Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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P

 
 
Pablo-Rodríguez, Nereyda; Olivera-Gómez, Leon D.; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Vega-Cendejas, Maria E. (detail)
   
2015
Seasonal differences in the feeding habits of the Antillean manatee population (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the fluvial-lagoon systems of Tabasco, Mexico.
Marine Mammal Science 32(1): 363-375. 3 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12245. Jan. 2016 (publ. online June 17, 2015).
 
 
Pabody, C. M.; Carmichael, R.; Rice, L.; Ross, M. (detail)
   
2009
A new sighting network adds to 20 years of historical data on fringe West Indian (Trichechus manatus) manatee populations in Alabama waters.
Gulf of Mexico Science 2009(1): 52-61.
Pabst, D. Ann: SEE Kipps et al., 2002; Rommel et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Pabst, D. Ann; Rommel, Sentiel A.; McLellan, William A. (detail)
   
1999
The functional morphology of marine mammals. Chap. 2 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 15-72. 4 tabs. 26 figs.
Pacini, P.: SEE Fondi & Pacini, 1974. (detail)
Packard, Earl L.: SEE ALSO Smith & Packard, 1919. (detail)
 
D
Packard, Earl L.; Kellogg, Remington (detail)
   
1934
A new cetothere from the Miocene Astoria Formation of Newport, Oregon.
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 447: 20-24. 1 fig.
Packard, Jane M.: SEE ALSO Lazcano-B. & Packard, 1989. (detail)
 
 
Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1983a
Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume I. Summary.
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 1: 1-31. 23 figs.
–Part of a 3-volume document (Packard, 1983a, b, c) produced under Packard's leadership and editorship at the request of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission. This portion was coauthored by Catherine Puckett and was the only portion designed for wide public dissemination. It is a summary of Vol. 2, which presents the research and management plan in detail. Vol. 3 comprises a series of background papers. The plan was endorsed by the Fish & Wildlife Service, which subsequently published Implementation Schedules for the plan in June 1985 (10 pp.) and Sept. 1986 (10 pp.).
 
 
Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1983b
Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume II. Technical plan.
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 2: xiv + 6 + 79 + 4 + 118 + 15 + 4 + 8 + 3. 30 tabs. 65 figs. Dec. 1983.
–Summ.: Packard (1983a).
x
 
Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1984a
Impact of manatees Trichechus manatus on seagrass communities in eastern Florida.
Acta Zool. Fennica 172: 21-22. 2 tabs.
–Documents the amount of seagrass biomass removed by manatee rooting and grazing; notes that manatee herbivory may maintain species diversity in seagrass beds.
x
 
Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1984b
Review of manatee marking techniques.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 6: 1-29. 7 tabs.
–See also Appendix 1. Describes characteristics, potential information gain, and feasibility of techniques used or potentially useful for marking free-ranging or restrained manatees, and makes recommendations for further development and application of these techniques.
x
 
Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1985a
Development of manatee aerial survey techniques.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 7: vi + 68. 2 tabs. 9 figs. 6 maps.
–See also Appendix 1. A detailed discussion of and practical guide to the design and execution of manatee aerial surveys for different purposes, emphasizing conditions in Florida. Includes small-scale survey maps of 6 survey sites in Florida, sample data forms, and checklists of survey and data-analysis procedures.
x
 
Packard, Jane M. (detail)
   
1985b
Preliminary assessment of uncertainty involved in modeling manatee populations.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 9: 1-19. 4 tabs. 3 figs.
–See also Appendix 1. Presents a provisional population model for T. manatus, which indicates that its maximum potential rate of population increase is likely to be as low as 2-7% and that the present Florida population may be declining. The rate of change seems to be most sensitive to changes in adult survival rate.
n
 
Packard, Jane M. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1983c
Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium.
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3: iii + 346. Illus. Dec. 1983.
–This compendium, edited by Packard, consists of 14 background papers, some prepared especially for the Crystal River plan and others previously or subsequently published elsewhere. They are organized into three sections, and are listed separately in this bibliography under their authors: Section I, Biological Information (Powell & Rathbun, 1984; Kochman et al., 1983; Powell, 1981; O'Shea et al., 1984; O'Shea, 1983); Section II, Legal Information (Gluckman & Hamann, 1983; Hamann, 1983a, b, c; Gluckman, 1983a, b, c, d); and Section III, Socioeconomic Information (Puckett, 1983).
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Mulholland, R. (detail)
   
1983
Analysis of manatee aerial surveys: a compilation and preliminary analysis of winter aerial surveys conducted in Florida between 1977 and 1982.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 2: iii + 119. 7 tabs. 3 figs. + numerous tabs. & figs. in appendices.
–See also Appendix 1. Presents and synthesizes data from several unpublished reports by other authors, and makes recommendations for future data collection and analysis.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Nichols, James D. (detail)
   
1983
Sample size estimates: a preliminary analysis of sample sizes required for mark-recovery and mark-resighting studies of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 4: 1-14. 4 tabs. 3 figs.
–See also Appendix 1. Concludes that estimation of annual survival rate by tag recovery from carcasses can yield only unacceptably imprecise results, but that mark-resighting methods may be successful, depending on rate of emigration and probability of sighting. Studies based on scar patterns would involve slightly different assumptions than those examined here.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Wetterqvist, Orjan F. (detail)
   
1986
Evaluation of manatee habitat systems on the northwestern Florida coast.
Coastal Zone Management Jour. 14(4): 279-310. 3 tabs. 7 figs.
–Uses overlapping maps showing important features of habitat use by manatees (distribution, activities, food, summer and winter range) and humans (boat and barge traffic, boat ramps, marinas, urban areas) to identify areas of manatee-human conflict and to rank these in order of importance. Recommends ways to continually improve this approach to land-use planning, which resulted in the research/management plan for Crystal River manatees (see Packard, 1983a, b, c).
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Frohlich, Richard Kipp; Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1984
Factors influencing indices of manatee abundance in the Fort Myers region, winter 1983/84.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 5: 1-63. 12 tabs. 12 figs.
–See also Appendix 1. Analyzes the effects of manatee density, visibility, temperature, tide, and survey techniques on aerial survey results. Concludes that the aerial survey data are not sufficient to estimate actual abundance and should instead be treated as indices of trends. Separate surveys should be designed to maximize precision and accuracy of data obtained. The "block/recount" survey technique is introduced to estimate the error associated with indices obtained from individual surveys, and calibration of observers is recommended.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Frohlich, Richard Kipp; Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1985
Manatee response to interrupted operation of the Fort Myers power plant, winter 1984/85.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 8: 1-20. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–See also Appendix 1. Compares manatee abundance, distribution, and local movement patterns in winter 1984 with those in winter 1985, when the plant was temporarily shut down. Most manatees sought out the warmest water available at a given time, but the interruption in the warm-water supply apparently did not last long enough for them to suffer evident harm. Also discusses the effects of visibility and other factors on consistency of aerial counts of manatees, and some results of radiotagging 16 animals.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Frohlich, Richard Kipp; Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1989
Manatee response to interruption of a thermal effluent.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 53(3): 692-700. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
–Aerial survey data on manatees near a Ft. Myers (Florida) power plant showed that they did not leave the area when the plant was shut down for 3 weeks in Jan. 1985; instead they gathered in an area of deep waters that cooled more slowly than surrounding waters. Applicable survey techniques are discussed, together with the management implications of power-plant shutdowns and the installation of warm-water wells at the plant for the manatees' benefit following the 1985 shutdown.
 
 
Packard, Jane M.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Best, Robin Christopher; Anderson, Paul K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1984
Sea cows and manatees. In: D. W. Macdonald (ed.), The encyclopedia of mammals.
New York, Facts on File Publs.: 292-303. 15 figs.
–Repr. in: K. Banister & A. Campbell (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York, Facts on File Publs.: 340-349. 12 figs. Dec. 16, 1985.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Siniff, Donald B.; Cornell, John A. (detail)
   
1986
Use of replicate counts to improve indices of trends in manatee abundance.
Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14: 265-275. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Uses replicate counts from winter aerial surveys at Fort Myers, Florida, to calculate 3 indices of abundance. Concludes that the sight-resight index is more suitable for detecting year-to-year trends in abundance than the density and total-count indices, but that more development of the approach may be needed.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Summers, Robert C.; Barnes, Lindsay B. (detail)
   
1983
Correction factors for observability of manatees during aerial surveys.
Manatee Population Research Rept. (Gainesville, Fla., Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit) No. 3: 1-10. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Summ.: Packard, Summers & Barnes (1985). See also Appendix 1. Uses actual counts of manatees identified in Blue Spring, together with 7 radiotagged manatees and 3 tagged with vinyl flags, to obtain correction factors for aerial surveys of the St. Johns River, Florida. Only 33-57% of manatees known to be in the area were sighted from the air. Factors influencing variation in counts are discussed, including habitat type, survey conditions, and observer bias. Correction factors obtained for each survey gave estimates closer to total counts than factors based on the mean ratio-of-radios-sighted over all surveys.
x
 
Packard, Jane M.; Summers, Robert C.; Barnes, Lindsay B. (detail)
   
1985
Variation of visibility bias during aerial surveys of manatees.
Jour. Wildl. Manage. 49(2): 347-351. 1 tab.
–A revised and abridged version of Packard, Summers & Barnes (1983), omitting discussion of the use of vinyl flags.
x
 
Packard, Winthrop (detail)
   
1910
Florida trails: as seen from Jacksonville to Key West and from November to April inclusive.
Boston, Small, Maynard & Co.: 1-300. Illus.
–Briefly mentions the occurrence of manatees on the St. Lucie River, and the accidental netting and release of one on the Indian River (144-145; photo opposite p. 148).
Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth A.: SEE Morales et al., 2003. (detail)
Paglia, Adriano P.: SEE Sousa-Lima et al., 2002. (detail)
x
 
Pain, Stephanie (detail)
   
1996
Where manatees may safely swim.
New Scientist No. 2039: 22. 1 fig. July 20, 1996.
–Describes attempts to design devices to prevent manatee deaths in two types of flood-control barriers used in south Florida.
x
 
Paiva, Mario (detail)
   
1945
A vida dos animais da Amasônia: suas lendas e surperstições [sic].
Belém, Oficinas Gráficas da Revista da Veterinaria: 1-53.
–Rather inaccurate pop. acc. of the Amazonian manatee (35-36), confusing it with T. manatus and even with sperm whales!
 
 
Palacký, J. (detail)
   
1902
Die Verbreitung der Meeressäugethiere.
Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 15: 249-266.
–Sirs., 254.
x
 
Palazzo-Craig, Janet (detail)
   
1998
I can read about manatees.
Troll Communications: 1-47. Illus.
–Children's book on Florida manatees.
 
 
Pales, Léon (detail)
   
1930
Paléopathologie et pathologie comparative.
Paris, Masson & Cie: vii + 352. 63 pls.
–Illustrates fusion of thoracic vertebrae and ribs in the skeleton of Hydrodamalis gigas at Lyon (pl. 27, fig. 2).
 
 
Pallas, Peter Simon (detail)
   
1781
Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie.
St. Petersburg & Leipzig, Johann Zacharias Logan (7 vols., 1781-93?): Vol. 1: 1-375. 9 pls.
–See also G.W. Steller (1781, 1793a). Steller's sea cow, 290-299. Regarding Pallas, see Masterson & Brower (1948).
 
 
Pallas, Peter Simon (detail)
   
1811
Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum.
St. Petersburg, Caes. Acad. Sci. (3 vols. + atlas, 1811-31): Vol. 1: xxii + 568.
–Allen 769. Manatus borealis, 272, pl. 30.
 
 
Pallas, Peter Simon (detail)
   
1834-42
Icones ad Zoographiam Rosso-Asiaticam.
Palma, Joese Angelito M.: SEE Kataoka et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Palmer, Don (detail)
   
1989
The manatee hot tub.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 14(9-10): 7. Sept./Oct. 1989.
–Notice: Tropical Fish Hobbyist 38(11): 102, 1 fig., July 1990. Describes a proposal for excavating an artificial lagoon near a paper mill in Georgia to provide manatees with a reliable winter source of warm water.
 
 
Palmer, G. F. (detail)
   
1971
Sea cow: siren of the North Pacific.
Pacific Search 5(6): 3-4. Mar. 1971.
 
 
Palmer, Kady; Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Boggs, Ashley S. P.; Bowden, John A. (detail)
   
2019
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in plasma of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 140: 610-615. 2 tabs. 1 fig. + online suppl. material. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.02.010 Publ. online Feb. 16, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, synthetic anthropogenic chemicals known to infiltrate and persist in biological systems as a result of their stability and bioaccumulation potential. This study investigated 15 PFAS, including short-chain carboxylic and sulfonic acids, and their presence in a threatened herbivore, the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Seven of the 15 PFAS examined were detected in manatee plasma. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (ranging from 0.13 to 166?ng/g ww) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (ranging from 0.038 to 3.52?ng/g ww) were detected in every manatee plasma sample examined (n?=?69), with differing medians across sampling sites in Florida, Crystal River (n?=?39), Brevard County (n?=?18), Everglades National Park (n?=?8), and four samples (n?=?4) from Puerto Rico. With an herbivorous diet and long life-span, the manatee provides a new perspective to monitoring PFAS contamination.
x
 
Palmer, T. S. (detail)
   
1895
The earliest name for Steller's sea cow and dugong.
Science (2)2(40): 449-450. Oct. 4, 1895.
–Notes the priority of the names Hydrodamalis Retzius and Dugong Lacépède over Rytina and Halicore, respectively; recognizes the specific names Hydrodamalis gigas and Dugong dugon; and proposes that the family names be changed to Hydrodamalidae and Dugongidae.
 
 
Palmer, T. S. (detail)
   
1899
[Review of Dr. E. L. Trouessart's Catalogus Mammalium.]
Science (2)10: 491-495.
–Corrects Trouessart's use of the names Manatus, Halicore, and Rhytina to Trichechus, Dugong, and Hydrodamalis, respectively, and proposes the new name Eotheroides to replace the preoccupied name Eotherium Owen, 1875 (494).
 
D
Palmer, T. S. (detail)
   
1904
Index generum mammalium. A list of the genera and families of mammals.
North Amer. Fauna No. 23: 1-984.
–Sirs. and desmostylians, 224, 398, 904.
x
 
Palmer, William (detail)
   
1917
The fossil seacow of Maryland.
Science (n.s.) 45(1162): 344. Apr. 6, 1917.
–?Repr.: Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 7: 120? Reports a fragment of vertebra collected from the Miocene Calvert Formation. This was Metaxytherium calvertense, USNM 23348 (Kellogg, 1966).
Palmieri, James R.: SEE Budiarso et al., 1979. (detail)
Palomo, Mindy: SEE Hinze & Palomo, 2000. (detail)
Paludo, Danielle: SEE ALSO Pinto de Lima et al., 1992a, 1992b. (detail)
 
 
Paludo, Danielle (detail)
   
1998
Estudos sobre ecologia e conservação do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus manatus) no Nordeste do Brasil.
Série Meio Ambiente em Debate (Brasília, Inst. Bras. Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis) No. 22: 1-70.
 
 
Paludo, Danielle; Langguth, Alfredo (detail)
   
2002
Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae).
Rev. Brasil. Zool. 19(1): 205-215. March 2002.
 
 
Pander, Christian Heinrich; D'Alton, Eduard (detail)
   
1826
Die skelete der Robben und Lamantine, abgebildet und verglichen. Abt. 1, Heft [Lief.?] 9 in: Pander & D'Alton, Vergleichende Osteologie, 1821-31.
Bonn, Eduard Weber: 1-10. 7 pls.
–Allen 682. Skeleton of Halicore indica, 8-10, pl. 5.
 
 
Pander, Christian Heinrich; D'Alton, Eduard (detail)
   
1827
Die skelete der Cetaceen. Abt. 1, Heft [Lief.?] 11 in: Pander & D'Alton, Vergleichende Osteologie, 1821-31.
Bonn, Eduard Weber: [ii] + 10. 6 pls.
–Sirs., 1.
 
 
Pandey, C. N.; Tatu, K. S.; Anand, Y. A. (detail)
   
2010
Status of dugong (Dugong dugon) in India.
Gandhinagar (India), GEER Foundation: 1-146.
 
D
Panofsky, Adele I. (detail)
   
1998
Stanford Paleoparadoxia fossil skeleton mounting.
Stanford (Calif.), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford Univ. (SLAC-PUB-7829): vi + 143. 5 tabs. 56 figs. Sept. 1998.
–Describes in detail the process, extended over 24 years, of mounting a cast of the Stanford skeleton (Paleoparadoxia repenningi) for display at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the site of its discovery in 1964.
 
