Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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S

Saalfeld, W. Keith: SEE Marsh & Saalfeld, 1989, 1990, 1991; Marsh et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Saban, Roger (detail)
   
1968
Musculature de la tete. In: P.-P. Grassé (ed.), Traité de zoologie. Mammifères.
Paris, Masson & Cie: 16(2): 230-471.
 
 
Saban, Roger (detail)
   
1975
La musculature peaucière de la tête chez un jeune lamantin du Sénégal (Trichechus senegalensis Link 1795; mammifère, sirénien).
Zentralbl. Veter. Med., Reihe C, Anat. Hist. Embr. 4(3): 232-248. 6 figs.
–German, Engl., & Spanish summs.
 
 
Sabatier, Armand (detail)
   
1897
Sur la signification morphologique des os en chevron des vertébres caudales.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 124: 932-935.
–Sirs., 933.
 
 
Sabatier, Armand (detail)
   
1902
Du système sternal des vertébrés.
C.R. Assoc. Anatomistes (Montpellier) 4: 99-102.
–Sirs., 100.
 
 
Sabol, M.; Holec, P. (detail)
   
2002
Temporal and Spatial distribution of Miocene Mammals in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia).
Geol. Carpathica 53: 269-279.
x
 
Sach, Volker J.; Heizmann, Elmar P. J. (detail)
   
2001
Stratigraphie und Säugetierfaunen der Brackwassermolasse in der Umgebung von Ulm (Südwestdeutschland).
Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk.,Ser. B, No. 310: 1-95. 20 tabs. 8 figs. 9 pls. Nov. 30, 2001.
–Engl. & French summs. Reports Metaxytherium cf. medium and Metaxytherium sp. from localities of Early Miocene age (Orleanian, MN4, and Agenian, MN1) (11, 15, 23, 42-43, 52, 72, pl. 7).
 
 
Sack, Albert von (detail)
   
1810
A narrative of a voyage to Surinam; of a residence there during 1805, 1806, and 1807; and of the author's return to Europe by the way of North America.
London, G. & W. Nicol: x + 282. Frontisp. 1 pl. 1 map.
–German transl.: Berlin, Haude & Spener, 2 vols. in 1, 1821. Dutch transl. from German: Haarlem, De erven F. Bohn, 3 vols., 1821. Manatee in Suriname, 2: 247 in Dutch ed.
Sackett, William M.: SEE Ames et al., 1996. (detail)
 
 
Sadchatheeswaran, Saachi; Belanger, Mike; Wittnich, Carin (detail)
   
2012
A comparison of published brevetoxin tissue levels in West Indian manatee, bottlenose dolphin and double-crested cormorants in southwest Florida.
Journal of Marine Animals and their Ecology 5(1): 20-27. 1 tab. 5 figs. June 2012.
–ABSTRACT: This study compares reported brevetoxin concentrations in liver, kidney, brain, lung and stomach contents of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latriostris), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) that died due to exposure to brevetoxin in southwest Florida, to identify differing responses to brevetoxicosis. Liver, kidney, and brain of both manatee and cormorants had significantly higher levels of brevetoxin compared to dolphins, with manatee liver concentrations significantly higher compared to cormorants. Dolphins had significantly higher loads in their stomach contents compared to both manatee and cormorants, which were also significantly different from each other. Lung concentrations of brevetoxin were similar in all species. Manatee and cormorants had similar responses to brevetoxin, while dolphins appeared to be more vulnerable. Ingestion appears as the primary route of brevetoxin exposure, but inhalation is possible in all three species.
x
 
Sadler, Richard (detail)
   
2003
Last gasp for island dugongs.
BBC Wildlife 21(3): 24. 1 fig. Mar. 2003.
–Brief news item on plans to construct a U.S. Marine Corps airbase on reclaimed land in dugong habitat in Okinawa.
Sadusky, Nancy: SEE Delaney et al., 1986. (detail)
Saegusa, Haruo: SEE ALSO Kamei et al., 1989; Kuga et al., 1987. (detail)
 
D
Saegusa, Haruo (detail)
   
2002
A partial skeleton of Paleoparadoxia from San-yama, Ogano-cho, Saitama Prefecture, central Japan.
Nature & Human Activities (Hyogo, Japan) 7: 1-25. Oct. 31, 2002.
x
 
Safford, W. E. (detail)
   
1919
Natural history of Paradise Key and the near-by Everglades of Florida.
Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inst. 1917: 377-434.
–Mentions the occurrence of manatees in the Miami area (423-424).
Sagae, Toshiro: SEE Kozawa et al., 1988. (detail)
Sagayama, Tsumoru: SEE Furusawa et al., 1993; Kimura et al., 1995. (detail)
Sagne, Claire: SEE ALSO Domning, D.P., 2001c. (detail)
 
 
Sagne, Claire (detail)
   
2001
Halitherium taulannense, nouveau sirénien (Sirenia, Mammalia) de l'Éocène supérieur provenant du domaine Nord-Téthysien (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France).
C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Serie 2: Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 333: 471-476. 1 fig.
–Engl. summ.
 
