. 33(4): 335-349. 2 tabs.
–Describes procedures used in capturing and handling Florida manatees, and reports that none of the 92 animals captured between 1975 and 1983 showed evidence of capture myopathy. Blood chemistry data are given for some of these and, by way of comparison, for captive manatees. Concludes that manatees, unlike dugongs, seem not to be susceptible to capture stress.
x
 
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Buergelt, Claus D.; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1991
An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(2): 165-179. 1 tab. 3 figs. Apr. 30, 1991.
–Deaths of 37 manatees near Ft. Myers, Florida, in early 1982 are attributed to neurotoxicity resulting from concentration of red tide organisms (Gymnodinium breve) by ascidians on which the manatees fed. Unusual circumstances of temperature and salinity also contributed to this catastrophic kill.
 
 
Oakley, Kenneth Page (detail)
   
1975
Decorative and symbolic uses of vertebrate fossils.
Oxford Univ., Pitt-Rivers Mus. Occas. Paper Technol. No. 12: 1-60.
Obendorf, David: SEE Kemper et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Ober, Dana; Hudson, Brydget E. T. (detail)
   
1988?
Dugongs in the Torres Strait: a teaching kit for use in the Torres Strait.
Thursday Island (Australia), Austral. Fisheries Serv., Dept. of Primary Industry & Energy: iv + 8 + 7 + 5 + 3 + 4. Illus.
–In addition to this teacher's guide, the kit contains 2 videos, 3 pamphlets, a book, 2 maps, 2 posters, a tape cassette, and a conservation badge.
 
 
Ober, Frederick A. (detail)
   
1893
In the wake of Columbus.
Boston, D. Lothrop Co.: 1-515.
–States that the "mermaids" sighted by Columbus on the north coast of Haiti were manatees (236).
 
 
Oberheu, John C. (detail)
   
2005
The manatee that flew.
Jacksonville (Florida), High Pitched Hum Publ. Co.: [1-58.] Illus.
–Fictional account of rescuing and relocating a manatee by air from Pennsylvania to Florida.
 
 
Oberheu, John C.; Prather, Robert (detail)
   
1979
Public awareness is paying dividends ... for an endangered species: the federal role.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(2): 6-9. 6 figs. + 1 fig. on p. 3. Nov. 1979.
–See also Appendix 1.
Obradovich, John D.: SEE Fleagle et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Ochieng, C.A.; Erftemeijer, P.L.A. (detail)
   
2003
The seagrasses of Kenya and Tanzania. Chap. 7 in: E.P. Green & F.T. Short (eds.), World atlas of seagrasses.
Berkeley, Univ. of California Press: xii +298. 82-92. Illus.
–Briefly notes dates and numbers of dugongs sighted along the Kenyan coast, and centers of dugong population on the Tanzanian coast (83).
Ochoa, J.: SEE Fernandez Badillo et al., 1988. (detail)
Odell, Daniel Keith: SEE ALSO Ackerman et al., 1995; Beck et al., 1981; Burn & Odell, 1987; Cohen et al., 1982; Forrester et al., 1979; Hartman, D.S., 1979; Irvine, Odell & Campbell, 1981; Ketten et al., 1992; Kuroki et al., 1988; Marmontel et al., 1992; Mass et al., 1997; Miller et al., 1980; O'Shea, Beck et al., 1985; O'Shea et al., 1991; Reeves et al., 1992; Reynolds & Odell, 1982, 1991; Upton et al., 1989; Wlodarski, 1998. (detail)
x
 
Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1976
Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in south Florida: preliminary results. In: A. Thorhaug & A. Volkes (eds)., Biscayne Bay: past/present/future.
Univ. Miami Sea Grant Spec. Rept. No. 5: 203-212. 5 figs. Read Apr. 2-3, 1976.
–Presents the results of aerial surveys (Sept. 1973-Dec. 1975) of T. manatus and Tursiops truncatus; up to 75 manatees were seen per flight, mostly in Whitewater Bay and the Everglades (203-206, 212).
 
 
Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1979
Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the waters of the Everglades National Park. In: R. M. Linn (ed.), Proceedings of the First Conference on Scientific Research in National Parks, New Orleans, La., 9-12 November 1976.
U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Park Serv. Trans. Proc. Ser. 5(1): 673-681.
x
 
Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1981
Growth of a West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus, born in captivity. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 131-140. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
–Describes the first 3 years of growth of Lorelei, the Miami Seaquarium's first captive-born manatee, and compares them with data on other captive manatee calves. Allometric growth equations are derived, and some observations on nursing and early consumption of solid food are included.
 
 
Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1982
West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. In: J. A. Chapman & G. A. Feldhammer (eds.), Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics.
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press (1184 pp.): 828-837. 6 figs.
 
 
Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
2002
Sirenian life history. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 1086-1089.
–Ed. 3 (2018, 1157 pp.; R. K. Bonde): pp. 859-861.
x
 
Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1979
Observations on manatee mortality in south Florida.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 43(2): 572-577. 3 figs.
–Repr. in Brownell & Ralls (1981: 92-97). Presents records of mortality at flood-control dams in Dade County, observations on manatee behavior near dams, statistics on other sources of mortality, and suggestions for modifying the dams to prevent future manatee deaths.
 
 
Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1980
For West Indian manatee, collaborative studies beneficial.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(6): 4-5. 4 figs. + 1 fig. on p. 3. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Odell, Daniel Keith; Bossart, Gregory D.; Lowe, Mark T.; Hopkins, Thomas D. (detail)
   
1995
Reproduction of the West Indian manatee in captivity. [Abstr.] In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 192-193. Aug. 1995.
–An earlier version of this abstr. appeared in O'Shea et al. (1992: 17-18). Notes that length of gestation is still imprecisely known (12-14 months); that females probably mate throughout pregnancy; that spermatogenic activity is low and births rare during December-February; that females who lost calves became pregnant again in a minimum of 2 months; and that birth intervals ranged from 14 to 103 months.
x
 
Odell, Daniel Keith; Forrester, Donald J.; Asper, Edward D. (detail)
   
1981
A preliminary analysis of organ weights and sexual maturity in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 52-65. 3 tabs. 7 figs.
–Presents data from salvaged carcasses on body weight vs. length, and weights of heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, adrenals, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, and gonads, and discusses gonad weight as an indicator of sexual maturity (estimated to occur at body lengths of 275 cm in males and 260 cm in females).
x
 
Odell, Daniel Keith; Reynolds, John E., III; Waugh, Gregg (detail)
   
1978
New records of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) from the Bahama Islands.
Biol. Conserv. 14(4): 289-293. 2 figs. Dec. 1978.
–Reports manatee sightings and a dead manatee at West End, Grand Bahama Island, in 1975, and summarizes earlier (mostly unpublished) records. The skull of the dead manatee (USNM 550453) was referred to the Florida subspecies T. m. latirostris by Domning & Hayek (1986: 125).
 
