Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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R

 
 
Rabeder, G. (detail)
   
1975
Die Wirbeltierreste (excl. Pisces) aus dem Egerien von Oesterreich. In: T. Bóldi et al. (eds.), OM Egerien....
Bratislava, VEDA: 437-455. 1 pl.
 
 
Rabeder, G.; Steininger, Fritz F. (detail)
   
1976
Die direkten biostratigraphischen Korrelationsmöglichkeiten vom Säugetierfaunen aus dem Oligo/Miozän der Zentralen Paratethys.
Proc. Congr. Reg. Comm. Medit. Neog. Stratig. No. 6: 177-183.
x
 
Rabell Cabrero, Narciso (detail)
   
1914
Notas paleontológicas.
Revista de las Antillas (San Juan, Puerto Rico) 2(1): 66-69. 4 figs. Mar. 1914.
–Describes an axis and a scapula of an "aquatic mammal" [sir.] from the "Salto de Collazo", 5 km east of San Sebastián, Puerto Rico [San Sebastián Formation, Oligocene]. A mandible, "cúbito", and other bones are also mentioned but not described.
Racheboeuf, Patrick R.: SEE Plusquellec & Racheboeuf, 2000. (detail)
x
 
Radhakrishnan, C. V.; Bradley, R. E. (detail)
   
1970
Some helminths from animals at Busch Gardens Zoological Park. [Abstr.]
Assoc. Southeastern Biologists Bull. 17(2): 58-59.
–P. 59: {"Necropsy of 2 Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) [at Busch Gardens, Tampa, Florida] revealed large numbers of Chiorchis fabaceus (Trematoda; Digenea) in the cecum and colon and Plicatolabia hagenbecki (Nematoda; Ascaroidea) in the stomach."}
Radwański, Andrzej: SEE ALSO Czyzewska & Radwański, 1991. (detail)
 
 
Radwański, Andrzej (detail)
   
1977
Neogen. In: H. Makowski (ed.), Geologia historyczna [Historical geology].
Wyd. Geol. (Warsaw): 731-770.
–In Polish. Mentions Middle Miocene sir. remains from Poland.
x
 
Raffles, Thomas Stamford (detail)
   
1820
Some account of the dugong.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 110(2)(13): 174-182. 1 tab. Read May 18, 1820.
–Allen 593. ?Extract: Philos. Mag. 57: 341-346, 1821 (Allen 607). German transl.: Froriep's Notizen 1(8): 113-117, Sept. 1821 (Allen 608). Rev.: Ann. Philos. 16: 52-53. Describes the gross anatomy (external and internal), habits, and hunting of the dugong at Singapore and native customs connected with it. Includes a table of measurements of one specimen (181-182).
  An afterword by Everard Home (182) notes that Raffles' communication was accompanied by an account of the dugong stomach in French, forming part of a memoir by Diard and Duvaucel, two French naturalists employed by Raffles (see Diard & Duvaucel, 1820). This account of the stomach was not published.
 
 
Raffles, Thomas Stamford (detail)
   
1821
Descriptive catalogue of a zoological collection, made on account of the Honourable East India Company, in the island of Sumatra and its vicinity, under the direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough; with additional notices illustrative of the natural history of those countries.
Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13(1)(17): 239-274.
–Allen 606. Contains five lines on "Halicora Dugong" (272).
 
 
Raffles, Thomas Stamford (detail)
   
1835
Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Stamford Raffles, F.R.S. New ed.
London, James Duncan: 2 vols.
–A letter from Raffles to Mr. W. Marsden dated Nov. 30, 1822, mentions his having caught six dugongs, measuring up to 9'2", since arriving in Singapore on Oct. 11.
x
 
Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (detail)
   
1815
Analyse de la nature ou tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés.
Palermo, aux dépens de l'auteur: 1-224.
–Groups sirs. with pinnipeds in the order "Amphibia". Dugong is considered synonymous with Odobenus and placed in the family "Tetropia" (= pinnipeds); the remainder of the Sirenia are represented by the family "Diopia", comprising Manatus and the new but unexplained and undiagnosed nominal genus Nemodermus (nomen nudum) (60).
 
 
Raga, J. A. (detail)
   
1997
Parasitology of marine mammals.
Bull. Soc. Sci. Liege 66(1-3): 67-90. Illus.
 
 
Raghunathan, C.; Venkataraman, K.; Rajan, P. T. (detail)
   
2012
Status of sea cow, dugong (Dugong dugon) in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology 11(1): 105-112. March 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Sea cow (Dugong dugon) is the only extant species in the Family Dugongidae and true herbivorous marine mammal. It is listed as vulnerable to extinction at a global scale by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The present paper documents the status of dugong in Andaman and Nicobar Islands by collating the published data as well as investigation through undersea surveys in selected places of this archipelago. Based on the existing data on dugong in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, it is observed that over the period of 51 years since 1959, a total of 76 dugongs were recorded either in the form of live or dead. Among them 47 dugongs were from Andaman Islands, whereas 29 encountered from Nicobar Islands. The distribution of this mammal is comparatively high in north Andaman, Ritchie's Archipelago and Great Nicobar Island. Potential threats and managerial strategies for the effective conservation of dugongs in Andaman and Nicobar Islands have also been discussed in the paper.
 
 
Rahman, I. H. A.; Chua-anusorn, W.; Pierre, T. G. S. (detail)
   
1999
Characterization of dugong liver ferritin.
Analytica Chimica Acta 393(1/3): 235.
Raimbault, M.: SEE Faure et al., 1993. (detail)
Raine, H. B.: SEE Ritchie, P. H., 1934. (detail)
 
 
Raine, T. (detail)
   
1824
Notice in regard to Macquarie Island.
Edinburgh Philos. Jour. 9(21): 46-50.
x
 
Rainey, William E. (detail)
   
1981
Procedure for collection of dugong tissues for electrophoresis. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 240-247.
–Describes techniques for collection and handling of blood and other tissue samples.
x
 
Rainey, William E.; Lowenstein, Jerold M.; Sarich, Vincent M.; Magor, Diana Marion (detail)
   
1984
Sirenian molecular systematics - including the extinct Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas).
Naturwissenschaften 71(11): 586-588. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Analysis of bone extracts and serum albumins supports the phyletic branching pattern of the five Recent sir. species derived from the fossil record, but argues for more recent branching points than the fossils suggest.
Rainwater, Thomas R.: SEE Platt et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Raj, Sundra (detail)
   
1927
Littoral fauna of Krusadai Island.
 
 
Rajamani, Leela (detail)
   
2013
Using community knowledge in data-deficient regions: conserving the Vulnerable dugong Dugong dugon in the Sulu Sea, Malaysia.
Oryx 47(2): 173-176.
 
 
Rajamani, Leela; Cabanban, A. S.; Rahman, R. A. (detail)
   
2006
Indigenous use and trade of dugong (Dugong dugon) in Sabah, Malaysia.
Ambio 35(5): 266-268. doi: 10.1579/05-S-093.1
 
 
Rajamani, Leela; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2010
Using parallel regional- and local-scale initiatives to inform conservation management of rare wildlife: a case study of the dugong Dugong dugon in Sabah, Malaysia.
Endangered Species Research 13(1): 17-23. 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.3354/esr00310. December 3, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Obtaining the information needed to inform management strategies for rare wildlife species at appropriate scales is costly and logistically demanding. Using coastal aerial surveys we obtained qualitative information on the distribution and abundance of the dugong Dugong dugon at the geopolitical scale of the state of Sabah in east Malaysia. At a local scale, interview surveys and a monitoring program were carried out at 2 sites: Mantanani Island and Banggi Island. A total of 53 dugongs were observed from the air, concentrated around Labuan Island--Brunei Bay and Sandakan Bay. The interview reports and monitoring program indicated that the residents of Mantanani Island and Banggi Island had local knowledge of the distribution and abundance of dugongs and, thus, an ability to participate in monitoring at that scale. Dugong populations in Sabah are small and clumped, and urgently require management intervention at local scales in the regionally important habitats identified by the aerial surveys. This combination of regional- and local-scale initiatives has a more generic application in the monitoring of other rare species of wildlife.
 
 
Raleigh, Walter (detail)
   
1596
The discoverie of the large, rich, and bewtiful empyre of Guiana, with a relation of the great and golden citie of Manoa (which the Spanyards call El Dorado) and of the provinces of Emeria, Arromaia, Amapaia, and other countries, with their rivers, adioyning. In: Hakluyt's Voyages.
Glasgow, James MacLehose & Sons, 1904: Vol. 10: 338-431.
 
 
Raleigh, Walter (detail)
   
n.d.
Drie scheeps-togten na het Goud-rijke Koningrijk Guiana, in America gelegen, door den Engelssen Ridder Walther Ralegh, gedaan in de jaren 1595.1596.1597....
Leiden, Pieter Vander Aa: columns 5-42 + [2 pp.]. 6 figs. 2 maps.
–Reports a manatee seen in the Oiana River (near the Mana River) in the Amaracapana Valley on the 1595 voyage (25).
Ralls, Katherine S.: SEE ALSO Brownell et al.; Rathbun et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Ralls, Katherine S. (detail)
   
1976
Mammals in which females are larger than males.
Quart. Rev. Biol. 51: 245-276.
 
 
Raloff, Janet (detail)
   
1980
Protecting Florida's sirens.
Sci. News 117(6): 91. 3 figs. Feb. 9, 1980.
 
 
Raloff, Janet (detail)
   
2005
Toxic surfs: homing in on an alga's threat - and therapeutic promise.
Science News 168(4): 56-58. 2 figs. + cover photo. July 23, 2005.
 
 
Ralph, C. L. (detail)
   
1975
The pineal gland and geographical distribution of animals.
Internatl. Jour. Biometeorol. 19(4): 289-303.
x
 
Ralph, C. L.; Young, S.; Gettinger, R.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1985
Does the manatee have a pineal body?
Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 66(1): 55-60. 1 fig.
–Histological study of a T. manatus brain showed that it either lacked a pineal body or had only a rudimentary process which might represent an undeveloped epiphysis cerebri.
 
 
Ramakrishna; Talukdar, S.; Sarkar, J.; Mitra, S. (detail)
   
1999
Dugong and dolphin stranded at Digha Beach, West Bengal.
Environment and Ecology (Kalyani) 17(4): 1031-1032. Dec. 1999.
 
 
Rambler (pseudonym) (detail)
   
1875
Guide to Florida.
New York, American News Co.: 1-146. Illus.
–Repr.: Gainesville, Univ. Florida Press: xix + 146, 1964. Ed. 2: 88 pp., 1876. See also Edwards (1875). Manatee, 85 (in 1876 ed.).
Ramirez, R.: SEE Farrés & Ramirez, 1959. (detail)
 
 
Ramírez-Jiménez, Helda Herenia; Olivera-Gómez, León David; Cueva, Horacio de la (detail)
   
2017
Habitat use by the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus)during an extreme dry season in an urban lake in Tabasco, Mexico.
Therya 8(1): 19-26. 2 tabs. 5 figs. doi: 10.12933/therya-17-411 ISSN 2007-3364. Publ. online Jan. 17, 2017.
–Spanish summ.
 ABSTRACT: There are three important manatee areas in Mexico: the coasts of the State of Quintana Roo; the freshwater systems within the lower basin of the Grijalva-Usumacinta rivers, which host the largest manatee population; and the rivers of central and southern Veracruz. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is a threatened species throughout its range. In the Grijalva-Usumacinta region, two of the current threats to manatees are the effects of extremely dry periods and geographical isolation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the behavior and habitat use of the landlocked manatee population inhabiting Laguna de las Ilusiones, Villahermosa, Tabasco, under fortuitous dry conditions, to conduct an evaluation and implement a monitoring plan for landlocked manatees. In this work, we gathered information on the differential use of the lake, and on whether this use is related to the known habitat characteristics that govern the distribution of manatees. Using VHF tags, we followed the activities of four manatees (three females and one male) to characterize and quantify four behaviors, namely feeding, resting, exploring, and traveling, between April and August 2007. We built Kernel polygons for the 25, 50, 75, and 95% of the utilization distribution (UD). We modeled the habitat using a binary logistic regression and explored the association between the tagged manatees using Cole's simple coefficient of association. Manatees were concentrated mainly to the northeast of the lake. The best feeding logistic model included depth, distance to the shore, tree cover, and wind speed (Table 1), and yielded differences between periods (H = 9.85,P = 0.007, Figure 5). The logistic models fit poorly for resting, exploring, and traveling (Table 1). The resting model included distance to the the shore, tree cover, and company, and yielded differences between periods (H = 6.68, P = 0.035). Traveling included depth, cloud cover, and human activities, and yielded differences between periods (H = 7.55, P = 0.023). Exploration included depth and company, and did not differ between periods (H = 1.55, P = 0.461). We had the opportunity to assess these behaviors under dry conditions, and our findings are not necessarily applicable to the rainy season. The northern portion of the lake is an embayment connected to the central zone by a 50 m-wide shallow channel, which limited the movement of manatees. Higher food availability and stress avoidance might make manatees choose this area. Feeding was better modeled by the habitat characteristics included in the study. Feeding increased slightly in the evenings. Exploring and traveling were the behavior types observed most frequently in manatees; maybe they were moving across food patches or known areas. Manatee social encounters are reported as short-term and sporadic, but in this study manatees were observed in groups during nearly half of the observation time. When the availability of grasses and aquatic plants is low, manatees increase their consumption of other food items like mango fruits. Based on the findings reported here and under dry conditions, habitat enrichment will be helpful for this landlocked manatee population and those in other areas where seasonal contrasts are observed.
Ramirez-Santos, Jesus: SEE Solis et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Ramos, Eric A.; Maloney, Brigid; Magnasco, Marcelo O.; Reisse, Diana (detail)
   
2018
Bottlenose dolphins and Antillean manatees respond to small multi-rotor unmanned aerial systems.
Frontiers in Marine Sciences 5(316): 1-15. 4 tabs. 7 figs. + online supplementary material. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00316 Sept. 12, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are powerful tools for research and monitoring of wildlife. However, the effects of these systems on most marine mammals are largely unknown, preventing the establishment of guidelines that will minimize animal disturbance. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral responses of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) to small multi-rotor UAS flight. From 2015 to 2017, we piloted 211 flights using DJI quadcopters (Phantom II Vision +, 3 Professional and 4) to approach and follow animals over shallow-water habitats in Belize. The quadcopters were equipped with high-resolution cameras to observe dolphins during 138 of these flights, and manatees during 73 flights. Aerial video observations of animal behavior were coded and paired with flight data to determine whether animal activity and/or the UAS's flight patterns caused behavioral changes in exposed animals. Dolphins responded to UAS flight at altitudes of 11–30 m and responded primarily when they were alone or in small groups. Single dolphins and one pair responded to the UAS by orienting upward and turning toward the aircraft to observe it, before quickly returning to their pre-response activity. A higher number of manatees responded to the UAS, exhibiting strong disturbance in response to the aircraft from 6 to 104 m. Manatees changed their behavior by fleeing the area and sometimes this elicited the same response in nearby animals. If pursued post-response, manatees repeatedly responded to overhead flight by evading the aircraft's path. These findings suggest that the invasiveness of UAS varies across individuals, species, and taxa. We conclude that careful exploratory research is needed to determine the impact of multi-rotor UAS flight on diverse species, and to develop best practices aimed at reducing the disturbance to wildlife that may result from their use.
 
 
Ramos, Eric Angel; Maust-Mol, Maria; Collom, Kristi A.; Brady, Beth; Gerstein, Edmund R.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.; Reiss, Diana (detail)
   
2020
The Antillean manatee produces broadband vocalizations with ultrasonic frequencies.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 147(2): EL80-EL86. 1 tab. 3 figs. doi.org/10.1121/10.0000602 Feb. 5, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Antillean manatees produce vocalizations reported to be important for communication, but their vocal behavior throughout their geographic range is poorly understood. A SoundTrap recorder (sample rates: 288/576?kHz) was deployed in Belize to record vocalizations of wild manatees in a seagrass channel and of a young rehabilitated and released manatee in a shallow lagoon. Spectral analysis revealed broadband vocalizations with frequencies up to 150?kHz and a high proportion of calls with ultrasonic components. Ultrasonic frequency components appear prevalent in their vocal repertoire and may be important to manatee communication.
 
 
Ramsay, Edward Pierson (detail)
   
1883
Catalogue of exhibits in the New South Wales Court, Great International Fisheries Exhibition, London.
London: 1-56.
–Sirs., 50, 53.
 
 
Ramusio, Giovanni Battista (detail)
   
1565
Terzo volvme delle navigatione et viaggi raccolto gia da M. Gio. Battista Ramusio nel qvale si contengono [13 lines of contents]. Si come si legge nelle diuerse relationi, tradotte dal Ramusio di lingua Spagnuola & Francese nella nostra, & raccolte in questo volume....
Venice, Stamperia de' Givnti: leaves 1-34, 1-456. Figs. Maps.
–Allen 21. Account of the manatee from Oviedo, leaves 40, 71, 72, 159-161; fig. on leaf 159.
 
 
Rancurel, P.; Intes, A. (detail)
   
1982
Le requin tigre, Galeocerdo cuvier Lacepède, des eaux Neo-Caledoniennes: examen des contenus stomacaux. [The tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier Lacepède, from New Caledonian waters: examination of stomach contents.]
Tethys 10: 195-199.
–Reports dugong remains in shark stomachs.
x
 
Randall, John E. (detail)
   
1966
Grazing effect on sea grasses by herbivorous reef fishes in the West Indies.
Ecology 46(3): 255-260. 4 figs. "Spring 1965."
–Mentions that T. manatus "feeds in part on sea grasses in the tropical western Atlantic" (259).
x
 
Randall, John E. (detail)
   
1971
Progress in marine parks.
Sea Frontiers 17(1): 2-16. 11 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1971.
–Mentions a proposed dugong reserve in Tanzania (12).
 