D
Saheki, S. (= Saiki) (detail)
   
1928
An occurrence of Desmostylus in Saghalin.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 35(421): 569.
 
 
Sahni, Ashok (detail)
   
1979
An Eocene mammal from the Subathu-Dagshai transition zone, Dharampur, Simla Hills.
Bull. Indian Geol. Assoc. 24(2): 259-262. Illus.
x
 
Sahni, Ashok; Kumar, Kishor (detail)
   
1980
Lower Eocene sirenian, Ishatherium subathuensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the type area, Subathu Formation, Subathu, Simla Himalayas, H. P.
Jour. Pal. Soc. India 23/24: 132-135. 3 figs. June 1980.
–Describes Ishatherium subathuensis on the basis of a partial second lower molar. The referred material includes an upper incisor and some "limb and girdle bones", which are not described although they are said to indicate amphibious habits. The ?sir. vertebra described by Sahni et al. (1980) is here redescribed, and Ishatherium is said to be close to the ancestral sir.-moeritheriid stock.
  Subsequent writers have regarded Ishatherium not as a sir. but rather as an anthracobunid proboscidean (see Wells & Gingerich, 1983).
 
 
Sahni, Ashok; Mishra, Vijay Prakash (detail)
   
1975
Lower Tertiary vertebrates from western India.
Pal. Soc. India Monogr. No. 3: 1-48. 6 figs. 6 pls. Apr. 7, 1975.
–Reports sir. fossils from three separate horizons in Kutch, western India: Protosiren fraasi from the Middle Eocene (27-29, pl. 6), Halitherium from the Late Oligocene (35-37, pl. 6), and Indosiren koenigswaldi n.sp. from the Early Miocene (37-40, pl. 6). The material referred to P. fraasi consisted of a fragmentary pelvis, later referred by Gingerich et al. (1993) to the cetacean Indocetus ramani.
 
 
Sahni, Ashok; Mitra, Harish Chandra (detail)
   
1980
Neogene palaeobiogeography of the Indian subcontinent with special reference to fossil vertebrates.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 31(1): 39-62. Figs. July 1980.
–Mentions Halitherium.
x
 
Sahni, Ashok; Bhatia, S. B.; Kumar, Kishor (detail)
   
1983
Faunal evidence for the withdrawal of the Tethys in the Lesser Himalaya, northwestern India.
Bol. Soc. Pal. Italiana 22(1-2): 77-86. 3 figs.
–Briefly compares the (previously undescribed) pelvic bone of Ishatherium to that of Protosiren, concluding that the former indicates amphibious habits (81).
x
 
Sahni, Ashok; Kumar, Kishor; Tiwari, B. N. (detail)
   
1980
Lower Eocene marine mammal (Sirenia) from Dharampur, Simla Himalayas, H. P.
Current Science (Bangalore, India) 49(7): 270-271. 1 fig. Apr. 5, 1980.
–Reports an isolated first thoracic vertebra from the Subathu Formation. See also Sahni & Kumar (1980).
Said, M.: SEE Hilmy et al., 1979. (detail)
x
 
Said, Rajab Juma (detail)
   
1985
Sea cow stories.
Swara (Mag. of the East African Wildlife Soc.) 8(1): 34. 1 fig. Jan.-Feb. 1985.
–Recounts two traditional stories about the origin of sea cows, from the Digo and Giriama people of coastal Kenya, respectively.
 
 
Said, Rushdi (detail)
   
1962
The geology of Egypt.
Amsterdam & New York, Elsevier: xviii + 377. 71 figs. 10 pls.
 
 
Said, Rushdi (detail)
   
1963
Note on the biostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Eocene sections in Egypt.
Rev. Inst. Franç. Pétrole & Ann. Combustibles Liquides 18(11): 1500-1503.
 
 
Said, Rushdi (detail)
   
1965
Egitto (Republica Araba Unita). In: Enciclopedia del petrolio e del gas naturale.
Rome, Editore Carlo Colombo: Vol. 4: 8-76.
Saint-Cricq, Laurent: SEE Marcoy, Paul. (detail)
 
 
Saint-Hilaire, Isidore Geoffroy (detail)
   
1826
Lamantin, Manatus. In: Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle.
Paris, Rey et Gravier & Baudouin Frères: Vol. 9 (Io-Macis): 177-181.
–Allen 686. See also Desmoulins (1824). Gives a general history of sirs. (177-180), and accounts of M. americanus (180), M. senegalensis (180), and fossil sirs. (180-181). M. latirostris is considered as not well distinguished.
 
 
Saint-Hilaire, Isidore Geoffroy (detail)
   
1837
[Communication on Dinotherium.]
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 4(12): 429-430. Read Mar. 20, 1836.
–In French.
Saint-Pierre, J. H. Bernardin de: SEE Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, J. H. (detail)
Saito, Tsunemasa: SEE ALSO Takahashi et al., 1979, 1983, 1986. (detail)
x
D
Saito, Tsunemasa; Barron, John A.; Sakamoto, Masamichi (detail)
   
1988
An early Late Oligocene age indicated by diatoms for a primitive desmostylian mammal Behemotops from eastern Hokkaido, Japan.
Proc. Japan Acad., Ser. B, 64(9): 269-273. 2 figs.
–Concludes that diatoms support the radiometric age (27-29 Ma) determined for the specimens of Behemotops sp. from the Morawan Formation.
Sakae, Toshiro: SEE ALSO Suzuki et al., 2000. (detail)
 
D
Sakae, Toshiro (detail)
   
1992
Comparison of mineralogical characteristics of tooth enamels of Desmostylus from California, USA, and Minowa, Japan.
Jour. Fossil Research 25(2): 37-42. 1 tab. 6 figs. Dec. 1992.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Sakai, E. (detail)
   