 
Pantoja, T. M. A.; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Santos, A. M. F. dos (detail)
   
2010
Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian manatee.
Brazilian Jour. Biol. 70(3): 607-615. 6 tabs. 1 fig.
–Portuguese summ.
x
 
Papastavrou, Vassili (detail)
   
1995
Gentle giant's furry fate: why the Steller's sea cow died out.
BBC Wildlife 13(11): 26. 1 fig. Nov. 1995.
–Brief popular summary of P.K. Anderson (1995a).
Papke, Olaf: SEE Gaus et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Pardini, A. T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Elder, F. F. B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T. J. (detail)
   
2007
Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria.
Proc. Roy. Soc. B 274: 1333-1340. 3 figs. Publ. online Mar. 20, 2007.
Parente, C. L.: SEE Vergara-Parente et al., 2003a. (detail)
 
 
Parente, Cristiano Leite; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Pinto de Lima, Régis (detail)
   
2004
Strandings of Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, in northeastern Brazil.
Latin American Jour. Aquat. Mamms. 3: 69-75.
Parer, D.: SEE Parer-Cook & Parer, 1990. (detail)
 
 
Parer-Cook, E.; Parer, D. (detail)
   
1990
The case of the vanishing mermaids.
Geo (Sydney) 12(3): 16-35. 23 figs.
Paris, F.: SEE Lecuyer et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Parker, Fred (detail)
   
1979
Wildlife laws in Papua New Guinea.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 79/1: 6-19. 25 figs.
x
 
Parker, G. H. (detail)
   
1922
The breathing of the Florida manatee (Trichechus latirostris).
Jour. Mamm. 3(3): 127-135. 2 tabs. Aug. 1922.
–Records the breathing and submergence periods of three captive manatees at Miami. The longest dive observed lasted 16 min 20 sec.
x
D
Parker, Ronald B.; Toots, Heinrich (detail)
   
1980
Trace elements in bones as paleobiological indicators. In: A. K. Behrensmeyer & A. P. Hill (eds.), Fossils in the making: vertebrate taphonomy and paleoecology.
Chicago, Univ. Chicago Press (xii + 338): 197-207. 2 tabs. 4 figs.
–Reports that the sodium concentration in enamel of Desmostylus was higher (0.91% by weight) than in terrestrial mammals (205).
 
 
Parker, Thomas Jeffery; Haswell, William A. (detail)
   
1897
A text-book of zoology.
London & New York, Macmillan (2 vols.): Vol. 2: xx + 683. Figs. 664-1172.
–Sirs., 451, 502; figs. 1082-1083.
 
 
Parker, William Kitchen (detail)
   
1868
A monograph on the structure and development of the shoulder girdle and sternum in the Vertebrata.
London, Ray Society: xii + 239. Tabs. Figs. 30 pls.
–Sirs., 218-219, pl. 29.
 
 
Parkinson, James (detail)
   
1833
Organic remains of a former world. An examination of the mineralized remains of the vegetables and animals of the antediluvian world; generally termed extraneous fossiles.... In three volumes.... The third volume; containing the fossil starfish, echini, shells, insects, Amphibia, Mammalia, &c. Second edition.
London, M. A. Natali; Leicester, T. Combe, Jr.: ix-xii + 467. Frontisp. 22 pls.
–Allen 796. First ed., 1804 or 1811? Abstr.: Month. Mag. (London) 32: 694-702, 1811? Sirs., 322. In 1811 ed., sirs. at 3: 309-310.
 
 
Parona, C. (detail)
   
1889
Intorno all'Ascaris halicoris, Owen ed a qualche altro nematode raccolti in Assab dal Dott. V. Ragazzi.
Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2)7(27): 751-764. Pl. 13.
 
 
Parr, Leslee A.; Duffield, Deborah A. (detail)
   
2002
Interspecific comparison of mitochondrial DNA variation among extant species of sirenians. Chap. 14 in: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and cell biology of marine mammals.
Malabar (Florida), Krieger Publ. Co. (xvii + 427): 152-158. 2 tabs.
 
 
Parr, Leslie; Santos, Fabrício R.; Waycott, Michelle; Vianna, Juliana A.; McDonald, Brenda; Caballero, Susana; Lopes, Maria José de Souza (detail)
   
2012
Sirenian genetics and demography. Chap. 19 in: E. M. Hines, J. E. Reynolds III, L. V. Aragones, A. A. Mignucci-Giannoni, & M. Marmontel (eds.) Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 168-178. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Includes box essay by Ann Marie Clark (pp. 168-170, "Handling animal tissue for genetic analysis").
Parris, David C.: SEE Gallagher et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Parsons, James Jerome (detail)
   
1962
The green turtle and man.
Gainesville, Univ. Florida Press: 1-126. Illus.
 
 
Parsons, Miles J. G.; Holley, Dave; McCauley, Robert D. (detail)
   
2013
Source levels of dugong (Dugong dugon) vocalizations recorded in Shark Bay.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134(2582). 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1121/1.4816583. June 10, 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Dugongs (Dugong dugon) spend significant time in shallow, turbid waters and are often active at night, conditions which are not conducive to visual cues. In part, as a result, dugongs vocalize to gain or pass information. Passive acoustic recording is a useful tool for remote detection of vocal marine animals, but its application to dugongs has been little explored compared with other mammals. Aerial surveys, often used to monitor dugong distribution and abundance, are not always financially or logistically viable and involve inherent availability and perception bias considerations. Passive acoustic monitoring is also subject to sampling biases and a first step to identifying these biases and understanding the detection or communication range of animal calls is to determine call source level. In March 2012, four dugongs were fitted with satellite tags in Shark Bay, Western Australia by the Department of Environment and Conservation. During this, acoustic recordings were taken at 5.1?m range. Source levels for each of five call types (two types of chirp, bark, squeak, and quack) were estimated, assuming spherical spreading as the transmission loss. Mean source levels for these call types were 139 (n?=?19), 135 (12), 142 (2), 158 (1), and 136 (9) dB re 1??Pa at 1?m, respectively.
Pascual, Rosendo: SEE ALSO Marshall et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Pascual, Rosendo (detail)
   
1953
Sobre nuevos restos de sirénidos del mesopotamiense.
Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argentina 8(3): 163-181. 1 fig. 2 pls.
–Engl. summ. Summarizes previous work on Ribodon and describes new material from Argentina; concludes that the genus is valid, Mio-Pliocene in age, ancestral to Trichechus, and probably identical with Potamosiren.
x
 
Pascual, Rosendo (detail)
   
1966
Datos preliminares sobre el primer resto de un sirenio (Dugongidae) del Mioceno superior ("Paranaense") de la Argentina. [Abstr.]
Ameghiniana 4(7): 242. May 1966 (read June 24, 1965).
–Reports an upper molar similar to Felsinotherium but "tribosphenic" rather than bilophodont. This tooth was described by Reinhart (1976: 272-278) as Metaxytherium sp. indet.
 
 
Passarge, Siegfried (detail)
   
1909
In: H. H. J. Meyer, Das Deutsche Kolonialreich; eine Länderkunde der deutschen Schutzgebiete.... 1. Band. Ostafrika und Kamerun.
Leipzig & Vienna, Verlag des Bibliographischen-Instituts: 1-650.
–Sirs., 446.
 
 
Paterson, Robert A. (detail)
   
1979
Shark meshing takes a heavy toll of harmless marine animals.
Austral. Fish. 38(10): 17-23. 8 tabs. 1 fig. Oct. 1979.
–Yearly totals of dugongs netted in Queensland, 1962-78 (18-21).
x
 
Paterson, Robert A. (detail)
   
1990
Effects of long-term anti-shark measures on target and non-target species in Queensland, Australia.
Biol. Conserv. 52(2): 147-159. 2 tabs. 7 figs.
–Notes the danger of shark nets to dugongs, and gives yearly totals of dugongs netted in the Queensland anti-shark program, 1962-88 (155-156).
 
 
Patrick, Diane (detail)
   
1978
Will the mermaid disappear?
Amer. Humane Mag. May 1978: 44-46. 3 figs.
 
 
Patte, Étienne (detail)
   
1925
Le kjökkenmödding neolithique du Bau Tro à Tam Toa près de Dong-Hoi (Annam).
Bull. Serv. Archéol. Géol. Indochine 14(1):
 
 
Patte, Étienne (detail)
   
1963
Présence de l'Halitherium dans l'Oligocene du Poitou.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (7)4: 536-537. 1 pl.
–See Patte, 1974.
x
 
Patte, Étienne (detail)
   
1974
Une mystification. La prétendue présence d'Halitherium en Poitou. [Abstr.]
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (7)16(2), Suppl. No. 2: 24.
–Retracts the record of a Halitherium skull fragment from Saint-Georges-les-Baillargeaux published in Patte, 1963; the alleged locality was apparently fraudulent. The report of ribs from near Beaumont-sur-Oise, however, was correct.
 
 
Patterson, Ewen K. (detail)
   
1939
The dugong hunters.
Walkabout 5(12): 43-44. 2 figs. Oct. 1, 1939.
–Dugong hunting in Torres Strait.
Patton, Geoffrey W.: SEE ALSO Kadel, Dukeman & Patton, 1991; Kadel, Morgan & Patton, 1991; Kadel & Patton, 1992; Nabor & Patton, 1989; Weigle et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
   
1980
Studies of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Tampa Bay (Florida): a technical report.
Sarasota, Mote Marine Laboratory: vii + 52 + [16]. 9 tabs. 23 figs. June 18, 1980.
–Report of a study funded by the Tampa Electric Company.
 
 
Patton, Geoffrey W. (detail)
   
1986
Studies of the West Indian manatee: Anna Maria to Venice (Florida): a technical report.
Sarasota, Mote Marine Laboratory: iii + 24 + [10]. 3 tabs. 9 figs. + 1 tab. & 9 figs. in appendix. Jan. 25, 1986.
 
 
Patton, Geoffrey W.; Gerstein, Edmund R. (detail)
   
1992
Toward understanding mammalian hearing tractability: preliminary underwater acoustical perception thresholds in the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. In: D. B. Webster, R. R. Fay, & A. N. Popper (eds.), The evolutionary biology of hearing. (Proceedings of a conference at Sarasota, Fla., May 20-24, 1990.)
New York & Berlin, Springer-Verlag (li + 859): 783.
 
 
Patton, Geoffrey W.; Anderson, H. F.; McAllister, A. (detail)
   
1989
Port of the Islands manatee habitat characterization: final report.
Mote Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept. No. 148: i + 8 + [52]. 1 tab. 55 figs. Aug. 29, 1989.
x
 
Patton, Geoffrey W.; Gerstein, Edmund R.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Sutherland, Michael; Perinetti, Robert (detail)
   
1992
An annotated bibliography of sirenian hearing.
Mote Marine Laboratory Tech. Rept. No. 272: 1-61. Oct. 1992.
–Includes citations of 98 references on sirenian hearing. Can be downloaded from: http://home.ncifcrf.gov/research/bja/GWPubs/
 
 
Patton, Geoffrey W.; Kreckman, Todd A.; Sprinkel, Jay (detail)
   
1987
Studies of the West Indian manatee: Anna Maria to Venice (Florida).
Sarasota, Mote Marine Laboratory: iv + 37 + [9]. 6 tabs. 15 figs. + 9 figs. in appendix. Feb. 1987.
Paula Couto, Carlos de: SEE ALSO Simpson & Paula Couto, 1981. (detail)
x
 
Paula Couto, Carlos de (detail)
   
1956
Mamíferos fósseis do Cenozóico da Amazônia.
Bol. Conselho Nac. Pesquisas No. 3: 1-121. 15 figs. 16 pls.
–Describes a ?Pleistocene skullcap from the Rio Juruá, Acre, Brazil, referred to Trichechus sp. and thought to be closer to T. manatus than to T. inunguis (5, 79, 95, 107).
x
 
Paula Couto, Carlos de (detail)
   
1967a
Estudos paleontológicos na Amazônia.
Atas do Simpósio sôbre a Biota Amazônica, Vol. 1 (Geociências): 11-34.
–A historical sketch of paleontology in the Brazilian Amazon. States that Trachypleurotherium Dilg (nomen nudum) probably came from the Early Miocene Pirabas Formation (16), and mentions ?Pleistocene sir. remains from Acre, Brazil (22, 26).
x
 
Paula Couto, Carlos de (detail)
   
1967b
Contribuição à paleontologia do estado do Pará. Um sirênio na formação Pirabas.
Atas do Simpósio sôbre a Biota Amazônica, Vol. 1 (Geociências): 345-357. 3 figs.
–Engl. summ. Describes Sirenotherium pirabensis [sic], n.gen.n.sp., from the Early Miocene of Pará, Brazil, refers it to the Trichechidae, and compares it with other trichechids.
 
 
Paula Couto, Carlos de (detail)
   
1974
Fossil mammals from the Cenozoic of Acre, Brazil. 1, Astrapotheria.
An. Congr. Brasil. Geol. No. 28, Vol. 2: 237-249.
 
 
Paula Couto, Carlos de (detail)
   
1979
Tratado de paleomastozoologia.
Rio de Janeiro, Acad. Bras. de Ciências: 1-590. 572 figs. June 1979.
–Sirs., 477-484.
Paula Machado, Francisco de: SEE Machado, Francisco de Paula. (detail)
Paulli, Simon: SEE Boas & Paulli, 1925. (detail)
x
D
Pauls, Erik B. (detail)
   
1997
A comparative dental microwear analysis of Desmostylus hesperus. [Abstr.]
Jour. Vert. Pal. 17(3), Suppl.: 69A. Sept. 4, 1997.
–Compares Desmostylus hesperus with Recent sirs. and other taxa. Concludes that Desmostylus may have eaten seagrass contaminated with coarse sand.
 
 
Pause Tucker, Kimberly C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Austin, James D.; Clark, Ann Marie; Beck, Cathy A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Oli, Madan K. (detail)
   
2012
Low genetic diversity and minimal population substructure in the endangered Florida manatee: implications for conservation.
Jour. Mammalogy 93(6): 1504-1511. 3 tabs. 1 fig. + online supporting information. DOI: 10.1644/12-MAMM-A-048.1 Dec. 17, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.
 
 
Pause, Kimberly C.; Nourisson, Coralie; Clark, A.; Kellogg, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M. (detail)
   
2007
Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Molec. Ecol. Notes 7: 1073-1076.
 
 
Pávay, Elek (detail)
   
1871
Kolozsv r környékének földtani viszonyai.
Földt. Intézet. Évkön. 1: [pp.?]
 
 
Pavlinov, I. Ya.; Kruskop, S. V. (detail)
   
1995
Mlekopitaiushchie Evrasii. III. Cetacea, Sirenia: sistematiko-geograficheskii spravochnik. [Mammals of Eurasia. III. Cetacea, Sirenia: systematic-geographic guide.]
Moscow State University, Archives of Zool. Museum 33 (Supplement): 1-32.
–In Russian. Part of "Issledovaniya po Faunye" [Investigations on Fauna] series.
 
D
Pavlova, Maria Vasilevna (detail)
   
1906
Nauchnye rezul'taty Russkoi Poliarnoi Ekspeditsii 1900-1903 gg., pod nachal'stvom barona E. V. Tollia. Otdiel C: Geologiia i paleontologiia, vyp. 1. Opisanie iskopaemykh mlekopitaliushchikh, sobrannykh Russkoi Poliarnoi Ekspeditsiei v 1900-1903 gg.
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (8)21(1): 1-41. 4 pls.
–French abstr.: Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (5)24: 199-203. German transl. of relevant material: E. W. Pfizenmayer (1927: 492-494). Describes a tooth fragment of "Elephas?" (33-34, pl. 3) that was later made the type of Desmostylus wollosowitschi Pfizenmayer, 1927 and Neodesmostylus primigenius Khomenko, 1928. It is now regarded as a mammoth tooth.
x
 
Payne, Junaidi; Francis, Charles M. (detail)
   
1994
A field guide to the mammals of Borneo.
Sabah (Malaysia), The Sabah Society with WWF Malaysia: 1-332. 46 figs. 60 pls. 5 maps.
–Ed. 1, 1985. Brief gen. acc. of D. dugon, listing localities in Borneo (291, pl. 43); said to be "possibly approaching extinction in Borneo."
Payros, A.: SEE Astibia et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Paz, Uzi; Ilani, Giora (detail)
   
1976
Dugongs in the Gulf of Aqaba.
Israel - Land & Nature 1(2): 73-74. 1 fig. Jan. 1976.
–Reports dugongs seen or captured in 1971-75 (all in June or July), including three caught off Ghardaka, Egypt in 1975 and put on display in an aquarium.
 
 
Peacock, George (detail)
   
1879
Notes on the Isthmus of Panamá & Darien, also on the River St. Juan, lakes of Nicaragua, &c., with reference to a railroad and canal for joining the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Exeter, W. Pollard: vi + 96. Illus.
 
 
Pearsall, J. (detail)
   
1966
Half-ton siren.
Texas Parks Wildl. 24(9): 26-27.
Pearson, David: SEE Barry et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Peary, Robert E. (detail)
   
1889
Across Nicaragua with transit and machéte.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 1(3): 315-335. 3 figs. 1 map. Oct. 1889.
–Mentions the abundance of T. manatus in Nicaragua (318).
x
 
Pécaud, G. (detail)
   
1925
Contribution à l'étude de la faune sauvage de la colonie du Tchad (mammifères et oiseaux).
Bull. Soc. Rech. Congolaise No. 6: 46-108.
–Recognizes Manatus Vogeli from Lake Chad and the Chari R., together with M. Senegalensis from the Benué R. (48).
 
 
Pechuël-Loesche, Eduard (detail)
   
1882
Die Loango-Expedition ausgesandt von der Deutschen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung Aequatorial-Africas, 1873-1876. Ein Reisewerk in drei Abtheilungen.... Abt. III, Erste Hälfte.
Leipzig, P. Frohberg: 1-503.
x
 
Pedley, Ian (detail)
   
1979
Winds of change: one hundred years in the Widgee Shire.
[Brisbane?], The Gympie Times. Mar. 1979.
–Includes a brief paragraph on the former dugong-oil industry at Tin Can Bay, Queensland (231).
 
 
Pédroni, P. M. (detail)
   
1845
Ossements fossiles de la Gironde. 1er mémoire.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 14: 74-111. 6 pls.
–Refers specimens from the Bordeaux area to Manatus fossilis and M. Guettardi.
 