 
Randall, R. H.; Tsuda, R. T.; Jones, R. S.; Gawel, M. J.; Chase, J. A.; Rechebei, R. (detail)
   
1975
Marine biological survey of the Cocos barrier reefs and enclosed lagoon.
Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept. 17: 1-160.
–Reports a single dugong sighted in Cocos Lagoon, Guam, in 1975.
 
 
Ranzani, Camillo (detail)
   
1820
Elementi della storia naturale dei mammiferi....
Bologna, Annesio Nobili (3 vols.): 1-736. 13 pls.
–Allen 594. The 3 vols. are continuously paged. M. americanus, H. dugong, R. Stelleri, 670-677.
Rao, G. C.: SEE ALSO Bhaskar & Rao, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Rao, G. Chandrasekhara (detail)
   
1990
Present status of the sea cow, Dugong dugon (Muller) in Bay Islands.
Jour. Andaman Sci. Assoc. 6(2): 181-186. Illus.
–Includes a photo of a dead dugong from the Diglipur area, Andaman Is.
x
 
Rao, G. Chandrasekhara; Khan, I. H. (detail)
   
1990
On the present status of the marine fauna of the Andaman Sea.
Zoologiana No. 5: 29-42.
–Brief observations on the precarious status of the dugong in the Andaman Islands (33).
Rao, K. Satyanarayana: SEE Nair et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Rapp, Wilhelm Ludwig von (detail)
   
1837
Die Cetaceen zoologisch-anatomisch dargestellt.
Stuttgart & Tübingen, J. G. Cotta: vi + 182. 8 pls.
–Allen 920. Allen says "The historical introduction [3-20] traces briefly the history of the subject from the time of Aristotle to date, with copious references to the literature in foot-notes. Theil I [21-58] gives a carefully prepared synopsis of the species, with brief diagnoses, the principal synonymy, and references to the more important works relating to the species. Theil II [59-179] is devoted to a general account of the anatomy of the Sirenians and Cetaceans, largely from original investigation. The eight plates are based on material studied by the author."
x
 
Rapp, Wilhelm Ludwig von (detail)
   
1857
Anatomische Untersuchungen über Manatus (Lamantin).
Württemb. Natw. Jahresh. (= Jahresh. Ver. Vaterland. Naturk. Württemb.) (Stuttgart) 13(1): 87-98. Pl. 3.
–Describes aspects of the anatomy of a "Manatus latirostris" from Surinam: tongue, tonsils, hyoid, larynx, trachea, lungs, heart, major vessels, esophagus, stomach, intestines, spleen, female reproductive organs, auditory ossicles, and eye.
 
 
Rappucci, Gina M.; Keith, Edward O.; Hardigan, Patrick C. (detail)
   
2012
Tidal cycle effects on the occurrence of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) at the Port Everglades power plant.
Aquatic Mammals 38(1): 31-42. 3 tabs. 6 figs. Spring 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The seasonal distribution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is influenced predominantly by feeding locations in the summer and proximity to warm-water refuges during colder months. The tidal cycle may further influence distribution through its impact on manatee movement and foraging. Although the importance of tide on distribution and habitat selection has been acknowledged, it has yet to be studied quantitatively with respect to the manatee population in southeast Florida. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the tidal cycle on manatee occurrence at the Florida Power & Light (FPL) Port Everglades Power Plant during the winter. Walking surveys were conducted in Port Everglades during manatee season, 15 November through 31 March 2004 to 2009. The number of manatees in four established locations was noted, and the animals were categorized as calf, juvenile, or adult. Water temperature data were also collected at the sample locations. Because many surveys yielded zero manatees observed, data were analyzed using the zero-inflated negative binomial model. Although the results show no correlation between tidal state and total manatee occurrence, they do suggest that the probability of observing a cow/calf pair is greater during high tide when compared to low and mid-tides (p < 0.05). Total manatee occurrence and the presence of cow/calf pairs were both significantly correlated with water temperature (p < 0.05). These results are in contrast to those from other locations in Florida and are relevant to the optimal timing of manatee surveys to ensure that all animals using a warm-water refuge are observed and included in population estimates.
 
 
Rasanayagam, M. C.; Mudaliyar, C. (detail)
   
1926
Ancient Jaffna. Being a research into the history of Jaffna from very early times to the Portuguese period.
New Delhi, J. Jetley, for Asian Education Services: 1-390.
x
D
Raschke, Rodney E. (detail)
   
1984
Early and Middle Miocene vertebrates from the Santa Ana Mountains, California.
Mem. Nat. Hist. Foundation Orange County 1: 61-67. 2 figs. Jan. 1, 1984.
–Mentions the occurrence of Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia, and Dioplotherium allisoni in Middle Mioc. rocks of the Santa Ana Mountains, southern California (62, 64).
 
 
Rateau, Rémi; Gagnaison, Cyril; Gelot, Vincent (detail)
   
2009
Un Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia, Sirenia) attaqué par des requins dans les faluns miocènes de Channay-sur-Lathan (37, France).
Symbioses n.s. No. 23: 1-12. 20 figs. 4 pls.
–ABSTRACT: Several parts of the skull of a Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia, Sirenia) have been discovered in a quarry near Channay-sur-Lathan (Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France) in the Miocene sands. An entire skeleton of this sirenian has been discovered and described in Doué-la-Fontaine and described by Cottreau in 1928. But no entire skeleton has been discovered and published from the "faluns of Savigné-sur-Lathan".
x
 
Rathbun, Frank (detail)
   
1983
Museum exhibit dramatizes manatee's plight.
Today in Gainesville (Florida) 1(5): 6-10. Cover photo + 1 fig. Feb. 1983.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees, and description of a traveling exhibit on manatee biology assembled by the Florida State Museum.
Rathbun, Galen B.: SEE ALSO Beck et al., 1982; Caldwell & Caldwell, 1985; Etheridge et al., 1985; Kochman et al., 1983, 1985; Lefebvre et al., 1989; Marsh & Rathbun, 1987, 1990; Marsh et al., 1995; Mate et al., 1986; Medway et al., 1982; Morales V. et al., 2000; Nishiwaki & Marsh, 1985; O'Shea, Rathbun et al., 1985; O'Shea et al., 1991; Packard, Rathbun et al., 1984; Powell et al., 1981; Powell & Rathbun, 1984; Reid et al., 1991; Reynolds & Odell, 1991; Thenius et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1984
Sirenians. Chap. 17 in: S. Anderson & J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds.), Orders and families of Recent mammals of the world.
New York, John Wiley & Sons: 537-547. Figs. 93-94.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1988
Fixed-wing airplane versus helicopter surveys of manatees (Trichechus manatus).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(1): 71-75. 1 tab. Jan. 1988.
–Numbers of manatees counted at Crystal and Indian Rivers, Florida (1978-79), did not significantly differ between surveys conducted with fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, though helicopter surveys produced less variable counts and may be more effective for some specialized surveys.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1998
Sea cows - Order Sirenia. In: Wild animals of North America.
Washington, National Geographic Society (200 pp.): 146-151. 4 figs.
–Brief gen. acc. of manatees, emphasizing those at Crystal River, Florida.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Wallace, Richard L. (detail)
   
2000
Florida manatee. In: R. P. Reading & B. Miller (eds.), Endangered animals: a reference guide to conflicting issues.
Westport (Connecticut), Greenwood Press (383 pp.): 108-111, 337-338 (refs.).
–Gives a short gen. acc. of Florida manatees and conservation issues affecting them, and recommends overhaul of an interagency coordinating committee to make "a fresh start based on a new and substantially more aggressive approach to manatee conservation".
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Clay, Deborah (detail)
   
1982
The status of the West Indian manatee on the Atlantic coast north of Florida. In: R. R. Odom & J. W. Guthrie (eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Nongame and Endangered Wildlife.
Georgia Dept. Nat. Resources, Game & Fish Div., Tech. Bull. WL5 (179 pp.): 152-165. 1 tab. 6 figs.
–Lists and analyzes 160 historical and recent records of T. manatus north of Florida, showing that they decrease sharply in frequency northward and that more northern records are restricted to fewer months of the year. The northernmost record is from Washington, D.C. Manatees do not winter north of Florida, but do use warm-water effluents in Georgia during the spring. Sources of mortality in the northern part of the range include starvation, cold, and commercial shrimp netting.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Brownell, Robert L., Jr.; Ralls, Katherine S.; Engbring, John (detail)
   
1988
Status of dugongs in waters around Palau.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(3): 265-270. 1 tab. 1 fig. July 1988.
–Aerial surveys in 1983 confirmed the results of observations in 1977-78, viz., that the dugong population is very small (maximum count = 38) and highly endangered by subsistence hunting.
 
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Carr, Thomas; Carr, Nicole; Woods, Charles A. (detail)
   
1985
The distribution of manatees and sea turtles in Puerto Rico, with emphasis on Roosevelt Roads Naval Station. Contract report, U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Command, Norfolk, Virginia.
NTIS Document No. PB 86-1518347AS: vi + 83. July 1985.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Cruz, Gustavo (detail)
   
1983
Status of the West Indian manatee in Honduras.
Biol. Conserv. 26(4): 301-308. 3 figs.
–Aerial surveys and interviews indicated a low density of manatees and relatively heavy subsistence hunting pressure. A manatee harpoon is illustrated. Hunters state that manatees are nocturnal, move out to sea during storms, and enter rivers in the rainy season. Several manatees died of starvation after being trapped in a lagoon during the dry season.
 
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Bourassa, J. B. (detail)
   
1987
Design and construction of a tethered, floating radio-tag assembly for manatees.
NTIS Document No. PB 87-161345/AS: 1-49.
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Carowan, Glenn (detail)
   
1990
Distribution and movement patterns of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in northwestern peninsular Florida.
Florida Mar. Res. Publs. No. 48: 1-33. 6 tabs. 24 figs. Dec. 1990.
–Data from aerial surveys, radiotracking studies, and other sightings show that manatees in northwestern Florida (north of the Chassahowitzka River) use the Homosassa and Crystal rivers as winter refuges but disperse widely in summer. Relatively little manatee mortality in this area is human-caused.
 
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Tas'an (detail)
   
1987
Design and construction of a tethered, floating radio-tag assembly for dugongs.
NTIS Document No. PB 87-161352/AS: 1-36.
 
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1995
Reproduction in free-ranging Florida manatees. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 135-156. 5 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 19-20).
x
 
Rathbun, Galen B.; Woods, Charles A.; Ottenwalder, José A. (detail)
   
1985
The manatee in Haiti.
Oryx 19(4): 234-236. 1 fig.
–An aerial survey in 1982 found only 8 T. manatus; they have apparently declined drastically over the past 50 years, and are now caught mainly by accident in beach seines. Former hunting techniques included spearing and stoning to death (!). Conservation measures appear impracticable; the best hope seems to be that hunting expertise will die out.
 
 
Rattenborg, N. C.; Amlaner, C. J.; Lima, S. L. (detail)
   
2000
Behavioral, neurophysiological and evolutionary perspectives on unihemispheric sleep.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 24(8): 817-842. Dec. 2000.
x
 
Rattner, Dian (detail)
   
1982
Florida's endangered mermaids - can we save them?
Scholastic Science World 39(7): 29-31. Cover photo + 6 figs. Nov. 26, 1982.
–Pop. acc. of manatees at Crystal River and elsewhere in Florida, including recent deaths attributed to red tide.
 
 
Rattner, Robert (detail)
   
1990
Manatees among us.
Animals, July/Aug. 1990: 26-31. 10 figs. + cover illus.
x
 
Rattner, Robert (detail)
   
1995
Make way for manatees.
Wildl. Conserv. 98(5): 22-29. 10 figs. + cover photo. Sept./Oct. 1995.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees, their conflicts with boaters and development, and manatee research.
 
 
Rausch (detail)
   
1893
Zur Geschichte der Sirenen.
Ber. Oberhess. Ges. Nat. Heilk. Giessen 29: 138.
Rautian, Aleksandr Sergeyevich: SEE Kalandadze & Rautian, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Ravenel, W. de C. (detail)
   
1902
Pan-American Exposition. Report of the Representative of the U.S. Fish Commission. In: Report of the Commissioner for the year ending 30 June 1901.
Washington, U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Pt. 27: 289-352. 4 fold-out charts.
–P. 349: {"One sample of manatee leather, dressed, U.S. Fish Commission."}
Ray, Clayton Edward: SEE ALSO Barnes et al., 1985; Buffrénil et al., 1990; Domning, Morgan & Ray, 1982; Domning & Ray, 1986; Domning et al., 1986; Inuzuka et al., 1995; Pollock & Ray, 1957; Wing et al., 1968. (detail)
x
 
Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
   
1960
The manatee in the Lesser Antilles.
Jour. Mamm. 41(3): 412-413. Aug. 15, 1960.
–Reviews early reports and archaeological evidence establishing or suggesting the presence of T. m. manatus at Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia, and Marie Galante in historic times.
 
 
Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
   
1975
The relationships of Hemicaulodon effodiens Cope 1869 (Mammalia: Odobenidae).
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 88(26): 281-303. 6 pls. Aug. 15, 1975.
x
 
Ray, Clayton Edward; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1986
Manatees and genocide.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(1): 77-78. Jan. 1986.
–Repr.: Amer. Cetacean Soc., Puget Sound Chapter Newsletter, July-Aug. 1989: 8-9. Letter to the editor, arguing that the problem of preserving Florida manatees is a critical challenge for marine mammal conservation in the U.S.
 
D
Ray, Clayton Edward; Domning, Daryl Paul; McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1994
A new specimen of Behemotops proteus (Mammalia: Desmostylia) from the marine Oligocene of Washington. In: A. Berta & T. A. Deméré (eds.), Contributions in marine mammal paleontology honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr.
Proc. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 29: 205-222. 1 tab. 15 figs. May 1, 1994.
–Revs.: S. A. McLeod, Jour. Vert. Pal. 16(1): 183-185, Mar. 19, 1996; J. E. Heyning, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(2): 326-329, "Apr. 1996" (publ. Mar. 29, 1996). A new specimen including both upper and lower teeth, from the middle or upper Oligocene, confirms the close similarity of Behemotops to Eocene anthracobunids of Asia. B. emlongi is synonymized with B. proteus, and the dentition of the latter is reinterpreted.
 
 
Ray, G. Carleton (detail)
   
1968
Marine parks for Tanzania: results of a survey of the coast of Tanzania by invitation of the Trustees of Tanzania National Parks.
New York, Conservation Foundation, New York Zoological Society: 1-47. Oct. 1968.
–Dugong, 37-39.
 
 
Ray, G. Carleton (detail)
   
1981
The role of large organisms. In: A. R. Longhurst (ed.), Analysis of marine ecosystems.
London & New York, Academic Press (741 pp.): 397-413. Illus.
 
 
Ray, John (detail)
   
1693
Synopsis methodica animalium quadrupedum et serpentini generis. Vulgarium notas characteristicas, rariorum descriptiones integras exhibens: cum historiis & observationibus anatomicis perquam curiosis. Praemittuntur nonnulla de animalium in genere, sensu, generatione, divisione &c.
London, S. Smith & B. Walford: [xiv] + 336 + [8]. Frontisp.
–Also a 1696 ed.? Sirs., 193-194.
  This is presumably the work to which Steller (1899: 189) alluded in his description of Hydrodamalis; it is known that Steller had a copy of this book with him on his voyage with Bering in 1741-42 (see Steller, 1925: 2).
x
 
Rayfield, Earl (detail)
   
1974
Fifty thousand feet of history.
NOAA (U.S. Natl. Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) 4(1): 44-47. 7 figs. Jan. 1974.
–States (p. 45) that the archives of NOAA's National Ocean Survey contain "a century-old drawing of a sea cow"; reproduced on p. 47, it is the drawing of Hydrodamalis on the map published by Dall (1891) and discussed by Stejneger (1936: 516).
Raymond, Gale J.: SEE Wagner et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Rayner, Sue (detail)
   
1987
Dugongs.
Melbourne, Oxford Univ. Press: 1-31. Illus. 1 map.
Raza, Hilal A.: SEE Gingerich et al., 1995. (detail)
Raza, S. Mahmood: SEE ALSO Gingerich et al., 1993, 1995. (detail)
x
 
Raza, S. Mahmood; Barry, John C.; Meyer, Grant E.; Martin, Lawrence (detail)
   
1984
Preliminary report on the geology and vertebrate fauna of the Miocene Manchar Formation, Sind, Pakistan.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 4(4): 584-599. 2 tabs. 4 figs. Dec. 1984.
–Mentions a sir. rib fragment collected in the upper part of the Gaj Formation (Early or Middle Miocene) (585).
x
 
Read, Bernard Emms (detail)
   
1931
Chinese materia medica. Animal drugs. II. The wild animals.
Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 6(1): 1-52. Sept. 1931.
–Identifies (without supporting evidence) the animal known in Chinese as hai niu, or sea cow, with Rhytina gigas, and states that its skin was "used for many purposes" by the Chinese and that its oil was used in lamps (16); but does not state definitely that the animal occurred in China. See also Sowerby (1935). Also mentions a "sea animal" (52) that Sowerby thought might be the dugong, but I consider this identification too tenuous.
Recchia, C.: SEE Eros et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Reche, O. (detail)
   
1905
Über Form und Funktion der Halswirbelsäule der Zahnwale.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 40: 150-252. 31 figs.
–Sirs., 243.
Rechebei, R.: SEE Randall et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Rector, Annabel; Bossart, Gregory D.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Sundberg, John P.; Jenson, Alfred Bennett; Van Ranst, Marc (detail)
   
2004
Characterization of a novel close-to-root papillomavirus from a Florida manatee by using multiply primed rolling-circle amplification: Trichechus manatus latirostris papillomavirus type 1.
Jour. Virology 78: 12698-12702. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Nov. 2004.
x
 
Reddacliff, Gary (detail)
   
1988
Crater wounds in marine mammals. In: M. L. Augee (ed.), Marine mammals of Australasia: field biology and captive management.
Sydney, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales (vii + 140): 133-134. Mar. 1988.
–Also appeared in Austral. Zool. 24(3)? Reports a young male dugong that stranded and died in Sydney Harbour in March 1980 as a result of bites by cookie-cutter sharks (Isistius sp.).
 