 
Odewumi, O. S.; Agbelusi, E. A.; Olusoji-Bello, O. (detail)
   
2019
Water parameters and floristic composition of African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) habitat in Pandam Wildlife Park, Nigeria.
J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 23(10): 1907-1914. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v23i10.22
–ABSTRACT: The study of the physicochemical characteristic and floristic composition of African manatee habitat in Pandam Lake was conducted between 2012 and 2013. The water parameters were tested using standard method while line intercept method was adopted for vegetation survey. Data obtained on the water parameters were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Plant species diversity index was analyzed using PAST Software. The mean seasonal water surface area increase was 66.12±5.01. The mean water depth in the dry season was 2.28±1.14 while the wet season value was 4.3±1.15. Also the mean water transparency for wet and dry seasons were 64.02±4.66 and 111.18±4.26 respectively. The mean pH value was 6.5±0.14. Water salinity ranges from 0.00mg/l to 0.01mg/l, mean DO was 6.24±1.13, nitrate was 0.08±0.02 and mean conductivity of 52.65 ±2.12. A total of 42 plant species from 23 families were recorded in Pandam Lake. The family Poaceae had the highest number of species (22) (30.56%). The grass species had the highest frequency of 13 while trees recorded the lowest (3). Also there are more perennial species (n=28; 66.67%) than annual species (n=14; 33.33%). The Shannon diversity index was 3.72. Thirteen species of plants recorded in Pandan Lake during this study were known to provide food for manatees across their range in Africa. All the water parameter values were within the range tolerable by manatee. The Lake have diverse species of plants that manatee can feed on both in the wet and dry seasons. The park management should maintain the integrity of the ecosystem by regulating fishing and other human activities to avoid pollution. The park should be taken over by the Federal government for effective protection of the resources most especially manatee.
 
 
Odum, H. T. (detail)
   
1957
Primary production measurements in eleven Florida springs and a marine turtle-grass community.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 2: 15-97.
Oescu, C. V.: SEE Macarovici & Oescu, 1942. (detail)
 
 
Oesterdam, Abraham (detail)
   
1766
Siren lacertina, dissertatione academica....
Uppsala: [iv] + 16. 1 pl.
–See A. Dubois (1991) for discussion and reproduction of illustrations.
Oexmelin: SEE Exquemelin. (detail)
Ogano Collaborative Research Group: SEE Tsunoda et al., 1978. (detail)
Ogasawara, Kenshiro: SEE ALSO Suzuki et al., 1986; Takahashi et al., 1983. (detail)
 
D
Ogasawara, Kenshiro (detail)
   
2000
Paleoenvironments of desmostylid and Cenozoic events of the northwestern Pacific. In: Inuzuka et al. (eds.), Evolution of Desmostylia ... (q.v.).
Bull. Ashoro Mus. Pal. No. 1: 25-34. 1 tab. 3 figs. Mar. 29, 2000.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Ogasawara, Kenshiro; Morita, Rihito (detail)
   
1987
Molluscan assemblage of the Yamagawa Formation, Fukushima Prefecture - co-occurred molluscs with Paleoparadoxia sp.
Rept. Tohoku Branch, Geol. Soc. Japan No. 17: 26-27.
–In Japanese.
x
D
Ogasawara, Kenshiro; Morita, Rihito (detail)
   
1990
A new Miocene gastropod species co-occurred with Paleoparadoxia specimens from the Yanagawa Formation, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Honshu, Japan.
Saito Ho-on Kai Mus. Nat. Hist. Res. Bull. No. 58: 25-30. 1 tab. 1 fig. 1 pl. Dec. 25, 1990.
–Concludes that the Middle Miocene environment of deposition was near a shallow tidal or lagoonal area in a subtropical climate (minimum winter temperature about 15° C). See also Suzuki et al. (1986a, b).
Ogden, John C.: SEE Thayer et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Ogilby, J. D. (detail)
   
1892
Catalogue of Australian mammals with introductory notes on general mammalogy.
Sydney, Australian Museum (Catalogue No. 16): 1-142.
–Sirs., 62-64.
 
 
Ogilby, John (detail)
   
1671
America: being the latest, and most accurate description of the New World; containing the original of the inhabitants, and the remarkable voyages thither. The conquest of the vast empires of Mexico and Peru, and other large provinces and territories, with the several European plantations in those parts. Also their cities, fortresses, towns, temples, mountains, and rivers. Their habits, customs, manners, and religions. Their plants, beasts, birds, and serpents....
London, printed by the author: 1-674. Illus. 32 pls. 19 maps.
–Said to be plagiarized from Arnoldus Montanus, De nieuwe en onbekende weereld, Amsterdam, 1671. Sirs., 315.
 
 
Ogogo, A.; Eniang, E.; Nchor, A.; Nkamenyino, O. (detail)
   
2013
Ecology and conservation status of the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) in Eniong Creek, South Nigeria.
International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences 1(1): 19-24.
Ogose, Sunao: SEE ALSO Fujita & Ogose, 1951. (detail)
 
D
Ogose, Sunao (detail)
   
1952a
On the Desmostylus-bearing formation in Izumi-mati, Gifu Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 58(683): 400. Aug. 1952.
–In Japanese. Engl. transl. done by Engineer Intelligence Division, Office of the Engineer, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces Far East, Tokyo, 1952; available from Military Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey? See also S. Ijiri (1952a).
 
D
Ogose, Sunao (detail)
   
1952b
A comment on the Cornwallius-bearing formation in Izumi-machi, Gifu Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 58(686): 549-550.
Oguri, Hiroshi: SEE Kimura & Oguri, 1985. (detail)
 
 
Ohama, N. (detail)
   
1971
[A poll tax in the Yaeyama Islands.]
Sanichi Shobo (Tokyo).
–In Japanese. (Newspaper?) DD hunted with nets at Aragusuku Is. (SW of Okinawa) for tax payments.
Ohara, Rei: SEE Hotta, A., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Ohnishi, Koji (detail)
   
1991
A tentative evolutionary tree of mammmalian orders constructed by Hennigian comparison of the amino acid sequences of alpha-crystalin A chain, myoglobin, and hemoglobin alpha chain.
Sci. Rept. Niigata Univ., Ser. D (Biol.), No. 28: 19-31. 1 tab. 4 figs. Mar. 1991.
x
 
Ohtomo, T.; Yoshida, K.; Hasegawa, A. (detail)
   
1980
Comparison of the reactions of the compact-colony forming active substance (CCFAS) to the clumping-factor reaction in a strain of Staphylococcus aureus with animal plasma.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 168(4): 261-265. 1 tab.
–Describes clotting times and clumping-factor reactions of plasma from T. manatus and other animals.
 