 
Peel, G. (detail)
   
1947
Isles of the Torres Straits.
Sydney, Current Book Distributors: 1-139.
 
 
Pekarskiy, Petr Petrovich (detail)
   
1867
[Petr Yakovlev's account of the sea cow on Bering Island. In: Section of Russian Language and Literature. Abstracts from minutes of meetings in September, October, November and December 1866.]
Zapiski Akad. Nauk (St. Petersburg) 10(2): 151-187.
–In Russian. Latin transl.: J.F. Brandt (1868a: 295-296). Engl. transl.: Domning (1978b: 163-164). Includes the first publication of the excerpts from the diary of the mining engineer Yakovlev that described the hunting of Hydrodamalis as it was practiced on Bering Island in the winter of 1754-55 (162-163, 183-186). Together with the slightly later account of Cherepanov (in Andreyev, 1948), these excerpts constitute the only eyewitness descriptions of the sea cow subsequent to Bering's voyage.
 
 
Pekarskiy, Petr Petrovich (detail)
   
1869
Arkhivnuiya razuiskaniya ob izobrazhenii nesushchestvuyushchago nuinye zhivotnago Rhytina borealis. (So snimkom starinago izobrazheniya Rhytina borealis.) [Archival researches concerning pictures of the now nonexistent animal Rhytina borealis.]
Zapiski Akad. Nauk (St. Petersburg) 15, Prilozhenie [Suppl.] No. 1: 1-33. 6 figs. 1 pl.
–Reproduces for the first time and discusses the six small sketches which Steller himself drew in his manuscript to illustrate details of the anatomy of Hydrodamalis (1-13). (These are very crude and not all of them are even identifiable.) Also reproduces the text of Steller's report to the Senate, July 12, 1743 (13-28), and an extract from Sofron Khitrov's Bering Island journal (28-31). An Engl. transl. of the latter is found in Golder (1922: 236-238). Finally, Pekarskiy reproduces here (31-33) excerpts from a manuscript (possibly, he suggests, written by one Vasily Shilov) in which are described the uses made of the sea cow, especially the use of its hide for the construction of boats. A German transl. of this section is found in A. Brandt (1871: 24-26). The plate reproduces the drawing of the sea cow by Plenisner that appeared on Waxell's chart (see Stejneger, 1936: 512-513).
x
 
Pelzeln, August von (detail)
   
1883
Brasilische Säugethiere. Resultate von Johann Natterers Reisen in den Jahren 1817 bis 1835.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 33, Beiheft: 1-140.
–Manatees, 88-95. Includes Natterer's original description of Manatus inunguis [n.sp.], 89-93; though von Pelzeln regards the latter name as a junior synonym of M. australis. It is from this posthumous publication of Natterer's manuscript that the Amazonian manatee's specific name inunguis takes its date. See also C.M. Diesing (1839).
 
 
Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine A. (detail)
   
2014
Reducing bias in survival under nonrandom temporary emigration.
Ecological Applications 24(5): 1155–1166. 3 tabs. 2 figs. 1 pl. DOI:10.1890/13-0558.1. July 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Despite intensive monitoring, temporary emigration from the sampling area can induce bias severe enough for managers to discard survival parameter estimates toward the terminus of the times series (terminal bias). Under random temporary emigration, unbiased parameters can be estimated with CJS models. However, unmodeled Markovian temporary emigration causes bias in parameter estimates, and an unobservable state is required to model this type of emigration. The robust design is most flexible when modeling temporary emigration, and partial solutions to mitigate bias have been identified; nonetheless, there are conditions were terminal bias prevails. Long-lived species with high adult survival and highly variable nonrandom temporary emigration present terminal bias in survival estimates, despite being modeled with the robust design and suggested constraints. Because this bias is due to uncertainty about the fate of individuals that are undetected toward the end of the time series, solutions should involve using additional information on survival status or location of these individuals at that time. Using simulation, we evaluated the performance of models that jointly analyze robust design data and an additional source of ancillary data (predictive covariate on temporary emigration, telemetry, dead recovery, or auxiliary resightings) in reducing terminal bias in survival estimates. The auxiliary resighting and predictive covariate models reduced terminal bias the most. Additional telemetry data were effective at reducing terminal bias only when individuals were tracked for a minimum of two years. High adult survival of long-lived species made the joint model with recovery data ineffective at reducing terminal bias because of small-sample bias. The naïve constraint model (last and penultimate temporary emigration parameters made equal), was the least efficient, although still able to reduce terminal bias when compared to an unconstrained model. Joint analysis of several sources of data improved parameter estimates and reduced terminal bias. Efforts to incorporate or acquire such data should be considered by researchers and wildlife managers, especially in the years leading up to status assessments of species of interest. Simulation modeling is a very cost-effective method to explore the potential impacts of using different sources of data to produce high-quality demographic data to inform management.
 
 
Pendergast, David M. (detail)
   
1979
Excavations at Altun Ha, Belize, 1964-1970. Volume 1.
Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum: xi + 226. 6 tabs. 78 figs. 44 pls. 2 maps. June 15, 1979.
–Describes and illustrates human figurine "probably" made of manatee bone (50).
 
 
Penders, T. (detail)
   
2002
Bone, antler, dentary, and lithic artifacts. In: G.H. Doran (ed.), Windover: multidisciplinary investigations of an early archaic Florida cemetery.
Gainesville, Univ. Press of Florida (416 pp.): 97-120.
–Reports an atlatl weight or handle made from a manatee rib, the only manatee bone found in a clearly dated (7400 years B.P.) archaeological context in Florida that was fashioned into a tool by Pre-Columbian natives.
 
 
Pennant, Thomas (detail)
   
1771
Synopsis of quadrupeds.
Chester, printed by J. Monk: xxv + 382. 32 pls.
–Allen 319. "Indian walrus" (= dugong), 338; manati, 351-358. Allen says, regarding the account of the "manati": "A general account of the Sirenians as then known, which were thought to constitute a single species. Pennant's references are here, however, mainly to Steller's Sea-Cow and the American Manatee."
 
 
Pennant, Thomas (detail)
   
1781
History of quadrupeds.
London, B. White (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xxiv + 284; Vol. 2: 285-566.
–Allen 367. Ed. 3, 1793. Sirs., 536-545: whale-tailed manati, 536-539; round-tailed manati, 540-544; sea ape, 544-545. Allen says: "The first is primarily Steller's Sea Cow; the second includes both the American and African Manatees; the last is a ... myth." See also J. M. Bechstein (1800). The fig. of an African manatee from the 1793 ed. is reproduced by Durand (1983: 180-181).
  The name "Manati Clusii" (= Trichechus manatus) was introduced in the 3rd ed., vol. 2, p. 298, based on Clusius's figure.
 
 
Pennant, Thomas (detail)
   
1784-85
Arctic zoology.
London, printed by H. Hughs (2 vols.). Frontisp. 23 pls.
–Repr.: Arno Press, 1975. Reports a manatee stranding in the British Isles before 1785?
Percival, H. Franklin: SEE O'Shea et al., 1992, 1995. (detail)
 
 
Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M.; Velásquez-Varela, L. J.; Sánchez-Babilonia, J.; Espinoza-Hassan, M.; Richardson, D.; Sigler, L. (detail)
   
2012
Management and rehabilitation of captive Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) in Peru.
Amazonian Science 1(2): 15-24.
Pereda, X.: SEE Astibia et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Pereira, Manoel Nunes (detail)
   
1941-43
A pesca no Rio Purús.
A Voz do Mar 20(178): 65-68; 20(179): 98-102; 20(180): 121-124; 20(181): 151-154; 20(182): 189-192; 20(183): 216-218; 23(186): 64-66. Feb. 1941; Mar.-Apr. 1941; May 1941; June 1941; July-Aug. 1941; Sept.-Oct. 1941; Dec. 1943.
–Describes in detail the processing of T. inunguis meat and hide in Brazil, mentions some aspects of hunting methods and natural history (gleaned from hunters), recommends improved methods of processing the hide, and urges certain restrictions on manatee hunting, including a complete ban during the supposed December-February calving season (100-102, 153-154, 218, 65).
x
 
Pereira, Manoel Nunes (detail)
   
1944
O peixe-boi da Amazônia.
Bol. Minist. Agric. (Rio de Janeiro) 33(5): 21-95. 1 fig. 11 photos. 1 map. May 1944.
–Reset and republished as a monograph in 1945 (Manaus, D.E.I.P.-S.S.A.: 1-180. 1 fig. 13 photos. 1 map. Date "1947" on cover) and again in 1954 (Rio de Janeiro, Minist. Agric., Div. Caça e Pesca), with minor corrections, changes, and errors in the text, additional photographs, an expanded bibliography, and (on p. 62 of the 1954 ed.) a new footnote on vernacular names.
  In this, the most significant work on T. inunguis published up to its time and Pereira's most important contribution on sirs., he gives a detailed account, including history of study (21-37), of the natural history and commercial exploitation of the Amazonian manatee (which he considers to be T. manatus!).
x
 
Pereira, Manoel Nunes (detail)
   
1954
A pesca na Amazônia. In: Valorização econômica da Amazônia: subsídios para seu planejamento.
Rio de Janeiro, Dept. Impr. Nac. (vi + 476): 267-271.
–Part of a set of documents from a conference held in Rio de Janeiro, Sept.-Nov. 1951. States that the sale of fresh manatee meat and mixira in Amazonian markets has ceased (269), and recommends that reserves for manatees and other threatened species be created in Amazonia (271).
x
 
Pereira, Manoel Nunes (detail)
   
1956
A Ilha de Marajó: estudo económico-social.
Rio de Janeiro, Minist. Agric., Serv. Inform. Agrícola in cooperation with Div. Caça e Pesca do D.N.P.A. (Série Estudos Brasileiros No. 8): 1-153. Illus.
–Mentions the former hunting of manatees in Marajó (68).
x
 
Pereira, Manoel Nunes (detail)
   
1967
Moron Guêtá: um decameron indígena.
Rio de Janeiro, Editora Civilização Brasileira S.A.: 1-840 in 2 vols. Illus.
–Mentions the occurrence of manatees in the lower Rio Branco and its tributaries in the Brazilian Amazon (23), and recounts a Tucuna legend of the origin of the manatee (467).
 
 
Pereira, Manoel Nunes (detail)
   
1974
Panorama da alimentação indígena: comidas, bebidas & tóxicos na Amazónia Brasileira.
Rio de Janeiro, Livr. São José: xv + 412.
–Manatee, 64, 235, 251-258.
Pérez Padilla, Janice: SEE Mignucci G. et al., 1997. (detail)
Perez-Padilla, Janice: SEE Mignucci G., Williams et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Perini, Fernando A.; Nascimento, Ednair Rodrigues; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto (detail)
   
2020
A new species of Trichechus Linnaeus, 1758 (Sirenia, Trichechidae), from the upper Pleistocene of southwestern Amazonia, and the evolution of Amazonian manatees.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 39(5): e1697882, 9 pp. 6 figs. | DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1697882 "Sept. 2019" (publ. online _____.)
–ABSTRACT: The genus Trichechus (Mammalia, Sirenia, Trichechidae) harbors a modest diversity, comprising only three living species of manatees, and no species currently recognized as fossil. Herein, we report a new extinct species of manatee from the late Pleistocene of the Brazilian Amazonia, Trichechus hesperamazonicus, sp. nov. It comes from the alluvial deposits of the Rio Madeira Formation along the Madeira River, state of Rondônia, western Brazil, and is represented by a partial palate with both molar series and two partial right dentaries. The new taxon shows a mosaic of characteristics resembling those of other manatee species, as well as some unique characters. It differs from all other Trichechus species by possessing a wide space between the posterior lower tooth row and ascending ramus of dentary, and by having the anterior border of the ascending ramus covering the posterior end of the tooth row in lateral view. The results of morphometric analyses (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis) further support the distinctiveness of the new species. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new species in a polytomy with T. inunguis and the clade formed by T. senegalensis and T. manatus. The levels from which the remains were recovered produced a radiocarbon date of 44,710?±?880 years before present; together with molecular clock estimates, this date suggests that until recently at least two species of manatees coexisted in the fluvial systems of western Amazonia.
x
 
Perkins, George A. (detail)
   
1848
[Account of a Manatus from West Africa.]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2: 198-199.
–Describes a small manatee captured in the Caracalla River, Liberia. The name Manatus nasutus is proposed for it in a footnote signed "J. W." [Jeffries Wyman] (199); see J. Wyman (1848). (The extant type material is the skull lacking the mandible, MCZ 9368.) Interestingly, Perkins did not find any nails on the flippers; he also failed to recognize the respiratory diaphragm.
Perkins, Lindsay Sanders: SEE Canova & Perkins, 1885. (detail)
Perkins, Paul J.: SEE Rountree et al., 2002. (detail)
x
 
Perrault, Claude (detail)
   
1733
Description anatomique d'un veau marin.
Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris 3(1): 187-200. Pls. 27-28.
–Treatise on the anatomy of a seal; compares and contrasts it with other animals, including the manatee (190-191, 193-194, 198-199).
 
 
Perrier, Edmond (detail)
   
1920
La terre avant l'histoire. Les origines de la vie et de l'homme.
Paris, La Renaissance du Livre (L'Évolution de l'Humanité, Synthèse Collective, Sect. 1, Vol. 1): xxviii + 414. 4 maps.
–Engl. transl., London & New York: xxiv + 345. 4 maps. 1925. Sirs., 152, 229.
x
D
Perrilliat, María del Carmen (detail)
   
1993
Catálogo de ejemplares tipo de vertebrados fósiles en la colección paleontológica del Instituto de Geología, UNAM, México.
Paleontología Mexicana 61: 1-52. Frontisp.
–Lists the holotype of Xenosiren yucateca Domning, 1989, from Yucatan, and a published specimen of Cornwallius sookensis from Baja California Sur (39-40).
 
 
Perrin, W. F.; Reeves, R. R.; Dolar, M. L. L.; Jefferson, T. A.; Wang, J. Y.; Estacion, J. (eds) (detail)
   
2005
Report of the Second Workshop on the Biology and Conservation of Small Cetaceans and Dugongs of South-East Asia.
CMS Technical Series Publication (Bonn, Germany, UNEP/CMS Secretariat) No. 9: 1-161.
Perrin, William F.: SEE ALSO Brownell et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Perrin, William F.; Kashiwada, Jerry V. (detail)
   
1989
Catalog of the synoptic collection of marine mammal osteological specimens at the Southwest Fisheries Center [La Jolla, California].
NOAA Tech. Memorandum NMFS (U.S. Dept. of Commerce) NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-130: 1-19. June 1989.
–Lists one specimen of T. manatus from Florida (17).
Perry, Allison: SEE Gunter & Perry, 1983. (detail)
 
 
Perry, C. J.; Dennison, W. C. (detail)
   
1999
Microbial nutrient cycling in seagrass sediments.
AGSO Jour. Aust. Geol. Geophys. 17: 227-231.
 
 
Perry, J. S. (detail)
   
1974
Implantation, foetal membranes and early placentation of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B. Biol. Sci. 269(897): 109-135.
 
 
Perry, P. J. (detail)
   
1999
Freshwater giants: hippopotamus, river dolphins, and manatees.
New York, Watts Library (Franklin Watts, a division of Grolier Publishing): 1-63.
Pershin, S. V.: SEE Sokolov, Pershin et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Persoon, G.; De Iongh, Hendrik Huibert (detail)
   
1996
Local people between shark fishers and nature conservationists: the social context of the Aru Tenggara Marine Reserve.
Nederl. Comm. Internatl. Natuurbescherming Meded. 30: 35-55. Illus.
x
 
Pervaiz, Syed; Brew, Keith (detail)
   
1986a
Purification and characterization of the major whey proteins from the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and the beagle (Canis familiaris).
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 246(2): 846-854. 4 tabs. 6 figs. May 1, 1986.
–The major whey protein components of manatee milk are monomeric ß-lactoglobulins; a-lactalbumin was not isolated during separation of the whey protein fraction.
x
 
Pervaiz, Syed; Brew, Keith (detail)
   
1986b
Composition of the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Compar. Biochem. Physiol. A. Compar. Physiol. 84(2): 357-360. 1 tab.
–Milk from two manatees, which had been lactating for 30 weeks and 2 years, respectively, showed high levels of proteins and lipids (mostly triglycerides), 0.6% neutral sugars, 2% amino sugars, low levels of lactose, two possible oligosaccharides, and some a-lactalbumin activity.
Pervesler, Peter: SEE ALSO Domning & Pervesler, 2001. (detail)
x
 
Pervesler, Peter (detail)
   
1996
Rekonstruktion einer Sirenenfundsituation aus dem Untermiozän von Niederösterreich.
Der Präparator 42(3): 75-80. 7 figs.
–Engl. & French summs. Describes the construction of a new exhibit for the Krahuletz-Museum in Eggenburg, Austria, displaying a partial skeleton of Metaxytherium krahuletzi as it was found in the nearby Kühnring sandpit.
x
 
Pervesler, Peter; Roetzel, Reinhard (detail)
   
1991a
Das Leichenfeld von Kühnring. In: F. F. Steininger & W. E. Piller (eds.), Eggenburg am Meer: Eintauchen in die Erdgeschichte.
Katalogreihe des Krahuletz-Museums (Eggenburg, Austria) No. 12: 97-101. Figs. 12-13.
–Describes the occurrence of skeletons of Metaxytherium krahuletzi in the Early Miocene deposits near Eggenburg, Austria. The species is also mentioned and illustrated in other chapters of this exhibit guide (pp. 18, 40-41, 56, 93).
x
 
Pervesler, Peter; Roetzel, Reinhard (detail)
   
1991b
Taphonomie der marinen Flachwasserablagerungen (Burgschleinitz-Formation, Eggenburgium, Untermiozän) der Gemeindesandgrube Kühnring (Niederösterreich). [Abstr.] In: R. Roetzel (ed.), Geologie der Ostrand der Böhmischen Masse in Niederösterreich: Schwerpunkt Blatt 21 Horn.
Arbeitstagung Geol. Bundesanst. (Vienna) 1991: 156-157. Sept. 1991.
–Summarizes the geology of the Kühnring sandpit (Austria), and interprets the skeletons of Metaxytherium krahuletzi found there as those of animals that died as a result of a major storm indicated by the physical stratigraphy of this Early Mioc. deposit.
 