1935
On the locality of Desmostylus, south of Lake Sindi.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 42(498): 161-162. [181?] Mar. 20, 1935.
–In Japanese.
Sakai, Rieko: SEE Takamura & Sakai, 1994. (detail)
Sakamoto, Masamichi: SEE Saito et al., 1988. (detail)
Sakamoto, Osamu: SEE ALSO Fujimoto & Sakamoto, 1978; Hasegawa et al., 1995. (detail)
 
D
Sakamoto, Osamu (detail)
   
1983
On the occurrence of the two skeletons of Paleoparadoxia tabatai (Tokunaga) from Chichibu Basin, central Japan.
Bull. Saitama Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 1 (C. No. 19): 17-26. 1 tab. 5 figs. 2 pls. Mar. 1983.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Sakamoto, Osamu (detail)
   
1987
[Present status of marine mammal fossils from the Chichibu Basin.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 12-14. 1 fig. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Sakamoto, Osamu (detail)
   
1988
[Metatarsal of Paleoparadoxia from the northeastern Chichibu Basin.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 105-106. 2 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
Sakamoto, Shinji: SEE Wakai et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Sakurai, Atsushi (detail)
   
1979
[Photo essay on Florida manatees.]
Aqua-Life 1(2): 4-6. 7 figs. Sept. 1979.
–In Japanese. Underwater photos of manatees, presumably taken at Crystal River, Florida. Preceded on pp. 2-3 by an underwater photo of a dugong, taken by Hajime Masuda and asserted (incorrectly) to be "the first record of the wild dugong of the world." (See also N. Suzuki, 1979.)
 
D
Sakurai, Kazuhiko (detail)
   
2009
Cenozoic mammalian fossils in Hobetsu Museum.
Bull. Hobetsu Museum No. 24: 19-41. 1 tab. 37 figs. Mar. 2009.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Records and illustrates a partial skeleton of Desmostylus japonicus (Mioc., Hokkaido)(22-23, 34).
Sala, Enric: SEE Jackson & Sala, 2001. (detail)
 
 
Salacroux, Antoine Paulin Germain (detail)
   
1836
Nouveaux élémens d'histoire naturelle contenant la zoologie, la botanique, la minéralogie et la géologie.
Paris, Germer Baillière: vii + 970. 44 pls.
–Sirs., 190-191.
Sale, J. B.: SEE Bertram & Sale, 1975. (detail)
 
 
Salinas Loyola, Juan de (detail)
   
1897
[Letter on the expedition to the Rio Ucayali, 1571.] In: Marcos Jiménez de la Espada (ed.), Relaciones geográficas de las Indias.
Madrid, M. G. Hernández: Vol. 4: lxxxi ff.
–Mentions "magnatís" in the Rio Ucayali in 1571; reprinted by Durand (1983: 64).
Salisbury, Charles A. "Lex": SEE ALSO O'Shea & Salisbury, 1991. (detail)
 
 
Salisbury, Charles A. "Lex" (detail)
   
1992
Lowry Park Zoological Garden's Florida manatee program.
AAZPA Regional Conf. Proc. 1992: 573-574.
x
 
Salles, Waldemar Batista de (detail)
   
1967
O Amazonas - o meio físico e suas riquezas naturais.
Manaus, Editôra Sergio Cardoso: 1-180.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, largely quoted from Nunes Pereira (124-127).
 
 
Salm, Rodney V.; Usher, Graham F. (detail)
   
1984a
The magical tears of the dugong.
Tigerpaper 11(1): 31-32.
 
 
Salm, Rodney V.; Usher, Graham F. (detail)
   
1984b
Untuk apa berburu dugong.
Suara Alam 7(22): 16-18. 2 figs. Apr. 1984.
–In Indonesian.
 
 
Salomon, M. I. (detail)
   
1930
Considerations sur l'homologie de l'os lacrymal chez les vertebres superieurs.
Acta Zool. 11: 151-183. 27 figs.
 
 
Salvador, Vicente Do (detail)
   
1931?
Historia do Brasil por Frei Vicente do Salvador natural da Bahia. Ed. 3 (revised by C. de Abreu & R. Garcia).
São Paulo, Companhia Melhoramentos: 1-632.
–Contains a brief mention, dating from about 1627, of intensive manatee hunting in the Rio Real, on the Sergipe/Bahia border, Brazil (215).
x
 
Salvesen, David (detail)
   
1998
Manatees: supremely adapted, seriously endangered.
ZooGoer (Washington, D.C., Friends of the National Zoo) 27(1): 17-23. 7 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1998.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and other sirenians.
 
 
Samonds, Karen E.; Ernat, Rebekah A.; Andrianavalona, Tsiory; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2019
New Miocene sirenians from Nosy Makamby, northwestern Madagascar.
Jour. Vert. Pal. e1570223 (15 pp.). DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1570223. 1 tab. 8 figs. Publ. online Apr. 5, 2019.
–French summ.
 -ABSTRACT: The near lack of vertebrate fossils from the Cenozoic of Madagascar has left many of the details regarding the origin and evolution of the island's extant faunas unknown. However, recent fossil discoveries from Madagascar's nearshore marine deposits have begun to elucidate this mystery. These finds include sharks, bony fish, turtles, crocodylians, a middle Eocene sirenian (Eotheroides lambondrano), and the island's first fossil dolphin. We report here at least three (possibly four) different early (or possibly later) Miocene dugongid sirenians recovered from the island of Nosy Makamby, Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar. These include (1) a fragmentary braincase originally attributed to the genus Halitherium but here reidentified as a previously named species known only from Libya (Rytiodus heali; Dugonginae); (2) a newly named genus and species (Norosiren zazavavindrano) interpreted as a primitive relative of Xenosiren (Dugonginae); (3) a probable dugongine not yet identified with any known species; and (4) a taxon reported here as Metaxytherium cf. krahuletzi (Halitheriinae), the first Neogene halitheriine credibly reported from the Indian Ocean basin. This pattern of shallow marine environments harboring multispecies sirenian paleofaunas is seen elsewhere in the world, and these three or four contemporaneous sirenians represent the first glimpse into Madagascar's sea cow diversity during the Miocene. This specific time period is a poorly known and critical interval for interpreting Madagascar's past, and these specimens are potentially highly significant for reconstructing sirenian evolutionary and biogeographic history. Surprisingly, this sirenian fauna, so far, shares no genera with the roughly contemporaneous and relatively nearby one from Kutch, western India.
 