 
Reddick, J. (detail)
   
1980
Sirenia in distress.
Cetus 2(2): 7. Illus.
 
 
Reed, A. W. (detail)
   
1969
An illustrated encyclopaedia of Aboriginal life.
Sydney, A. H. & A. W. Reed: 1-165.
–Dugong hunting in Australia, 66-67, 69-71.
x
 
Reed, Christina (detail)
   
2001
Macro-evolution at its finest.
Geotimes 46(12): 8. 1 fig. Dec. 2001.
–Gen. acc. of the quadrupedal sir. Pezosiren portelli from the Eocene of Jamaica.
x
 
Reed, Jim (detail)
   
1976
Guana River Wildlife Management Area.
Florida Wildlife, Jan. 1976: 10-12. 5 figs.
–P. 12: {"At least one manatee is known to be in the impoundment [= artificial Lake Ponte Vedra, St. Johns County, Florida]."}
x
 
Reed, John K.; Pomponi, Shirley A.; Weaver, Doug; Paull, Charles K.; Wright, Amy E. (detail)
   
2005
Deep-water sinkholes and bioherms of south Florida and the Pourtalès Terrace - habitat and fauna.
Bull. Marine Science 77(2): 267-296. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
–Exploration by manned submersibles of the Jordan and Marathon sinkholes in the Straits of Florida revealed concentrations of dugongid rib fragments (Metaxytherium floridanum?) at depths of 357-366 m and 522 m, respectively (275, 281), as well as elsewhere on the Pourtalès Terrace (287). (Cf. De Pourtalès, 1877.)
 
 
Reed, Nathaniel Pryor (detail)
   
1982
"Sharing ..." key to manatee survival.
Florida Naturalist 55(1): 8-9. 4 figs. Jan.-Mar. 1982.
Reed, P. C.: SEE Marsh, Freeland et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Reeds, Chester A. (detail)
   
1916
Porto Rican localities yielding vertebrate fossils.
Annals New York Acad. Sci. 26: 436-438.
Reep, Roger Lyons: SEE ALSO Johnson et al., 1994; O'Shea & Reep, 1990; Loerzel & Reep, 1991; Marshall et al., 1998, 2000, 2003; Marshall, Clark & Reep, 1998; Marshall & Reep, 1995. (detail)
 
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1990
Regional brain morphometry and lissencephaly in the Sirenia.
Brain Behav. Evol. 35(4): 185-194. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
 
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2006
The Florida manatee: biology and conservation.
Gainesville, Univ. Press of Florida: xviii + 190. Illus.
–Reviews: Lemnuel Aragones, Bull. Mar. Sci. 79(1): 240-241, July 2006; Daniel K. Odell, Florida Scientist 70(3): 303-304, Summer 2007; John E. Reynolds III, Aquatic Mammals 33(2): 251, 2007.
 Ed. 2: May 2021, 338 pp.
 
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Sarko, Diana K.; Rice, Frank L.; Mann, David A.; Bauer, Gordon B. (detail)
   
2011
Manatee vibrissae: evidence for a "lateral line" function.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05992.x. Apr. 2011.
–Aquatic mammals use vibrissae to detect hydrodynamic stimuli over a range from 5 to 150 Hz, similar to the range detected by lateral line systems in fishes and amphibians. Manatees possess ?5,300 vibrissae distributed over the body, innervated by ?209,000 axons. This extensive innervation devoted to vibrissae follicles is reflected in enlarged, elaborate somatosensory regions of the gracile, cuneate, and Bischoff's brain-stem nuclei, ventrobasal thalamus, and presumptive somatosensory cortex. Our preliminary psychophysical testing indicates that in Florida and Antillean manatees the Weber fraction for detection thresholds for grating textures ranges from 0.025 to 0.14. At the lower end of this range, sensitivity is comparable to human index finger thresholds. For hydrodynamic stimuli of 5–150 Hz, detection threshold levels for manatees using facial or postfacial vibrissae were substantially lower than those reported for harbor seals and similar to reports of sensitivity for the lateral line systems of some fish. Our findings suggest that the facial and postfacial vibrissae are used to detect hydrodynamic stimuli, whereas only the facial vibrissae are used for direct contact investigation.
 
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Johnson, John Irwin; Switzer, Robert C.; Welker, W. I. (detail)
   
1989
Manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the frontal region in Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Brain Behav. Evol. 34(6): 365-386.
x
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Marshall, Christopher D.; Stoll, M. L. (detail)
   
2002
Tactile hairs on the postcranial body in Florida manatees: a mammalian lateral line?
Brain Behav. Evol. 59: 141-154. 2 tabs. 9 figs.
–Describes the distribution and microanatomy of the postcranial hair follicles. All hairs are tactile sinus hairs innervated by 20-50 axons; they are arranged and constructed appropriately to detect water currents and possibly the presence of other animals or objects in the environment.
x
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Marshall, Christopher D.; Stoll, M. L.; Whitaker, D. M. (detail)
   
1998
Distribution and innervation of facial bristles and hairs in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2): 257-273. 3 tabs. 8 figs. Mar. 31, 1998.
–Describes 6 distinct fields of perioral bristles, density of hair on the face vs. the body, and, in general, the anatomical basis of bristle use during feeding and tactile exploration. See also Marshall et al. (1998) and Marshall, Clark, & Reep (1998).
x
 
Reep, Roger Lyons; Stoll, M. L.; Marshall, Christopher D.; Homer, B. L.; Samuelson, Don A. (detail)
   
2001
Microanatomy of facial vibrissae in the Florida manatee: the basis for specialized sensory function and oripulation.
Brain Behav. Evol. 58(1): 1-14. 3 tabs. 5 figs.
–Notice: New Scientist, Mar. 23, 2002: 27, 1 fig. Describes the vibrissae and their blood & nerve supply. Confirms that all the facial hairs & bristles are vibrissae (sinus hairs); that these have a distinct combination of attributes in each of the 9 regions of the face; that the perioral bristles have both tactile sensory and prehensile roles (a combination of functions unique to sirs.); and that the facial vibrissae may play a role in hydrodynamic distance reception.
 
 
Reeves, Lawrence E.; Gillett-Kaufman, Jennifer L. (detail)
   
2020
Interactions between the imperiled West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus, and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA.
Scientific Reports 10(12971): 4 figs. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69942-8. July 31, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), including those vectored by mosquitoes, have recently been cited as potential emerging health threats to marine mammals. Despite the fully aquatic habits of cetaceans, immunologic exposure to arboviruses including West Nile virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus has been detected in wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, and captive orcas have been killed by West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus. Currently, there is no evidence of direct interactions between mosquitoes and marine mammals in nature, and it remains unknown how wild cetaceans are exposed to mosquito-vectored pathogens. Here, we report the first evidence of direct interactions between an aquatic mammal, the West Indian manatee, a federally threatened species, and mosquitoes in nature. Observations of manatees in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA, indicate that mosquitoes of three genera, Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex are able to locate and land on surface-active manatees, and at minimum, penetrate and probe manatee epidermis with their mouthparts. Whether mosquitoes can successfully take a blood meal is not known; however, an arbovirus-infected mosquito can inoculate extravascular host tissues with virus-infected saliva during probing. These observations suggest that it is possible for marine mammals to be exposed to mosquito-vectored pathogens through direct interactions with mosquitoes.
Reeves, Randall R.: SEE ALSO Brownell et al., 1981; Leatherwood & Reeves, 1989. (detail)
x
 
Reeves, Randall R.; Leatherwood, J. Stephen; Jefferson, Thomas A.; Curry, B. E.; Henningsen, T. (detail)
   
1996
Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis, in Peru: distribution, exploitation, and conservation status.
Interciencia (Caracas) 21(6): 246-254. 2 tabs. 5 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1996.
–Reports results of boat and interview surveys in and near the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, and describes hunting methods and use of manatee products. Impressions of manatee abundance and of the magnitude of the catch suggest that the conservation outlook is grim despite large remaining areas of relatively unspoiled habitat.
 
 
Reeves, Randall R.; Stewart, Brent S.; Leatherwood, J. Stephen (detail)
   
1992
The Sierra Club handbook of seals and sirenians.
San Francisco, Sierra Club Books: xvi + 359. Illus.
–Revs.: K. W. Kenyon, Jour. Mamm. 75(1): 231, Feb. 18, 1994; D. K. Odell, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 11(1): 107-108, Jan. 23, 1995. Sirs., 33-36, 259-293.
x
 
Reeves, Randall R.; Tuboku-Metzger, Daphne; Kapindi, Richard A. (detail)
   
1988
Distribution and exploitation of manatees in Sierra Leone.
Oryx 22(2): 75-84. 1 tab. 7 figs. Apr. 1988.
–Briefly describes the distribution of manatees (based on interviews) and of manatee traps and nets along rivers. Describes in detail hunting methods using traps, nets, and harpoons; carcass utilization; fragmentary catch statistics; and conflicts with fishing and rice farming. Discusses conservation prospects for manatees in Sierra Leone.
Rêgo, Aurora Ramos de Morais: SEE Morais Rêgo, Aurora Ramos de. (detail)
 
 
Reguant, S. (detail)
   
1967
El Eoceno marino de Vic (Barcelona).
Mem. Inst. Geol. Min. España 68: 1-350.
–Reports "Halitherium sp." at various Eocene localities between Taradell and Sant Julià de Vilatorta, Spain.
Rehfeld, S. Jerry: SEE Elias et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Reich, K. J.; Worthy, Graham A. J. (detail)
   
2006
An isotopic assessment of the feeding habits of free-ranging manatees.
Mar. Ecol. Progress Series 322: 303-309.
 
 
Reich, S.; Di Martino, E.; Todd, Jon A.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Renema, W. (detail)
   
2015
Indirect paleo-seagrass indicators (IPSIs): A review.
Earth-Science Reviews 143: 161-186. 2 tabs. 9 figs. Feb. 7, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Seagrass meadows are marine habitats with high ecological importance. Their detection in the fossil record will contribute to our understanding of the development of patterns of marine biodiversity through time and the response of coastal marine habitats to environmental change. Due to the low probability of fossilization of seagrass macrofossils, the reliable identification of seagrass meadows in the fossil record is often challenging. A wide range of indirect indicators has been applied to infer paleo-seagrass habitats in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits. The usefulness of those indicators is determined by various factors, such as their stratigraphic range, fossilization potential, habitat restriction, and others. Although they have sometimes been briefly summarized in the literature, a comprehensive review of indirect paleo-seagrass indicators, including an assessment of their value for recognition of this habitat, is not yet available. We summarize them here and explore their usefulness. We aim to assist future workers to identify facies and fossil assemblages associated with seagrass beds. Apart from a few truly diagnostic proxies, combinations of several indicators turn out to be most reliable when aiming to identify the presence of paleo-seagrass habitats. The presence/absence of many potentially seagrass-associated taxa cannot serve as a useful indicator due to a lack of habitat restriction, but statistical evaluations of abundance data are promising to discriminate seagrass beds from neighboring areas. However, such studies are available for only a few commonly seagrass-associated organism groups. Furthermore, the applicability of many indicators is confined by latitude, because their occurrence is restricted to (sub)tropical or at most warm temperate regions.
x
 
Reichenau, Wilhelm von (detail)
   
1878
Das Thierreich, vom Gesichtspunkte der Anpassungsähnlichkeit. (Ein Beitrag zum 14. Kapitel von Darwin's "Entstehung der Arten".)
Kosmos (Zs. Einheitl. Weltanschauung auf Grund der Entwicklungslehre) 3(2): 133-147. May 1878.
–Brief gen. acc. of the external anatomy and aquatic adaptations of sirs. (137-138).
Reichenbach, Ernst Stromer von: SEE Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst. (detail)
 
 
Reichenbach, Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig (detail)
   
1845a
Synopsis Mammalium iconibus illustrata.... Vol. I. Cetacea, Pachydermata, Suilla.
Leipzig: 1-31. Illus.
–The plates are those of the author's Die Vollständigste Naturgeschichte ..., Säugethiere, Vols. 1 & 2 (Dresden & Leipzig, 1834?-1862). Discusses Halicore tabernaculi, 16.
 
 
Reichenbach, Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig (detail)
   
1845b
Anatomia Mammalium. Pars I. Cetacea et Pachydermata, tabulis aeneis LXV. illustrata. Anatomie der Säugthiere. Erster Theil. Wallthiere und Dickhäuter, durch fünf und sechszig Platten erläutert.
Leipzig, Fried. Hofmeister: 1-23. 65 pls.
–Also issued as part of the author's Die Vollständigste Naturgeschichte ..., Dresden & Leipzig, 1834?-1862. Sirs., 13-15, pls. 25-28, 33-37.
Reid, Dennis: SEE Krogh & Reid, 1996. (detail)
Reid, James P.: SEE ALSO Beck & Reid, 1995; Deutsch et al., 1998, 2003; Lefebvre et al., 2000; Mate et al., 1986, 1987; Rathbun, Reid & Bourassa, 1987; Rathbun, Reid & Tas'an, 1987; Rathbun et al., 1990, 1995. (detail)
x
 
Reid, James P. (detail)
   
1996
Chessie the manatee: from Florida to Rhode Island.
Argos Newsletter No. 15: 13. 1 fig. Aug. 1996.
–Brief account of radio-tracking a Florida manatee that reached Rhode Island waters in August 1995 before returning to Florida, having set the northernmost record for manatee travels up the Atlantic Coast. His sustained rate of movement during his 3-month journey also set a record for manatees.
x
 
Reid, James P. (detail)
   
1997
Navy tracks manatees with satellites.
Endangered Species Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 22(1): 22-23. 1 fig. Jan./Feb. 1997.
–Brief description of radiotracking studies of T. manatus, primarily in Puerto Rico.
 
 
Reid, James P. (detail)
   
2006
Cooperative manatee research in Puerto Rico.
Endang. Sp. Tech. Bull. 31(2): 18-19. 3 figs. July 2006.
x
 
Reid, James P.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1989
Three years operational use of satellite transmitters on Florida manatees: tag improvements based on challenges from the field.
Proc. 1989 North Amer. Argos Users Conference & Exhibit (Landover [Maryland], Service Argos, Inc., 361 pp.): 217-232. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–Recounts the history of satellite tracking of Florida manatees, discusses some of the data on manatee movements thereby obtained, and describes modifications made to the transmitters as a result of field experience.
 
 
Reid, James P.; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas J. (detail)
   
1995
Reproduction and mortality of radio-tagged and recognizable manatees on the Atlantic coast of Florida. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 171-191. 9 tabs. 9 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 20-21).
x
 
Reid, James P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1991
Distribution patterns of individually identifiable West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 7(2): 180-190. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 30, 1991.
–Documents long-distance movements and site fidelity on the basis of photographs of distinctively scarred manatees. The migration pattern is predominantly northward in spring and southward in fall.
 
 
Reiken, Frederick (detail)
   
2010?
Day for night.
Reagan Arthur: 1-326.
–Novel, with mention in Chapter 1 of a 1984 manatee-watching expedition in Florida.
 
 
Reilly, Patricia (detail)
   
1982
"You can't not love a manatee."
Sky (Delta Air Lines), Sept. 1982: 18-20, 22, 24. Cover + 5 figs.
 
 
Reiner, Francisco; Simões, Paias (detail)
   
1999
Mamíferos selvagens da Guiné-Bissau.
Lisbon, Projeto Delfim - Centro Português de Estudos dos Mamíferos Marinhos: 1-429. Illus.
–Gen. acc. of T. senegalensis, 119-120, 317, 416; 6 figs. (including 4 photographic views of a skull).
 
 
Reinert, T. R.; Spellman, A. C.; Bassett, B. L. (detail)
   
2017
Entanglement in and ingestion of fishing gear and other marine debris by Florida manatees, 1993 to 2012.
Endangered Species Research 32: 415-427.
Reinhard, Rudolf: SEE ALSO Blaszkiewitz & Reinhard, 1996. (detail)
 
 
Reinhard, Rudolf (detail)
   
1996
Kurze Seekuh-Notizen aus Südostasien.
Manati (Nuremberg) 11(2): 22-24. 2 figs. Dec. 1996.
Reinhart, Roy H.: SEE ALSO Hulbert et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1951
A new genus of sea cow from the Miocene of Colombia.
Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. Univ. California 28(9): 203-213. 2 figs. Feb. 16, 1951.
–Describes Potamosiren magdalenensis, n.gen.n.sp., a trichechid from the Middle Miocene (Friasian) of Colombia.
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Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1953
Diagnosis of the new mammalian order, Desmostylia.
Jour. Geol. 61(2): 187. Mar. 1953.
–The earliest publication of the name Desmostylia; gives its date erroneously as 1952 and alludes to the "Family Paleoparadoxia" [sic; nomen nudum].
 