 
Pervesler, Peter; Steininger, Fritz F. (detail)
   
1986
Die Seekuh Metaxytherium krahuletzi: Skelett eines 22 Millionen Jahre alten Meeressäugetieres aus Kühnring.
Katalogreihe des Krahuletz-Museums (Eggenburg, Austria) No. 7: 1-12. 6 figs.
 
 
Pervesler, Peter; Roetzel, Reinhard; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2000
Lower Miocene seacows from Austria. In: Werner E. Piller, Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Daryl P. Domning, Holger C. Forke, Mathias Harzhauser, Bernhard Hubmann, Heinz A. Kollmann, Johanna Kovar-Eder, Leopold Krystyn, Doris Nagel, Peter Pervesler, Gernot Rabeder, Reinhard Roetzel, Diethard Sanders, & Herbert Summesberger, Palaeontological highlights of Austria (pp. 195-233; 1 tab., 28 figs.).
Mitt. Oesterr. Geol. Ges. 92: 213-215. Fig. 17. July 2000.
–This survey of noteworthy Austrian fossil occurrences, with lavish color illustrations, was produced on the occasion of an international geological congress to promote Vienna as the site of a future congress.
x
 
Pervesler, Peter; Roetzel, Reinhard; Mandic, Oleg (detail)
   
1998
Sirenenlagerstätten in den marinen Flachwasser-Ablagerungen der Eggenburger Bucht (Burgschleinitz-Formation, Eggenburgium, Untermiozän).
Geol. Pal. Mitt. Innsbruck 23: 87-103. 6 figs.
–Engl. summ. Summarizes the results of paleoecological and taphonomic studies of Metaxytherium krahuletzi occurrences in the region of Eggenburg, Austria, specifically at Kühnring, Maigen, and Sonndorf. These bone accumulations are interpreted as resulting from storm events.
 
 
Pervesler, Peter; Roetzel, Reinhard; Steininger, Fritz F. (detail)
   
1995
Taphonomie der Sirenen in den marinen Flachwasserablagerungen (Burgschleinitz-Formation, Eggenburgium, Untermiozän) der Gemeindesandgrube Kühnring (Niederösterreich).
Jahrb. Geol. Bundesanst. (Vienna) 138(1): 89-121. 11 tabs. 19 figs. June 1995.
–Engl. summ. Also summarized in Pervesler et al. (1996).
 
 
Pervesler, Peter; Roetzel, Reinhard; Steininger, Fritz F. (detail)
   
1996
Taphonomy of the sirenians in the shallow marine sediments (Burgschleinitz-Formation, Eggenburgian, Lower Miocene) of Kühnring (Lower Austria).
Comunicación de la II Reunión de Tafonomía y Fosilización, 1996: 319-326. 4 figs.
–Summ. of Pervesler et al. (1995).
Pessoa, A. G. P. E.: SEE Vergara-Parente et al., 2003a. (detail)
 
 
Petcharat, Areeyapat; Lee, Yohan (detail)
   
2020
Measuring the nonuse value of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in Thailand.
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 13(1): 62-69. 5 tabs. 3 figs. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2019.12.002 Mar. 1, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong is an herbivorous marine mammal species, being vulnerable to extinction throughout its range in the Indo-Pacific region. This article used the choice experiment method to elicit the nonuse value, or the nonusers' willingness to pay for conserving the dugongs in Thailand. A face-to-face interview was used to obtain data from 300 residents in five selected districts of Bangkok. The results show that the average willingness to pay for the most preferred dugong conservation scheme (a marker buoy system, recreating habitats, and slowing down the population decline) was 4,382 Thai Baht (USD122) annually per household. Significantly, developing the marker buoy system to identify dugong habitats was the most valued by the general public. However, the respondents were not willing to pay for educating local fishers about the conservation of dugongs. Our results imply that a conservation policy should concentrate on the participation of key fishers in dugong protection projects using incentive measures. We also suggest the government to create protected areas as dugong sanctuaries that consistently support the remaining dugong population.
x
 
Peterken, Claire J.; Conacher, Carol A. (detail)
   
1997
Seed germination and recolonisation of Zostera capricorni after grazing by dugongs.
Aquatic Botany 59(3-4): 333-340. 1 tab. 1 fig. Dec. 1997.
–Recovery of a Zostera meadow in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia that was intensively grazed in 1992-93 was complete in less than a year, and was augmented by a high incidence of sexual reproduction. The latter may have been stimulated by dugong grazing. Grazing coincided with peak flower production, which provided richer and more digestible food.
Peters, C. B.: SEE Leatherwood et al., 1984. (detail)
x
 
Peters, Karl F. (detail)
   
1867
Das Halitheriumskelet von Hainburg. Halitherium Cordieri, Christol sp. (Manatus Cuvieri ou fossilis, Blainv.; Hippopotamus medius Cuvieri var).
Jahrb. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 17(2): 309-314. Pl. 7.
–?Notice: Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1867: 159? Describes a skeleton of Halitherium Cordieri (n.comb.) from the Miocene of Austria, and compares it with other sirs., mainly H. schinzii and Dugong. See also von Hauer (1867) and Stache (1867). This specimen was later made the holotype of Metaxytherium or Thalattosiren petersi.
x
 
Peters, Shanan E.; Antar, Mohammed Sameh M.; Zalmout, Iyad Saleh; Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
   
2009
Sequence stratigraphic control on preservation of late Eocene whales and other vertebrates at Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt.
Palaios 24: 290-302. 1 tab. 9 figs.
–Describes the occurrence and preservation of fossil dugongids at various stratigraphic levels (294, 296-297, 299-301).
 
 
Peters, W. (detail)
   
1877
Über die von dem verstorbenen Prof. Dr. Reinhold Buchholz in Westafrika gesammelten Säugethiere.
Monatsber. Akad. Berlin 1877: 469-485.
–Sirs., 485.
 
 
Peters, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1872
Note on the systematic name of the walrus.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)10: 151.
 
 
Peterson, Olof August (detail)
   
1912
Symposium on ten years' progress in vertebrate paleontology. Artiodactyla.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 23: 162-178.
–Sirs., 164.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1923a
Sur le dugong de Madagascar. Notes ethnographiques.
Bull. Mem. Soc. Anthrop. Paris (7)4: 75-83.
–Interesting account of dugongs, dugong hunting, and native customs and myths connected with the dugong in the Indo-Pacific region.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1923b
La répartition géographique et l'extinction des siréniens actuels.
Rev. Hist. Nat. Appliquée (Mamm.) 4: 161-173. June 1923.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1924a
Notes sur les dugongs des côtes de Madagascar.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 30(2): 124-127.
–Comments on the species of dugongs and their distribution; describes in detail their distribution in Madagascar; and notes that they feed mainly on Cymodocea australis, which they swallow nearly intact and without admixture of sand.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1924b
Remarques sur la lobation du rein des lamantins.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 178: 244-246. Jan. 7, 1924.
–Concludes that external lobation of the manatee kidney increases with age, independent of species.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1924c
Sur la morphogénie du rein des siréniens.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 178: 2197-2200. June 23, 1924.
–Discusses the morphology of the kidney in fetal and adult sirs.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1924d
Le distribution géographique des siréniens.
C.R. Soc. Biogeogr. Paris No. 6: 37-38.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1924e
Les mammifères marins de l'ordre des siréniens et la légende des sirènes.
L'Anthropologie (C.R. Séances Inst. Fr. Anthrop.) 34(3/4): 294-295. July 1924 (read Mar. 19, 1924).
–Favors a sirenian origin for the mermaid legend; briefly responds to a question about whether manatees can venture ashore.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1925a
Recherches anatomiques sur l'appareil génito-urinaire male des siréniens.
Arch. Morph. Gén. Exper. (Paris) No. 23: iv + 326. 74 figs.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1925b
Remarques sur la distribution géographique des siréniens.
C.R. Assoc. Franç. Avance. Sci. (Paris) 48: 1002-1008.
–?Repr.: C.R. Soc. Biogéogr. Congr. Liege 1924: 54-60.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1925c
Protection de certains animaux marins et terrestres de Madagascar: dugongs, tortues, lemuriens.
Curr. Int. Prot. Nat. (Paris, 1923), Rapports voeux, realisation: 102-107.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1926
Siréniens et sirènes.
Tribune Madagascar No. 1963. Dec. 30, 1926.
–Newspaper article?
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1927a
Contribution à l'étude de la morphologie externe des siréniens. (1re note.) Sur un dugong femelle capturé à Morombé (Madagascar).
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 33(5): 336-342.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1927b
Nouvelles observations sur la pêche rituelle du dugong [à] Madagascar.
Bull. Mem. Soc. Anthrop. Paris (7)8: 246-250.
–Detailed account of customs, beliefs, and taboos concerning the dugong in Madagascar.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1928a
Les vertèbres cervicales des siréniens actuels.
Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (6)3: 243-299. 28 figs. 2 pls.
x
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1928b
Sur la synostose de l'axis et de la troisième vertèbre cervicale chez les lamantins.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 34(6): 429-431. 1 fig.
–Describes several cases of synostosis in T. senegalensis; mentions (431) a case of the same in Halitherium schinzii.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1937
Therapeutique chez les pechers (utilization de certaines parties du dugong).
Ocean-Serum. 22: 1-2.
 
 
Petit, G. (detail)
   
1955
Ordre des siréniens. In: P.-P. Grassé (ed.), Traité de zoologie, Vol. 17, Mammifères, Fasc. I.
Paris, Masson & Cie: 918-1001.
x
 
Petit, G.; Rochon-Duvigneaud, A. (detail)
   
1929
L'oeil et la vision de l'Halicore dugong Erxl.
Bull. Soc. Zool. France 54(2): 129-138. 1 fig. Read Feb. 26, 1929.
–Comments on dugong sensory functions (129-133), and describes the eye of a specimen from Madagascar (133-136). Concludes that the dugong's vision is poorly adapted to water or darkness, and is more or less farsighted when submerged, although the field of vision is wide.
 
 
Petocz, R. G. (detail)
   
1989
Conservation and development in Irian Jaya. A strategy for rational resource utilization.
Leiden, E. J. Brill: xxii + 218. Illus.
 
 
Petrie, Constance Campbell (detail)
   
1932
Tom Petrie's reminiscences of early Queensland (dating from 1837), recorded by his daughter. Ed. 2.
Brisbane, Queensland Book Depot; Sydney, Angus & Robertson Ltd.: xvi + 323. Frontisp. 17 pls.
–First ed.: Brisbane, Watson Ferguson & Co., 1904. Repr.: Hawthorn (Victoria), Lloyd O'Neill Pty. Ltd.: 1-319, 1975. Capture and cooking of dugongs (67-69).
Petrie, Tom: SEE Petrie, Constance Campbell, 1932. (detail)
Petrishchev, B. I.: SEE Sokolov, Chernova et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Petronievics, Branislav (detail)
   
1923
Remarks upon the skulls of Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)12: 55-61. 2 figs. Pl. 2.
–Sirs., 58.
x
 
Petter, A. J. (detail)
   
1977
Essai d'interprétation de la répartition des Ascaridoidea chez les mammifères.
Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Compar. 52(2): 151-158.
–Engl. summ. Suggests that ascaridoid nematodes invaded and radiated in the Sirenia at the time of the latter's original evolution and diversification.
 
 
Pewe, T. L. (detail)
   
1975
Quaternary geology of Alaska.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 835: 1-145.
Pezo Diaz, Roberto: SEE Klishin et al., 1990; Mukhametov et al., 1992, 1994. (detail)
x
 
Pfeffer, Pierre (detail)
   
1963
Remarques sur la nomenclature du dugong, Dugong dugong (Erxleben) et son statut actuel en Indonésie.
Mammalia 27(1): 149-151. Mar. 1963.
–Discusses vernacular names, geographic distribution, food, hunting, and economic uses of dugongs in Indonesia, and superstitions concerning them.
Pfeiffer, C. J.: SEE Levin & Pfeiffer, 2002. (detail)
Pfeil, Friedrich: SEE Cappetta et al., 2000. (detail)
x
D
Pfizenmayer, E. W. (detail)
   
1927
Ein Desmostylidenzahn von der neusibirischen Insel Kotelnyi.
Centralbl. Min. Geol. Pal., Abt. B: Geol. Pal. 1927(11): 492-496. 4 figs.
–Describes Desmostylus Wollosowitschi, n.sp., on the basis of what is most probably a premolar of a Pleistocene elephant. See also M. V. Pavlova (1906) and J. P. Khomenko (1928a).
 
D
Pfretzschner, Hans Ulrich (detail)
   
1994
Biomechanik der Schmelzmikrostruktur in den Backenzähnen von Grossäugern. Biomechanics of the enamel microstructure of large mammals.
Palaeontographica Abt. A, 234(1-3): 1-88. 15 tabs. 56 figs. ?? pls. Nov. 1994.
–In German; Engl. summ.
 
 
Pfretzschner, Hans Ulrich (detail)
   
2001
Iron oxides in fossil bone.
Neues Jahrb. Geol. Pal. Abh. 220(3): 417-429. June 2001.
 
 
Philip, Prince; Fisher, J. (detail)
   
1970
Wildlife crisis.
New York, Cowles Book Co., Inc.: 1-256.
x
 
Phillippo, Dr. (detail)
   
1862
On the bifurcated heart of the manatee.
Edinburgh Med. Jour. 7(7): 684-685. Jan. 1862 (read Dec. 4, 1861, by James Young).
–Describes the chambers, valves, and vessels of the heart, and theorizes that the adaptations seen are for the purpose of reducing pressure on the pulmonary circulatory system while the pulmonary circulation is impeded during a dive.
 
 
Phillipps, Charles (detail)
   
1974
Dugongs on Sabah's west coast.
Sabah Soc. Jour. 6(1): 42-43.
 
 
Phillips, Craig (detail)
   
1964
The captive sea: life behind the scenes of the great modern oceanariums.
Philadelphia, Chilton Co.: 1-284.
–Pop. acc. of captive T. manatus at the Miami Seaquarium, with observations on weaning, external morphology, and drinking from a hose (26-30, 171-183).
x
 
Phillips, Craig (detail)
   
1972
Housing requirements for manatees and dugongs.
Drum & Croaker, July 1972: 36-37. 1 fig.
–Makes recommendations concerning tank design, feeding, and suppression of algae.
x
D
Phillips, F. Jay; Welton, Bruce J.; Welton, Joann (detail)
   
1976
Paleontologic studies of the Middle Tertiary Skooner Gulch and Gallaway Formations at Point Arena, California. In: A. E. Fritsche, H. Ter Best, Jr., & W. W. Wornardt (eds.), The Neogene symposium.
Proc. Soc. Econ. Pal. Min. (Pacific Sect. Ann. Meeting, San Francisco) 137-154. 5 figs. 5 pls.
–Reports Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia from the Skooner Gulch Formation, considered to be Late Oligocene (?Zemorrian) in age (137, 152).
 
 
Phillips, R.; Niezrecki, C.; Beusse, D. O. (detail)
   
2006
Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.
Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 120(1): 153-163.
 
 
Phillips, R.; Niezrecki, C.; Beusse, D. O., Jr. (detail)
   
2004
Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate.
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 115(1): 422-428.
 
 
Phillips, W. W. A. (detail)
   
1927
Guide to the mammals of Ceylon. Part VII. Sirenia (the dugong).
Ceylon Jour. Sci., Sect. B, Zool. & Geol. (Spolia Zeylanica) 14(1): 51-55. Apr. 30, 1927.
 
 
Phillips, W. W. A. (detail)
   
1929
A checklist of the mammals of Ceylon.
Spolia Zeylanica 15(2): 119-152. 1 map.
x
 
Phipson, H. M. (detail)
   
1895
The occurrence of the dugong in the Indian seas.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 9(4): 489-490. June 20, 1895.
–Reprints the dugong account of Thurston (1895), and records that a dugong skull from Mandvi in the Gulf of Cutch was presented to the Society in April 1893 by C. M. Sykes. This was apparently the same skull recorded as donated by Dr. Ardeshir Dadabhai, under contributions to the collections for May 1893 (Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 8(2): 328, 1893).
 
 
Pia, Julius von (detail)
   
1937
Von den Walen des Wiener Miozäns. Kurze Uebersicht der Kenntnisse und Fragen.
Mitt. Geol. Ges. Wien 29: 357-428. 56 figs.
–?Abstr.: Sci. News Letter 34: 139?
 
 
Pia, Julius von; Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1934
Katalog der in den österreichischen Sammlungen befindlichen Säugetierreste des Jungtertiärs Österreichs und der Randgebiete.
Denkschr. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Geol.-Pal. Reihe 4: xvi + 544.
–A detailed and very useful catalog of the Neogene mammalian fossils held in Austrian collections, including very small and obscure local ones. Sirs., 403-416, 452-454, 464-470.
Picariello, Orfeo: SEE Maio & Picariello, 2000. (detail)
x
 
Piccoli, Giuliano (detail)
   
1966
Segnalazione di un frammento di sirenio (Prototherium) nello stratotipo del Priaboniano.
Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital. 85(2): 349-353. 1 fig.
–Engl. summ. Describes the anterior part of the mandible of an immature Prototherium cf. veronense. Also notes the recent discovery of a skeleton in the Priabonian (Eocene) of Corlanzone, Italy.
 