 
Samonds, Karen E.; Zalmout, Iyad Saleh; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Raharivony, Lydia L. (detail)
   
2009
Eotheroides lambondrano, new middle Eocene seacow (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 29(4): 1233-1243. 2 tabs. 7 figs. Dec. 12, 2009.
–Notice: Brian Fisher Johnson, Earth Magazine 55(3): 28. 1 fig. March 2010.
x
 
Sampaio, Francisco Xavier Ribeiro de (detail)
   
1850
Relação geographica historica do Rio Branco da America Portugueza.
Rev. Trimest. Hist. Geogr. (Jornal Inst. Hist. Geogr. Brasileiro) 13: 200-273.
–Includes the following entry in a list of fauna and flora found in the Rio Branco, a tributary of the Rio Negro, Brazil (p. 259): {"Vacca marinha, Peixe boi, ou Monatí, que todos os tres nomes se dão ao grande animal que significam; o qual não tem de peixe mais do que viver n'agua: abundam nas vertentes e lagos do Rio Branco."}
Samuelson, Don A.: SEE Reep et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Aguilera, Orangel A. (detail)
   
2006
Neogene vertebrates from Urumaco, Falcón State, Venezuela: diversity and significance.
Jour. Systematic Paleontology 4(3): 213-220. Aug. 11, 2006.
–Lists "DUGONGIDAE indet." in faunal list (215, tab. 1).
x
 
Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Asher, Robert J.; Rincón, Ascanio D.; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Meylan, Peter; Purdy, Robert W. (detail)
   
2004
New faunal reports for the Cerro La Cruz locality (Lower Miocene), north-western Venezuela. In: M.R. Sánchez-Villagra & J.A. Clack (eds.), Fossils of the Miocene Castillo Formation, Venezuela: contributions on Neotropical palaeontology.
Special Papers in Palaeontology 71: 105-112. 1 tab. 2 figs.
–Reports indeterminate sir. rib fragments from the Castillo Formation (109-110).
 
 
Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Narita, Yuichi; Kuratani, Shigeru (detail)
   
2007
Thoracolumbar vertebral number: the first skeletal synapomorphy for afrotherian mammals.
Systematics & Biodiversity 5(1): 1-7. 1 fig. Mar. 1, 2007.
x
 
Sander, Helen E. (detail)
   
1980
Dugong feeding habitats in the Manus Province.
Wildlife in Papua New Guinea 80/12: 1-31. 16 tabs. 7 figs.
–Abstr.: Internatl. Symp. Biol. Manage. Mangroves Trop. Shallow Water Communs. 2: 46-47, 1980. Characterizes seagrass beds where dugongs were observed feeding, and concludes that they prefer beds with >20 g dry weight of leaf biomass (>48 g of total plant biomass) per square meter, higher than values recorded in Queensland. The presence of hunters may also influence dugongs' choice of feeding sites.
x
 
Sanders, Albert E. (detail)
   
1974
A paleontological survey of the Cooper Marl and Santee Limestone near Harleyville, South Carolina: preliminary report.
Geologic Notes (South Carolina State Development Board, Division of Geology) 18(1): 4-12. 4 figs.
–Mentions the collection of an Eocene sir. skullcap at the Giant Portland Cement Co. quarry, Dorchester County, South Carolina (m8). This specimen was subsequently misplaced, as reported by Domning, Morgan & Ray (1982), but was relocated in 2008; it bears the Charleston Museum catalog number ChM PV7639.
x
 
Sanders, Albert E. (detail)
   
1980
Excavation of Oligocene marine fossil beds near Charleston, South Carolina.
Natl. Geogr. Soc. Research Repts. 12: 601-621. 8 figs.
–Reports a humerus cf. Halitherium and a tooth cf. Metaxytherium from the Chandler Bridge Formation (Late Oligocene, early-middle Chattian) (612).
Sanders, William J.: SEE Gingerich et al., 1997. (detail)
x
 
Sanderson, Ivan Terrance (detail)
   
1937
Animal treasure.
New York, Viking Press: 1-330. Illus.
–Account of an abortive manatee hunt and the successful trapping of manatees in a small creek at Mamfe, West Africa (266-268, 1 fig.).
x
 
Sanderson, Ivan Terrance (detail)
   