D
Oishi, Masayuki (detail)
   
1987
[Marine mammal fossils from the Kitakami Lowland.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 3-7. 1 tab. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Oishi, Masayuki (detail)
   
1988
[Marine mammal fossils from Kenyoshi, Aomori Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 6-8. 1 tab. 4 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Oishi, Masayuki; Kawakami, Takeshi (detail)
   
1984
A new occurrence of desmostylian molar from the Miocene Kadanosawa Formation, Nisatai, Ninohe-City, Iwate Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 90(1): 55-58. Illus. Jan. 1984.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Oishi, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Maruyama, Toshiaki; Nakashita, Shigeo; Kawakami, Takeshi (detail)
   
1990
An occurrence of postcranial skeleton of Desmostylus from Kintaichi, Ninohe City, Iwate Prefecture, northeast Japan.
Bull. Iwate Prefectural Mus. No. 8: 1-16. 1 tab. 14 figs. Aug. 1990.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. According to Hasegawa, the specimen is probably Paleoparadoxia rather than Desmostylus.
Oishi, Saburo: SEE Nagao & Oishi, 1934, 1935. (detail)
 
 
Ojasti, J.; Lacabana, P. (detail)
   
2008
Manatí, Trichechus manatus. In: J. P. Rodríguez & F. Rojas-Suárez (eds.), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Ed. 3.
Caracas, Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A.: 72.
 
 
Ojeda-C., Magaly M. (detail)
   
1997
Wildlife management in Venezuela: experiences and future perspectives.
Wildl. Soc. Bull. 25(1): 49-56.
Okasa, H.: SEE Nojo et al., 1999. (detail)
Okazaki, Yoshihiko: SEE ALSO Hasegawa, 1978; Hasegawa et al., 1988; Kamei & Okazaki. (detail)
 
D
Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1977a
Mammalian fossils from the Mizunami Group, central Japan (Part 2).
Bull. Mizunami Fossil Mus. No. 4: 9-24. 9 pls. Dec. 1977.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1977b
Geographical distribution of the fossil vertebrates of the Mizunami Group, central Japan.
Bull. Mizunami Fossil Mus. No. 4: 140-143. 1 tab. 1 map. Dec. 1977.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1978
Miocene mammalian faunas of Japan.
Acta Phytotaxon. Geobot. 29(1-5): 138-144.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1984
An occurrence of fossil Sirenia (Mammalia) from the Ashiya Group, Kyushu, Japan.
Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. 5: 189-195. 3 tabs. 3 figs. Pls. 8-9. Sept. 20, 1984.
–Reports dugongid(?) caudal vertebrae from the Late Oligocene Honjo Formation, Ashiya Group, Fukuoka, Japan. It may be older, possibly from the early-middle Oligocene Sakamizu or Yamaga Formation (pers. comm., K. Matsui, Feb. 7, 2022); but at any rate it is the oldest sir. record from Japan, with the possible exception of vertebrae and ribs from the latest Eocene to Early Oligocene (Coccolith Zone CP 16b) Kakinourashima Formation, Nishisonogi Group, Saito Town, Seikai City, Nagasaki, reported in an abstract by H. Mori et al., Paleontological Society of Japan conference proceedings, 2021.
 
 
Okazaki, Yoshihiko (detail)
   
1987
[Evolutionary significance of Mauicetus.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 71-74. 1 tab. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Oke, Vic R. (detail)
   
1967
A brief note on the dugong Dugong dugon at Cairns Oceanarium.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbook 7: 220-221.
–Reports on a female from northern Queensland, Australia, kept in captivity for 3 months in 1966; comments on its feeding, swimming, and play, and eventual death (possibly from poisoning by copper sulphate used to control algae in the water).
 
 
Oken, Lorenz (detail)
   
1816
Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte. Dritter Theil. Zoologie. Zweite Abtheilung. Fleischtiere.
Jena, A. Schmid & Comp.: xvi + 1270.
–Sirs., 685-688. Because its nomenclature is not consistently binominal, this work was placed on the Official Index of Rejected Works in Zoology by ICZN Opinion 417.
 
 
Oken, Lorenz (detail)
   
1821
Esquisse du système d'anatomie, de physiologie et d'histoire naturelle.
Paris, Béchet Jeune: 1-62.
 
 
Oken, Lorenz (detail)
   
1838
Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände.... Siebenten Bandes zweyte Abtheilung, oder Thierreich, vierten Bandes zweyte Abtheilung. Säugthiere 1.
Stuttgart, Hoffmann'sche Verlags-Buchhandlung: viii + 689-1432.
–Allen 940. Sirs., 1091-1115: "M[anatus]. borealis; Rytina", 1091-1098; "Manatus atlanticus, Trichechus manatus", 1098-1106; "Halicore", 1106-1115; Dinotherium giganteum, here considered a sir., 1115. Atlas (1843): sirs., pl. 90.
 
 
Oken, Lorenz (detail)
   
1845
[Title?]
Grenzboten, Zs. für Politik und Lit. No. 27.
Okera, W.: SEE Cole & Okera, 1976. (detail)
 
D
Okubo, M.; Takayasu, Katsumi; Hirota, Kiyoharu (detail)
   
1980
Discovery of Paleoparadoxia in the Kimachi Formation.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 34(6): 350-353. Figs. Nov. 1980.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Oldham, Frances K.; McCleery, D. P.; Geiling, Eugene Maximilian Karl (detail)
   
1938
A note on the histology and pharmacology of the hypophysis of the manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
Anat. Rec. 71(1): 27-32. 2 figs.
–Describes the hypophysis of a young male manatee, formerly of the Chicago Aquarium.
 
 
Olewale, Ebia; Sedu, Duba (detail)
   
1980
Momoro (the dugong) in the Western Province. In: L. Morauta, J. Pernetta, & W. Heaney (eds.), Traditional conservation in Papua New Guinea: implications for today.
Boroko (PNG), Institute of Applied Social & Economic Research, Monogr. 16: 251-255. 1 fig.
 
 
Olfers, Ignaz Franz Joseph Maria von (detail)
   
1818
Bemerkungen zu Illiger's Überblick der Säugethiere nach ihrer Vertheilung über die Welttheile, rücksichtlich der Südamericanischen Arten (Species). Abh. X in W. L. von Eschwege, Journal von Brasilien ..., in F. T. Bertuch (ed.), Neue Bibliothek des wichtigsten Reisenbeschreibungen zur Erweiterung der Erd- und Volkerkunde ...
(Weimar) 15(2): 192-237.
–See also P. Hershkovitz (1959).
 
 
Oliveira Luna, Fábia de; Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Fernanda (detail)
   
2020a
Sou Xica, o peixe-boi da praça do Derby [I'm Xica -the manatee from Derby Square].
São Paulo, Brazil, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Mamíferos Aquáticos (ICMBio/CMA): 1-21. Illus. https://www.icmbio.gov.br/cma/images/stories/Publica%C3%A7%C3%B5es/LivroXica.pdf
–Xica's book, with illustrations by the Spanish artist Andrés Serna, tells the story of the most famous Brazilian manatee. Xica was considered a "celebrity" and mascot of Pernambuco State, where she lived all her 53 years. She was the oldest known Brazilian manatee. She spent more than 20 years living in a small tank, in a public square in Recife, being one of the main attractions of the city. During that period, residents and tourists went to that square to visit Xica, being part of the family leisure. However, she suffered from being in an inadequate enclosure and with inappropriate food, among other things. For this reason, she acquired scoliosis. After two decades in that place, Xica was transferred to ICMBio/CMA, where she continued to be the main attraction for visitors. Even with Xica's death in 2015, she remains in people's imagination, being one of the main references of manatees when it comes to conservation. Through the story of this charming manatee, we present the importance of conservation of the species, in addition to a loving tribute to the "grandma" manatee.
 