 
Pick, Friedrich Karl (detail)
   
1907
Zur feineren Anatomie der Lunge von Halicore dugong.
Arch. Naturgesch. 73(1)(2): 245-272. 15 figs.
x
 
Pickering, Sam M., Jr. (detail)
   
1970
Stratigraphy, paleontology, and economic geology of portions of Perry and Cochran quadrangles, Georgia.
Geol. Surv. Georgia Bull. 81: 1-49. Illus.
–States that "Eosiren sp.?" is common in the Clinchfield and rare in the Ocala and Twiggs formations [Eocene and ?Oligocene] (table 1, p. 20).
 
 
Pickford, Martin (detail)
   
1987
Recognition of an Early Oligocene or Late Eocene mammal fauna from Cabinda, Angola.
Rapp. Ann. Dépt. Géol. Minéral. Mus. R. Afr. Cent. 1985-86: 89-92. Illus.
–French & Flemish summs.
x
 
Pickford, Martin (detail)
   
2008
Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Pemba Island, Tanzania.
South African Jour. Sci. 104: 231-237. 6 figs. May/June 2008.
–Mentions fossil sir. rib fragments found at the localities of Chwaka on Pemba Is. and M'bweni on Zanzibar (231-232).
 
 
Pictet, François-Jules (detail)
   
1853
Traité de paléontologie, ou histoire naturelle des animaux fossiles considérés dans leurs rapports zoologiques et géologiques. Ed. 2.
Paris, J. B. Baillière: Vol. 1: xiv + 584. 110 pls. in atlas.
–First ed., Geneva, 4 vols., 1844-46? Manatus, 372.
 
 
Pierson, P.; Kendall, B. D. (detail)
   
1994
Petrified mammal remains in southern Monterey County.
Bull. So. Calif. Pal. Soc. 26(1-2): 13. Jan.-Feb. 1994.
 
 
Pietsch, K. (detail)
   
1956
Abriss der Geologie von Sachsen. Ed. 2.
Berlin, VEB Deutscher Verl. Wiss.: 1-200. 1 tab. 78 figs.
–Illustrates a jaw fragment and teeth of Halitherium sp. (pl. 19, Bild 38, fig. 8).
 
 
Pietsch, K. (detail)
   
1962
Geologie von Sachsen (Bezirke Dresden, Karl-Marx-Stadt und Leipzig).
Berlin, VEB Deutscher Verl. Wiss.: 1-870. 1 tab. 300 figs.
–Mentions Middle Oligocene sir. bone and tooth fragments found near Böhlen, Germany, in 1929 and 1936.
x
 
Pietsch, Theodore W. (detail)
   
1991
Samuel Fallours and his "Sirenne" from the province of Ambon.
Archives of Nat. Hist. 18(1): 1-25. 7 figs.
–Concludes that Fallours' painting of a mermaid (publ. by Renard, 1719, and Valentijn, 1726) was probably based on a dead dugong that he personally observed (but considerably embellished!).
 
 
Piggins, David (detail)
   
1987
Through the eyes of a sea cow.
SCOPE (Brit. Assoc. Young Scientists Mag.), Issue No. 7: 4-7? 4 figs. Spring 1987.
–Pop. acc. of studying the eyesight of Amazonian manatees with Robin Best in Manaus [1977].
x
 
Piggins, David; Muntz, W. R. A.; Best, Robin Christopher (detail)
   
1983
Physical and morphological aspects of the eye of the manatee Trichechus inunguis Natterer 1883: (Sirenia: mammalia [sic]).
Mar. Behav. Physiol. 9(2): 111-129. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Examination of gross ocular anatomy, retinal histology, visual pigment, ocular refraction, and visual behavior in 5 animals showed a primarily rod retina, high receptor:ganglion cell ratio, low refractive error (hyperopia) under water, pigment based on vitamin A1, a difference spectrum of lambda max at 505 nm, a retina suited to low light levels, moderate visual acuity at best, motion perception, and a low degree of binocular vision. These results are compared with previous studies of T. manatus and Dugong.
 
 
Pilcher, N.J.; Adulyanukosol, K.; Das, H.S.; Davis, P.; Hines, E.; Kwan, D.; Marsh, H.; Ponnampalam, L.; Reynolds, J. (detail)
   
2017
A low-cost solution for documenting distribution and abundance of endangered marine fauna and impacts from fisheries.
PLoS ONE 12(12): e0190021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190021
–Describes a questionnaire system developed for the Convention on Migratory Species Dugong Memorandum of Understanding.
x
 
Piller, Werner E.; Decker, Kurt; Haas, Margit (detail)
   
1996
Exkursion A1: Sedimentologie und Beckendynamik des Wiener Beckens. [in:] Exkursionsführer 11. Sedimentologentreffen.
Berichte Geol. Bundesanst. (Vienna) Nr. 33.
–Mentions that a skull of "Thalatosiren [sic] petersi" was found at Stop 1 of the excursion (Baden-Rauchstallbrunngraben, Austria) (m16). This specimen was described and referred to Metaxytherium medium by Domning & Pervesler (2013).
x
 
Piller, Werner E.; Vávra, Norbert (detail)
   
1991
Das Tertiär im Wiener und Eisenstädter Becken. In: R. Roetzel & D. Nagel (eds.), Exkursionen im Tertiär Österreichs, Molassezone Waschbergzone-Korneuburger Becken-Wiener Becken-Eisenstädter Becken.
Vienna, Österreichische Paläontologische Gesellschaft: 161-216. Figs. 41-49.
–Mentions that a skull of "Thalatosiren [sic] petersi" was found at Stop G/2 of the excursion (Baden-Rauchstallbrunngraben, Austria) (m189). This specimen was described and referred to Metaxytherium medium by Domning & Pervesler (2013).
Pilleri, Giorgio: SEE ALSO Cigalla-Fulgosi & Pilleri, 1985. (detail)
x
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1986a
The Cetacea of the western Paratethys (Upper Marine Molasse of Baltringen).
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst.: 1-70. 56 tabs. 5 figs. 40 pls.
–German & Italian summs. Gives measurements and illustrations of an Early Miocene sir. premolar from Baltringen, Germany that had been misidentified as a cetacean (18, 22, pl. 5).
x
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1986b
The Miocene Cetacea of the Pietra Leccese with special reference to the Cosimo de Giorgi Collection, Lecce.
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst.: 1-27. 7 tabs. 8 figs. 11 pls.
–Gives illustrations and measurements of rib fragments of Miocene sirs. from the Pietra Leccese, Italy (21-22, pl. 11).
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1987
The Sirenia of the Swiss Molasse with a descriptive catalogue of the fossil Sirenia preserved in Swiss collections.
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst.: 1-114. 36 tabs. 44 figs. 55 pls. 4 color pls.
–German summ. Edition limited to 600 copies. Describes Metaxytherium aquitaniae, n.sp. (Early Miocene, France), M. krahuletzi excelsum, n.subsp. (Early Miocene, Switzerland), and Halitherium schinzi lareolensis, n.subsp. (Oligocene, France). Also proposes (provisionally and therefore invalidly) the new name Metaxytherium argoviense for a skullcap from the Early Miocene of Switzerland. Thelriope and Thelriopiinae are introduced as replacement names for Rhytiodus [sic] Lartet and Rhytiodiinae [sic] Abel, respectively; however, this action is unnecessary and invalid (see Domning, 1989c).
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1988a
The Pliocene Sirenia of the Po Basin (Metaxytherium subapenninum (Bruno) 1839). In: G. Pilleri, Contributions to the paleontology of some Tethyan Cetacea and Sirenia (Mammalia). [I.]
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst. (123 pp.): 45-103. 8 tabs. 4 figs. 22 pls.
–The entire volume contains six separate articles, the last three on sirs. (listed here as Pilleri, 1988a, b, c). This article synonymizes the Pliocene sirs. of Italy (Cheirotherium subapenninum, Felsinotherium forestii, and F. gastaldii) into a single species, Metaxytherium subapenninum.
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1988b
Mandibular pathology in a fossil sirenid (Metaxytherium sp.) from Catalonia, Spain. In: G. Pilleri, Contributions to the paleontology of some Tethyan Cetacea and Sirenia (Mammalia). [I.]
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst. (123 pp.): 105-107. 1 tab. 1 pl.
–German summ. This specimen was later made the holotype of Metaxytherium catalaunicum Pilleri, Biosca & Via, 1989.
  The third article in this volume reports a vertebra of Eurhinodelphis sp. from Catalonia that had been misidentified in a museum collection as Metaxytherium cuvieri (p. 41).
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1988c
A skull of Metaxytherium serresii (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Lower Pliocene of Montpellier. In: G. Pilleri, Contributions to the paleontology of some Tethyan Cetacea and Sirenia (Mammalia). [I.]
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst. (123 pp.): 111-123. 4 tabs. 1 fig. 4 pls.
–German summ.
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1988d
Recent Sirenia in Swiss collections, with special reference to osteology and comparative neurology.
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst.: 1-121. 17 tabs. 18 figs. 29 pls. + 3 color pls.
–German summ.
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio (detail)
   
1989
Endocranial cast of Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Miocene of Cerro Gordo, Almería, Spain. In: G. Pilleri (ed.), Contributions to the paleontology of some Tethyan Cetacea and Sirenia (Mammalia) II.
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst. (133 pp.): 103-113. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 2 pls.
–German summ. Edition limited to 600 copies. Repr., altered in format, in Treballs Mus. Geol. Barcelona 1: 35-42, Oct. 1990 (with Spanish & German summs.).
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio; Cigala-Fulgosi, Franco (detail)
   
1989
Additional observations on the Lower Serravallian marine mammals [sic] fauna of Visiano and the Stirone River (northern Apennines). In: G. Pilleri (ed.), Contributions to the paleontology of some Tethyan Cetacea and Sirenia (Mammalia) II.
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst. (133 pp.): 63-85. 4 tabs. 20 figs. 2 pls.
–German summ. Edition limited to 600 copies.
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio; Biosca Munts, Josep; Via Boada, Luis (detail)
   
1989
The Tertiary Sirenia of Catalonia.
Ostermundigen (Switzerland), Brain Anat. Inst.: 1-98. 30 tabs. 44 figs. 40 pls. + 2 colored pls.
–Spanish & German summs. Describes the new species Prototherium solei and P. montserratense from the Late Eocene of Spain, and Metaxytherium catalaunicum from the Middle Miocene of Spain.
 
 
Pilleri, Giorgio; Biosca Munts, Josep; Via Boada, Luis (detail)
   
1990
Els sirenis fòssils del Penedès.
Olerdulae 15(1-4): 5-56.
x
 
Pilliet, Alex. H. (detail)
   
1890
Note sur la structure de l'estomac à poches multiples d'un lamantin (Manatus Americanus).
C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 42 [= (9)2]: 450-453. July 12, 1890.
–Describes the stomach and stomach glands of a young manatee.
 
 
Pilliet, Alex. H.; Boulart, R. (detail)
   
1895
L'estomac des cétacés.
Jour. Anat. Physiol. (Paris) 22: 402-423.
x
 
Pilsbry, Henry A. (detail)
   
1916
The sessile barnacles (Cirripedia) contained in the collections of the U. S. National Museum; including a monograph of the American species.
U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 93: xi + 366. 76 pls.
–Reviews the manatee barnacles Chelonibia manati (265-266) and Platylepas hexastylos (284-287). Also describes two new subspecies of the former from sea turtles.
 
 
Pilson, M. E. Q.; Goldstein, E. (detail)
   
1972?
Marine mammals.
Marine Publ. Ser. Univ. Rhode Island No. 2: 1-48. 1 tab. 2 maps.
 
 
Pim, Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan; Seeman, Berthold (detail)
   
1869
Dottings on the roadside, in Panama, Nicaragua, and Mosquito.
London, Chapman & Hall: xvi + 468. Illus.
–Use of manatee meat, 375-377.
 
 
Pimentel, Tatiana Lucena (detail)
   
2001
Order Sirenia (manatee, dugongs, sea cows). Medicine. In: M. E. Fowler & Z. S. Cubas (eds.), Biology, medicine, and surgery of South American wild animals.
Ames, Iowa State Univ. Press (x + 536): 356-362. 2 tabs.
–Forms part of Chap. 31 together with Rosas, F.C.W., 2001.
x
 
Pine, Ronald H. (detail)
   
1973
Mammals (exclusive of bats) of Belém, Pará, Brazil.
Acta Amazonica 3(2): 47-79. Aug. 1973.
–Portuguese summ. Summarizes reports of T. inunguis from the Belém area (74).
 
 
Pingry, Patricia A. (detail)
   
2006
Baby manatee.
Nashville (Tennessee), CandyCane Press (Ideals Publications) (Sea World Library): [1-25.] Illus.
–Hard-page book for toddlers.
x
 
Pinheiro, Aurelio (detail)
   
1937
Á margem do Amazonas.
São Paulo, Cia. Editora Nacional (Bibliotheca Pedagogica Brasileira, Série 5, Vol. 86): 1-223.
–Contains a vivid description of harpooning "Manatus americanus" from a small canoe in the Amazon (215-218).
x
D
Pinto da Silveira, Estanislau Kostka (detail)
   
1973
Os troncos proboscideo-sirênio e sua provável origem protungulada.
Atas Soc. Biol. Rio de Janeiro 16(2-3): 131-140. 1 fig. June 20, 1973.
–Engl. summ. Discusses the phylogeny of the proboscidean, sir., and related lineages, and suggests that subungulates were derived from periptychid condylarths.
x
 
Pinto da Silveira, Estanislau Kostka (detail)
   
1975
The management of Caribbean and Amazonian manatees Trichechus m. manatus and T. inunguis in captivity.
Internatl. Zoo Yearbook 15: 223-226.
–Portuguese ?transl.: Pinto da Silveira (1988). Gives captive histories, including weights, lengths, and diets, of various manatees kept in Brazil at the Recife, Rio de Janeiro, and Belém zoos. The section on "Natural History" includes descriptions of mating in T. inunguis based on communications from Nunes Pereira, and a variety of statements on the life history of both species that are unsupported by data.
 
 
Pinto da Silveira, Estanislau Kostka (detail)
   
1988
O manejo dos manatis do Caribe, Trichechus m. manatus Linné, 1758, e da Amazonia, T. inunguis (Natterer, 1883), em cativeiro e alguns aspectos de sua historia natural.
Bol. Fund. Brasil. Conserv. Nat. 23: 82-103. Illus.
–Engl. summ. Portuguese ?transl. of Pinto da Silveira (1975).
Pinto de Lima, Régis: SEE ALSO Grubel da Silva, Paludo, et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Pinto de Lima, Régis; Caldas, Sérgio Túlio (detail)
   
2001
Peixe-boi: a história da conservação de um mamífero brasileiro.
São Paulo, DBA Dórea Books and Art Artes Gráficas: 1-132. Illus.
–Pop. acc. (lavishly illustrated with photos by Luciano Candisani) of Brazilian manatees (chiefly T. m. manatus) and their study and conservation by the IBAMA Manatee Project.
 
 
Pinto de Lima, Régis; Borobia, Mônica (detail)
   
1991
Peixe-boi marinho Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758). In: H.L. Capozzo & M. Junin (eds.), Estado de conservación de los mamíferos marinos del Atlántico Sudoccidental.
Informes y Estudios del Programa de Mares Regionales del PNUMA No. 138: 182-187.
 