1949
A brief review of the mammals of Suriname (Dutch Guiana), based upon a collection made in 1938.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 119(3): 755-789. 4 figs. 7 pls. Nov. 1949.
–P. 781: {"SIRENIA. Halicoridae. / Manatus sp. / No specimens collected. / Native name. - "Seicu". Doubtless, a Taki-taki corruption of the English "Sea-Cow". / Manatees are exceedingly common in the Nickerie River, whence they travel to the Coronie Swamp in the rainy season. They are also met with in the further reaches of the Commewijne, Cosewijne, Saramacca and Courantijne Rivers, but they are hunted extensively and are exceedingly scarce in the other large rivers near the coast."}
 
 
Sandoval, Alonso de (detail)
   
1627
Natvraleza, policía sagrada i profana, costvmbres i ritos, disciplina i catechismo evangelico de todos etiopes.
Seville, Francisco de Lira: 13 + 334 + 81 numb. l.
–Mentions the "pexemuller" (probably the dugong) in lib. 3, cap. 18 (quoted by Durand, 1983: 151).
x
 
Sanger, Clyde (detail)
   
1974
International research centre in Guyana to study the saving of the manatee - the least understood of mammals.
Commonwealth Jour., Aug.-Sept. 1974: 23.
–Report of a conference on the establishment of the research center (see Anon., 1973a). Also discusses the use of manatees in weed control, and the birth (and presumably conception) of two manatees in captivity in Guyana.
x
 
Sanielevici, Henry (detail)
   
1926
La vie des mammifères et des hommes fossiles déchiffrée à l'aide de l'anatomie et de la physiologie comparées de l'appareil masticateur.
Bucharest, Imprimérie de l'État: xciv + 660. 459 figs.
–Title-page bears imprint "Bulletin de la Société Roumaine des Sciences", but with no volume or number indicated; possibly publ. as a separate. Rev.: Homme Préhist. 13: 295-298? An elaborate and idiosyncratic treatise, arguing that most if not all mammals are primitively and persistently eaters of molluscs, insects, and other animal food - including sirs. (251-256, 523), which despite appearances are affirmed to be primarily molluscivores! The "petite histoire de ce livre" (525-532) is a revealing account of the genesis of the author's thinking.
 
 
Sanktjohanser, Florian (detail)
   
2018
Bei den sanften Riesen. Gentle giants: close encounters in Florida.
Lufthansa Magazin Illus. Mar. 2018.
–Pop. acc. of diving with Florida manatees.
Sanson, Gordon D.: SEE Miller et al., 1980. (detail)
x
 
Santa-Anna Nery, Frederico José de (detail)
   
1885
Le pays des Amazones; l'El-Dorado; les terres à caoutchouc.
Paris, L. Frinzine & Cie: xxxiv + 382. 101 figs. 2 maps.
–Ed. 2: Paris, Guillaumin & Cie: xxxvi + 420. Illus. 1899. Italian transl.: Geneva, 1900. Brief account of the Amazonian manatee (67-68), with a drawing (71), and statistics on the manatee meat exported from the Rios Purús, Juruá, and Solimões in 1881-82 (168). The material in the 1899 ed. may not be the same.
 
 
Santafé, J. V.; Via Boada, Luis (detail)
   
1985
Sirenios actuales y fósiles.
Mundo Científico 44: 142-146.
x
 
Santapau, H.; Abdulali, Humayun (detail)
   
1961
The dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller), at Bombay; an incorrect record.
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 58(3): 796. Dec. 1961.
–Corrects an erroneous report (in The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island, vol. 1: 137, 1909) of a dugong at Bombay in 1849, which resulted from misreading a newspaper account of the stranding of a baleen whale in Bombay and the sighting of a dugong in Ceylon.
Santerre, M. R.: SEE Leatherwood et al., 1984. (detail)
x
 
Santiapillai, Charles (detail)
   
1981
On the ecology and conservation of the dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776) in Sri Lanka.
Tigerpaper 8(1): 2-6. 2 figs.
–Gen. acc. of dugong biology and status, mostly taken from previous literature but with some information gleaned from Sri Lankan fishermen.
Santos, Euclydes A.: SEE Colares et al., 2000. (detail)
x
 
Santos, Eurico (detail)
   
1945
Entre o gambá e o macaco (vida e costumes dos mamiferos do Brasil).
Rio de Janeiro, F. Briguiet & Cia: 1-298. Illus.
–Translates the manatee passage from Wallace (1853), lists indigenous vernacular names of T. inunguis, and discusses hunting methods and the use of manatee meat, fat, and hide in Amazonia (chap. 6: 155-159, fig. 43).
 
D
Santos, Gabriel-Philip; Parham, James F.; Beatty, Brian Lee (detail)
   
2016
New data on the ontogeny and senescence of Desmostylus (Desmostylia, Mammalia).
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 36(2): e1078344 (7 pp.) 6 figs. Mar. 2016.
x
 
Santos, Joano Dos (detail)
   
1814
History of eastern Ethiopia. In: J. Pinkerton (ed.), A general collection of ... voyages and travels ....
London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown and Cadell & Davies: vol. 16: 337-737.
–Transl. from Portuguese. Ed. 1: Paris, 1684. Brief account of the dugong and the medicinal use of its tusks in what is now Mozambique (700-701).
Sarich, Vincent M.: SEE ALSO Lowenstein et al., 1981; Rainey et al., 1984. (detail)
x
 
Sarich, Vincent M. (detail)
   
1977
Albumin phylogenetics. In: V. M. Rosenoer, M. Oratz, & M. A. Rothschild (eds.), Albumin structure, function and uses.
New York, Pergamon Press (xiii + 397): 85-111. 3 tabs. 6 figs.
–Albumin evidence suggests that "Manatees and elephants share a common ancestry subsequent to the divergence of other 'ungulate' groups.... [Their albumins] are about as similar as those of pig and cow" (100).
Sarkar, J.: SEE Ramakrishna et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Sarkar, S. K.; Mitra, S. K. (detail)
   
1962
A note on the histological characteristics of sea-cow hide.
Jour. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 81(2): 93-94. 1 pl. Dec. 1962.
–Describes the hide and hair of the dugong and compares the hide with that of the Indian buffalo; considers dugong hide superior to buffalo for heavy industrial leather.
 