 
Oliveira Luna, Fábia de; Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Fernanda (detail)
   
2020b
Vamos aprender com o peixe-boi? [Let´s learn with manatees?]
São Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade/Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Mamíferos Aquáticos (ICMBio/CMA). Illus. https://www.icmbio.gov.br/cma/images/stories/Publica%C3%A7%C3%B5es/LivroinfantilAprendendocomopeixe-boiICMBioCMA.pdf
–Children's book that uses playful language, which brings children closer to the manatee, through photos of the animals. The authors teach the biology of the species, talk about the importance of habitat preservation, explain about manatee rescue, rehabilitation and release and elucidate that in Brazil there are two species of manatees and that both are cared for by ICMBio/CMA. All teaching is carried out as if it was the manatee itself talking to the child, which facilitates the understanding of the information brought to this audience.
Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de: SEE Grubel da Silva, Paludo, et al., 1992; Grubel da Silva, Soavinski, et al., 1992; Pinto de Lima et al., 1992a, 1992b. (detail)
 
 
Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de; Langguth, Alfredo; Grubel da Silva, Kleber; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Pinto de Lima, Régis (detail)
   
1990
Mortalidade de peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus) na costa nordeste do Brasil.
Proc. 4th Reunião de Trabalho de Especialistas em Mamíferos Aquáticos da América do Sul (Valdivia, Chile): 191-196.
 
 
Oliver, Jamie; Berkelmans, Ray (detail)
   
1999
A dugong research strategy for the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Hervey Bay.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publ. No. 58: iii + 52. 2 figs. May 1999.
 
D
Oliver, Rupert; Long, Bernard (detail)
   
1990
All about prehistoric animals.
New York, Gallery Books: 1-61. Illus.
–Discusses the evolution of sirs. (with only one sentence on cetaceans!). Includes life restorations of Protosiren (13) and Desmostylus (34), the latter very walrus-like.
Olivera-Gómez, León David: SEE Morales V. & Olivera G., 1991, 1992, 1997; Morales V. et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Olivera-Gómez, León David; Mellink, E. (detail)
   
2002
Spatial and temporal variation in counts of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus m. manatus) during distribution surveys at Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico.
Aquat. Mamms. 28(3): 285-293.
 
 
Olivera-Gómez, Léon David; Mellink, E. (detail)
   
2005
Distribution of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) as a function of habitat characteristics, in Bahía de Chetumal, Mexico.
Biol. Conserv. 121(1): 127-133.
 
 
Olivera-Gómez, Léon David; Mellink, E. (detail)
   
2013
Aquatic macrophytes within a mesohaline bay, sanctuary for manatees (Trichechus manatus), on the Caribbean coast of Mexico.
Southwestern Naturalist 58(2): 216-222.
x
 
Olsen, Stanley J. (detail)
   
1968
Miocene vertebrates and north Florida shorelines.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 5(1): 127-134. 2 figs.
–Reports indeterminate fossils of sirs. from Alum Bluff, Chattahoochee, Midway, and Colclough Hill, and "Halitherium" (i.e., Crenatosiren olseni) from White Springs (all Miocene localities in northern Florida).
x
 
Olsen, Stanley J. (detail)
   
1982
An osteology of some Maya mammals.
Papers Peabody Mus. Arch. Ethnol. 73: [viii] + 91. 71 figs.
–Illustrates bones of T. manatus, with pointers on identifying them as they occur in Mayan archaeological sites (8, 41, 42, 54, 56, 57, 62, 66, 70, 75, 90).
Ono, Hidehiko: SEE Uchida et al., 1999. (detail)
 
D
Ono, Keiichi; Uyeno, Teruya (detail)
   
1985
Tertiary vertebrates from Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan.
Mem. Natl. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo) No. 18: 65-72.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Paleoparadoxia tabatai.
 
D
Onodera, Shingo (detail)
   
1956
A new occurrence of Desmostylus from Ichinoseki City, Iwate Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 62(735): 721-722. 1 fig.
 
D
Onodera, Shingo (detail)
   
1957
A new occurrence of Desmostylus from Ichinoseki City, Iwate Prefecture, with reference to the geology of the locality.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 63(739): 238-253. 6 figs. 1 pl.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Report of Desmostylus cf. japonicus.
 
D
Onodera, Shingo; Otaka, S.; Sato, J.; Takahashi, T.; Yamada, Y. (detail)
   
1967
A find of Desmostylus from the "Green Tuff" formations in the southern part of Shizukuishi-machi, Iwate Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 73(6): 309-311. Illus.
–In Japanese.
Ooi, Ee-Lin: SEE Chua et al., 2001. (detail)
Ootsuki, Hideo: SEE Inuzuka et al., 1977. (detail)
 
 
Opazo, Juan C.; Sloan, Angela M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Storz, Jay F. (detail)
   
2009
Origin and ascendancy of a chimeric fusion gene: The beta/delta-Globin gene of paenungulate mammals.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 26(7): 1469-1478. 7 figs. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msp064. July 2009.
–ABSTRACT: The ?-globin gene (HBD) of eutherian mammals exhibits a propensity for recombinational exchange with the closely linked ?-globin gene (HBB) and has been independently converted by the HBB gene in multiple lineages. Here we report the presence of a chimeric ?/? fusion gene in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) that was created by unequal crossing-over between misaligned HBD and HBB paralogs. The recombinant chromosome that harbors the ?/? fusion gene in elephants is structurally similar to the "anti-Lepore" duplication mutant of humans (the reciprocal exchange product of the hemoglobin Lepore deletion mutant). However, the situation in the African elephant is unique in that the chimeric ?/? fusion gene supplanted the parental HBB gene and is therefore solely responsible for synthesizing the ?-chain subunits of adult hemoglobin. A phylogenetic survey of ?-like globin genes in afrotherian and xenarthran mammals revealed that the origin of the chimeric ?/? fusion gene and the concomitant inactivation of the HBB gene predated the radiation of "Paenungulata," a clade of afrotherian mammals that includes three orders: Proboscidea (elephants), Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), and Hyracoidea (hyraxes). The reduced fitness of the human Hb Lepore deletion mutant helps to explain why independently derived ?/? fusion genes (which occur on an anti-Lepore chromosome) have been fixed in a number of mammalian lineages, whereas the reciprocal ?/? fusion gene (which occurs on a Lepore chromosome) has yet to be documented in any nonhuman mammal. This illustrates how the evolutionary fates of chimeric fusion genes can be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin.
 
 
Oppel, Albert (detail)
   
1896
Lehrbuch der vergleichende mikroskopische Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. 1. Der Magen.
Jena, Gustav Fischer.
–Sirs., 378-381.
 
 
Oppel, Albert (detail)
   
1905
Lehrbuch der vergleichende mikroskopische Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. 6. Atmungsapparat.
Jena, Gustav Fischer.
 