 
Pinto de Lima, Régis; Paludo, Danielle; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Grubel da Silva, Kleber; Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de (detail)
   
1992a
Levantamento da distribuição, ocorrência e status de conservação do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758) no litoral nordeste do Brasil. [Survey of distribution, occurrence and status of conservation of the manatee (Trichechus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758) on the northeastern coast of Brazil.]
Peixe-Boi 1(1): 47-52. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Republished in August 2011: Natural Resources (Aquidabã), 1(2): 41-57. 8 tabs. 7 figs. 3 graphs. In Portuguese.
 ABSTRACT: In the early 80's the first survey was conducted on the distribution of marine manatees in Brazil, which pointed to the north and northeast coasts as areas of occurrence, and recorded its disappearance in the states of Espirito Santo and Bahia. Considering the absence of recent data, this study aimed to update existing information on the distribution and areas of occurrence of Trichechus manatus in the Northeastern coast of Brazil, as well as evaluating the conservation status of species and to support the work of preserving this sirenian. The survey was conducted during the years 1990 and 1991, the coast of Sergipe to Piauí. We used a questionnaire with eight questions, which is directed to fishermen. When we confirm the importance of location for the occurrence of the manatee, nautical raids were carried out in order to spot the animals, environments and recognition of the major threats to the species. The displacements along the study area were performed by means of a 4x4 Toyota Bandeirante, called "Igarakuê." After 16 months of activities, the mobile unit "Igarakuê" went almost all the villages and coastal regions of seven Northeastern states (Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará and Piauí), with 552 interviews conducted in 199 locations . Worryingly it was observed the disappearance of the species in the state of Sergipe, the isolation of populations present in the state of Alagoas and the presence of discontinuous areas along the distribution in other states. The estimated abundance for the study area, with the minimum number of 117 specimens and a maximum of 242 specimens, where data showed a decrease in the total number of manatees sighted in recent decades. The marine environment has been indicated as the site of highest number of sightings and it was observed in the northeastern coastal region the presence of habitats favorable to the occurrence of the species. However, the siltation of rivers and bars, the rectification of river beds for agricultural purposes, deforestation of mangroves, pollution of water resources are some of the factors noted that compromise threatens habitats of manatees and sea irreversibly therefore the species. The harpoon was the main form of capture recorded in the history of hunting, but has not been widely used. The mortality of the animals has a parallel with events surrounding the stranding of puppies, accidental capture in fishing nets and stalls, hauls made by motorized boats and the use of explosives in fishing activities. From the results obtained, it is recommended the continuation of awareness campaigns along the northeast coast, the monitoring in the main areas of occurrence, the creation of protected areas, environmental education and the inclusion of sites with the highest occurrence of manatees and marine priority areas in the National Plan of Coastal Management.
  RESUMO: No início da década de 80 foi realizado o primeiro levantamento sobre a distribuição dos peixes-boi marinhos no Brasil, o qual apontou o litoral Norte e Nordeste como áreas de ocorrência da espécie, sendo registrado o seu desaparecimento nos estados do Espírito Santo e Bahia. Considerando a ausência de dados recentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo atualizar as informações existentes sobre a distribuição e áreas de ocorrência do Trichechus manatus no litoral Nordeste brasileiro, bem como avaliar o status de conservação da espécie, visando subsidiar os trabalhos de preservação deste sirênio. O levantamento foi efetuado durante os anos de 1990 e 1991, do litoral de Sergipe até o Piauí. Utilizou-se um questionário contendo oito perguntas, sendo este direcionado aos pescadores. Quando constatada a importância da localidade para a ocorrência do peixe-boi marinho, foram realizadas incursões náuticas com o intuito de avistar os animais, reconhecimento dos ambientes e principais ameaças à espécie. Os deslocamentos ao longo da área de estudo foram realizados por meio de uma Toyota Bandeirante 4x4, denominada "Igarakuê". Após 16 meses de atividades, a unidade móvel "Igarakuê" percorreu praticamente todas as vilas e localidades costeiras de sete estados Nordestinos (Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará e Piauí), sendo realizadas 552 entrevistas em 199 localidades. De forma preocupante constatou-se o desaparecimento da espécie no estado de Sergipe, o isolamento das populações presentes no estado de Alagoas e a presença de áreas descontínuas ao longo da distribuição nos demais estados. Foi estimada a abundância para a área de estudo, com o número mínimo de 117 espécimes e um número máximo de 242 espécimes, onde as informações evidenciaram um decréscimo no número total de peixes-boi avistados nas últimas décadas. O ambiente marinho foi indicado como o local de maior número de avistagens e observou-se na região costeira nordestina a presença de habitats favoráveis a ocorrência da espécie. Entretanto, o assoreamento de rios e barras, a retificação do leito dos rios para fins agrícolas, o desmatamento de manguezais, a poluição dos recursos hídricos, são alguns dos fatores de ameaça constatados que comprometem os habitats dos peixes-boi marinhos de forma irreversível e consequentemente a espécie. O arpão foi a principal forma de captura registrada no histórico de caça, porém não vem sendo mais utilizado. A mortalidade dos animais tem ainda uma relação com eventos envolvendo o encalhe de filhotes, a captura acidental em currais e redes de pesca, arrastos realizados por embarcações motorizadas e o uso de explosivos nas atividades de pesca. A partir dos resultados obtidos, recomenda-se a continuidade das campanhas de conscientização ao longo do litoral nordeste, o monitoramento nas principais áreas de ocorrência da espécie, a criação de unidades de conservação, ações de educação ambiental e a inclusão dos locais de maior ocorrência dos peixes-boi marinhos como áreas prioritárias no Plano Nacional de Gerenciamento Costeiro.
 
 
Pinto de Lima, Régis; Paludo, Danielle; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Grubel da Silva, Kleber; Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de (detail)
   
2011
SEE Pinto de Lima, Régis; Paludo, Danielle; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Grubel da Silva, Kleber; Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de, 1992a.
 
 
Pinto de Lima, Régis; Paludo, Danielle; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Eunice Maria Almeida de; Grubel da Silva, Kleber (detail)
   
1992b
Esforços conservacionistas e campanhas de conscientização para a preservação do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus) ao longo do litoral nordeste do Brasil.
Peixe-Boi 1(1): 42-46.
Pinto do Amaral, Ary Domingos: SEE Colares et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Pinto, C. G. C. (detail)
   
1970
Potencialidades ictiológicas na Amazônia.
R. Econ. BASA (Belém) 1(1): 19-21. Sept.-Dec. 1970.
Pinto, Gerard F.: SEE White et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Pires de Lima, Fernando de Castro (detail)
   
1952
A sereia na história e na lenda.
Porto, Porto Editora, Lda.: 1-205.
–With prologue by Gregório Marañón.
x
 
Pirie, N. W. (detail)
   
1967
Orthodox and unorthodox methods of meeting world food needs.
Sci. Amer. 216(2): 27-35. 10 figs. Feb. 1967.
–Suggests the use of sirs. as sources of meat, pointing out that, unlike tapirs and hippos, they do not compete with terrestrial herbivores (31).
 
 
Pirika Sirenia Research Group (Aoyama, Susumu; Inaki, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Tamio; Sotozaki, Hideto; Kusaka, Hajime; Kazukawa, Eisuke; Terasaki, Yasufumi; Nojo, Ayumu; Moroto, Yasuhiro; Minoshima, Ai; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Takada, Syun'ichi; Akiba, Chikara; Kuga, Naoyuki) (detail)
   
1992
Report on excavation of sirenian fossil from Pirika Imakane, southwestern Hokkaido.
Imakane Township (Japan) Board of Education: [vi] + 133. 8 tabs. 107 figs. 9 pls. Mar. 31, 1992.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Concerns a Pleistocene partial skeleton of Hydrodamalis sp.
Pirlot, Paul: SEE ALSO Kamiya et al., 1985. (detail)
x
 
Pirlot, Paul; Kamiya, Toshiro (detail)
   
1985
Qualitative and quantitative brain morphology in the sirenian Dugong dugong Erxl.
Zs. Zool. Syst. Evol.-Forsch. 23(2): 147-155. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–German summ. Describes the gross features, biometrics, and encephalization of the dugong brain, and makes crude comparisons of its "evolutionary level" with those of other mammals (especially dolphins). Concludes that the dugong exhibits an "average degree" of evolutionary progression.
 
 
Piso, Willem (= Guilherme) (detail)
   
1948
História natural do Brasil ilustrada....
São Paulo, Comp. Editora Nacional: xx + 434. Illus.
–Original ed., Leiden & Amsterdam, 1648. Sirs., 264.
 
 
Pitot, Albert (detail)
   
1905
T'eylandt Mauritius: esquisses historiques (1598-1710).
Port Louis, Coignet Frères & Cie: iii + 372 + xv. 20 pls.
x
 
Pitou, Louis-Ange (detail)
   
1805
Voyage à Cayenne, dans les deux Amériques, et chez les antropophages.
Paris, published by the author: 2 vols. Illus.
–Gives a brief general account of the manatee and its supposed habits (2: 259-260).
 
 
Pittman, Craig (detail)
   
2004
Fury over a gentle giant.
Smithsonian Mag., Feb. 2004.
–Describes the controversies over manatee conservation in Florida.
 
 
Pittman, Craig (detail)
   
2010
Manatee insanity: inside the war over Florida's most famous endangered species.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (The Florida History and Culture Series): xii + 444 + [3]. Illus.
 
 
Pivert, Elie Clément Victorin (detail)
   
1925
Mes chasses en Afrique et en Extrême-Orient.
Gand, Editions Cultura: 1-172. Illus.
 
 
Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Miller, Bruce W.; Miller, Carolyn M. (detail)
   
2000
Notes on the mammals of Turneffe Atoll, Belize.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 36(1-2): 166-168. May 2000.
x
 
Pledge, Neville S. (detail)
   
1992
First record of fossil sirenians in southern Australia.
Fossil Collector Bull. No. 37: 6. May 1992.
–Reports a fragment of a sir. mandible, "probably referable to Dugong", from the Early Pliocene Sunlands Local Fauna, Loxton Sands, Waikerie area, South Australia.
x
 
Pledge, Neville S. (detail)
   
2006
Sirenians in southern Australia - first fossil record.
Alcheringia Special Issue 1: 295-305. 4 figs.
–Describes the anterior half of the right mandible of an indeterminate dugongine from the Early Plioc. Loxton Sands of the Murray Basin, South Australia.
 
D
Pleshakov, I. B. (detail)
   
1940
Discovery of a tooth of Desmostylus in Kamchatka.
C.R. (= Doklady) Acad. Sci. URSS (Moscow) 28(4): 373-376. 2 figs. Aug. 10, 1940.
 
 
Plön, Stephanie; Thakur, Vibha; Parr, Leslee; Lavery, Shane D. (detail)
   
2019
Phylogeography of the dugong (Dugong dugon) based on historical samples identifies vulnerable Indian Ocean populations.
PLoS One 14(9): 6 figs. + online supporting information. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219350 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738584/ Sept. 11, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: We investigated the phylogeography of the dugong (Dugong dugon) across its original range using museum material from 14 natural history museum and university collections. The mitochondrial DNA control region was successfully amplified from samples of bone or tooth powder from 162 individuals. These samples range from 1827 to 1996 and span the historical distribution range of the dugong. We were able to successfully amplify overlapping fragments of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resulting in sequences of a 355 bp fragment for 162 individuals for the final analyses. This included a new sequence (189 bp) from a previously unidentified piece of skin of the extinct Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), as an outgroup. The resulting dugong sequences match those from previous studies of dugongs from Australia and Indonesia, but revealed several new and divergent mtDNA lineages in the Indian Ocean. One mtDNA lineage includes most specimens from the Western Indian Ocean, with another distinct lineage isolated to nearby Madagascar and Comores. There is little geographic structuring detectable among other populations in the Western Indian Ocean and all populations from that region appear to have historically contained comparatively low levels of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of several Indian Ocean samples collected after 1950 was lower than that of the samples collected earlier from similar locations, a result coincident with the anecdotal reductions in population size. The new lineages and potential loss of diversity highlight the particular conservation importance and vulnerability of dugong populations in the Western Indian Ocean.
x
 
Plusquellec, Yves; Racheboeuf, Patrick R. (detail)
   
2000
Mammifères marins fossiles du Miocène de Bretagne.
Penn ar Bed (Bull. Trimestriel de Bretagne Vivante) (Soc. pour l'Étude et la Protection de la Nature en Bretagne - SEPNB) No. 175: 27-36. 14 figs.
–Discusses and illustrates specimens of Metaxytherium medium collected in Brittany, and notes that most of the localities are no longer accessible (32-36).
x
 
Poche, Richard (detail)
   
1973
Niger's threatened Park W.
Oryx 12(2): 216-222. 3 tabs. 1 fig. Oct. 1973.
–States that T. senegalensis is "now extinct" in Niger (218).
 
 
Pocklington, Patricia; Coates, Kathryn A. (detail)
   
2010
Three new species of polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Bermuda.
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 123 (3): 220-233. DOI: 10.2988/09-24.1. September 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Three new species of Polychaeta (Annelida) are described from a benthic infaunal collection made in a seagrass bed dominated by Syringodium filiforme, manatee grass, at 8-9m depth, in Bermuda: one species of Caulleriella (Cirratulidae), one of Schistomeringos (Dorvilleidae) and one of Exogone (subfamily Exogoninae, Syllidae). The syllid is briefly described here but not named because the only two specimens have been misplaced. The new cirratulid has a short prostomium with a novel arrangement of bifid hooks in both neuro- and notopodia, the new dorvilleid has furcate setae with subequal tynes in all setigers, and the new syllid has a novel arrangement of the simple setae. The polychaete diversity of Bermuda was considered to be relatively well studied, with a low diversity compared to similar subtropical locations and with a low degree of endemism compared to other oceanic islands. Identification of these three new species from the seagrass rhizosphere, in combination with recognition of other unidentified and misidentified species from the same collection, show instead that polychaete diversity in Bermuda is notably higher than recently reported and includes several species not reported from other geographic locations. Seagrass bed infaunal diversity is especially poorly documented.
 
 
Pocock, Reginald Innes (detail)
   
1916
Discussion on the "Biologia Centrali-Americana".
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1916(3): 547-548. Aug. 20, 1916.
x
 
Pocock, Reginald Innes (detail)
   
1940
Some notes on the dugong.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11)5(28): 329-345. 1 tab. 3 figs. Apr. 1940.
–Comments briefly on dugong distribution and species nomenclature; describes in detail individual, sexual, and geographic variation in tusks; briefly describes age variation in cheek teeth and in closure of cranial sutures; presents measurements of 25 skulls; and contrasts the morphology of the scapula in Dugong and Trichechus, showing that some British Museum specimens had been misidentified.
 
 
Poeppig, Eduard Friedrich (detail)
   
1835-36
Reise in Chile, Peru, und auf dem Amazonenstrome während der Jahre 1827-1832.
Leipzig, F. Fleischer: 2 vols. + atlas of 16 pls.
–Discusses Manatus australis, 373.
 
 
Pohle, C. (detail)
   
1995
Seekühe - schwimmende Vegetarier.
Takin 4(1): 15-17.
 
 
Pohle, Hermann (detail)
   
1921
Über den physiologischen Zahnausfall.
Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1921: 115-122. Figs.
–Sirs., 116.
 
 
Poisson, H. (detail)
   
1949
Le biotope à cymodocées à Madagascar.
Naturaliste Malgache (Tananarive) 1(1): 11-25. 2 pls.
Politano, Edoardo: SEE Angelici et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Pollock, H. E. D.; Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
   
1957
Notes on vertebrate animal remains from Mayapan.
Current Repts. Dept. Archaeol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. No. 41: 633-656.
–P. 644: {"Manatee / The carved rib of a manatee represents the only bone of this animal in our collections."}
  P. 653: {"Three teeth of tapir, a single bone of spider monkey, and a single rib of manatee are obvious imports to Mayapan [in Yucatan, Mexico]."}
Pollock, Kenneth H.: SEE Lefebvre et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Pollock, Kenneth H.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Alldredge, Matthew W. (detail)
   
2006
Estimating animal abundance in heterogeneous environments: an application to aerial surveys for dugongs.
Jour. Wildlife Management 70: 255-262.
 
 
Pomet, Pierre (detail)
   
1594
Histoire generale des drogues, traitant des plantes, des animaux, & des mineraux; ouvrage enrichy de plus de quatre cent figures en taille-douce tirées d'aprés nature; avec un discours qui explique leurs differens noms, les pays d'où elles viennent, la maniere de connoître les veritables d'avec les falsisiées, & leur proprietez, où l'on découvre l'erreur des anciens & des modernes; le tout tres utile au public.
Paris, Jean-Baptiste Loyson & Augustin Pillon; et au Palais, Estienne Ducastin: 1-16; part i, 1-304; part ii, 1-108; part iii, 1-116. Illus.
–Allen 26. Manatee, part ii, chap. 35: 82-84, fig. Allen says "The figures are very curious, as is also the text.... The figure of the Manatee is apparently copied from an earlier design."
 
 
Pompeckj, Josef Felix (detail)
   
1925
Umwelt, Anpassung und Beharrung im Lichte erdgeschichtlicher Überlieferung.
Rede zum Antritt des Rektorats der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin: 1-24. Oct. 15, 1925.
–Sirs., 10.
Ponce, Alonso: SEE Noyes, E., 1932. (detail)
 
 
Ponnampalam, Louisa S.; Fairul Izmal, J. H.; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Ooi, Jillian L. S.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2014
Aligning conservation and research priorities for proactive species and habitat management: the case of dugongs Dugong dugon in Johor, Malaysia.
Oryx 49(4):743-749. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605313001580. Published online, July 8, 2014; Oct. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Conservation efforts use scientific data to provide an adaptive framework wherein habitat and wildlife sustainability can co-exist with human activities. Good science informs decision-makers and facilitates the development of successful conservation approaches. However, conservation concerns for the dugong Dugong dugon in South-east Asia are sufficiently urgent that action must be taken quickly, even though science has not provided complete answers to critical questions. In Johor, Malaysia, aerial surveys were conducted to assess dugong numbers, dugong high-use areas and overlap of dugong sightings with areas of seagrass. Dugong distribution included existing marine parks and locations where known conservation threats exist. We conclude that the Johor islands may represent a significant congregation site for dugongs in Peninsular Malaysia, with as many as 20 dugongs recorded in a single day. The existence of a marine park where the dugong sightings were most prominent is encouraging but only 38% of those sightings fell within the boundaries of the park. Anthropogenic threats need to be assessed and addressed prior to complex development activities such as dredging and coastal reclamation for tourism development in this critical area. We use this case to explore the concept of advancing species conservation through focused research and management, particularly where uncertainties exist because data are scarce.
x
 
Ponte, Fernando; Marsh, Helene D.; Jackson, Richard (detail)
   
1994
Indigenous hunting rights: ecological sustainability and the reconciliation process in Queensland.
Search (Doncaster) 25(9): 258-261. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Oct. 1994.
–Outlines the efforts needed to bridge the gap between legal recognition of Aboriginal and Islander hunting rights (e.g., in regard to dugongs; 260-261) and public opposition to exercise of those rights.
 
 
Poole, D. F. G. (detail)
   
1967
Phylogeny of tooth tissues: enameloid and enamel in Recent vertebrates, with a note on the history of cementum. In: A. E. W. Miles (ed.), Structural and chemical organization of teeth.
New York & London, Academic Press: Vol. 1: 111-149. 40 figs.
–Sirs., 139.
 