 
Sarko, Diana K.; Domning, Daryl Paul; Marino, Lori; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2010
Estimating body size of fossil sirenians.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 26(4): 937-959. 4 tabs. 5 figs. Oct. 2010.
 
 
Sarko, Diana K.; Johnson, J. I.; Switzer, R. C., III; Welker, W. I.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2007
Somatosensory nuclei of the manatee brainstem and thalamus.
Anat. Rec. 290(9): 1138-1165.
 
 
Sarko, Diana K.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2006
Somatosensory areas of manatee cerebral cortex: histochemical characterization and functional implications.
Brain Behav. Evol. 69: 20-36. 2 tabs. 7 figs. Publ. online Aug. 14, 2006.
 
 
Sarko, Diana K.; Reep, Roger Lyons; Mazurkiewicz, J. E.; Rice, F. L. (detail)
   
2007
Adaptations in the structure and innervation of follicle-sinus complexes to an aquatic environment as seen in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Comp. Neurol. 504(3): 217-237.
 
 
Sarko, Diana K.; Rice, Frank L.; Reep, Roger Lyons (detail)
   
2011
Mammalian tactile hair: divergence from a limited distribution.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1225: 90-100. 4 figs. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05979.x. Apr. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Mammalian species use tactile hairs to address a variety of perceptual challenges in detecting and responding appropriately to environmental stimuli. With a wide range of functional roles that range from object detection, to fine texture discrimination, to hydrodynamic trail perception, tactile hairs have been adapted for a variety of environmental niches to enhance survival through optimizing detection of somatosensory cues. Because the high level of innervation associated with tactile hairs requires a commensurately high dedication of neural resources, their distribution is restricted to specific regions of the body that encounter stimuli of interest--commonly, the face. However, several species--namely bats, naked mole-rats, hyraxes, manatees, and dugongs--are rare exceptions, with tactile hair distribution that has expanded to cover the entire body. This review examines the behavioral advantages conferred by this unusual trait, the neuroanatomical adaptations that accompany it, and how this pattern might have evolved.
Sarti, Giovanni: SEE Bianucci et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Sas, Kelli M.; Baatz, John E. (detail)
   
2010
Brevetoxin-2 induces an inflammatory response in an alveolar macrophage cell line.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 213(5): 352-358. 2 tabs. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.06.007. Sept. 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Brevetoxins, the algal toxins produced by Karenia brevis during red tide blooms, adversely impact health following ingestion or inhalation. Inhalation of brevetoxins results in a variety of acute symptoms including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Analysis of manatee lungs following death by purported brevetoxicosis has identified brevetoxin accumulation within macrophages, with pathological manifestions of lung congestion, inflammation, and edema. The goals of this work were to specifically examine effects of brevetoxin-2 on alveolar macrophages, a key cell in responding to toxins in the lung, as well as to determine if brevetoxin-2 results in an inflammatory response and/or direct cytotoxicity. Exposure of an alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) to an environmentally and physiologically relevant dose of brevetoxin-2 (0.5 μg/ml) did not significantly alter cellular growth over a 24 h time period. However, exposure of MH-S cells to brevetoxin-2 for 6 h increased phagocytosis of latex beads, increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and decreased secretion of IL-5. Very few changes were seen in gene expression following 3 or 6 h exposure to brevetoxin-2. These results show that brevetoxin-2 induced an immune response indicative of inflammation in an alveolar macrophage cell line, indicating that inhalation of brevetoxin-2 may lead to lung inflammation through an alveolar macrophage-initiated pathway.
Sasse, Joachim: SEE Barry et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Satizábal, P.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Duchêne, S.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Perea-Sicchar, C. M.; García-Dávila, C. R.; et al. (detail)
   
2012
Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.
PLoS One 7: e52468. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052468
 
 
Satizabal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Duchene, Sebastian; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M.; Garcia-Davila, Carmen R.; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J. (detail)
   
2012
Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.
PLoS ONE 7(12): 10 pp. 4 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052468. Dec. 20, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.
 
D
Sato, Aya; Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
2002
[Chap. 6: Description and classification of desmostylian specimens from the first discovery site in 1998.] In: [Research report on Akan vertebrate fossils (second report).]
Akan City (Japan), Akan City Board of Education, Akan Vertebrate Fossil Study Group: 79-106. 2 tabs. 28 figs. 6 pls. Mar. 2002.
–In Japanese.
Sato, J.: SEE ALSO Onodera et al., 1967. (detail)
 
D
Sato, J.; Ijiri, Shoji (detail)
   
1977
On the molar teeth of Paleoparadoxia tabatai (Tokunaga) from "Wainai Site", the latest Jómon Period.
Earth Science (Chikyu Kagaku) 31(4): 149-155. May 1977.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Sato, Tsuneo; Shibuya, Hisashi; Ohba, Shigeo; Nojiri, Toshio; Shirai, Wataru (detail)
   