 
Oppenheimer, Kathleen D.; BenDor, Todd K. (detail)
   
2012
A comprehensive solution to the biofouling problem for the endangered Florida manatee and other species.
Environmental Law 42(2):415-467. Spring 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Biofouling is the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, arthropods, or mollusks on a surface, such as a ship's hull, when it is in contact with water for a period of time. Biofouling and its traditional remedies pose serious environmental consequences, including 1) the transportation of nonindigenous aquatic species that can outcompete with native species for space and resources, thereby reducing biodiversity and threatening the viability of fisheries or aquaculture, 2) the accumulation of zinc- or copper-based toxins that can harm mollusk and marine mammal populations, and 3) the increase in weight, decrease in flexibility and mobility, and topical damage of marine mammals hosting biofouling organisms. There are a number of existing legal mechanisms that address biofouling under international law. However, due to the complexity of biofouling, we argue that existing mechanisms are inadequate for comprehensively regulating the problem, leaving aquatic species susceptible to numerous negative effects from biofouling. Specifically, the existing mechanisms fail to recognize the optimal factors for biofouling development and adhesion, make recommendations to manage biofouling through design standards for marinas and harbors, provide standards for biofouling removal, or detail measures to treat high-risk vessels. To address these inadequacies, we recommend biofouling also be mitigated under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). First, we consider the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a case study species, and suggest that Florida's Resource Conservation and Development (RC&D) areas develop a Safe Harbor umbrella agreement under section 10 of the ESA to create a new generation of ecological harbors that are safe from the dangers of biofouling. The agreement would include a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) that incorporates a combination of behavioral and infrastructural biofouling mitigation techniques to be applied regionally across estuary, freshwater, and saltwater ecosystems. Second, we suggest that both public and private owners of existing, proposed, and expanding marina developments be encouraged to voluntarily sign Safe Harbor Agreements under the RC&D areas' umbrella agreement to avoid owners having to navigate the long and strenuous process of obtaining individual HCPs. The comprehensive biofouling management strategy proposed as a model here would require RCD areas to carry out a range of biofouling best management practices that would protect species and the habitats on which they depend from the adverse effects of biofouling. It would also encourage public and private landowners to follow suit, while maintaining efficiency and rewarding participating landowners for voluntarily implementing additional species conservation practices. In addition, there are several implications for the urban planning processes surrounding marina construction and expansion. If implemented, urban planners and land use attorneys will be expected to proactively lead interdisciplinary collaborations between developers, engineers, biologists, and municipal and state representatives during the marina site selection phase to an unprecedented degree. Planners and land use attorneys will then bring together information obtained from all parties to determine which site is the most economically, biologically, legally, and structurally feasible for the client, and has the greatest potential to minimize the negative effects of biofouling on surrounding ecosystems.
Ord, George: SEE Rhoads, S. N., 1894. (detail)
x
 
Orico, Osvaldo (detail)
   
1937
Vocabulário das crendices amazônicas.
São Paulo, Companhia Editora Nacional: 1-283. Illus.
–Brief account of Amazonian manatees and legends about them (190-191), with a photo (facing p. 190) of a stuffed manatee calf in the Museu Goeldi, Belém.
 
 
Orihuela, Johanset; Viñola López, Lázaro W.; Macrini, Thomas E. (detail)
   
2019
First cranial endocasts of early Miocene sirenians (Dugongidae) from the West Indies.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 39(2): e1584565. .2 tabs. 10 figs.. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1584565 Publ. online May 3, 2019;
–ABSTRACT: We report and describe the first sirenian endocranial casts from the West Indies based on three specimens collected from two quarries of the upper Oligocene–lower Miocene Colón Formation, in the province of Matanzas, western Cuba. We assign them to Dugongidae incertae sedis, based on a phylogenetic analysis of fossil and extant sirenians. Thus, these new specimens provide a unique opportunity to describe the endocranial neuroanatomy of this family. The endocasts are suggestive of dugongids with limited vision and olfaction, based on the diminished olfactory and optic nerves. Additionally, we provide a geological reinterpretation of the Colón Formation and its paleoecological setting. Altogether, these data provide further insight into the diversity and evolution of sirenians, especially Caribbean dugongs.
  RESUMEN: Se describen los primeros moldes endocraniales de sirénido hasta ahora reportados de las Antillas. Los tres especímenes que reportamos provienen de dos canteras con afloramientos de la Formación Colón, en la provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. Esta formación se considera de edad Oligoceno tardío a Mioceno temprano, pero nosotros asignamos los moldes al Mioceno temprano. Conjuntamente, proveemos una lista de caracteres y un análisis filogenético que puede ayudar aclarar su posición sistemática. Por falta de material comparativo, los moldes endocranianos no se pudieron atribuir a una especie, y por ende los asignamos a la familia Dugongidae incertae sedis, por su posición en el árbol filogenético. Estos especímenes permiten un acercamiento a la historia, diversidad y evolución de los sirénidos, y en especial de los dugongídos en el neógeno caribeño.
 
 
Ormond, R. F. G. (detail)
   
1976
The Red Sea.
IUCN Publs. (n.s.) No. 35: 115-123.
 
 
Ormond, R. F. G. (detail)
   
1978
Requirements and progress in marine conservation in the Red Sea. In: J. C. Gamble & R. A. Yorke (eds.), Progress in underwater science, Vol. 3.
London, Pentech: 167-176.
 
 
Orr, R. T. (detail)
   
1941
The distribution of the more important mammals of the Pacific Ocean, as it affects their conservation.
Proc. Pacif. Sci. Congr. 6: 217-222.
Ortega Ricaurte, Daniel: SEE Ricaurte, Daniel Ortega. (detail)
Ortega, Jorge: SEE Linares, O.J., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Ortega-Argueta, A.; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly (detail)
   
2020
Is captive breeding a priority for manatee conservation in Mexico?
54(2): doi.org/10.1017/50030605317001697 [INCORRECT URL]
 
 
Ortega-Argueta, Alejandro; Hines, Ellen M.; Calvimontes, Jorge (detail)
   
2012
Using interviews in sirenian research. Chap. 12 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 109-115. 1 tab.
x
 
Ortiz Rivera, Ernesto J. (detail)
   
1980
Una isla en la encrucijada de la prehistoria humana.
San Juan (Puerto Rico), publ. by the author: xx + 211. Illus.
–A crackpot book on Puerto Rican prehistory. The photographs include fossil and subfossil bones of dugongids and trichechids, but none is identified as such and no locality data are given.
x
 
Ortiz, Manuel; Lalana R., Rogelio; Torres Fundora, Orlando (detail)
   
1992
Un nuevo género y una nueva especie de copépodo Harpacticoida asociada al manatí Trichechus manatus en aguas cubanas.
Revista Investigaciones Marinas 13(2): 117-127. 1 tab. 7 figs.
–Engl. summ. Describes the copepod Harpactichechus manatorum, n.gen.n.sp., collected from the skin of a wild manatee caught in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba. Also mentions (119) a peritrichid protozoan observed attached to the copepod.
 