 
Poommouang, A.; Kriangwanich, W.; Buddhachat, K.; Brown, J. L.; Piboon, P.; Chomdej, S.; ... Nganvongpanit, K. (detail)
   
2021
Genetic diversity in a unique population of dugong (Dugong dugon) along the sea coasts of Thailand.
Scientific Reports 11(1): 11624. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90947-4
Poonai, N. O.: SEE Hanif & Poonai, 1968. (detail)
 
 
Poonian, Christopher N. S.; Lopez, Danica D. (detail)
   
2016
Small-Scale Mariculture: A Potentially Significant Threat to Dugongs (Dugong dugon) Through Incidental Entanglement.
Aquatic Mammals 42 (1):56-59. DOI: 10.1578/AM.42.1.2016.56. February 16, 2016.
–Abstract: Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are threatened by incidental capture in small-scale fisheries, but other static underwater structures could present a similar entanglement risk. In December 2013, an adult male dugong was entangled in the ropes of a seaweed farm in Busuanga, Palawan, Philippines, and drowned. Anecdotal reports of similar incidents suggest that this was not an isolated occurrence. Given that dugong populations are slow to reproduce and cannot sustain even low levels of mortality, effective marine spatial planning is essential to minimize overlap between dugong habitat and mariculture operations.
Poovachiranon, Sombat: SEE Adulyanukosal et al., 1997. (detail)
Popov, V. V.: SEE ALSO Klishin et al., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Popov, Vladimir V.; Supin, Alexander Ya. (detail)
   
1990
Electrophysiological studies of hearing in some cetaceans and a manatee. In: J. A. Thomas & R. A. Kastelein (eds.), Sensory abilities of cetaceans: laboratory and field evidence.
NATO Adv. Sci. Inst. Ser., Ser. A, Life Sci. (New York, Plenum Press) 196: 405-415.
Popovici, Nicolae: SEE Nicorici & Popovici, 1984. (detail)
 
 
Popovici, Z.; Angelescu, V. (detail)
   
1954
La economia del mar y sus relaciones con la alimentation de la humanidad.
Publ. Ext. Cult. Didact. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. "Bernardino Rivadavia" No. 8 (2 vols.). Vol. 1 (Mammals): 513-549.
Popp, James A.: SEE Cardeilhac et al., 1981; Irvine et al., 1980. (detail)
x
 
Por, F. D. (detail)
   
1972
A sea cow captured near Elat.
Sci. Notes Heinz Steinitz Mar. Biol. Lab., Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem (Elat) No. 2: 12-13. 1 fig. Apr. 1972.
–Also publ. as "Second Report of the H. Steinitz Marine Biological Laboratory at Elat, July 1971-September 1972", Dec. 1972. Reports an adult male dugong drowned in a fishing net near El Hamira Bay on the east coast of Sinai on June 20, 1970; measurements given.
Porras, J.: SEE Boher & Porras, 1991. (detail)
Portell, Roger W.: SEE Ivany et al., 1990. (detail)
x
 
Portell, Roger W. (detail)
   
1997
Jamaica's treasures unearthed!
Florida Museum Associates Quarterly, Summer 1997: 4-7, 14. 7 figs.
–Pop. acc. of collecting prorastomid sirs. and other fossils in the Eocene of Jamaica.
 
 
Portell, Roger W.; Donovan, Stephen K.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2001
EarlyTertiary vertebrate fossils from Seven Rivers, Parish of St. James, Jamaica, and their biogeographical implications. Chap. 13 in: C.A. Woods & F.E. Sergile (eds.), Biogeography of the West Indies: patterns and perspectives. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press (582 pp.): 191-200. 4 figs.
Porter, Lindsay: SEE Corkeron et al., 1997. (detail)
Portier, Kenneth M.: SEE Lefebvre et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Portillo Fuenmayor, Julio Alberto (detail)
   
1998
El glorioso ayer: Maracaibo, 1870-1935. Ed. 2.
Maracaibo (Venezuela), Editorial Arte: 1-209.
–Manatee, Isla de Toas, Venezuela, vol. 2?
x
 
Portis, Alessandro (detail)
   
1886
Catalogo descrittivo dei Talassoterii, rinvenuti nei terreni terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria.
Mem. Acad. Sci. Torino (2)37: 247-365. Pls. 1-9.
–Summarizes records of Felsinotherium subapenninum and F. Gastaldii in the Piemontese Pliocene, Italy (356-360).
Portlock, Nathaniel: SEE Stanbury, P. J., 1978. (detail)
Potter, Charles W.: SEE Morgan et al., 2002. (detail)
Pouit, D.: SEE Ginsburg et al., 1979. (detail)
 
 
Poulakakis, Nikos; Stamatakis, Alexandros (detail)
   
2010
Recapitulating the evolution of Afrotheria: 57 genes and rare genomic changes (RGCs) consolidate their history.
Systematics & Biodiversity 8(3): 395-408. 2 tabs. 3 figs. + supplementary data. DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2010.484436 June 24, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The decipherment of higher level relationships among the orders of Afrotheria – an extraordinary assumption in mammalian evolution – constitutes one of the major disputes in the evolutionary history of mammals. Recent comprehensive studies of various genomic data, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, chromosomal syntenic associations and retroposon insertions support strongly the monophyly of Afrotheria. However, the relationships within Afrotheria have remained ambiguous and there is a necessity for a more sophisticated analysis (i.e. combination of gene phylogeny and Rare Genomic Changes (RGCs)), which could aid in the comprehension of the evolutionary history of this old group of mammals. The present study investigated the phylogenetic relationships within Afrotheria by analysing a data set of coding and non-coding sequences (?32 000 bp) comprising 57 orthologous genes and 31 RGCs, such as chromosomal associations and retroposon insertions, and re-evaluated a molecular timescale for afrotherian mammals using a Bayesian relaxed clock approach. The interordinal afrotherians phylogeny presented here contributed to the elucidation of the evolutionary history of this ancient clade of mammals, which is one of the most unorthodox proposals in mammalian biology. This is critical not only for understanding how Afrotheria evolved in Africa, but also to comprehend the early biogeographical history of placental mammals.
 
 
Poulter, Thomas C. (detail)
   
1968
Marine mammals. In: T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Animal communication. Techniques of study and results of research.
Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press (xviii + 686): 405-465.
x
 
Powell, Charles L., II; Boessenecker, Robert W.; Smith, N. Adam; Fleck, Robert J.; Carlson, Sandra J.; Allen, James R.; Long, Douglas J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Guruswami-Naidu, Raj B., (detail)
   
2019
Geology and paleontology of the late Miocene Wilson Grove Formation at Bloomfield Quarry, Sonoma County, California.
U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2019-5021: vi + 77. 4 tabs. 4 figs. 15 pls. https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20195021
–ABSTRACT: An extensive fauna of at least 77 taxa is reported from the basal Wilson Grove Formation in a small quarry just north of the town of Bloomfield, Sonoma County, California. The fauna represents intertidal to shallow subtidal water depths and water temperatures interpreted from the fauna, consistent with the latitude of the fossil locality (37° north) during the late Miocene. The fauna from Bloomfield Quarry is unusually large and diverse from such a small area. It consists of thousands of specimens of 4 brachiopod, 42 mollusk (28 bivalves and 14 gastropods), 6 arthropod (1 crab, 1 shrimp, and 4 barnacles), and 25 vertebrate (3 sharks, 1 ray, 8 bony fishes, 9 marine mammals, and 4 birds) taxa. Unusual in the fauna is the abundant and diverse brachiopod fauna, the diverse barnacle fauna, which was described previously, and the extensive and diverse vertebrate fauna. Most significant among the vertebrates is the walrus fauna, which is the most diverse assemblage of walrus yet reported worldwide from a single locality.
  A single strontium (Sr) isotope age determination of about 8 million years (megaannum, Ma) from a pectinid mollusk is consistent with a new age determination of the overlying, informally named Roblar tuff as described by Sarna-Wojcicki in 1992 (6.203±0.011 Ma) and previously reported age determinations (recalculated here) from basalt (9.27±0.06 Ma) underlying these deposits. The Roblar tuff at Bloomfield Quarry can be correlated with other sites, including the Delgada Fan offshore northern California and the Coalinga anticline in California's Central Valley. These age determinations conform with the "Jacalitos" California provincial molluscan stage age, the Hemphillian North American Land Mammal age determined from the fossils, and is part of the International Tortonian Stage of the Miocene.
  Indeterminate rib fragments of a hydrodamaline sirenian, 3, 11, 44, Pl. 12.
 
 
Powell, J. A. (detail)
   
1996
The Distribution and Biology of the West African Manatee (Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795).
Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environmental Program, Regional Seas Program, Oceans and Coastal Areas: 1-68.
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.: SEE ALSO Ackerman & Powell, 2001; Campbell & Powell, 1976; Etheridge et al., 1985; Kochman et al., 1983, 1985; Lefebvre & Powell, 1990; Lefebvre et al., 2000; Rathbun et al., 1983, 1995; Reynolds & Powell, 2002; Scott & Powell, 1982. (detail)
x
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1978
Evidence of carnivory in manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Mamm. 59(2): 442. May 30, 1978.
–Describes fish-eating by captive Florida manatees and the removal of fish from gill nets by wild manatees in Jamaica. Only the flesh of the fish was eaten; the bones were left behind.
x
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1981
The manatee population in Crystal River, Citrus County, Florida. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 33-40. 5 tabs. 1 fig.
–Repr. in J.M. Packard (1983c: 125-132). Describes manatees' use of Crystal River as a warm-water winter refugium, based on aerial and boat surveys, 1967-78; the sex and age composition of the population; the number of known individuals resighted in successive winters; and the calving intervals of known females. Age at first conception is estimated at 7-8 years, calving interval at either 2.5 or 5 years.
 
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1983
Mermaids, very special animals.
The Fund for Animals Ltd. Newsletter (Australia) 3(1): 12. 1 fig. Mar. 1983.
–?Same as: "Mermaids: a special kind of animal." Fund for Animals 5: 26, 1983.
 
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2002a
Sirenians. In: R. R. Reeves, B. S. Stewart, P. J. Clapham, & J. A. Powell, National Audubon Society guide to marine mammals of the world.
New York, Alfred A. Knopf (Chanticleer Press) (527 pp.): 474-492. 21 figs.
–Illustrated by Pieter A. Folkens.
 
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2002b
Manatees: natural history and conservation.
Vancouver, Voyageur Press.
 
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1984
Distribution and abundance of manatees along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Northeast Gulf Science 7(1): 1-28. 8 tabs. 15 figs. July 31, 1984.
–An earlier version of this paper was publ. in J.M. Packard (1983c: 1-68), with a different fig. 4 and an additional fig. ("Fig. 6") included. Reviews historical and recent records of T. manatus, including aerial survey and carcass salvage data, emphasizing the southern Big Bend coast of northwestern peninsular Florida. Numbers of manatees have decreased in Texas but increased in the northeastern Gulf. The influences of temperature, sources of warm and fresh water, and food on manatee seasonal movements in the area are discussed, and used to explain the patterns of manatee use of different rivers in the Big Bend area and the increase in manatee population of this area compared with other parts of Florida. Concludes that the southern Big Bend coast offers the best long-term hope for manatee survival in the USA.
x
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Waldron, John C. (detail)
   
1981
The manatee population in Blue Spring, Volusia County, Florida. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 41-51. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
–Describes manatees' use of Blue Spring as a warm-water winter refugium, based on observations from 1971 to 1978, including number of manatees present as a function of temperature, daily attendance of known individuals, population composition, number of known individuals resighted in successive years, reproductive data, feeding behavior, distribution in the St. Johns River south of Lake George, and existing protective measures. A preponderance of males in the upper St. Johns River is documented, and calving intervals of 3 and 4 years are reported for one female. The primary local food source appears to be Eichhornia, though Vallisneria is preferred.
x
 
Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Belitsky, David W.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1981
Status of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico.
Jour. Mamm. 62(3): 642-646. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Aug. 20, 1981.
–Reports that aerial surveys in Puerto Rico in 1976-79 counted up to 51 manatees; gives notes on their occurrence in and drinking of fresh water, their preference for calm waters, and their mortality in fishing nets. The manatee population is said to be "small and widely distributed".
Pradel, R.: SEE Langtimm et al., 1998. (detail)
Prangley, M. L.: SEE Barnett & Prangley, 1997. (detail)
 
 
Prasad, M. R. N. (detail)
   
1974
Handbuch der Zoologie. Ein Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches. Band 8, Mammalia, Lief. 51: Männliches Geschlechtsorgane.
Berlin & New York, Walter De Gruyter: 1-150.
x
 
Prater, S. H. (detail)
   
1928
The dugong or sea cow (Halicore dugong).
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33(1): 84-99. 4 pls. Sept. 30, 1928.
–Fairly detailed gen. acc., mostly assembled from other authors, of dugongs and other sirs.
x
 
Prater, S. H. (detail)
   
1929
How the female dugong carries her young.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33(4): 987. Oct. 15, 1929.
–Notes on Andaman and Indian dugongs, with the affirmation that, according to fishermen, dugongs do hold their young with the flippers.
 
 
Prater, S. H. (detail)
   
1965
The book of Indian animals. Revised ed.
Bombay, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. & Prince of Wales Museum of Western India.
–Local names, status, and general biology of the dugong, 304-317.
Prather, Robert: SEE ALSO Oberheu & Prather, 1979. (detail)
 
 
Prather, Robert (detail)
   
1980
Manatee protection takes joint effort.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(6): 6-7. 3 figs. + 1 fig. on p. 3. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1.
Pratt, Ann E.: SEE Morgan & Pratt, 1983; Hulbert et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Pratt, Richard M. (detail)
   
1971
Lithology of rocks dredged from the Blake Plateau.
Southeastern Geol. 13(1): 19-38. 6 figs. May 1971.
–Reports fragments of fossil sir. ribs, probably of Miocene age, dredged from the sea floor off the southern Atlantic coast of the U.S. (27, 31-33).
 
 
Préaubert (detail)
   
1923
Sur le decouverte d'un squelette entiere de Halitherium cuvieri faite à Doué-la-Fontaine.
Bull. Soc. Études Scientifiques de l'Anjou (Angers) No. 52.
Preen, Anthony R.: SEE ALSO Edmonds et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1995, 1996; Slade et al., 1989; Williams et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1987
Dugong (Dugong dugon). In: C. Gross, Mammals of the southern Gulf.
Dubai, Shell Oil Co. & Motivate Publishing (Arabian Heritage Series) (80 pp.): 74-75. 4 figs. Nov. 1987.
 
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1988
Dugongs of Arabia.
Jour. Saudi Arab. Nat. Hist. Soc. 2(8): 43-48. 2 figs. Read Oct. 3, 1987.
–The author notes that "this article is not written by me, but based on notes taken by someone else during a talk I gave. Hence it is full of errors and incorrect inferences" (A. R. Preen, pers. commun.).
x
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1989a
The status and conservation of dugongs in the Arabian region.
MEPA Coastal & Marine Management Series (Meteorological & Environmental Protection Administration, Saudi Arabia), Rept. No. 10, Vol. 1: xix + 200. 33 tabs. 34 figs. 18 photos. 11 appendices. Jan. 1989.
–Arabic summ. Vol. 2: Preen et al. (1989). Describes the environments of the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea; describes the methods and results of aerial surveys, interview surveys, carcass salvage, radiotracking, and seagrass surveys undertaken on both coasts of Saudi Arabia and adjacent countries; presents measurements of skulls from the Arabian Gulf and compares them with Indian and Australian samples, concluding that the Gulf population may be genetically isolated; discusses the traditional significance, present distribution and abundance, and environmental determinants of status and biology of dugongs in the Arabian region; and outlines human-related threats to dugongs in the region. Dugongs are no longer hunted, but are frequently taken in gill nets and other fishing gear, and are seriously threatened by oil pollution and habitat destruction. The estimated Arabian Gulf population is 7310 ± 1300, making this the most important dugong area known outside Australia. Dugongs occur mainly in the southern and western Gulf, and are probably limited in distribution by low winter temperatures. The estimated Red Sea population is up to 4000 (both coasts), with a patchy distribution. The estimated sustainable mortality may suffice to accommodate the accidental catch in the region, but active conservation is still needed.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1989b
Observations of mating behavior in dugongs (Dugong dugon).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 5(4): 382-387. 1 fig. Oct. 1989.
–Describes behaviors related to mating ("splashing", "following", "fighting", and "mounting") observed in dugong herds in Moreton Bay, Queensland, and compares these observations with other published accounts of dugong and manatee sexual behavior. Concludes that dugongs compete more violently for estrous females than do manatees.
 
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1991
Amorous antics in Moreton Bay.
Austral. Geogr. No. 21: 55. 1 fig. Jan.-Mar. 1991.
–Sidebar to Marsh (1991). Pop. acc. of dugong mating herds.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1995a
Diet of dugongs: are they omnivores?
Jour. Mamm. 76(1): 163-171. 1 tab. Feb. 23, 1995.
–Summ.: BBC Wildlife 13(7): 23, 1 fig., July 1995. Analysis of dugong feces from Moreton Bay, Queensland, showed they had fed deliberately on ascidians and polychaetes in addition to seagrasses. This is attributed to nutritional stress due to seasonal scarcity of seagrasses at this subtropical site.
 
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1995b
Impacts of dugong foraging on seagrass habitats: observational and experimental evidence for cultivation grazing.
Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 124: 201-213. 2 tabs. 7 figs. Aug. 10, 1995.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
1998
Marine protected areas and dugong conservation along Australia's Indian Ocean coast.
Envir. Management 22(2): 173-181. 3 tabs. 2 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1998.
–Concludes that the present system of marine protected areas is inadequate, and should incorporate not only ecological representativeness but also the needs of threatened species. Records in passing that at least 14 dugongs died in the 1991 Arabian Gulf War oil spill, and that the scale of occasional movement by dugongs can be on the order of 200 km (176).
 