D
Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1959
A review of the Sirenia and Desmostylia.
Univ. California Publ. Geol. Sci. 36(1): 1-146. Tabs. 19 figs. 14 pls. July 24, 1959.
–An important survey and partial revision of the two orders, emphasizing the North American fossil record. Reviews the phylogeny of the Trichechidae (3-5); proposes a new suprageneric classification of sirs., introducing the new subfamily names Prorastominae (5), Protosireninae (6), and Halianassinae (8). Describes Caribosiren turneri, n.gen.n.sp. (Middle Olig., Puerto Rico; 8-21), and Halianassa vanderhoofi, n.sp. (Late Mioc., California; 23-44). Describes partial skulls and other material of Halianassa sp. indet. (Mioc., Baja California; 44-49; later made the type of Dusisiren reinharti Domning, 1978) and Eotheroides sp. indet. (Late Eoc., Egypt; 53-56). Discusses the morphology and evolution of the lacrimal, mesethmoid, nasal, and frontal bones in sirs. (57-62), and reviews other fossil sirs. in passing.
  Reviews the synonymy and morphology of Desmostylus (64-89); describes Vanderhoofius coalingensis, n.gen.n.sp. (Mioc., California; 90-93), Paleoparadoxidae [sic], n.fam., Paleoparadoxia, n.gen., and P. tabatai, n.comb. (Mioc., Japan & California; 94-100). Discusses the habits, phylogeny, and classification of the Desmostylia (101-109), concluding that the Sirenia, Desmostylia, and Proboscidea form a monophyletic group within the Paenungulata.
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Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1970a
Desmostylia. In: P. Gray (ed.), The encyclopedia of the biological sciences. Ed. 2.
New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold (xxv + 1027): 243.
–One-paragraph gen. acc. of the order and its four included genera.
 
 
Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1970b
Sirenia. In: P. Gray (ed.), The encyclopedia of the biological sciences. Ed. 2.
New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold (xxv + 1027): 854-855. 1 fig.
x
 
Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1971
Fossil Sirenia of Florida.
The Plaster Jacket (Florida State Museum) No. 15: 1-10. 5 figs. Oct. 1, 1971.
–Updated version: Hulbert et al. (2001). Pop. acc. of fossil and Recent sirs., their occurrence in Florida, and how to identify their remains.
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Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1975
New discoveries in the Order Desmostylia. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 15(3): 826. Summer 1975.
–Reasserts the distinctness of Cornwallius and Paleoparadoxia on the basis of new material from the Oligo-Miocene of Oregon; regards the synonymy of American and Japanese Desmostylus as still uncertain.
 
D
Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1976
Fossil sirenians and desmostylids from Florida and elsewhere.
Bull. Florida St. Mus., Biol. Sci. 20(4): 187-300. 8 tabs. 39 figs. July 9, 1976.
–The material on Metaxytherium ossivallense is revised from Reinhart's Master of Science thesis in Geology (Univ. of Chicago, Dec. 1947).
  Synonymizes Felsinotherium and Halianassa with Metaxytherium and reviews their morphology (191-199). Recognizes M. ossivallense, M. floridanum, M. calvertense, and Hesperosiren crataegensis in the Mioc. of Florida, and describes new material referred to each (199-235). Describes Halitherium olseni, n.sp. (Mioc., Florida; 238-261; now considered Late Olig.). Reports Eoc. rib fragments from Florida (262-265); discusses fossil sir. records from Java and Australia (266-269); describes vestigial incisors in Dugong dugon (269-272); and reports a tooth of Metaxytherium sp. indet. from the Mioc. of Argentina (272-278). Discusses trichechid phylogeny (279-281), "Manatus" maeoticus (281-282), Cryptomastodon (282-283), valid and invalid records of desmostylians from Alaska, Florida, and Texas (283-287), and new specimens of Desmostylus hesperus (288-295). Morgan (1994: 264-265) concluded that the Florida Desmostylus specimens reported here have erroneous locality data and are really from California.
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Reinhart, Roy Herbert (detail)
   
1982
The extinct mammalian order Desmostylia.
Natl. Geogr. Soc. Res. Repts. 14: 549-555. 1 fig.
–Progress report on Reinhart's study of the Emlong Collection and other desmostylians. Illustrates and diagnoses the skull of Cornwallius; coins the new combination Desmostylus brevimaxillare [sic] (551); reviews the status of knowledge of other desmostylians; and alludes to other new specimens from Oregon and California.
 
 
Reiter, Erich; Mittermayr, R. (detail)
   
2013
Über Seekuhfunde aus dem Känozoikum des Linzer Raumes in den Sammlungen des OÖ. Landesmuseums und die Restaurierung des Rumpfskelettes von Halitherium cristolii Fitzinger 1842.
Oberösterreichische Geonachrichten 28: 24-30.
Reitz, Elizabeth J.: SEE Watters et al., 1984; Wing & Reitz, 1982. (detail)
Remmers, J. E.: SEE Tenney & Remmers, 1963. (detail)
 
 
Renard, Louis (detail)
   
1754
Poissons, ecrevisses et crabes, de diverses couleurs et figures extraordinaires, que l'on trouve autour des isles Moluques, et sur les côtes des terres australes: peints d'après nature durant la régence de Messieurs Van Oudshoorn, Van Hoorn, Van Ribeek & Van Zwoll, successivement gouverneurs-généraux des Indes Orientales pour la Compagnie de Hollande. Ouvrage, auquel on a employé près de trente ans, & qui contient un très-grand nombre de poissons les plus beaux & les plus rares de la Mer des Indes: divisé en deux tomes, dont le premier a été copié sur les originaux de Monsr. Baltazar Coyett, ancien gouverneur & directeur des isles de la Province d'Amboine, & president des Commissaires à Batavia. Le second tome a été formé sur les recueils de Monsr. Adrien vander Stell, gouverneur régent de la dite Province d"Amboine, avec une courte description de chaque poisson. Le tout muni de certificats & attestations authentiques. Donné au public par Mr. Louis Renard, agent de S. M. Brit. à Amsterdam, & augmenté d'une préface par Mr. Arnout Vosmaer. [Ed. 2.]
Amsterdam, Reinier & Josué Ottens (2 vols. in 1): Vol. 1: 12 pp. + 43 pls.; Vol. 2: 2 pp. + 57 pls.; index.
–First ed., Amsterdam, publ. by the author, n.d. [1719]; third "ed.", in Dutch & French, Utrecht & Amsterdam, Abraham van Paddenburg & Willem Holtrop, 1782. All three eds. are very rare; see T. W. Pietsch (Archs. Nat. Hist. 20(1): 49-68, 1993) for details of printing history and collation and facsimiles of title pages. The illustrations, based on drawings by Samuel Fallours, are apparently the same in all three eds. Dugong, pl. 34, fig. 180. Also depicted is a "Sirenne" or mermaid (pl. 57, fig. 240), which was probably also based on a dugong (see T. W. Pietsch, 1991). Both illustrations are reproduced by Durand (1983: 194-195, 211-212), who states that the former one is the first picture of a dugong to be published.
Renfree, M. B.: SEE Gaeth et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Rensberger, John M. (detail)
   
1969
A new iniid cetacean from the Miocene of California.
Univ. California Publ. Geol. Sci. 82: 1-34. 2 figs. 4 pls. June 13, 1969.
–Mentions a "sirenian" [vertebra and rib fragment, UCMP 35102-35103] from the Early or Middle Miocene Monterey Group in Alameda County (1-2).
 
 
Renshaw, G. (detail)
   
1937
The northern sea-cow.
Jour. Soc. Preserv. Fauna Empire (n.s.) 31: 51-54. 1 fig.
x
 
Renz, Mark (detail)
   
1999
Fossiling in Florida: a guide for diggers and divers.
Gainesville, Univ. Press of Florida. Illus.
–Chap. 8 (57-66) is a pop. acc. of the excavation of a skeleton of Metaxytherium floridanum in a Polk County phosphate mine; also illustrates a cast of a skull of an undescribed Late Plioc. dugongine (63).
Repenning, Charles A.: SEE ALSO Mitchell & Repenning, 1963. (detail)
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Repenning, Charles A. (detail)
   
1965
[Drawing of Paleoparadoxia skeleton.]
Geotimes 9(6): 1, 3. Cover illus. Feb. 1965.
–Cover illustration with caption, showing Repenning's reconstruction of the Stanford skeleton, which was subsequently reproduced in the third ed. of Romer's Vertebrate Paleontology and elsewhere.
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Repenning, Charles A.; Packard, Earl L. (detail)
   
1990
Locomotion of a desmostylian and evidence of ancient shark predation. In: A. J. Boucot (ed.), Evolutionary paleobiology of behavior and coevolution.
Amsterdam, Elsevier (xxiii + 725): 199-203. Figs. 179-183.
–Describes the circumstances of occurrence and taphonomy of the Stanford (California) Paleoparadoxia skeleton, attributes fractures of its hind legs to a fall, and suggests shark attack as the cause of death. Also describes details of the hindlimb and other joints, interpreting them to indicate somewhat froglike postures in both terrestrial and aquatic locomotion, and a terrestrial gait similar to that of otarioid pinnipeds.
x
 
Resch, Rudolf (detail)
   
1936
Retzer Heimatbuch. 1. Band: Von der Urzeit bis zum ausklingenden Mittelalter (1526).
Verlag der Stadtgemeinde Retz (Austria).
–Facsimile ed., 1984. Reports the "Skelett einer Seekuh (Robbenart)" [sic; = Metaxytherium krahuletzi] from a brickworks near Waschbach (26, 28).
 
 
Research Group for Fossil Sirenia from Myoken (Kato, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Iwao; Kobayashi, Shoji; Sasagawa, Ichiro; Shinmura, Tatsuya; Tamura, Keiko; Horikawa, Hideo; Miyawaki, Makoto) (detail)
   
2008
Discovery of the Hydrodamalinae (Sirenia, Mammalia) from the Late Pliocene Shiroiwa Formation in Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture.
Bull. Nagaoka Municipal Science Museum No. 43: 1-20. 5 tabs. 20 figs. March 2008.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes a scapula, radius-ulna, thoracic vertebra, and rib of a Hydrodamalis, thought to be intermediate between H. spissa and H. gigas.
 
 
Retzius, Anders Johann (detail)
   
1794
Anmärkningar vid genus Trichechi.
Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsacad. Handlingar (Stockholm) (2)15: 286-300. Oct.-Dec. 1794.
–First publication of the name Hydrodamalis (292).
Revilla, Juan: SEE Neville et al., 1976. (detail)
 
 
Rey, R. (detail)
   
1964
Sur quelques pièces ostéologiques du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Nantes.
Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Ouest France 60, Mém. Trav. Orig.: 17-26. 3 pls.
–Describes material of Halitherium.
 
 
Reyes, L. D.; Stimpson, C. D.; Gupta, K.; Raghanti, M. A.; Hof, P. R.; Reep, R. L.; Sherwood, C. C. (detail)
   
2015
Neuron types in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Brain Behav. Evol. 86(3-4): 210-231. doi:10.1159/000441964
 
 
Reyes, Laura D.; Harland, T.; Reep, Roger L.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Jacobs, Bob (detail)
   
2016
Golgi analysis of neuron morphology in the presumptive somatosensory cortex and visual cortex of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Brain Behav. Evol. 87(2): 105-116. 3 tabs. 6 figs. doi:10.1159/000445495 Publ. online May 11, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: inS1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche.
 
 
Reyes, Laura D.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Gupta, Kanika; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R.; Reep, Roger L.; Sherwood, Chet C. (detail)
   
2015
Neuron Types in the Presumptive Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Brain, Behavior, and Evolution 86: 210-231. DOI:10.1159/000441964. December 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Within afrotherians, sirenians are unusual due to their aquatic lifestyle, large body size and relatively large lissencephalic brain. However, little is known about the neuron type distributions of the cerebral cortex in sirenians within the context of other afrotherians and aquatic mammals. The present study investigated two cortical regions, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2), in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to characterize cyto- and chemoarchitecture. The mean neuron density for both cortical regions was 35,617 neurons/mm3 and fell within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass based on a reference group of afrotherians and xenarthrans. Densities of inhibitory interneuron subtypes labeled against calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptide Y were relatively low compared to afrotherians and xenarthrans and also formed a small percentage of the overall population of inhibitory interneurons as revealed by GAD67 immunoreactivity. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive (NPNFP-ir) neurons comprised a mean of 60% of neurons in layer V across DL1 and CL2. DL1 contained a higher percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons than CL2, although CL2 had a higher variety of morphological types. The mean percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons in the two regions of the presumptive S1 were low compared to other afrotherians and xenarthrans but were within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass, and their morphologies were comparable to those found in other afrotherians and xenarthrans. Although this specific pattern of neuron types and densities sets the manatee apart from other afrotherians and xenarthrans, the manatee isocortex does not appear to be explicitly adapted for an aquatic habitat. Many of the features that are shared between manatees and cetaceans are also shared with a diverse array of terrestrial mammals and likely represent highly conserved neural features. A comparative study across manatees and dugongs is necessary to determine whether these traits are specific to one or more of the manatee species, or can be generalized to all sirenians.
Reynolds, John E., III: SEE ALSO Ames et al., 2002; Bazzini et al.; Cashman et al., 1996; Craig et al., 1997; Forrester et al., 1979; Garrott et al., 1994, 1995; Glaser & Reynolds, 2003; Hernandez et al., 1995; Hill & Reynolds, 1989; Marmontel et al., 1992; Morales V. et al., 2000; Ness et al., 1998; Odell et al., 1978; Odell & Reynolds, 1979, 1980; Packard, Frohlich et al., 1984; Packard et al., 1989; Rommel & Reynolds, 2000; Weigle et al., 1988; Wilhelm et al., 1988; Wright et al., 2002. (detail)
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Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1976
The Florida manatee: myth vs. truth.
Sea Frontiers 22(4): 209-214. 4 figs. July-Aug. 1976.
–Gen. acc. of manatee behavior (including an observation of playful "body-surfing"), popular misconceptions about manatees in Florida, and the outlook for their conservation.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1977
Precarious survival of the Florida manatee.
Oceans 10(5): 50-53. 4 figs. Sept.-Oct. 1977.
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Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1979a
The semisocial manatee.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 88(2): 44-53. 10 figs. + cover photo. Feb. 1979.
–Pop. acc. of T. manatus at Blue Lagoon, Miami, Florida, emphasizing herd structure, "estrous herds", cow-calf interactions, "body surfing", "follow-the-leader" behavior, social communication, and activity patterns. Concludes that manatees are "moderately social."
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1979b
Internal and external morphology of the manatee (sea cow). [Abstr.]
Anat. Rec. 193(3): 633.
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Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1981a
Behavior patterns in the West Indian manatee, with emphasis on feeding and diving.
Florida Scientist 44(4): 233-242. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–Presents quantitative data on T. manatus in Blue Lagoon, Miami, Florida, regarding activity patterns, feeding, dive times, aggregations, and miscellaneous behavior such as hauling out to feed, climbing barriers, and "body-surfing"; also lists food plants eaten.
x
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1981b
Aspects of the social behaviour and herd structure of a semi-isolated colony of West Indian manatees, Trichechus manatus.
Mammalia 45(4): 431-451. 8 tabs. 4 figs.
–French summ. A population of about 60 manatees in Blue Lagoon Lake, Miami, Florida, tended to be found in herds of 2 or more. Except for female-calf pairs, these herds were unstable. Social facilitation, synchronous breathing, "body-surfing", and "follow-the-leader" behaviors were observed. Social contexts of vocalizations are described, and other possible forms of communication are discussed. T. manatus is considered a "moderately social" species.
x
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1981c
Manatees of Blue Lagoon Lake, Miami, Florida: biology and effects of man's activities. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 25-32. 2 figs.
–Briefly summarizes behavioral and other observations reported in more detail in the publications cited above. Also discusses the danger to manatees of flood control dams, boat collisions, harassment, vandalism, fish hooks, and culverts, and notes that many people in the study area feared and disliked manatees.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1981d
Aspects of the structural and functional anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus.
Dissertation Abstrs. Intl. (B) 41(2): 2441.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1995
Florida manatee population biology: research progress, infrastructure, and applications for conservation and management. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 6-12. 4 tabs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 10).
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1999
Efforts to conserve the manatees. Chap. 12 in: J. R. Twiss, Jr. & R. R. Reeves (eds.), Conservation and management of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (xi + 471 pp.): 267-295. 6 tabs. 11 figs. Sept. 1999.
–Rev.: P. Shaughnessy, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16(4): 842-843, Oct. 3, 2000.
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Reynolds, John E., III; Ferguson, J. C. (detail)
   
1984
Implications of the presence of manatees (Trichechus manatus) near the Dry Tortugas Islands.
Florida Scientist 47(3): 187-189.
–Notes two instances of manatee sightings near the Dry Tortugas, and discusses whether manatees require or merely prefer access to fresh water.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Gluckman, Casey J. (detail)
   
1988
Protection of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida.
NTIS Document No. PB 88-222922: 1-103.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Haddad, Kenneth D. (eds.) (detail)
   
1990
Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 1-57. Illus. Dec. 1990.
–Includes, in addition to the Report of the Workshop (1-10), invited papers by O'Shea & Kochman, Weigle & Haddad, Osborn, Gilbrook, and Kautz (11-50; q.v.); the agenda and list of participants (51-53); and an excerpt from a senior thesis by Houhoulis (54-57; q.v.).
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Reynolds, John E., III; Krause, W. J. (detail)
   