 
Ortiz, Rudy M. (detail)
   
2001
Osmoregulation in marine mammals.
Jour. Exper. Biol. 204(11): 1831-1844. June 2001.
x
 
Ortiz, Rudy M.; Worthy, Graham A. J. (detail)
   
2004
Could lower body fat mass contribute to cold-water susceptibility in calves of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)?
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(1): 176-183. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Jan. 13, 2004.
–Estimation of body components by isotopic dilution in 8 Florida and 5 Brazilian captive manatees showed correlation between fat mass and age. Manatees appear to reach adult levels of body fat between 1 and 2.5 years of age, prior to which their relatively lower fat mass may indeed increase their cold susceptibility.
x
 
Ortiz, Rudy M.; Worthy, Graham A. J.; Byers, Floyd M. (detail)
   
1999
Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water.
Jour. Exper. Biol. 202(1): 33-38. 2 tabs. Jan. 1999.
–Reports that animals held in fresh water had the highest water turnover rates (145ñ12 ml/kg/day); animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly, then increased it upon re-entry into fresh water. Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed seagrass had very low turnover rates compared with ones held in salt water but fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of drinking of seawater. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if a source of sodium (such as access to marine environments) is not provided.
x
 
Ortiz, Rudy M.; Worthy, Graham A. J.; MacKenzie, Duncan S. (detail)
   
1998
Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Physiol. Zool. 71(4): 449-457. 4 tabs. 2 figs. July/Aug. 1998.
–Experiments manipulating water salinity and animals' access to fresh water were conducted on captive and wild-caught T. m. latirostris and T. m. manatus in Florida, Brazil, Colombia, and Puerto Rico. High aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve sodium or to have access to marine habitats; captinve animals in fresh water may be susceptible to salt deficiency. High vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest use of an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Concludes that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment.
x
 
Orton, James (detail)
   
1876
The Andes and the Amazon. Ed. 3.
New York, Harper & Bros.: 1-645.
–First ed. (356 pp.), 1870. States that manatees in the Amazon region are hunted for oil, glue, and meat (215, 299, 477). The material on pp. 215 and 299 is identical in the 1870 and 1876 eds.; that on p. 477 was added after 1870.
 
 
Osakwe, M. E.; Meduna, A. J.; Kigbu, E. E.; Ishaya, P. D. (detail)
   
1988
Management of pigmy hippopotamus and West African manatee in Jos Wildlife Park.
Nigerian Field 53(4): 175-178. Illus.
x
D
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1902a
A remarkable new mammal from Japan. Its relationship to the Californian genus Desmostylus, Marsh.
Science 16(409): 713-714. Oct. 31, 1902.
–Discusses the similarities between the Japanese and American Desmostylus, and lists some American specimens. In Yoshiwara & Iwasaki (1902), Osborn considered the Japanese specimen a proboscidean; he now concedes that Desmostylus may be either a proboscidean or a sirenian.
x
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1902b
Eocene sirenians in Egypt.
Science 16(409): 715. Oct. 31, 1902.
–Notice of C.W. Andrews (1902). Briefly discusses Eosiren.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1902c
The law of adaptive radiation.
Amer. Naturalist 36: 353-363. 4 figs.
–Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 9: 659?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 8(3): 85? Sirs., 356, fig. 1.
 
D
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1905a
Ten years' progress in the mammalian palaeontology of North America.
Verh. (= C.R.) 6. Internatl. Zool.-Kongr. (Bern, 1904): 86-113. 7 figs. 15 pls.
–?Repr.: Amer. Geol. 36: 199-229. 7 figs. Pl. 12. Sirs., 109 (223 in Amer. Geol.).
x
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1905b
The present problems of paleontology.
Pop. Sci. Monthly 66: 226-242. Jan. 1905.
–Mentions primitive sirs. found in Africa (242).
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1906
Recent vertebrate paleontology.
Science (n.s.) 24: 55-57.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1907a
Evolution of mammalian molar teeth to and from the triangular type, including collected and revised researches on trituberculy and new sections on the forms and homologies of the molar teeth in the different orders of mammals.
New York & London, Macmillan: ix + 250. 215 figs.
–Abstrs.: Science (n.s.) 27: 341-342?; Anat. Rec. 2: 221-225?; Amer. Jour. Sci. (4)25: 264?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 14(3): 161. Sirs., 15, 88-89, 188.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1907b
Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayûm Desert.
Century Mag. 74(= n.s. 52): 815-835. 20 figs.
–Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 11: 28?; Sci. Prog. 2: 503?
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1909
The feeding habits of Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon.
Nature (London) 81(2074): 139-140. 2 figs.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1910
The age of mammals in Europe, Asia, and North America.
New York, Macmillan Co.: xvii + 635. 220 figs.
–Revs.: Amer. Jour. Sci. (4)31: 150-151?; Nat. Hist. 11: 65-67, 1911?; Bull. Amer. Geogr. Soc. New York 43: 541?; Geol. Zentralbl. 19: 393?; Nature (London) 88: 135-136? Sirs., 631.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1917
The origin and evolution of life. On the theory of action, reaction and interaction of energy.
New York: xxxi + 322. 136 figs.
–Extracts: Sci. Monthly 3: 5-22, 170-190, 289-307, 313-334, 502-513, 601-614, 1916? Abstr.: Amer. Jour. Sci. (4)45: 77? Revs.: Nat. Hist. 18: 193-199?; Science (n.s.) 48: 472-474, 1918?; Jour. Geol. 26: 283-285?; Nature (London) 103: 201? Sirs., 269-270.
 
D
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1918
Equidae of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene of North America; iconographic type revision.
Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. (n.s.) 2: 1-330. 173 figs. 44 pls.
–Desmostylians, 23.
 
D
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1922
Migrations and affinities of the fossil proboscideans of North and South America and Africa.
Amer. Naturalist 56: 448-455.
–Desmostylians, 450.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1925
Final conclusions on the evolution, phylogeny, and classification of the Proboscidea.
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 64: 17-35. 3 figs.
–Sirs., 18.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1936
Proboscidea, a monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. Vol. 1.
New York, Amer. Mus. Press: xl + 802. Frontisp. 680 figs. 12 pls.
 
 
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (detail)
   
1942
Proboscidea, a monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. Vol. 2.
New York, Amer. Mus. Press: xxvii + 805-1675. Frontisp. Figs. 683-1244. Pls. 13-30.
–Sirs., 625, 1382, etc.
 
 
Osborn, Ronald G. (detail)
   
1990
Desktop mapping for manatee conservation. In: J. E. Reynolds, III & K. D. Haddad (eds.), Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 28-38. 7 figs. Dec. 1990.
 
 
Osburn, Raymond C. (detail)
   
1903
Adaptation to aquatic, arboreal, fossorial and cursorial habits in mammals.
Amer. Naturalist 37: 651-665.
–Sirs., 653.
 
 
Osburn, Raymond C. (detail)
   
1906
Adaptive modifications of the limb skeleton in aquatic reptiles and mammals.
Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 16: 447-482. Pls. 7-9.
–Sirs., 448.
 
 
Osculati, Caetano (detail)
   
1854
Esplorazione delle regioni equatoriali: lungo il Napo ed il fiume delle ammazzoni. Frammento di un viaggio fatto nelle due Americhe negli anni 1846-47-48. Ed. 2.
Milan, Fratelli Centenari e Comp.: 1-344. 15 figs.
–First ed., 1850. Sirs., 15.
 