2003
Mycobacteriosis in two captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Jour. Zoo & Wildl. Med. 34(2): 184-188.
Sato, Yoshio: SEE Kimura, Sato & Goto, 1978. (detail)
 
D
Satoh, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Koda, Yoshiki; Ogai, Kyohiko (detail)
   
1992
[Desmostylus molar from Taga Formation in Ibaraki City, Ibaraki Prefecture.]
Geology Club Bulletin (Heichigaku Doukoukai Kaihou) No. 19 (Suppl.): 21-25. 2 figs. 1 pl. Dec. 1992.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Satoh, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu (detail)
   
1989
Early Miocene desmostylid skull from Goyasu Formation, Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
Sci. Repts. Yokohama Natl. Univ., Sect. II, Biol. & Geol. No. 36: 57-70. 3 tabs. 3 figs. 2 pls. Oct. 1989.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. The specimen is considered "the earliest desmostylid to date in the Japanese Archipelago."
Satomichi, Tokuko: SEE Tabuchi et al., 1974. (detail)
x
 
Satsangi, P. P.; Trivedy, A. N. (detail)
   
1978
Fossil sea cow from the Tertiary of Kutch.
Jour. Geol. Soc. India 19(12): 571-576. Dec. 1978.
–Describes fragmentary remains from Chattian (Late Oligocene) beds, referring them to Halitherium sp.
 
 
Sattelberger, Danielle C. (detail)
   
2015
Seasonal Warm-Water Refuge and Sanctuary Usage by the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida.
Nova Southeastern University 1 tables. 11 figures. 60 pages. April1, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The largest Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) aggregation at a natural warm-water refuge occurs in Kings Bay, Crystal River, FL. Over the last 32 years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Florida have created a network of manatee protection areas within Kings Bay including a year round refuge designation and seven Federal manatee sanctuaries during the winter manatee season (November 15 – March 31). Aerial survey data collected between 1983 and 2012 was used to examine the seasonal change in manatee distribution within Kings Bay in order to assess the effectiveness of current sanctuary sizes and locations. Regression analysis indicated a significant change in manatee abundance among the winter seasons (p < 0.05). The average winter manatee counts increased by 4.81 animals per year over the 30 year period. In contrast, no significant changes in average or peak manatee abundance was detected among the summer seasons (p = 0.71 and p = 0.45 respectively). The average manatee counts increased by only 0.109 animals per year over the summer periods. Spatially explicit models using Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis revealed a strong correlation between high manatee density and artesian springs during the winter seasons. Highest abundances were identified at three locations: King's Spring, Three Sisters Springs, and Magnolia Springs. These three locations coincide well with preexisting sanctuary designations, but additional coverage is needed to support the overflow of manatees outside of sanctuary boundaries. Manatees continued to use Kings Bay in the summer seasons but in lower numbers and densities. Because density patterns were not uniform across summer periods, a heavier reliance on boat speed regulation is recommended to provide adequate protection to the endangered Florida manatee. Within a habitat type, the Magnolia Springs, South Banana Island, and Three Sisters Springs sanctuaries exhibited a significant influence on manatee density, suggesting differences in quality among sanctuaries. Years coinciding with extreme cold weather events also had a significant influence on manatee density. Using GIS to investigate seasonal shifts in manatees can be very informative regarding many issues including habitat selection and may improve the design and management of protected areas.
 
 
Satyaningtijas, A. S.; Suprayogi, A.; Darusman, H. S.; Nurdin, A.; Hanadhita, D. (detail)
   
2020
Relative white blood cell counts, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and discovery of blood parasites in wild dugong (Dugong dugon) at Lingayan Island, Toli-toli, Indonesia.
Veterinary World 13(9): 1849-1853. 4 figs. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.1849-1853 Publ. online Sept. 10, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the relative white blood cell (WBC) counts and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and to analyze the presence of blood parasites in wild dugongs at Lingayan Island. It is expected that the results of this study could provide additional knowledge about the physiological conditions of wild dugongs in their natural habitats, which can serve as basic data in dugong conservation efforts, especially in Indonesia.
 Materials and Methods: A wild dugong was captured around Lingayan Island. Blood samples were collected from the saphenous vein, and blood smears were prepared immediately. The blood smears were examined for leukocyte identification, calculation of relative WBC counts, and presence of blood parasites. The H/L ratio was calculated based on the obtained relative WBC counts.
 Results: The relative WBC counts included heterophils 19.4%, lymphocytes 76.4%, and monocytes 3.6%, and the H/L ratio was 0.25. Intraerythrocytic parasites were identified and suspected to be Anaplasma and Babesia.
 Conclusion: This study reports leukocyte values from free-ranging dugongs captured in Lingayan Island, Indonesia. Based on the H/L ratio, the dugong examined, in this study, did not experience chronic stress. However, the discovery of blood parasites could be one of the threatening factors for the dugong population.
Saubade, A. M.: SEE Chavanon & Saubade, 1970. (detail)
 
 
Sauer, Carl Ortwin (detail)
   
1966
The early Spanish Main.
Berkeley, Univ. California Press: xii + 306. Illus.
–Briefly alludes to hunting of Caribbean manatees using remoras, nets, and harpoons (58).
x
 
Sauer, Martin (detail)
   