 
Preen, Anthony R. (detail)
   
2001
Dugongs, boats, dolphins and turtles in the Townsville-Cardwell region and recommendations for a boat-traffic management plan for the Hinchinbrook Dugong Protection Area.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication No. 67: vii + 88. 21 tabs. 16 figs. 3 appendices. May 2001 ("June 2000").
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1983
Diving with dugongs.
Habitat Austral. 11(4): 20-21. 4 figs. Aug. 1983.
–Comprises one aerial and 3 underwater photos of dugongs in Moreton Bay, Queensland, and in Shark Bay, Western Australia, respectively.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1995
Response of dugongs to large-scale loss of seagrass from Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.
Wildl. Res. 22: 507-519. 5 tabs. 5 figs.
–Following floods and a cyclone in 1992, a massive seagrass die-off resulted in the emigration and/or starvation of most of the Hervey Bay dugong population. Full recovery of this population may take more than 25 years.
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1989
Recommendations for the conservation and management of dugong in the Arabian region.
MEPA Coastal & Marine Management Series (Meteorological & Environmental Protection Administration, Saudi Arabia), Rept. No. 10, Vol. 2: iv + 43. 3 figs. 4 maps. Jan. 1989.
–Vol. 1: Preen (1989a). Excerpts reprinted in B. Heneman, 1991, The Gulf War oil spills: The ICBP survey of the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast, March, 1991. A report to the International Council for Bird Preservation and the National Commission on Wildlife Conservation and Development, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Bolinas (Calif.), publ. by the author (v + 21 + 111 pp.): Annex 12, pp. 1-8.
  Gives a summary and timetable for conservation actions proposed (1-3), discusses the international significance of dugongs in the region and the threats they face (5-6), presents the recommendations in detail (7-15), describes each of 12 areas recommended for protection (17-23), maps areas specially at risk from oil spills (25-27), provides instructions and data sheets for identifying stranded marine mammals (31-39; in Engl. & Arabic), and offers advice on the design and conduct of aerial surveys in the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea (41-42).
x
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Prince, Robert I. T.; Shepherd, R. (detail)
   
1997
Distribution and abundance of dugongs, turtles, dolphins and other megafauna in Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia.
Wildl. Res. 24(2): 185-208. 5 tabs. 10 figs.
–Aerial surveys in 1989 and 1994 estimated populations of about 10,000 dugongs at Shark Bay and about 1,000 each at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf. Extension of the Shark Bay Marine Park to coincide with the marine section of the Shark Bay World Heritage Area is recommended.
 
 
Preen, Anthony R.; Thompson, J.; Corkeron, Peter J. (detail)
   
1992
Wildlife and management: dugongs, whales and dolphins. In: O. N. Crimp (ed.), Moreton Bay in the balance.
Moorooka, Australian Littoral Soc. (ix + 127): 61-70. Illus.
 
 
Preen, Anthony; Das, Himansu; Al-Rumaidh, Mohammed; Hodgson, Amanda (detail)
   
2012
Dugongs in Arabia. Chap. 10 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 91-98. 1 tab. 1 fig. 1 map.
Pregill, Gregory K.: SEE Watters et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Prévost, Antoine François (detail)
   
1747
Sierra-Leona, par Atkins. In: Histoire générale des voyages, ou nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu'à présent dans les différents langues de toutes les nations connues: contenant ce qu'il y a de plus remarquable, de plus utile, et de mieux, averé dans les pays où les voyageurs ont pénétré....
Paris, Didot (20 vols., 1746-91): Vol. 3: 239-252.
–Allen 240. External characters and mode of capture of the manatee, based on J. Atkins (1735) (240-241, 315-316 [?]).
Price, Andrew: SEE Sheppard et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Price, Emmett W. (detail)
   
1932
The trematode parasites of marine mammals.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 81(13)(2936): 1-68. 12 pls. Oct. 1, 1932.
–Sirs., 42-44, 47-55, 58-59.
 
 
Price-Groff, Claire (detail)
   
1999
The manatee.
Lucent Books: 1-112. Illus.
–Discusses the physical characteristics, behavior, habitats, and endangered status of the manatee and the closely related dugong.
 
 
Priem, Fernand (detail)
   
1908
Sur des vertébrés de l'Éocène d'Égypte et de Tunisie.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (4)7(7-8): 412-419. 2 figs. Pls. 15-16. (Read Nov. 18, 1907; publ. Mar. 1908.)
–Abstrs.: C.R. Soc. Géol. France 1907: 125; Bull. Inst. Égypte (5)11: 1-3, 1908? Describes a mandible from the upper Mokattam beds and refers it to Protosiren Fraasi Abel (417-418, pl. 16). This specimen was collected by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and is now in the Institute of Paleontology of the University of Vienna, as P. fraasi "Stück L" of Sickenberg (1934:47).
 
 
Priest, Renee (detail)
   
1983
Manatee mortality.
Florida Naturalist 56(2): 14. June 1983.
x
 
Prieur, Abel; Guérin, Claude (detail)
   
1991
Decouverte d'un site prehistorique d'abbatage de dugongs à Umm al-Qaiwain (Emirates Arabes Unis).
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy (Copenhagen) 2(2): 72-83. 6 figs. June 1991.
–Engl. summ. Describes a midden site with numerous dugong bones, dating from the 5th-4th millennium B.C.
Prince, Robert I. T.: SEE ALSO Anderson & Prince, 1985; Edmonds et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1994; Preen et al., 1997. (detail)
x
 
Prince, Robert I. T. (detail)
   
1986
Dugong in northern waters of Western Australia 1984.
Dept. of Conservation & Land Management Western Australia, Tech. Rept. No. 7: vi + 38. 6 tabs. 13 figs. Mar. 1986.
–Aerial-survey results show that Exmouth Gulf is an important dugong habitat, but the coastline farther north has only a sparse dugong population that probably cannot sustain the present level of Aboriginal hunting. A traditional method of taking dugongs "by hand" is mentioned but not explained. Also describes and illustrates representative seagrass beds of the region.
 
 
Prince, Robert I. T. (detail)
   
1988
Traditional knowledge of the marine environment, fisheries, and conservation of marine wildlife - Western Australian perspective. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 116-119.
x
 
Prince, Robert I. T.; Anderson, Paul K.; Blackman, D. (detail)
   
1981
Status and distribution of dugongs in Western Australia. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 67-87. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
–Reports results of aerial surveys, describes environmental conditions in Shark Bay, and discusses prospects for dugong conservation in Western Australia, where dugongs are still abundant and relatively undisturbed. Shark Bay is considered to have unrivalled potential as a dugong study site.
Prior, H. C.: SEE Hill et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Prista, Gonçalo Abreu; Estevens, Mário; Agostinho, Rui Jorge; Cachão, Mário (detail)
   
2014
Euro-North African Sirenia biodiversity as a response to climate variations.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 410: 372-379. 6 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.06.008. Sept. 15, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Earth has a latitudinal biodiversity gradient in which more species inhabit tropical than polar regions. Frequently attributed to seasonality, this ecological pattern is applied to the evolution of the Euro-North African sirenians and its relation to Cenozoic climate change. Climate disruption, changes in seasonality, and geological processes such as sea level variations are statistically tested as primary drivers to explain sirenian evolution and regional (amphi-Mediterranean) sirenian speciation and biodiversity.
 
 
Prista, Gonçalo Abreu; Estevens, Mário; Agostinho, Rui Jorge; Cachão, Mário (detail)
   
2013
The disappearance of the European/North African Sirenia (Mammalia).
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 387: 1-5. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.07.013 Oct. 1, 2013 (publ. online July 16, 2013).
–ABSTRACT: Sirenia inhabited the coastal waters of Europe and North Africa from the Eocene until the end of the Pliocene. They are the only herbivorous marine mammals, and their presence in the European/North African realm is supported by almost 400 fossil records. Their dependence on seagrass, as well as their ecological needs, limited their capability to adapt to the climate changes that occurred during the Cenozoic. Their disappearance from European and Mediterranean shores occurred in two different steps: 1) the European Atlantic extinction, related to global cooling and fragmentation of the seagrass meadows, which greatly reduced sirenia habitats and resources; 2) their disappearance from the Mediterranean, linked not to declining resources but to the onset of continental glaciations in the northern hemisphere.
Pritchard, Peter C. H.: SEE Brownell & Ralls, 1981. (detail)
 
 
Proby, K. H. (detail)
   
1974
Audubon in Florida, with selections from the writings of John James Audubon.
Coral Gables (Florida), Univ. Miami Press: 1-384.
–Manatee, 328-329.
x
 
Promus, John (detail)
   
1937
Netting dugong.
Walkabout 3(5): 40-41. 2 figs. Mar. 1, 1937.
–Describes the techniques used for netting dugongs in Queensland and preparing their oil. Also mentions that sharks attack dugong herds, which protect the calves at the center of the herd, and states that "a bull dugong has been seen to disembowel a shark" with his tusks!
 
D
Pronina, I. G. (detail)
   
1957
[A new desmostylid, Kronokotherium brevimaxillare gen. nov., sp. nov., from Miocene deposits of Kamchatka.]
C.R. (= Doklady) Acad. Sci. URSS (Moscow) 117(2): 310-312. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–In Russian.
 
 
Proskouriakoff, Tatiana (detail)
   
1962
The artifacts of Mayapan. In: H. E. D. Pollack, R. L. Roys, T. Proskouriakoff, & A. L. Smith (eds.), Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico.
Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 619: 321-515.
–Worked manatee rib, 376.
x
 
Prothero, Donald (detail)
   
2008
What missing link?
New Scientist 197(2645): 35-41. 7 figs. Mar. 1, 2008.
–Brief pop. acc. of Pezosiren as one of 10 notable examples of transitional forms in the fossil record (41). States erroneously, however, that Pezosiren displayed continuous horizontal tooth replacement.
Prothero, Donald R.: SEE ALSO Domning, D.P., 2001c. (detail)
 
 
Prothero, Donald R. (detail)
   
2015
The story of life in 25 fossils: tales of intrepid fossil hunters and the wonders of evolution.
New York, Columbia Univ. Press: 1-389. Illus.
–Chap. 21 ("Walking manatees: the origins of sirenians: Pezosiren", 285-299, 6 figs.) gives a gen. acc. of Prorastomus, Pezosiren, Protosiren, and Hydrodamalis.
 
 
Prothero, Donald R.; Manning, Earl M.; Fischer, Martin S. (detail)
   
1988
The phylogeny of the ungulates. In: M. J. Benton (ed.), The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods. Vol. 2: Mammals.
Systematics Assoc. Spec. Vol. 35B: 201-234. Illus.
x
 
Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R. (detail)
   
1991
Observations of associations between seagrass beds and manatees in east central Florida.
Florida Scientist 54(2): 87-98. 5 tabs. 3 figs. Spring 1991.
–Exclosure experiments in a Syringodium-dominated seagrass bed in the north Banana R. showed that seagrass cover was reduced by about 90% by manatee grazing. Evidence of rooting was noted only occasionally.
x
 
Provancha, Jane A.; Provancha, M. J. (detail)
   
1988
Long-term trends in abundance and distribution of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the northern Banana River, Brevard County, Florida.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(4): 323-338. 3 tabs. 5 figs. Oct. 1988.
–Presents aerial survey and habitat data and discusses factors influencing manatee distribution, including boat traffic, seasonal movements, and availability of fresh water and food. Concludes that no other area on the east coast of Florida has as much legally protected suitable habitat for manatees as the northern Banana River, and that the manatee aggregations there are probably both socially-based and resource-based.
Provancha, M. J.: SEE Provancha, Jane A. (detail)
 
 
Prudhomme (detail)
   
1798?
Voyage à la Guiane et à Cayenne, fait en 1789 et années suivantes....
Paris, chez l'Éditeur: x + 400. 4 pls.
–Publ. in "An VI de la République." Manatee, 325.
Prychodko, William: SEE Shoshani et al. (detail)
 
 
Puc-Carrasco, G.; Olivera-Gómez, León David; Arriaga-Hernández, S.; Jiménez-Domínguez, Darwin (detail)
   
2016
Relative abundance of Antillean manatees in the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve in the coastal plain of Tabasco, Mexico.
Ciencias Marinas 42(4): 261-270.
 
 
Pucheran, Jacques; Jacquinot, Honoré (detail)
   
1853
Mammifères et oiseaux. In: Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Océanie sur les corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zelée, exécuté par ordre du Roi pendant les années 1837-1838-1839-1840, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville.... Zoologie, Tome III.
Paris, Gide: 1-166. 29 pls. in atlas.
–Depicts Halicore dugung, pls. 20-21.
Puckett, Catherine: SEE ALSO Packard, J. M., 1983a. (detail)
x
 
Puckett, Catherine (detail)
   
1983
Interviews with Citrus County residents regarding manatee protection. In: J. M. Packard (ed.), Proposed research/management plan for Crystal River manatees. Volume III. Compendium (q.v.).
Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Res. Unit, Tech. Rept. No. 7, Vol. 3 (iii + 346): 321-346. 4 tabs. Dec. 1983.
–Summarizes results of informal interviews with businesspeople and commercial fishermen, showing strong resistance to additional regulations on waterborne activities and a need for better public education regarding manatees. Also includes data on businesses in the Crystal River area that benefit from manatees, on local news coverage of manatees, and on support for purchase of a manatee sanctuary in Kings Bay.
Puddicombe, R. A.: SEE Tucker & Puddicombe, 1988. (detail)
 
 
Purchas, Samuel (detail)
   
1625
Hakluytus posthumus or Purchas his pilgrimes. Contayning a history of the world, in sea voyages, & lande-travells, by Englishmen & others. Wherein Gods wonders in nature and providence, the actes, arts, varieties, & vanities of men, with, a world of the worlds, rarities, are by a world of eywitness-authors, related to the world.... In fower parts. Each containing five bookes.
London, Henry Fetherston (4 vols.).
–Repr.: Glasgow, James MacLehose & Sons, for the Hakluyt Society, 1905-06 (20 vols.). See also F. Cardim (1625), A. de Herrara (1625), W. Strachey (1625).
x
 
Purse, Barbara (detail)
   
1981
[Review of film] Dugong! Dugong! Produced by the Australian Museum with the help of The Aboriginal Arts Board of The Australia Council, 16 mm, colour, 25 minutes.
Austral. Nat. Hist. 20(6): 199-200. 1 fig.
–Describes a film documentary on dugong hunting at Mornington Island, Australia.
 
 
Pusineri, C.; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Quillard, M.; Caceres, S. (detail)
   
2013
The endangered status of dugongs Dugong dugon around Mayotte (East Africa, Mozambique Channel) assessed through interview surveys.
African Journal of Marine Science 35(1): 111-116.
 
 
Pütter, August (detail)
   
1902
Die Augen der Wassersäugethiere.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Anat. Ontog. 17(1-2): 99-402. 41 figs. Pls. 2-4. Nov. 10, 1902.
x
 
Pütter, August (detail)
   
1923
Zur Physiologie der Riesentiere.
Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Zool. Physiol. 40(3): 217-240. Nov. 3, 1923.
–P. 221: {"Wahrscheinlich hat auch Steller's Seekuh ein derartiges Gewicht [2-3 tons] gehabt."}
 
 
Puttick, Mark N.; Thomas, Gavin H. (detail)
   
2015
Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.
Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282: 2015-2023. 2 tabs. 2 figs. + electronic supplementary material. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.2023
–ABSTRACT: Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversifica-tion of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns.
 
 
Pycraft, William Plane (detail)
   
1928
Random gleanings from nature's fields.
London, Methuen & Co. Ltd.: xiv + 209. Frontisp. Pls.
x
 
Pycraft, William Plane (detail)
   
1941
Common ancestry of the elephant, sea-cow and porpoise.
Illus. London News 198: 328. Mar. 8, 1941.
–Pop. acc. of the evolution of elephants, sirs., pinnipeds, and cetaceans.
 
 
Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Parham, James F.; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge (detail)
   
2016
The dilemma of trade samples and the importance of museum vouchers – caveats from a study on the extinction of Steller's sea cow: a comment on Crerar et al. (2014).
Biology Letters (Royal Society) 12: 20150149; 2 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0149 Feb. 3, 2016.
 
D
Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Vermeij, Geerat J. (detail)
   
2016
The rise of ocean giants: maximum body size in Cenozoic marine mammals as an indicator for productivity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Biol. Lett. 12(7): 4 pp. 1 tab. 1 fig. + online supplemental material. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0186 July 31, 2016; publ. online July 1, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: Large consumers have ecological influence disproportionate to their abundance, although this influence in food webs depends directly on productivity. Evolutionary patterns at geologic timescales inform expectations about the relationship between consumers and productivity, but it is very difficult to track productivity through time with direct, quantitative measures. Based on previous work that used the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine invertebrate assemblages as a proxy for benthic productivity, we investigated how the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine mammals, in two feeding guilds, evolved over comparable temporal and geographical scales. First, maximal size in marine herbivores remains mostly stable and occupied by two different groups (desmostylians and sirenians) over separate timeframes in the North Pacific Ocean, while sirenians exclusively dominated this ecological mode in the North Atlantic. Second, mysticete whales, which are the largest Cenozoic consumers in the filter-feeding guild, remained in the same size range until a Mio-Pliocene onset of cetacean gigantism. Both vertebrate guilds achieved very large size only recently, suggesting that different trophic mechanisms promoting gigantism in the oceans have operated in the Cenozoic than in previous eras.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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