1982
A note on the duodenum of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), with emphasis on the duodenal glands.
Acta Anat. 114(1): 33-40. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Describes the gross and microscopic structure and histochemistry of the duodenum and duodenal glands; the latter secrete an acid mucin (sialomucin) and have cells intermediate between classical serous and mucous types.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1982
Florida's manatees.
Southern Boating 10(6): 110-111. 2 figs. Feb. 1982.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Odell, Daniel Keith (detail)
   
1991
Manatees and dugongs.
New York, Facts on File, Inc.: xiv + 192. Illus. Oct. 1991.
–Revs.: G. B. Rathbun, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 9(1): 114-115, Jan. 1993; J. N. Layne, Florida Field Nat. 21(1): 22, Feb. 1993. Thorough, well-illustrated popular account of sir. biology, distribution, status, and conservation. Includes a chapter by Domning entitled "Why save the manatee?" (167-173; Domning, 1991c).
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
2002
Manatees (Trichechus manatus, T. senegalensis, and T. inunguis). In: W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig, & J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals.
San Diego, Academic Press (xxxviii + 1414): 709-720. 1 tab. 8 figs.
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Reynolds, John E., III; Rommel, Sentiel A. (detail)
   
1996
Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Anat. Rec. 245: 539-558. 3 tabs. 10 figs.
–Describes in detail the gross and microscopic structure of the entire GI tract, comparing it and its functions with those of other sirs. and other hihdgut digesters, especially proboscideans and hyracoids.
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Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1985
Abundance of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) around selected Florida power plants following winter cold fronts, 1982-1983.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 36(3): 413-422. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–Aerial surveys focussed on 5 Florida Power & Light Company plants revealed lower numbers of manatees than in previous years, probably reflecting unusually mild winter temperatures in 1982-83.
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Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1986
Distribution and abundance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus around selected Florida power plants following winter cold fronts: 1984-85.
Biol. Conserv. 38(2): 103-113. 3 tabs.
–Aerial surveys focussed on 5 Florida Power & Light Company plants revealed generally higher numbers of manatees than in previous years, probably due to very cold temperatures in January 1985.
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Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1987
People, power plants, and manatees.
Sea Frontiers 33(4): 263-269. 6 figs. July-Aug. 1987.
–Pop. acc. of the use of power-plant discharges of warm water as cold-weather refugia by Florida manatees, and related conservation problems.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1988a
Insight into manatee, Trichechus manatus, biology and management provided by winter aerial surveys in Florida. [Abstr.]
Florida Scientist 51 (Suppl. 1): 26.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1988b
Importance of aerial surveys to assess manatee (Trichechus manatus) winter use of Florida Power and Light Company plants from 1977-1986. In: K. Mahadevan, R. K. Evans, P. Behrens, T. Biffar, & L. Olsen (eds.), Proceedings of the Southeastern Workshop on Aquatic Ecological Effects of Power Generation, December, 1986.
Mote Mar. Lab. Rept. No. 124 (546 pp.): 138-152. 2 tabs. 1 fig. May 1988.
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Reynolds, John E., III; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1994
Observations of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) around selected power plants in winter.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 10(2): 163-177. 3 tabs. 2 figs. Apr. 27, 1994.
–Summarizes data from aerial surveys, 1982-1992, at five Florida Power and Light Company plants, and discusses the patterns of seasonal manatee movements documented and the apparent (and worrisome) declining trend in the numbers and proportion of calves sighted.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Lynch, W. (detail)
   
2017
Florida manatees: biology, behavior, and conservation.
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press: 160 pp.
–Rev.: Jorge Ortega & Rafael Juarez-Maldonado, Jour. Mamm. 99(5): 1270-1271, Oct. 10, 2018 (publ. online July 18, 2018). doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyy074.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Marshall, Christopher D. (detail)
   
2012
Vulnerability of sirenians. Chap. 2 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 12-19. 1 fig.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Lawler, Ivan; Edwards, Holly H. (detail)
   
2012
Utility and design of aerial surveys for sirenians. Chap. 21 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 186-195. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Odell, Daniel K.; Rommel, Sentiel A. (detail)
   
1999
Marine mammals of the world. Chap. 1 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 1-14. 9 tabs. 8 figs.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Pitchford, Meghan E. (detail)
   
2004
The likelihood of sperm competition in manatees - explaining an apparent paradox.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 464-476. 1 tab. 3 figs. 1 appendix. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
x
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Szelistowski, William A.; León, Mario A. (detail)
   
1995
Status and conservation of manatees Trichechus manatus manatus in Costa Rica.
Biol. Conserv. 71(2): 193-196. 2 figs.
–Interview, boat, and aerial surveys in 1991 found manatees to be "even less abundant than in the recent past", due to hunting, pollution, and increased boat traffic. Local and regional conservation measures are recommended.
 
 
Reynolds, John E., III; Wells, Randall S. (detail)
   
2003
Dolphins, whales, and manatees of Florida: a guide to sharing their world.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida: 1-160. 33 figs. Dec. 31, 2003.
 
 
Reynolds, S. H. (detail)
   
1897
The vertebrate skeleton.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press: xvi + 559. 110 figs.
–Sirs., 518, 554.
Reynoso, J. P. Gallo: SEE Gallo Reynoso, J.P. (detail)
Rhinehart, Howard L.: SEE Colbert et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Rhoades, Rebecca L. (detail)
   
2013
Swimming with giants.
AAA World (Amer. Automobile Assoc.) 15(6): 34-39. 6 figs. Nov./Dec. 2013.
–Pop. acc. of TML at Crystal River and Lowry Park Zoo, Florida.
 
 
Rhoads, Samuel N. (detail)
   
1894a
Some proposed changes in the nomenclature of the American Mammalia.
Amer. Naturalist 28(330): 523-526. June 1894.
–Supports the use for manatees of the names Trichechus, T. manatus, T. inunguis, and T. senegalensis (523).
 
 
Rhoads, Samuel N. (detail)
   
1894b
A reprint of the North American Zoology, by George Ord. Being an exact reproduction of the part originally compiled by Mr. Ord for Johnson & Warner, and first published by them in their second American edition of Guthrie's Geography, in 1815. Taken from Mr. Ord's private, annotated copy. To which is added an appendix on the more important scientific and historic questions involved.
Haddonfield (New Jersey), publ. by the editor: x + "290-361" + 90. Frontisp.
–Manatee, 291, 293 (of Ord's text), 5-6 (of Rhoads' appendix). Ord recognized "Trichechus australis" (= T. manatus) and "Trichechus siren" (= Steller's "sea-ape").
 
 
Rhoads, Samuel N. (detail)
   
1903
The mammals of Pennsylvania and New Jersey: a biographic, historic and descriptive account of the furred animals of land and sea, both living and extinct, known to have existed in these states.
Philadelphia, privately published: 1-266. 9 pls. 1 map.
–Sirs., 246.
Ribeiro de Sampaio, Francisco Xavier: SEE Sampaio, Francisco Xavier Ribeiro de. (detail)
Ribeiro, Gilberto de Assis: SEE Best, Ribeiro et al., 1982; Colares et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Ricaurte, Daniel Ortega (detail)
   
1940
La hoya del Amazonas.... Tomo I. Segunda edicion.
Bogotá, Editorial Centro S.A.: 1-533.
–First ed., Bogotá, Escuela Tip. Salesiana: 1-297, 1936. Manatee, 440-442.
Rice, Dale W.: SEE ALSO Domning, Rice et al., 1982; Scheffer & Rice, 1963. (detail)
 
D
Rice, Dale W. (detail)
   
1998
Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution.
Soc. for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publ. No. 4: 1-231.
–Review: A. Berta, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16(1): 264-266, "Jan. 2000" (mailed Dec. 8, 1999). Sirs. & desmostylians, 127-133.
x
 
Rice, Dale W.; Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1968
A list of the marine mammals of the world.
U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept. Fisheries No. 579: iii + 16. Dec. 1968.
–Summarizes the distribution of the living sirs. (5-6) and gives their common synonyms (12). Includes a bibliography by Ethel I. Todd (12-16).
Rice-Ficht, Allison C.: SEE Shoda et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Rich, J. A. (detail)
   
1898
Some notes on the manus of the dugong.
Jour. Anat. Physiol. 32: 765-767.
x
 
Rich, Vera (detail)
   
1983
Sea cow relics for museum.
Nature (London) 306: 415. Dec. 1, 1983.
–Reports the discovery on Bering Island of "a virtually complete skeleton" of Steller's sea cow, to be kept and displayed on Bering Island itself. See also Domning (1984a).
 
 
Richard, M. (detail)
   
1946
Les gisements de mammifères tertiaires: contribution à l'étude du bassin d'Aquitaine.
Mém. Soc. Géol. France (n.s.) 24(1)(52): xxiv + 380. 52 figs.
–Mentions Eotherium from the Upper Eocene of France.
 
 
Richard-Hansen, C.; Vie, J. C.; Vidal, N.; Keravec, J. (detail)
   
1999
Body measurements on 40 species of mammals from French Guiana.
Jour. Zool. (London) 247(4): 419-428. Apr. 1999.
Richards, R. W.: SEE Woodring et al., 1940. (detail)
Richardson, B. J.: SEE Lowenstein et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Richardson, John (detail)
   
1837
Report on North American zoology.
Rept. 6th Meeting, Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 5: 121-224.
–Allen 924. Lists Manatus americanus, M. latirostris, and Rhytina borealis among North American Cetacea (162).
 
 
Richardson, W. John; Green, Charles R., Jr.; Malme, Charles I.; Thomson, Denis H. (detail)
   
1995
Marine mammals and noise.
San Diego, Academic Press: xvi + 576. Illus.
Ricqlès, Armand de: SEE ALSO Buffrénil et al., 1990. (detail)
x
 
Ricqlès, Armand De; Buffrénil, Vivian de (detail)
   
1995
Sur la présence de pachyostéosclérose chez la rhytine de Steller [Rhytina (Hydrodamalis) gigas], sirénien récent éteint.
Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (Paris) (13)16(2): 47-53. 1 pl.
–French summ. Describes the histology of bone in H. gigas as seen in two thin sections at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley) made by C. L. Camp, and shows that this is indistinguishable from the pachyosteosclerosis seen in other sir. bone. (At least one of the sections, UCMP 23031, is from a periotic bone of H. gigas.)
Ride, W. D. L.: SEE Mahoney & Ride, 1975. (detail)
x
 
Ridgway, Brian (detail)
   
1982
Paleontological survey of the Toy Town Dump, St. Petersburg, Florida.
The Plaster Jacket (Florida State Museum) No. 40: 4-20. 16 figs. June 1982.
–Reports sirs. cf. Halianassa from the Miocene Hawthorn Formation in Pinellas County, Florida; mentions tooth scars on the bones as evidence of shark predation (7, 13, 15).
Ridgway, Samuel H.: SEE ALSO Harrison & Ridgway, 1976. (detail)
 
 
Ridgway, Samuel H. (detail)
   
1995
The tides of change: conservation of marine mammals. In: E. F. Gibbons, Jr., B. S. Durant, & J. Demarest (eds.), Conservation of endangered species in captivity: an interdisciplinary approach.
Albany, State Univ. of New York Press (xiv + 810 pp.): 407-424.
 
 
Ridley, H. N. (detail)
   
1924
The flora of the Malay Peninsula. Volume 4: Monocotyledones.
London, L. Reeve & Co., Ltd: 1-383.
 
 
Ridley, H. W. (detail)
   
1895
The mammals of the Malay Peninsula.
Nat. Sci. 6: 23-29, 89-96, 161-165.
–Distribution and food habits of the dugong, and its hunting by the Chinese (165).
x
 
Riemer, Donald N. (detail)
   
1982
Sea cows on stamps.
Bio-Philately (Biology Unit, Amer. Topical Assoc.) 31(1-2): 19-23. 6 figs.
–Accurate pop. acc. of living sirs., listing 11 postage stamps depicting them. See also E.D. Gomez (1983).
x
 
Riemer, Donald N. (detail)
   
1984
Introduction to freshwater vegetation.
Westport (Connecticut), AVI Publ. Co., Inc. Illus.
–Gen. acc. of T. manatus and its lack of suitability for weed control (138-141).
 
 
Rigg, J. (detail)
   
1839
Sketch of the geology of Jasinga.
Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (Batavia) 17(8): 120-135.
–First publ. in 1838. Sirs. in the Miocene of Java.
 
 
Riha, Adalbert (detail)
   
1911
Das männliche Urogenitalsystem von Halicore dugong Erxl.
Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 13: 395-422. 15 figs.
Rima, Bert K.: SEE Duignan et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Ripple, Jeff (detail)
   
1999
Manatees and dugongs of the world.
Stillwater (Minnesota), Voyageur Press (WorldLife Discovery Guides): 1-144. Illus.
–Photos by Doug Perrine; Foreword by Judith Vallee.
 
 
Ripple, Jeff; Perrine, Doug (detail)
   
 
Manatees and dugongs of the world.
 
 
Ritchie, P. H. (detail)
   
1934
North of the Never Never.
Sydney, Angus & Robertson: 1-227.
–"In collaboration with H. B. Raine." Australian native customs with respect to hunting, cooking, and eating the dugong, 53-58.
 
 
Rivas Rodriguez, B. A.; Perez A. F.; Colonnello, G. (detail)
   
2012
Distribution, habitat use, and population status of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the middle region of the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela.
Memoria de la Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales 173-174: 155-172.
 
 
Rivera Chavarría, Mario; Castro, Jorge; Camacho, Arturo (detail)
   
2015
The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758).
Biology Open 6 pp. 1 tab. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1242/bio.013631. Published online Sept. 4, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone) and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats.
Rivera, Ernesto J. Ortiz: SEE Ortiz Rivera, Ernesto J. (detail)
x
 
Roaf, Michael (detail)
   
1976
Excavations at Al Markh, Bahrain.
Proc. Seminar for Arabian Studies (Inst. of Archaeology, London) 6: 144-160. 1 tab. 7 figs. 2 pls.
–Mentions the occurrence of dugong bones in the later phase (post-'Ubaid; after 3800 B.C.) at Al Markh (144, 149-151).
Robardet, M.: SEE Lecuyer et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Robb, Jane Sands (detail)
   
1965
Comparative basic cardiology.
New York & London, Grune & Stratton. 528 figs.
–Sirs., 141, 143, 212-215, 402, 574.
Robblee, Michael B.: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Robert, C. (detail)
   
1836a
[Note sur quelques particularités observées dans le squelette d'un lamantin du Sénégal.]
L'Institut 4(153): 114. Apr. 13, 1836.
–Allen 904.
x
 
Robert, C. (detail)
   
1836b
Lettre de M. Robert sur les spirules, sur le lamentin du Sénégal et sur l'existence, dans cette même région de l'Afrique, de hyène tachetée.
Ann. Sci. Nat., Sér. 2, Zool. 5: 226-227.
–Allen 905. ?Repr.: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 2: 362-364. Comments briefly on some features of the skeleton of a nine-foot T. senegalensis he had recently collected (363 in repr.).
x
 
Robert, C. (detail)
   
1837
[Remarks on the manatee and Dinotherium.]
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 4(13): 471. [Read?] Mar. 27, 1836.
–P. 471: {{"M. Robert présente sur les habitudes du Lamantin quelques remarques dont l'objet est d'appuyer le rapprochement établi par M. de Blainville entre les animaux de cette famille et le Dinothérium."}}
 
 
Robert, Maurice (detail)
   
1923
Le Congo physique.
Bruxelles, M. Lamertin: 1-315. Illus.
–Sirs., 287-288.
 
 
Roberts, Andrew; Klomp, Nicholas; Birckhead, Jim (detail)
   
1996
Monitoring marine and terrestrial hunting in an Aboriginal community in North Queensland. In: M. Bomford & J. Caughley (eds.), Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders.
Canberra, Australian Govt. Publ. Service (ix + 216): 152-166. 3 tabs. 3 figs. 2 pls.
 
 
Roberts, Austin (detail)
   
1951
The mammals of South Africa.
?Johannesburg, Trustees of "The Mammals of South Africa" Book Fund; distributed by the Central News Agency: xlviii + 700. Illus.
–Record of dugongs, 232.
Roberts, Brenda: SEE Bossart et al., 1998. (detail)
Roberts, Callum: SEE Sheppard et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Roberts, Orlando W. (detail)
   
1827
Narratives of voyages and excursions on the east coast and in the interior of Central America; describing a journey up the Rio San Juan, and passage across the Lake of Nicaragua to the city of Leon.
Edinburgh, Constable. 1-302. 1 map.
–Facsimile ed.: Gainesville, Univ. Florida Press, 1965. Manatees, 97-98.
Robineau, Daniel: SEE ALSO Lecuyer et al., 1996. (detail)
x
 
Robineau, Daniel (detail)
   
1965
Les osselets de l'ouie de la rhytine.
Mammalia 29(3): 412-425. 5 figs. Sept. 1965.
–Engl. summ. Describes the ear ossicles of Steller's sea cow and compares them with those of Trichechus and Dugong.
x
 
Robineau, Daniel (detail)
   
1969
Morphologie externe du complexe osseux temporal chez les siréniens.
Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris), Sér. A (Zool.), (2)60(1): 1-32. 17 figs.
–Detailed, well-illustrated description of the temporal and ear regions of the Recent sirs., particularly Dugong, and comparisons with other orders of mammals.
x
 
Robineau, Daniel; Rose, Jean-Michel (detail)
   
1982
Le dugong [Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776) Sirenia, Dugongidae] en République de Djibouti.
Biol. Conserv. 24(3): 233-238. 1 fig. Nov. 1982.
–Engl. summ. Strandings, accidental captures in shark nets, and aerial surveys (in late 1980) indicate a population of some 30 dugongs in Djibouti; these may represent the northern edge of a larger population in Somalia.
Robins, J.: SEE Marsh et al., 1997. (detail)
Robinson, John G.: SEE Correa-Viana et al., 1990; O'Shea et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Robinson, N. H. (detail)
   
1984
Marine mammals of the coastal waters of the Illawarra region.
Victorian Naturalist 101(4): 152-161. 2 tabs. 2 figs. July/Aug. 1984.
–Records two dugong strandings in New South Wales, at Port Hacking (Feb. 12, 1959) and Port Kembla (Dec. 1960) (157).
 