 
Oshima, H. (detail)
   
1933
[Travel for collection in the Yaeyama and Miyako Islands.]
Botany & Zoology 1: 681-690.
–In Japanese. Possible opportunistic hunting of DD in islands SW of Japan.
x
 
Ostenfeld, Ch. (detail)
   
1915
On the geographical distribution of the sea-grasses.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria (2)27(2): 179-190. Mar. 1915 (read Oct. 8, 1914).
–Suggests it is possible (though improbable) that fish, sirs., and turtles may help disperse seagrasses by eating their fruits (180).
 
 
Oswald, Felix (detail)
   
1911
The sudden origin of new types.
Sci. Prog. 5: 396-430. 20 figs.
 
 
Ota, Hidetoshi (detail)
   
2001
Resolution at The World Conservation Congress at Amman.
Biol. Mag. Okinawa 39: 141-144. Apr. 2001.
 
 
Ota, Y. (detail)
   
1972
An electron microscopic study of digestive tract cells of sea-cow. [Abstr.]
Zool. Mag. (Tokyo) 81(4): 311.
Otaka, S.: SEE Onodera et al., 1967. (detail)
Otsuka, Hiroyuki: SEE Shikama et al., 1973. (detail)
Otsuka, Jun-ichi: SEE Nishinakagawa et al., 1994. (detail)
Ottenwalder, J. A.: SEE Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder, 1985. (detail)
 
D
Otuka, Yanosuke (detail)
   
1931
[On the Oiso bed.]
Jour. Geol. Soc. Tokyo 38: 174-187.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo Fernández de (detail)
   
1526
Dela natural hystoria delas Indias.
Toledo, Remón de Petras: leaves i-lii + 3. Feb. 15, 1526.
–Allen 3. Many later eds. & transls.; e.g., Univ. North Carolina Studs. Romance Langs. Lits. No. 32: xvii + 140, 1959 (Engl.). No. 85 in the same series (1969) is a facsimile of the 1526 ed. Often known as the "Sumario", this work is a sort of summary of the first part (the first 19 books) of the Historia General (Oviedo, 1535). This "brief description of America, which he wrote on a visit home in 1526, proved so good that he was made official chronicler of 'The Indies,' and in 1535 appeared the first volume of his Historia General y Natural de las Indias. Oviedo had uncommon powers of observation, and his descriptions of West Indian fauna and flora are illustrated by his own sketches" (Morison, 1942). He spent 34 years in different parts of the Caribbean, and his descriptions are evidently based on personal observation, unlike that of P. Martyr (1516); see Whitehead (1977: 168). However, the account of the manatee given here (leaf xlviii; 30 lines) is brief in comparison with that in Oviedo (1535). Durand (1983: 31) quotes the manatee passages from cap. lxxxiii of this ed.
  For more on this and other eds. of Oviedo's works, see Daymond Turner, "Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés: an annotated bibliography", Univ. North Carolina Studs. Romance Langs. Lits. No. 66: xvii + 61, 1967.
 
 
Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo Fernández de (detail)
   
1535
La historia general delas Indias.
Seville, Juan Cromberger: leaves i-cxciii. Illus. Sept. 30, 1535.
–Allen 5. Many later eds., e.g., Madrid, Impr. Real Acad. de la Historia, 1851[-55] (manatee, Part I, Lib. XIII, Cap. IX, 433-436; no illustration; manatee material reprinted in Durand, 1983: 59-62, 85-88); also Asuncion (Paraguay), Editorial Guarania, 1944. Titles vary. See also Ramusio (1565); Purchas his pilgrimes, 1625, 3: 970-1000 (Allen 61; manatee, 987-989). See under Oviedo (1526) for a bibliography of Oviedo's works.
  Manatee, leaves cvi-cviii, 1 fig.: "Capitulo x. Del Manati y de su grandeza & forma: & de la manera que algunas vezes los indios tomauan este grãde animal conel pexe reuerso: & otras particularidades." According to Allen, "The account occupies 5 pp., and is important as the source whence many later compilers drew their materials for the history of the Manatee, and is still historically of the highest interest. There is a small, very rude cut, bearing some likeness to the general form of the Manatee - the earliest figure of the animal published. In the edition of 1547 the text (ff. cvj-cvijj) is the same as the present, but the figure is slightly different, showing an attempt at artistic improvement." This altered version has been reproduced several times in the mistaken belief that it was the earliest figure published. To my knowledge, the original 1535 illustration has been republished only twice: in Durand (1983: 159), and as the frontispiece of the printed ed. of this bibliography (1996).
 
 
Ovington, John Derrick (detail)
   
1978
Australian endangered species: mammals, birds and reptiles.
Stanmore (New South Wales), Cassell: 1-183. Illus.
Owen, C. F. W.: SEE Flamm et al., 2000. (detail)
Owen, Edward C. G.: SEE Flamm et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Owen, Helen C.; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J.; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C. (detail)
   
2013
Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 103: 1-7. 1 tab. 4 figs. DOI:10.3354/dao02568. Mar. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals.
 
 
Owen, Helen; Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark (detail)
   
2017
Impacts of marine debris and fisheries on sirenians. Chap. 18 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 315-331. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Harmful marine debris includes land and ship-sourced waste and abandoned fishing gear from recreational and commercial fisheries; these forms of debris are making their way into waterways and oceans with increasing frequency. For sirenians, marine debris and fisheries pose a significant risk to their well-being through entanglement, ingestion and hunting, both legal and illegal, as well as through more indirect ways, such as changing social structures and creating orphans through loss of cohorts. This chapter addresses the welfare impacts of marine debris and fisheries on sirenians. It also explores the changes in attitude that are occurring in many of the stakeholders involved and how these are translating into positive outcomes.
 
 
Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Col; Palmieri, Chlara; Mills, Paul C. (detail)
   
2015
Comment on "Insulative capacity of the integument of the dugong (Dugong dugon): thermal conductivity, conductance and resistance measured by in vitro heat flux" by Horgan, Booth, Nichols and Lanyon (2014).
Marine Biology DOI: 10.1007/s00227-015-2640-x. Mar. 15, 2015.
 