 
Robinson, P. T. (detail)
   
1971
Wildlife trends in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Oryx 11(2-3): 117-121. 1 fig.
 
 
Robinson, Peter T. (detail)
   
1974
The Beglia Formation of Tunisia.
Mem. Bur. Rech. Geol. Minieres, France No. 78, vol. 1: 235-237.
 
 
Robinson, Peter T. (detail)
   
1976
Neogene continental rock units of Tunisia.
Proc. Congr. Reg. Comm. Medit. Neog. Stratig. No. 6: 415-419.
x
 
Robinson, Peter T.; Black, Craig C. (detail)
   
1969
Note preliminaire sur les vertebres fossiles du Vindobonien (formation Béglia), du Bled Douarah, Gouvernorat de Gafsa, Tunisie.
Notes Serv. Géol. Tunisie No. 31: 67-70.
–Mentions sir. bones found in a Miocene vertebrate fauna representing shoreline-savannah (and also river-forest?) assemblages (69).
 
 
Robinson, Peter T.; Black, Craig C. (detail)
   
1974
Vertebrate faunas from the Neogene of Tunisia.
Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4: 319-332. 6 figs.
–Reports indeterminate sirs. from both pre- and post-Hipparion levels in the Beglia Formation (322, 327).
Robison, Amy P.: SEE White et al., 2002. (detail)
x
 
Robison, J. (detail)
   
1833
European notices of Indian natural history. 1. The dugong.
Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 2: 100-101. Feb. 1833.
–Letter to Robison from Robert Knox regarding a preserved dugong sent to Edinburgh by G. Swinton.
 
 
Robles-Herrejón, Juan Carlos; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Ortega-Argueta, Alejandro; Pozo, Carmen; Olivera-Gómez, León David (detail)
   
2020
Management effectiveness in marine protected areas for conservation of Antillean manatees on the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems 30: 1182-1193. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3323 May 7, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: 1. This study evaluated management effectiveness in three marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758), located on the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The MPAs evaluated were the Yum-Balam Flora and Fauna Reserve, Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, and Chetumal Bay Manatee Sanctuary. The extent of the traditional, popular, and scientific manatee knowledge and research were assessed, as well as the prescribed conservation management actions, relevant stakeholders, and the degree of inclusion of manatee species in the management schemes of these MPAs.
  2. Four general criteria, 12 specific criteria, and 62 indicators were developed. In total, 199 interviews were completed in seven communities of the MPAs in order to determine the perception of the social, economic, and conservation impacts of the manatee and its management.
  3. Although the evaluated MPAs were not wholly comparable among themselves due to their different management categories and schemes, administration, socio-economic context, and the dynamics and conflicts encountered, a comparison was conducted using standardized criteria and a categorical scale in order to evaluate the level of effectiveness of each MPA.
  4. The MPA with the highest management effectiveness in manatee conservation was found to be the Chetumal Bay, with an effectiveness classed as good (71%), followed by Sian Ka'an with intermediate effectiveness (53%) and Yum?Balam, also with intermediate effectiveness (43%).
  5. The relationships between the key stakeholders of the three MPAs and economic activities such as fishing and tourism are the factors that most influence the effectiveness of management for manatee conservation.
Rocha, M. F. G.: SEE Vargara-Parente et al., 2003a, b. (detail)
Rocha, Newton Banks da: SEE Banks da Rocha, Newton. (detail)
x
 
Rochebrune, A. T. de (detail)
   
1883
Faune de la Sénégambie: mammifères.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 37(4)(7): 49-203.
–Gen. acc. of the African manatee, mostly quoted from M. Adanson (1757?) (190-191).
 
 
Rochefort, César de (detail)
   
1658
Histoire naturelle et morale des Iles antilles de l'Amerique. Enrichie de plusieurs belles figures des raretez les plus considerables qui y sont décrites. Vvec vn vocabulaire Caraïbe.
Rotterdam, Arnould Leers: [8] + 527 pp. + 6 leaves (contents).
–Allen 82.
x
 
Rochefort, César de (detail)
   
1665
Histoire naturelle et morale des Iles Antilles de l'Amerique. Enrichie d'un grand nombre de belles figures en taille douce, des places & des raretez les plus considerables, qui y sont décrites. Avec un vocabulaire Caraïbe. Seconde edition. Reveuë & augmentée de plusieurs descriptions, & de quelques éclaircissemens, qu'on desiroit en la precedente.
Rotterdam, Arnout Leers: 18 leaves + 583 pp. + 6½ leaves (contents). Figs. 3 pls.
–Allen 90. Dutch transl., Rotterdam, 1662 (Allen 85). Engl. transl., London, 1666. Also a later French ed. (Lyon, Christofle Fourmy, 2 vols., 566 & 680 pp., 1667) and a "derniere" ed., Rotterdam, 1681. Manatee, chap. 17, 194-195; fig., 199 (pp. 155-156 in 1662 ed.; 1:391-394, 402 in 1667 ed.). The material in at least the 1667 ed. is identical to that in the 1665 ed., but the figures are reversed.
  Allen says "The account of the Lamantin (1 page and 3 lines in length) is explicit and interesting, describing correctly the general appearance and habits of the animal, including its reproduction, and the use of its flesh as food by the natives. The cut ... is a very good figure (its date, of course, considered) of the animal - an old Lamantin folding its young one in its arms." This picture is reproduced by Durand (1983: 166).
 
 
Rocher, Philippe (detail)
   
2002a
Fossiles typiques du Bordelais.
Bordeaux, Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bordeaux: 1-60.
 
 
Rocher, Philippe (detail)
   
2002b
Le fossile du no. 11: Rytiodus capgrandi.
L'Écho des Faluns 11: 12-13.
x
 
Rocher, Philippe; Charles, Laurent; Mémoire, Nathalie (detail)
   
2015
Redécouverte du crane de Rytiodus capgrandi Lartet, 1866 (Mammalia: Dugongidae) du Plantat (Saint-Morillon, Gironde).
Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 150, n.s. no. 43(1): 13-18. 2 figs. 1 pl.
–ABSTRACT: The skull of Rytiodus capgrandi Lartet, 1866, described and figured by E. Delfortrie in 1880, has just been rediscovered in the Bordeaux Natural History Museum after decades of disappearance.
Rochon-Duvigneaud, André: SEE ALSO Petit & Rochon-Duvigneaud, 1929. (detail)
 
 
Rochon-Duvigneaud, André (detail)
   
1943
Les yeux et la vision des vertébrés.
Paris, Masson & Cie: iii + 719. Illus.
 
 
Rochon-Duvigneaud, André (detail)
   
1972
L'oeil et la vision. In: P.-P. Grassé (ed.), Traité de zoologie: Mammifères.
Paris, Masson et Cie: 16(4)?
–Sirs., 664-665.
 
 
Rodas-Trejo, Jenner; Romero-Berny, Emilio I.; Estrada, Alejandro (detail)
   
2008
Distribution and conservation of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Catazajá wetlands of northeast Chiapas, Mexico.
Tropical Conservation Science 1(4): 321-333. 1 tab. 9 figs. Dec. 1, 2008.
–ABSTRACT: Tropical coastal wetlands have a rich biodiversity, a restricted geographic distribution and are a prime habitat for manatees in the regions where they occur in the Neotropics. Human pressures affect the persistence of tropical wetland ecosystems and hence of manatees. In the continental Neotropics, the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is represented in Mexico by the subspecies T. m. manatus. Lack of information regarding the current distribution of manatees in Mexico hampers conservation approaches of this marine mammal. In this paper we present information on a survey of a population of manatees found in the Catazajá wetlands(ca. 60,000 ha) in northeast Chiapas, Mexico. We additionally report on manatee conservation efforts spanning seven years aimed at involving the participation of local rural communities. Systematic surveys for the presence of manatees were conducted between Feb-Nov, 2007 by sightings along sampling transects in waterways, recording of manatee presence as evidenced by recently browsed aquatic vegetation, presence of stranded individuals and presence of deceased manatees. Additionally, some records of manatee presence underwater were obtained by using a side-scan sonar system. Lastly, interviews with 120 individuals from 10 local communities also yielded information on manatee presence in the wetland system. A map of the study area divided into a grid of 50 ha cells was used to plot and quantify the records of manatee presence obtained with the above procedures. Results indicated presence of manatees in 11% (ca. 4,850 ha) of the 50 ha cells into which the study area was divided. Records indicate presence of manatees throughout the wetland, but with concentration in particular sectors. Involvement of local communities in manatee conservation has resulted in designating the Catazajá wetlands as a natural protected area.
 RESUMEN: Los humedales costeros del Neotrópico son ricos en biodiversidad, presentan una distribución geográfica restringida y son los hábitats principales para poblaciones de manatíes en las regiones en donde estos ocurren. Los humedales costeros están bajo riesgo debido a presiones humanas, impactando la persistencia de poblaciones de manatíes. En la región continental del Neotrópico, el manatí esta representado por la especie Trichechus manatus y en México por la subespecie T. m. manatus. La falta de información básica sobre la distribución actual de poblaciones de manatíes en México dificulta acciones de conservación de este mamífero marino. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de un reconocimiento de la población de manatíes en los humedales de Catazajá (ca. 60,000 ha) en la región noreste del estado de Chiapas, cercana al Golfo de México. También reportamos avances en programas de conservación de los manatíes que involucran a las comunidades locales. Entre Febrero y Noviembre del 2007 se efectuaron reconocimientos sobre presencia de manatíes en el humedal a través de avistamientos a lo largo de trayectos de muestreo, de evidencia de ramoneo de la vegetación acuática, de presencia de individuos varados y de detección de cadáveres. Ocasionalmente usamos un sonar para detectar presencia de manatíes bajo la superficie del agua. Asimismo, llevamos a cabo entrevistas con 120 personas de 10 comunidades locales acerca de áreas del humedal con presencia de manatíes. La información de presencia de manatíes derivada de estos registros fue ubicada en un mapa geográfico del humedal dividido en celdas de 50 ha. Estas fueron usadas para cuantificar los registros. Los resultados indicaron la presencia de manatíes en el 11%(ca. 4,850 ha) de las celdas de 50 ha en que fue dividida el área de estudio. Los registros también indicaron áreas de concentración de presencia de manatíes en algunos sectores del humedal. Los programas comunitarios mostraron un incremento acentuado entre el 2005 y 2007 en la participación por los pobladores locales en acciones de conservación de los manatíes y del humedal, resultado en la consolidación del humedal como un área natural protegida.
 
 
Roddan, G. M. (detail)
   
1938
Report on a survey of the existing and potential rice lands in certain swamp areas in the Southern Province.
Freetown (Sierra Leone), Govt. Printer.
–Manatees in Kamaranka River, Bumpe Chiefdom (para. 70).
 
 
Rode, Paul (detail)
   
1943
Petit atlas des mammifères. III. Cetacés, sirènes, pinnipèdes, carnivores, chiropteres.
Paris, N. Boubee & Co.: 1-65. 12 pls.
 
 
Rodionov, V. A. (detail)
   
1986
[Histochemical study of lipids in the skeletal muscles of the manatee and other marine mammals.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 351-357.
–In Russian.
 
 
Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques; Lazzarini, Stella Maris (detail)
   
2008
Reproductive anatomy of the female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Anat. Rec. 291(5): 557-564. 1 tab. 3 figs.
 
 
Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Marques Barcellos, José Fernando (detail)
   
2014
The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.
Anat. Rec. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1002/ar.22956. Publ. online June 12, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands.
 
 
Rodrigues, R. M. (detail)
   
1992
A fauna da Amazônia.
Belém, CEJUP, 1-217.
 
 
Rodriguez de Acosta, Manuel (detail)
   
1684
El Marañon, y Amazonas. Historia de los descvbrimientos, entradas, y redvccion de naciones. Trabajos malogrados de algvnos conqvistadores, y dichosos de otros, assi temporales, como espiritvales, en las dilatadas montañas, y mayores rios de la America....
Madrid, Antonio Gonçalez de Reyes: [20] + 444 + [31].
–Manatee, 107.
x
 
Rodriguez Ferreira, Alexandre (detail)
   
1903
Memoria sobre o peixe boy e do uso que lhe dão no Estado do Grão Pará.
Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro 12: 169-174.
–Repr.: Rodriguez Ferreira (1972: 59-65). A description, originally written in 1786, of manatee hunting and manatee products, and governmental regulation thereof, in the lower Amazon region of Brazil.
  It may be worth pointing out, given past misunderstandings by some translators, that the word "boy" in the title is the Portuguese word for ox (today spelled "boi"); "peixe-boi" (ox-fish) is the usual Brazilian name for the manatee.
 
 
Rodriguez Ferreira, Alexandre (detail)
   
1972
Viagem filosófica pelas capitanias do Grão Pará, Rio Negro, Mato Grosso e Cuiabá. Memórias zoologia botânica.
Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Federal de Cultura: 1-246. 4 figs.
–A collection of Rodriguez Ferreira's natural history manuscripts dating from the period 1783-1792, edited and annotated by José Cândido de Melo Carvalho. Includes three works referring to manatees: (1) his memoir on the Amazonian manatee (previously published in 1903, q.v.; 59-65); (2) "Observações gerais e particulares, sobre a classe dos mamíferos observados nos territórios dos tres rios, das Amazonas, Negro, e da Madeira: com descrições circunstanciadas, que quase todos eles, deram os antigos, e modernos naturalistas, e principalmente, com a dos Tapuios" (67-204); and (3) "Lista dos animais que fazem objeto das caçadas e das pescarias dos índios" (215-222). The second of these is said to have been published in the Rev. Inst. Hist. Geogr. Bahia 60: 5-217, 1934. The third is said to have been published in the Rev. Trimensal Inst. Hist. Geogr. Brasil. 51(1): 94-101, 1888, and in E. Goeldi, Alexandre R. Ferreira, Pará, ENSAIO, 1905: 57-65.
  The memoir of observations on mammals mentions (124) the previous memoir on manatees, Manatus appears in a list of mammals on p. 129, and Trichechus manatus forms the subject of pp. 195-201. A female manatee is illustrated in fig. 4, facing p. 194. Note that the statistics on manatee exploitation appearing on pp. 63 and 201 of this ed. conflict with those in Rodriguez Ferreira (1903), and are apparently erroneous; see Domning (1982a: 103). Likewise, on p. 65 the date of completion of the manatee memoir is given as Feb. 2, 1786, but is Feb. 3 in the 1903 ed.
 The list of animals hunted by the Indians includes, under "Bruta", the juarauá or peixe-boi (manatee), of which two types are recognized: "ordinário" and "de manteiga" (215).
Rodriguez, João Barbosa: SEE Barbosa Rodriguez, João. (detail)
 
 
Rodriguez, Z. M.; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; D'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo (detail)
   
1999
Teste de formula láctea na alimentação de filhotes órfãos de peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis). In: T.G. Fang, O.L. Montenegro, & R.E. Bodner (eds.), Manejo y conservación de fauna silvestre en América Latina.
Bolivia, Instituto de Ecología: 405-408.
Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A.: SEE Mignucci G. et al., 2000; Mignucci G., Williams et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Rodway, James (detail)
   
1912
In the Guiana forest. Ed. 2?
Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co.: 1-326.
–P. 84: {"As if these enemies were not sufficient, he [the Guiana native] must create another, the Hue-ru, or siren. Some have thought this water sprite to be nothing but an exaggerated manatee. But the Indians know this animal too well to confound it with his mysterious enemy. He shoots the Manatee and feeds his family for a week upon its meat when fortunate enough to secure it."}
x
 
Rodway, James (detail)
   
1917
Indian charms. In: W. Beebe, G. I. Hartley, & P. G. Howes, Tropical wild life in British Guiana; zoological contributions from the Tropical Research Station of the New York Zoological Society. Vol. 1.
New York, New York Zoological Society (504 pp.): 488-499. Fig. 143. Jan. 1917.
–States that the "water-mamma" or manatee is believed to upset boats and "carry people down to a kind of fairyland beneath the dark waters"; it "may be repelled or propitiated by rubbing the bulb of the red lily over the corial before encountering the danger" (491). This plant is identified as Hippeastrum equestre on p. 499.
Roess, William B.: SEE Cashman et al., 1996; Ness et al., 1998. (detail)
Roetzel, Reinhard: SEE ALSO Pervesler & Roetzel, 1991a, 1991b; Pervesler et al., 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000. (detail)
x
 
Roetzel, Reinhard (detail)
   
1988
Bericht 1987 über geologische Aufnahmen im Tertiär und Quartär auf Blatt 8 Geras.
Jahrb. Geol. Bundesanst. (Vienna) 131(3): 401-402. Nov. 1988.
–Mentions ribs of Metaxytherium collected from Eggenburgian (Early Mioc.) deposits near Weitersfeld, Austria (402).
 
 
Rogenhofer, Alois (detail)
   
1908
Über ein Endglied des Ichthyosaurierstammes aus der Kreideformation.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 58: (38)-(44).
–Sirs., (43).
 