 
Owen, Helen; Gillespie, Alison; Wilkie, Ian (detail)
   
2012
Postmortem findings from dugong (Dugong dugon) submissions to the University of Queensland: 1997–2010.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48(4): 962-970. DOI: 10.7589/2011-03-080. October 1, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: To better record and characterize mortality in the declining population of dugong (Dugong dugon) in southeast Queensland, Australia, animals were collected and brought to the University of Queensland for postmortem examination. Fifty-five animals were examined over a 14-yr period. Human activities commonly caused the animal death. Several deaths were attributed to primary or secondary infections and idiopathic and degenerative diseases. A significant proportion of animals were found to have nonspecific signs of chronic debility, but the causes of disease and mortality in these cases remains to be identified.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1833
Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the physiological series of comparative anatomy contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London. Vol. 1.
London, printed by R. Taylor: xvi + 271.
–Sirs., 121.
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1838a
[On the anatomy of the dugong.]
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 6: 28-45. July 1838 (read Mar. 27, 1838).
–Allen 941. ?Summ.: Isis 1845: 364-367? Describes the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, urogenital, skeletal, and dental systems of the dugong, with comparisons to other sirs. and cetaceans; concludes that the two orders are not related. Includes tables of measurements.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1838b
Fossil Marsupialia from the caves of Wellington Valley. In: T. L. Mitchell, Three expeditions into the interior of eastern Australia, with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia Felix, and of the present colony of New South Wales.
London, publ. by the author (Vol. 2: viii + 405. Illus.): 368-369.
–Considers Diprotodon "a dugong"?
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1839a
[On the Basilosaurus of Dr. Harlan.]
The Athenaeum (London) No. 585: 35-36. Jan. 12, 1839.
–Compares the teeth of the manatee and dugong with those of Basilosaurus (35), in support of the latter's mammalian identity.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1839b
Entozoa. In: Todd, Cyclopaedia of anatomy and physiology.
Vol. 2: 111-144.
–Discusses the morphology of an "Ascaris" (= Paradujardinia) from the stomach of a dugong.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1840-45
Odontography; or, a treatise on the comparative anatomy of the teeth; their physiological relations, mode of development, and microscopic structure, in the vertebrated animals.
London, Hippolyte Bailliere; Paris, J. B. Baillière; Leipzig, T. O. Weigel (2 vols., text & atlas): xx + lxxiv + 655. Atlas: 1-37. 168 pls.
–Allen 1013. ?Extracts: Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bologna) (2)1: 76-80, 233-238, 314-318; 2: 153-160; 3: 70-80; (3)2: 266-282, 427-443; 4: 454-468; 8: 249-257? Sirs., 364-372; Atlas, 23-24, pls. 92-97: Halicore indicus, 364-371, pls. 92-95; Manatus americanus, 371, pl. 96; Halitherium brocchii, 372, pl. 97.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1843
[Title?]
Proc. Geol. Soc. London 4: 230.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1846
A history of British fossil mammals, and birds.
London, J. Van Voorst: xlvi + 560. 237 figs.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1847
Notes on the characters of the skeleton of a dugong (Halicore Australis). Appendix IV in: J. Beete Jukes, Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. "Fly", commanded by Captain F. P. Blackwood, R.N., in Torres Strait, New Guinea, and other islands of the Eastern Archipelago, during the years 1842-46: together with an excursion into the interior of the eastern part of Java.
London, T. & W. Boone (2 vols.): Vol. 2: 225, 323-328, pl. 27.
–Extract in Australian Scrap Book (date?).
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1849
On the nature of limbs. A discourse delivered on Friday, February 9, at an evening meeting of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
London, John Van Voorst: 1-119. 11 figs. 2 pls.
–Facsimile: R. Amundson (ed.), with preface and 4 introductory essays, Univ. Chicago Press, cii + 119, 2007.
  Owen presents the dugong as an example of limbs in the form of fins (fig. 1, pp. 5-6). Amundson's essay ("Richard Owen and animal form", pp. xv-li) alludes to this on pp. xxx and xxxv.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1852
Teeth. In: Cyclopaedia of anatomy.
Vol. 4: 902. Fig. 575.
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1855
On the fossil skull of a mammal (Prorastomus sirenoïdes, Owen) from the island of Jamaica.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 11: 541-543. 1 pl.
–Describes the new genus and species without expressing any opinion as to its age.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1856
Dr Vogel on the ajuh of Central Africa.
Edinburgh New Philos. Jour. (2)4(2): 345-346. Oct. 1856 (read Aug. 5-12, 1856); back of Smithsonian Inst. copy stamped "Oct. 14 1856."
–Repr.: Owen (1857b). French transl.: L'Institut 25(1208): 61-62, Feb. 25, 1857. Compares the "Ajuh" to Manatus Senegalensis and M. Americanus, and names it Manatus Vogelii, n.sp.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1857a
On the characters, principles of division, and primary groups of the class Mammalia.
Jour. Linn. Soc. London 2: 1-37. 6 figs.
–?Repr.: Proc. Linn. Soc. London, Zool. 2: 1-37. 6 figs. Sirs., 26.
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1857b
Note on the ajuh of Dr. Vogel. In: Shaw, N., 1857 (q.v.).
Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 26th Meeting (1856): 99-100.
–Material identical to Owen (1856).
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1860
Palaeontology; or, a systematic summary of extinct animals and their geological relations.
Edinburgh, A. & C. Black: xv + 420. 142 figs.
–Ed. 2, 1861. Rev.: Lit. Gaz. (London) (n.s.) 4: 389-391. Sirs., 400?
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1866
On the anatomy of vertebrates. II. Birds and mammals.
London, Longmans, Green: viii + 592. 3 tabs. 406 figs.
–Sirs., 193-194, 429, 436.
 
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1868
On the anatomy of vertebrates. Vol. III. Mammals.
London, Longmans, Green, & Co.: x + 915. 614 figs.
–Rev.: Anthrop. Rev. 7: 252-259, 1869? Sirs., 195, 483, 521-522, 908.
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1875a
On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the Nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam Cliffs, near Cairo.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 31(1)(121): 100-105. Pl. 3. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.JGS.1875.031.01-04.05 Feb. 1, 1875.
–Describes Eotherium aegyptiacum, n.gen.n.sp., based on a natural cranial endocast, which he compares with the brains of other sirs. Also gives a brief synopsis of various European sirs.
x
 
Owen, Richard (detail)
   
1875b
On Prorastomus sirenoides (Ow.). - Part II.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 31: 559-567. Pls. 28-29.
–Rev.: Geol. Mag. (2)12(9): 422-423, Sept. 1875. Amplifies the 1855 description of P. sirenoides following further preparation of the type specimen; compares it with other sirs.; and discusses its possible mode of tooth replacement and its implications for an early common ancestry of sirs. and ungulates. On p. 560 he introduces, probably inadvertently, a new name (Halicore malayana) for the Recent dugong.
Owen, Robert P.: SEE Brownell, Anderson et al., 1981. (detail)
Oxley-Oxland, R.: SEE Hughes & Oxley-Oxland, 1971. (detail)
x
 
Ozawa, Tomowo; Hayashi, Seiji; Mikhelson, Viktor M. (detail)
   
1997
Phylogenetic position of mammoth and Steller's sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Jour. Molec. Evol. 44(4): 406-413. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–Sequences from mtDNA cytochrome b gene segments indicate phylogenetic divergence of Dugong and Hydrodamalis ca. 22 million years ago, assuming divergence of dugongids and trichechids at 30 m.y.a.
 
D
Ozawa, Y. (detail)
   
1924
A new locality of Desmostylus.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Tokyo 31(371-372): 317-318.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Ozeretskovsky, Nikolai Yakovlevich (detail)
   
1802
De speciebus, systematicum genus Trichechi constituentibus.
Nov. Act. Acad. Sci. Petropolitanae 13: 371-375. Pl. 13.
–Allen 466. Discusses the relationship of the walrus, Steller's sea cow, and dugong.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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