 
Roger, Otto (detail)
   
1879-82
Liste der bis jetzt bekannten fossilen Säugethiere.
Corresp.-Bl. Zool.-Min. Ver. Regensburg 33: 43-46, 70-92, 131-147; 34: 165-180; 35: 27-34, 52-64, 117-128; 36: 47-63, 77-94, 110-122, 129-147.
–See also Zool. Jahrb. 4: 279? Subsequent revisions appeared in Ber. Augsburg Nat. Ver. 1887: 1-162; 1894: 3-40; 1896: 1-272; 1898: 383-396.
 
D
Rogers, Austin F. (detail)
   
1924
Mineralogy and petrography of fossil bone.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 35: 535-556. Pls. 26-29.
–Desmostylians, 545.
x
 
Rogovich, A. S. (detail)
   
1875
[Note on the localities of bones of fossil mammal animals in South-Western Russia.]
Zapiski Kievskogo Obschestva Estestvoispytateley 4(1): 33-45.
–In Russian. Reports supposedly Cretaceous teeth and vertebrae of "a cetacean animal" found near Kanev, Ukraine,under the nomen nudum Halicore maximovitschii (37). A. O. Averianov ("Mammals from the Mesozoic of Kirgizstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan." In M. J. Benton, M. A. Shishkin, D. M. Unwin and E. N. Kurochkin, The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Cambridge University Press: 627-652, 2000) has confirmed that the material represents an Eocene cetacean.
 
 
Rohl, E. (detail)
   
1959
Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela.
Madrid, Nuevas Graficas.
 
 
Rojchanaprasart, Natthita; Tongnunui, Prasert; Tinnungwattana, Wipawan (detail)
   
2014
Comparison between traditional ecological knowledge of coastal villagers in Thailand and scientific ecological knowledge regarding dugong.
Kasetsart J. (Soc. Sci) 35: 368-377. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–ABSTRACT: Previous studies of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of dugongs are sparse. Moreover, they did not compare TEK and SEK (scientific ecological knowledge) with statistical testing. Hence, this paper examined an equal proportion of TEK and SEK. The study covered five coastal communities in Trang province. In-depth interviews were used with coastal village elders by snowball sampling and with the team leaders of 5 coastal resource conservation groups by purposive sampling––a total of 40 interviewees. Qualitative analysis was applied by coding the knowledge issues of TEK for a comparison with the SEK that was derived from literature reviews and knowledge sharing in fora among villagers, academics, and other sectors. Consistent issues were scored as 1 and inconsistent issues were scored as 0, with the maximum score being 86. The proportion of TEK to SEK was tested by chi-square. The findings indicated that for the dugong morphology, the proportion of TEK was equal to SEK (p = .370). For dugong behavior, including swimming, breathing, feeding, and social behavior and communication, the proportion of TEK was equal to SEK (p = 1.000, .366, .715 and 1.000, respectively), while the proportion of TEK on breeding and parental care of calves was not equal to SEK (p = .034). In other words, the proportion of TEK on parental care of calves was equal to SEK (p = .405), while the proportion of TEK on breeding was not equal to SEK (p = .033). From the test results above, it could be concluded that the villagers' traditional ecological knowledge regarding dugongs was comparable to the scientific ecological knowledge. Therefore, it is an extremely valuable source of knowledge. The study results suggested that traditional ecological knowledge regarding dugongs directly influences dugong conservation with the dugong being an important indicator of the abundance of aquatic resources. Moreover, the use of the traditional ecological knowledge not only empowered the coastal villagers to participate in dugong conservation, but also supported their participation in dugong planning because the coastal villagers were stakeholders in the co-management.
 
 
Roland-Holst, A. (detail)
   
1930
Sirenische Kunst.
De Gids (Amsterdam) 94(1): 132-136.
–In Dutch.
Roletto, Janette: SEE Dierauf, L. A., 1990. (detail)
Roman, F.: SEE Depéret & Roman, 1920. (detail)
x
 
Roman, F. (detail)
   
1922
Sur quelques mammifères du Miocène du Bordelais.
Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 74: 231-240. 1 fig. 1 pl.
–Discusses Metaxytherium remains from Burdigalian deposits at Léognan, France (231-232).
 
D
Romer, Alfred Sherwood (detail)
   
1966
Vertebrate paleontology. Ed. 3.
Chicago & London, Univ. Chicago Press: ix + 468. 4 tabs. 443 figs.
–Ed. 1, 1933; ed. 2, 1945. Sirs. & desmostylians, 252-254, 386.
x
D
Romer, Alfred Sherwood (detail)
   
1968
Notes and comments on vertebrate paleontology.
Chicago & London, Univ. Chicago Press: viii + 304.
–A supplement to his textbook Vertebrate Paleontology, ed. 3. Discusses sirs. and desmostylians on pp. 200-201; insists on using the name Manatus in preference to Trichechus, and comments on the series of discoveries that led to recognition of the Desmostylia as a separate order.
x
 
Romero, A.; Hayford, K. T.; Romero, A.; Romero, J. (detail)
   
2002
The marine mammals of Grenada, W.I., and their conservation status.
Mammalia 66(4): 479-494. 1 tab. 2 figs. Dec. 30, 2002.
–French summ. Mentions archaeological and 17th-century records of T. manatus in Grenada, and concludes that the species has been extinct there for at least 300 years (486, 493).
Romero, J.: SEE Romero et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Romero-Calderon, Ana G.; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Rosiles-Martinez, Rene; Olivera-Gomez, Leon David; Delgado-Estrella, Alberto (detail)
   
2016
Metals in bone tissue of Antillean manatees from the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay, Mexico.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 96(1): 9-14. 2 tabs. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-015-1674-6. Jan. 2016.
–ABSTRACT: Concentrations of seven metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were analyzed in 33 bone tissue samples of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) found dead in lagoons and rivers of Tabasco and Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay in the Caribbean region. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were significantly different between regions, with greater levels found in the Gulf of Mexico group than in the Mexican Caribbean group (p < 0.05). Pb concentrations differed significantly between adults and calves. No differences were observed between sexes. Metal concentrations detected in the manatee bones were higher than most of those reported for bones in other marine mammals around the world. Future studies are necessary to establish whether the metal concentrations represent a risk to the health of the species.
 
 
Romeu, Emma (detail)
   
1990
Manatí, gigante de las aguas bajas.
Somos Jóvenes (Havana), No. 123.
x
 
Romeu, Emma (detail)
   
1997
El gran manatí antillano.
Biodiversitas (Boletín Bimestral de la Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad) (Coyoacán, Mexico) 3(16): 2-6. 7 figs. Dec. 1997.
–Gen. acc. of Antillean manatees, emphasizing status and conservation efforts in Mexico.
Rommel, Sentiel A.: SEE ALSO Bossart, Meisner et al., 2003; Fagone et al., 2000; Kipps et al., 2002; Reynolds & Rommel, 1996. (detail)
 
 
Rommel, Sentiel A.; Lowenstine, Linda J. (detail)
   
2001
Gross and microscopic anatomy. In: L. A. Dierauf & F. M. D. Gulland (eds.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. Ed. 2.
Boca Raton, etc., CRC Press (lvii + 1063): 129-164. 4 figs.
x
 
Rommel, Sentiel A.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2000
Diaphragm structure and function in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Anat. Rec. 259(1): 41-51. 6 figs. + cover illus. May 1, 2000.
–Describes the anatomy of the respiratory diaphragm, redefines or renames some structures in the manatee that differ from other mammals,and discusses the diaphragm's role in buoyancy control. In manatees, the transverse septum between heart and liver is separate from the diaphragm, which does not attach to the sternum. Intestinal gas may possibly be manipulated within the abdomen to help control buoyancy and pitch.
 
 
Rommel, Sentiel A.; Caplan, Heather (detail)
   
2003
Vascular adaptations for heat conservation in the tail of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Anat. 202(4): 343-353. 5 figs. Apr. 2003.
 
 
Rommel, Sentiel A.; Costidis, A. M.; Pitchford, Thomas D.; Lightsey, Jessica D.; Snyder, R. H.; Haubold, Elsa M. (detail)
   
2007
Forensic methods for characterizing watercraft from watercraft-induced wounds on the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(1): 110-132. 3 tabs. 8 figs. Jan. 2007.
 
 
Rommel, Sentiel A.; Pabst, D. Ann; McLellan, William A. (detail)
   
2001
Functional morphology of venous structures associated with the male and female reproductive systems in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Anat. Rec. 264: 339-347. 1 tab. 5 figs.
 
 
Rommel, Sentiel A.; Reynolds, John E., III; Lynch, H. A. (detail)
   
2003
Adaptations of the herbivorous marine mammals. In: L. 't Mannetje, L. Ramírez-Avilés, C. Sandoval-Castro, & J.C. Ku-Vera, Matching herbivore nutrition to ecosystems biodiversity. VI International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Mérida, México, 19-24 October 2003.
México, Univ. Auton. de Yucatan: 287-308. 10 figs.
Rónai, A.: SEE Balogh & Rónai, 1965. (detail)
 
 
Ronald, Keith; Selley, L. J.; Amoroso, E. C. (detail)
   
1978
Biological synopsis of the manatee.
Ottawa, International Development Research Centre: 1-112. 6 tabs. 10 pls.
–Review of the literature on manatee biology (5-47), with a bibliography of 865 titles on sirs. listed alphabetically by author, without annotations or index (65-111), and a short index to the text (112). The plates (49-63) reproduce those of J. Murie (1872a).
 
 
Rondelet, Guilaume (detail)
   
1554
Libri de piscibus marinis, in quibus verae piscium effigies expressae sunt. Quae in tota piscium historia contineantur, indicat elenchus pagina nona et decima. Postremò accesserunt indices necessarij.
Lugduni [= Leiden], Matthiam Bonhomme: 1-583. Illus.
–Allen 10. Manatee, book 16, chap. 18, p. 490.
 
 
Rondelet, Guilaume (detail)
   
1558
Le premiere partie de l'histoire entiere des poissons, composée premierement en Latin....
Lyon, Mace Bonhome: 1-418. Illus.
–Allen 15. Manatee, 359-360. The figs. are the same as in the 1554 Latin ed. (q.v.).
x
 
Rondon, Cândido Mariano da Silva; Faria, João Barbosa de (detail)
   
1948
Glossário geral das tribos silvícolas de Mato-Grosso e outras da Amazônia e do Norte do Brasil. Tomo I.
Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional (Commissão Rondon, Publ. no. 76): 1-257.
–On July 11, 1927, on the Rio Uaçá on the Atlantic coast of Pará, Brazil, Barbosa de Faria recorded the Galibí tribe's name for the manatee as cuiúmurú (232).
x
 
Rood, Ronald N. (detail)
   
1960
A half-ton of mermaid.
Coronet 49: 133-136. Dec. 1960.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, apparently based largely on J.C. Moore (1956).
 
 
Rosa de Oliveira, Larissa; Loizaga De Castro, Rocio; Cardenas-Alayza, Susana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis (detail)
   
2012
Conservation genetics of South American aquatic mammals: an overview of gene diversity, population structure, phylogeography, non-invasive methods and forensics.
Mammal Review 42(4): 275-303. 1 tab. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00201.x. October 2012.
–ABSTRACT:
 1-Most aquatic mammals have high dispersal potential, and there are often severe conservation concerns related to their legal or illegal harvesting. Therefore, economic, social and forensic factors often arise in decisions relating to their population management. Molecular markers are essential tools in modern conservation genetics, revealing previously unknown aspects of aquatic mammal behaviour, natural history, population structure and demography. Molecular markers also have been used to define management units, to recognize taxonomic units, to conduct forensic analyses and to control illegal wildlife trade, providing valuable information for decision-making in wildlife conservation and management.
 2-We review studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1993 and 2010, in which genetic approaches have been applied to conservation-related issues involving natural populations of 25 species of aquatic mammals in South America. These studies cover just 34% of the 70 aquatic mammal species recorded in South America.
 3-Most of the studies are related to population structure, phylogeography, gene flow and dispersal movements. In addition, recent findings relate to evolutionarily significant units, management units, forensics and conservation policy.
 4-Finally, we look to the future and, based on numbers of studies and conservation concerns, suggest which species, geographic areas and genetic studies should be prioritized. Moreover, we discuss constraints on research and suggest collaborative works that would provide critical information towards the effective conservation and management of aquatic mammals in South America.
Rosas, Fernando César Weber: SEE ALSO Colares et al., 1990; Marshall et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
   
1991
Peixe-boi da Amazônia, Trichechus inunguis. In: H. L. Capozzo & M. Junin (eds.), Estado de conservación de los mamíferos marinos del Atlantico Sudoccidental.
Informes y Estudios del Programa de Mares Regionales del PNUMA (United Nations Environment Programme) No. 138 (250 pp.): 178-181.
x
 
Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
   
1994
Biology, conservation and status of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis.
Mamm. Rev. 24(2): 49-59. 3 figs. June 1994.
–Reviews the literature on the biology of T. inunguis (emphasizing contributions from INPA, Manaus, Brazil), and makes general recommendations for study and protection of the spercies.
 
 
Rosas, Fernando César Weber (detail)
   
2001
Order Sirenia (manatees, dugongs, sea cows). Biology. In: M. E. Fowler & Z. S. Cubas (eds.), Biology, medicine, and surgery of South American wild animals.
Ames, Iowa State Univ. Press (x + 536): 352-356.
–Forms part of Chap. 31 together with Pimentel, T.L., 2001.
 
 
Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Colares, Elton Pinto; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da (detail)
   
1991
Mamíferos aquáticos da Amazônia brasileira. In: A. L. Val, R. Figliuolo & E. Feldberg (eds.), Bases científicas para estratégias de preservação e desenvolvimento da Amazônia: fatos e perspectivas. Vol. 1.
[Publisher?] (440 pp.): 405-411.
x
 
Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Lehti, Kesä Kannikah; Marmontel, Miriam (detail)
   
1999
Hematological indices and mineral content of serum in captive and wild Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis.
Arq. Ciên. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR 2(1): 37-42. 3 tabs. Jan./July 1999.
–Portuguese & Spanish summs. Captive male manatees were found to be very deficient in zinc, magnesium, iron, potassium, and calcium, and marginally deficient in copper. Captive females were marginally deficient in copper, magnesium, iron, potassium, and calcium. The greater degree of deficiency in the males may indicate a natural difference between the sexes.
Rose, Jean-Michel: SEE Robineau & Rose, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Rose, Naomi A.; Farinato, Richard (detail)
   
1995
The case against marine mammals in captivity.
[Washington, D.C.,] Humane Soc. of the United States: iii + 46. Illus.
Rose, Patrick M.: SEE ALSO Garrott et al., 1994; Walsh et al., 1987; Wood et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Rose, Patrick M. (detail)
   
1981
A preliminary report on the aerial census of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus, in and around several "once-through cooling" power plant effluents; December-March 1977-78. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 22-24. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Presents data on numbers of manatees sighted at each of 11 Florida Power & Light Company plants; analysis and discussion are reserved for a later date.
 
 
Rose, Patrick M. (detail)
   
1985
The West Indian manatee.
Audubon Wildlife Report (National Audubon Soc.) 1985: 540-546.
 
 
Rosenberg, C. B. H. von (detail)
   
1867
Reis naar de Zuidoostereilanden, gedaan in 1865.
's-Gravenhage: 1-120.
Rosinha, A. J.: SEE Tinley et al., 1976. (detail)
x
 
Ross, Anne (detail)
   
1994
Traditional Aboriginal hunting in Australia: a cultural heritage issue.
Cultural Survival Quarterly 18(2, 3): 22-26. 3 figs. Summer/Fall 1994.
–Argues in favor of recognizing the traditional rights of Aborigines to hunt wild game, including dugongs in Queensland (22-24).
Ross, Monica: SEE Weigle et al., 2001. (detail)
Rossi, S. S.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
Rössner, Gertrud E.: SEE Darga et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Roth, Harald H.; Waitkuwait, Ekkehard (detail)
   
1986
Répartition et statut des grandes espèces de mammifères en Côte-d'Ivoire. III. Lamantins.
Mammalia 50(2): 227-242. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
 
 
Roth, Janet A.; Laerm, Joshua (detail)
   
1980
A Late Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage from Edisto Island, South Carolina, USA.
Brimleyana No. 3: 1-30. July 1980.
x
 
Roth, V. Louise (detail)
   
1992
Quantitative variation in elephant dentitions: implications for the delimitation of fossil species.
Paleobiology 18(2): 184-202. 6 tabs. 2 figs. May 6, 1992.
–Discusses the relatively low variability of tooth size in T. inunguis in comparison with that seen in elephants (194-195, 197).
 
 
Roth, Vincent (detail)
   
1941
Notes and observations on animal life in British Guiana, 1907-1941; a popular guide to colonial Mammalia.
Georgetown (Brit. Guiana), _Daily Chronicle_, Ltd.: ii + 164 + xv. 54 pls.
–Fourth impression, 1953. Manatee, 69-73, pls. 23-24.
 
 
Roth, Vincent (detail)
   
1961
[Title?]
Jour. Brit. Guiana Mus. & Zoo No. 29: 34-35? Mar. 1961.
x
 
Roth, Walter E. (detail)
   
1901
Food: its search, capture and preparation.
North Queensland Ethnography Bull. No. 3: 1-31. 23 Figs. Sept. 1901.
–Brief paragraph noting that dugongs are harpooned or speared in North Queensland, and that at Bentinck Is. (Gulf of Carpentaria) bush fences are built in the water and dugongs are driven into them (30).
 
 
Roth, Walter E. (detail)
   
1915
An inquiry into the animism and folk lore of the Guiana Indians.
Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 30 (for 1908-09): 103-386. 6 figs. 4 pls.
 
 
Roth, Walter E. (detail)
   
1924
An introductory study of the arts, crafts, and customs of the Guiana Indians.
Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 38 (for 1916-17): 25-743. 343 figs. 183 pls.
 
 
Rothauscher, Hans (detail)
   
2008
Die Stellersche Seekuh: Monografie der ausgestorbenen Nordischen Riesenseekuh Hydrodamalis gigas.
Norderstedt, Books on Demand GmbH: 1-87. Illus. Jan. 16, 2008.
–A convenient, detailed, thorough, well-organized summary (in German) of information on all aspects of Steller's Sea Cow, its evolution, history of discovery, and biology.
 
 
Rothausen, Karlheinz (detail)
   
1967
Die Klimabindung der Squalodontoidea (Odontoceti, Mamm.) und anderer mariner Vertebrata. In: L. Ahorner et al. (eds.), Miscellanea in honorem M. Schwarzbach.
Sonderveröff. Geol. Inst. Univ. Köln 13: 157-166.
–Engl. summ. Discusses Rytina gigas.
x
 
Rothausen, Karlheinz (detail)
   
1986
Marine Tetrapoden im tertiären Nordsee-Becken. 1. Nord- und mitteldeutscher Raum ausschliesslich Niederrheinische Bucht. Marine tetrapods in the Tertiary North Sea Basin. 1. Northern and Middle Germany excluding the Lower Rhine Embayment. In: H. Tobien (ed.), Nordwestdeutschland im Tertiär. Northwest Germany in the Tertiary.
Berlin & Stuttgart, Gebrüder Borntraeger (Beiträge zur Regionalen Geologie der Erde, Band 18) (xxvi + 763): 510-557. 3 figs.
–Summarizes records of Halitherium schinzii, H. sp., ?H. sp., and Anomotherium langewieschei in the German Oligocene, and discusses their paleoecological significance (520-521, 528-529, 539, 545, 547-548, 551).
 
 
Rothausen, Karlheinz (detail)
   
1994
Die Schritte der Tetrapoden in die Meere des frühen Känozoikums.
Berliner Geowiss. Abh., Reihe E, Palaeobiol. 13: 99-112.
 
 
Roudebush, William E.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2009
Validation of an Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) ELISA for use in an endangered marine mammal, the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Biology of Reproduction 81.
–ABSTRACT: Environmental and human-caused stressors can affect wildlife populations in a number of ways, some more critical than others. One of the more serious effects can involve fertility and reproductive success. Especially for endangered taxa, it is important to understand whether reproduction is being impaired and, if possible,to mitigate the stressors that may be the cause of the impairment. For marine mammals such as the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), certain stressors or conservation risk factors have been identified, but their effects have been very difficult to assess using traditional methods. The inability to demonstrate clearly the magnitude and extent of effects of environmental stressors such as climate change, red tides and contaminants on manatees and other marine mammals represents a significant impediment to their conservation. Without such information to inform decision makers, the motivation to make changes has been lacking. The development of "biomarkers" allows us to correlate effects, such as impaired reproduction, with possible causes(e.g., chemical contaminants, and biotoxins). A recently-developed biomarker (anti-Mullerian hormone; AMH) provides an ELISA*-based analysis of gonadal function plus reproductive potential. AMH is a glycoprotein dimer composed of two 72kDa monomers linked by disulfide bridges and belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. AMH is secreted by the Sertoli cells in males and by ovarian granulosa cells in females and is age and maturity dependent. The study objective was to validate the AMH ELISA for use in the manatee. A total of 21 male and 9 female manatee serum samples were obtained and assayed for AMH by a commercially available ELISA kit from Diagnostic Systems Laboratory (Webster, TX; a Beckman-Coulter, Inc. company). Animal demographics included collection date, body weight (kg) and length (cm). AMH levels were assessed according to the manufacturer's instructions. AMH levels ranged from 160-1,010 ng/mL (mean 491.48ng/mL) in the male and 0.0-0.2 ng/mL (mean 0.08 ng/mL) in the female. Linear regression analysis (AMH = (0.649*kg) - 97.5);R2=0.46) found a significant relationship (P<0.01) between male AMH levels and body weight. Linear regression analysis(AMH = (4.970*cm) - 887.9; R2=0.29) found a significant relationship(P<0.05) between male AMH levels and body length. Due to the low sample size, regression analysis for female AMH andbody weight and length only approached significance. Body length is an excellent indicator of animal maturity. This represents the first report of AMH detection in the West Indian manatee.AMH levels in the male are the highest in any mammalian species reported on to date. By comparison, AMH levels in the femaleare within reported ranges for other mammalian species. Following this assay, validation will allow us soon to assess the fertility potential of manatees as a function of various parameters including,but not limited to geographic location, nutritional status,exposures to biotoxins or contaminants, or disease.
 
 
Roughley, Theodore Cleveland (detail)
   
1961
Wonders of the Great Barrier Reef. Ed. 13.
Sydney, Angus & Robertson: xv + 279. Illus.
–First publ. 1936. Dugong, 162-168, pl. 31.
 
 
Roughsey, Dick (Goobalathaldin) (detail)
   
1971
Moon and rainbow: the autobiography of an Aboriginal.
Sydney, A. H. & A. W. Reed: 1-168. Illus.
–Dugong hunting and habits; old male "whistlers" keeping herds together; 46-52.
 
 
Rouja, Philippe Max; Dewailly, Eric; Blanchet, Carole; Bardi Community (detail)
   
2003
Fat, fishing patterns, and health among the Bardi people of northwestern Australia.
Lipids 38(4): 399-405.
 
 
Roulin, François Désiré (detail)
   
1829
Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire du tapir; et description d'une espèce nouvelle appartenant aux hautes régions de la Cordillière des Andes, avec des considérations sur les animaux fabuleux dont l'histoire se rapporte à celle du tapir.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 18: 26-56. Read Feb. 9, 1829.
–Abstrs.: Frorieps Notizen 23: 305-312; Isis von Oken 1833: 213-219; Mém. Savans Étrang. (Paris) 6: 557-640, 948-952, 1835. Sirs., 7?
Round, Philip D.: SEE Graham & Round, 1994. (detail)
 
 
Rountree, Rodney A.; Perkins, Paul J.; Kenney, Robert D.; Hinga, Kenneth R. (detail)
   
2002
Sounds of western North Atlantic fishes: data rescue.
Bioacoustics 12(2-3): 242-244.
 
 
Rouse, I. (detail)
   
1948
The Carib. In: Handbook of South American Indians.
Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Inst. 4: 547-563.
 
 
Rouse, I. (detail)
   
1964
Prehistory of the West Indies.
Science 144: 499-513.
 
 
Rousseau, L. F. E. (detail)
   
1856
De la dentition des cétacés et de la place qu'occupent les fanons dans la bouche des baleines.
Rev. Mag. Zool. 1856: 1-55. 8 figs.
–Sirs., 8.
Routil, R.: SEE Exner & Routil, 1958. (detail)
 
 
Roux, W. (detail)
   
1885
Über eigenartige Kanäle in recenten und fossilen Knochen.
Anat. Anz. 1: 276-277.
 
 
Roux, W. (detail)
   
1887
Über eine in Knochen lebende Gruppe von Fadpilzen (Mycelites ossifragus).
Zs. Wiss. Zool. 45.
–According to Bernhauser (1953: 119), reports borings made by "Mycelites ossifragus" in bones of Rhytina gigas.
x
 
Rovirosa, José N. (detail)
   
1887
Apuntes para la zoologia de Tabasco: vertebrados observados en el Territorio de Macuspana.
La Naturaleza (México) 7: 345-389.
–Discusses the distribution, harpooning, and economic use of manatees in Tabasco, Mexico (356-358).
x
 
Rowlatt, Ursula; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1985
The heart of the dugong (Dugong dugon) and the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) (Sirenia).
Jour. Morph. 186(1): 95-106. 6 figs. DOI:10.1002/jmor.1051860109. Oct. 1985.
–Describes the gross anatomy of the heart and great vessels and their situation in the thorax. Most of the description is intended to apply to both species but is apparently based mainly on the dugong. Some differences between dugong and manatee hearts are explicitly pointed out and interpreted as consistent with greater stamina in the dugong; but otherwise the authors suggest only that "a morphologically unusual heart may be expected in a morphologically unusual thorax."
Rubenstein, N. I.: SEE Collard et al., 1976. (detail)
Rudin, M.: SEE Garcia-Rodriguez et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Rueger, J. (detail)
   
1938
Zur Osteologie der beiden ersten Halswirbel der Säugetiere.
Vierteljahresschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 83: 25-56.
Ruggiero, L.: SEE Borgia et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Rumph, Georg Everhard (detail)
   
1750
Herbarium Amboinense.... Vol. 6.
Amsterdam, Changuion & Utywerf: viii + 256. 90 pls.
–Argues that the dugong was the basis of the numerous legends of mermaids (book 11, p. 180).
 
 
Runge, Michael C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Martin, Julien; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J. (detail)
   
2012
Status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 2012.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1083. DOI: 10.3133/ofr20151083.
–ABSTRACT: The endangered West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), especially the Florida subspecies (T. m. latirostris), has been the focus of conservation efforts and extensive research since its listing under the Endangered Species Act. On the basis of the best information available as of December 2012, the threats facing the Florida manatee were determined to be less severe than previously thought, either because the conservation efforts have been successful, or because our knowledge of the demographic effects of those threats is increased, or both. Using the manatee Core Biological Model, we estimated the probability of the Florida manatee population on either the Atlantic or Gulf coast falling below 500 adults in the next 150 years to be 0.92 percent. The primary threats remain watercraft-related mortality and long-term loss of warm-water habitat. Since 2009, however, there have been a number of unusual events that have not yet been incorporated into this analysis, including several severely cold winters, a severe red-tide die off, and substantial loss of seagrass habitat in Brevard County, Fla. Further, the version of the Core Biological Model used in 2012 makes a number of assumptions that are under investigation. A revision of the Core Biological Model and an update of this quantitative threats analysis are underway as of 2015.
 
 
Runge, Michael C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Kendall, William L. (detail)
   
2004
A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 361-385. 3 tabs. 5 figs. July 2004 (mailed July 28, 2004).
 
 
Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, C. A.; Fonnesbeck, C. J. (detail)
   
2007a
A core stochastic population projection model for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
U. S. Geol. Survey Open-File Report 2007-1082. 41 pp. http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/resshow/manatee/documents/OFR2007-1082.pdf.
 
 
Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, C. A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, C. J. (detail)
   
2007b
A quantitative threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
U. S. Geol. Survey Open-File Report 2007-1086. 34 pp. http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/resshow/manatee/documents/OFR2007-1086.pdf.
 
 
Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Hostetler, J. A.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Mahon, Gary L. (detail)
   
2017
Status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 2016.
U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5030: ix + 40. 8 tabs. 18 figs. https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175030
–ABSTRACT: Trichechus manatus (West Indian manatee), especially T. m. latirostris, the Florida subspecies, has been the focus of conservation efforts and extensive research since its listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. To determine the status of, and severity of threats to, the Florida manatee, a comprehensive revision and update of the manatee Core Biological Model was completed and used to perform a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee. The probability of the Florida manatee population falling below 500 adults on either the Gulf or East coast within the next 100 years was estimated to be 0.42 percent. This risk of quasi-extinction is low because the estimated adult survival rates are high, the current population size is greater than 2,500 on each coast, and the estimated carrying capacity for manatees is much larger than the current abundance estimates in all four regions of Florida. Three threats contribute in roughly equal measures to the risk of quasi-extinction: watercraft-related mortality, red-tide mortality, and loss of warm-water habitat. Only an increase in watercraft-related mortality has the potential to substantially increase the risk of quasi-extinction at the statewide or coastal level. Expected losses of warm-water habitat are likely to cause a major change in the distribution of the population from the regions where manatees rely heavily on power plant effluents for warmth in winter (Southwest and Atlantic regions) to the regions where manatees primarily use natural springs in winter (Northwest and Upper St. Johns regions). The chances are nearly 50 percent that manatee populations in the Southwest and Atlantic regions will decrease from their 2011 levels by at least 30 percent over the next century.
  A large number of scenarios were examined to explore the possible effects of potential emerging threats, and in most of them, the risk of quasi-extinction at the coastal scale within 100 years did not rise above 1 percent. The four exceptions are scenarios in which the rate of watercraft-related mortality increases, carrying capacity is only a fraction of the current estimates, a new chronic source of mortality emerges, or multiple threats emerge in concert. Even in these scenarios, however, the risk of falling below 500 adults on either the East coast or the Gulf coast within 100 years from 2011 is less than 10 percent. High adult survival provides the population with strong resilience to a variety of current and future threats. On the basis of these analyses, we conclude that if these threats continue to be managed effectively, manatees are likely to persist on both coasts of Florida and remain an integral part of the coastal Florida ecosystem through the 21st century. If vigilance in management is reduced, however, the scenarios in which manatees could face risk of decline become more likely.
x
 
Rüppell, E. (detail)
   
1834
Schreiben von Dr. E. Rüppell an Dr. W. Sömmerring über den im Rothen Meere vorkommenden Dugong (Halicore).
Mus. Senckenbergianum 1(2): 99-114. Pl. 6.
–Describes in detail the anatomy of the Red Sea dugong, and gives some notes on its natural history (as told to him by hunters) and the use of its meat, tusks, and hide. Also comments on the hide's use by the ancient Hebrews to cover the Ark of the Covenant, whence he derives the new name Halicore tabernaculi, given in case the species proves to differ from "H. Dugong of the Moluccas" (113). Sömmerring, however, in a foreword (97-98), explains that Rüppell's account was written in the field without access to a library, and that the Red Sea dugong is undoubtedly the same as the species already described in the literature.
x
 
Rusby, Henry H. (detail)
   
1933
Jungle memories.
New York & London, Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill: xiii + 388.
–Describes, in somewhat overblown terms, an encounter with a manatee near the falls of the Rio Madeira, Brazil (324-325). The animal had "immense, round, staring eyes" (!), and "a long and thick horn" on either side of the head which was evidently the flipper. The accuracy of the author's memories seems open to question.
x
 
Ruschi, Augusto (detail)
   
1965
Lista dos mamíferos do Estado do Espirito Santo.
Bol. Mus. Biol. Prof. Mello-Leitão, Sér. Zool. (Santa Teresa, Brazil) No. 24A. Sept. 11, 1965.
–States that manatees ("T. inunguis") no longer occur in Espirito Santo, Brazil, but were captured in the Rios São Mateus, Doce, and Jucú in the last century (30).
x
 
Russel, Mel (detail)
   
1996
The story of Hou-Manatee.
Endangered Species Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 21(3): 18-19. 2 figs. May/June 1996.
–Describes the rescue of a manatee from Buffalo Bayou near Houston, Texas, by wildlife biologists.
x
 
Russell, Bobbi Jo (detail)
   
1996
Hugh and Buffett.
Mote News (Sarasota, Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory) 41(3): 5. 1 fig. Fall 1996.
–Brief pop. acc. of two captive Florida manatees held at Mote Marine Lab, Sarasota. See also Appendix 1.
Russell, Donald E.: SEE Gingerich et al., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Ryan, P. R. (detail)
   
1978
Marine mammals - a guide for readers.
Oceanus 21(2): 9-16.
 
 
Rycyk, A. M.; Factheu, C.; Ramos, E. A.; Brady, B. A.; Kikuchi, M.; Nations, H. F.; Kapfer, K.; Hampton, C. M.; Garcia, E. R.; Kamla, A. T. (detail)
   
2021
First characterization of vocalizations and passive acoustic monitoring of the vulnerable African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0006734
 
 
Rycyk, Athena M.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Barlas, Margaret E.; Hardy, Stacie K.; Frisch, Katherine; Leone, Erin H.; Nowacek, Douglas P. (detail)
   
2018
Manatee behavioral response to boats.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 34(4): 924-962. 5 tabs. 15 figs. + suppl. information. doi:10.1111/mms.12491. Feb. 28, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The long?term viability of the Florida manatee is threatened in part by mortality from boat collisions. This study investigated manatee behavior during boat approaches to better understand factors that lead to manatee–boat collisions. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) and Argos?linked GPS tags were deployed on 18 manatees in southwest Florida, and boat traffic around them was mapped. Suites of manatee behavioral, environmental, and boat?related factors were recorded during opportunistic boat passes. We built generalized linear mixed models to determine which factors accounted for variation in occurrence, number, and timing of manatee behavioral changes during boat passes. Manatees responded to boats, changing their orientation, depth, and fluking behavior most often when a boat approached closely (<10 m). Manatees were also more likely to change their depth when not on a seagrass bed and when actively fluking before a boat pass. Boat speed did not affect the occurrence or intensity of manatee response. Compared to fast approaches, however, slower passes allowed the manatee more time to respond, and behavioral change occurred earlier relative to the time of the boat's closest point of approach. We conclude that faster boats likely pose a greater risk of collision with manatees than do slower boats.
 
 
Ryder, John A. (detail)
   
1878
On the mechanical genesis of tooth-forms.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 30(1): 45-80. 11 figs. Apr. 1878.
x
 
Ryder, John A. (detail)
   
1885
On the probable origin, homologies, and development of the flukes of cetaceans and sirenians.
Amer. Naturalist 19: 515-519.
–Proposes that the flukes are homologous with the pes of land animals.
 
 
Ryder, John A. (detail)
   
1887a
On the homologies and early history of the limbs of vertebrates.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 39(3): 344-368. 1 tab.
–Sirs., 346.
 
 
Ryder, John A. (detail)
   
1887b
On the development of the Cetacea, together with a consideration of the probable homologies of the flukes of cetaceans and sirenians.
Rept. U.S. Fish. Comm. 13: 427-485. Pls. 1-3.
–Sirs., 427, 475.
Rylands, Anthony B.: SEE Bernardes et al., 1990. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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