1802
An account of a geographical and astronomical expedition to the northern parts of Russia, for ascertaining the degrees of latitude and longitude of the mouth of the River Kovima; of the whole coast of the Tshutski, to East Cape; and of the islands in the Eastern Ocean, stretching to the American coast. Performed, by command of Her Imperial Majesty Catherine the Second, Empress of All the Russias, by Commodore Joseph Billings, in the years 1785, &c. to 1794. The whole narrated from the original papers, by Martin Sauer, secretary to the expedition.
London, T. Cadell, Jr., & W. Davies: xxvi + 332 + 58. 14 pls. 1 map.
–States in passing, in discussing the fauna of Kodiak Island (p. 181): {"Sea cows were very numerous about the coast of Kamtshatka, and the Aleutan [sic] islands, at the time when they were first discovered; but the last of this species was killed in 1768 on Bering's island, and none have been ever seen since."}
  Although this bald and unsupported statement is our sole authority for specifying 1768 as the date of the extinction of Hydrodamalis, it is corroborated by the fact that several subsequent visitors to the Commander Islands made no mention of any sea cows surviving after that date (see K. E. v. Baer, 1840: 70), and purported sightings at various times down to the present have not been convincing (see Domning, 1978b: 135-139).
x
 
Savage, Jay M. (detail)
   
1974
The Isthmian Link and the evolution of Neotropical mammals.
Los Angeles County Mus. Contr. Sci. No. 260: 1-51. 9 tabs. 5 figs. June 18, 1974.
–Regards manatees as having arrived in South America in Eocene-Oligocene time (15, 20, 26, 29).
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay: SEE ALSO Tewari et al., 1977?. (detail)
 
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay (detail)
   
1967
Early Miocene mammal faunas of the Tethyan region. In: C. G. Adams & D. V. Ager (eds.), Aspects of Tethyan biogeography.
Systematics Assoc. Publ. No. 7: 247-282. 10 tabs. 3 figs.
 
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay (detail)
   
1969
Early Tertiary mammal locality in southern Libya.
Proc. Geol. Soc. London 1657: 167-171. 2 tabs. Sept. 19, 1969.
x
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay (detail)
   
1971
Review of the fossil mammals of Libya. In: C. Gray (ed.), Symposium on the geology of Libya.
Univ. of Libya: 215-225. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Mentions the occurrences of Middle Eocene and Miocene sirs. in Libya; suggests that high sir. diversity in the Eocene indicates that they had fluviatile rather than truly marine habits (219-221).
x
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay (detail)
   
1975
Prorastomus and new early Tertiary sirenians from North Africa. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 15(3): 824. Summer 1975.
–Restudy of the holotype of Prorastomus sirenoides demonstrates the presence of "4 premolars and 5 anterior teeth", an unfused petrosum, and otic similarities to condylarths. New Middle Eocene and Early Miocene Libyan sirs. include a "flat-tusked dugongid" [Rytiodus].
 
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay (detail)
   
1977
Review of early Sirenia.
Syst. Zool. 25(4): 344-351. 1 tab. 2 figs. "Dec. 1976" (publ. Feb. 8, 1977; read Aug. 21, 1975).
–Presents the first cladogram of the Sirenia ever published.
 
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay; Hamilton, W. R. (detail)
   
1973
Introduction to the Miocene mammal faunas of Gebel Zelten, Libya.
Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Geol. 22(8): 515-527. 3 tabs. 3 figs.
x
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay; Tewari, B. S. (detail)
   
1977
A new sirenian from Kutch, India.
Jour. Pal. Soc. India (Jurij Alexandrovich Orlov Memorial Number) 20: 216-218. 3 figs.
–Reports Metaxytherium sp. indet. from the Lower Miocene, with new reports of sirs. from the Eocene of Somali and India and the Miocene of Iran, and a review of all fossil sir. occurrences in the Indian Ocean area. A revised and expanded version of this paper (Tewari et al., 1977) changes the age assignment of the specimen described here to Upper Oligocene.
 
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay; White, M. E. (detail)
   
1964
Two mammal faunas from the early Tertiary of central Libya.
Circ. Geol. Soc. London 120: 2.
x
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay; White, M. E. (detail)
   
1965
Exhibit: two mammal faunas from the early Tertiary of central Libya.
Proc. Geol. Soc. London 1623: 89-91. July 6, 1965 (read Feb. 3, 1965).
–Reports Lutetian (Middle Eocene) sirs. 80 miles west of Gebel Zelten; most of these occurred as headless carcasses (91).
 
 
Savage, Robert Joseph Gay; Domning, Daryl Paul; Thewissen, Johannes G. M. (detail)
   
1994
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. V. The most primitive known sirenian, Prorastomus sirenoides Owen, 1855.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 14(3): 427-449. 3 tabs. 12 figs. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1994.10011569 Sept. 7, 1994.
–Italian transl.: https://www.mumat.it/gpt/notizie/.
Save The Manatee Club: SEE Delaney et al., 1986 (educator's guide); Appendix 1 (newsletter). (detail)
Saville-Kent, William: SEE Kent, William Saville. (detail)
x
 
Savinetsky, Arkady B. (detail)
   
1993
Ancient population dynamics of the sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas Zimm., 1780) in the late Holocene.
Doklady Biol. Scis. 326(1-6): 403-405. 1 tab. 1 fig. Mar. 1993.
–Transl. from Russian; originally publ. in Dokl. Akad. Nauk 326(3): 570-572, Sept. 1992. Radiocarbon dates on apparently reworked rib fragments from Bering Is. indicated ages of 500-2250 years. Based on the fact that most of the dates fell between 1000 and 800 years B.P., the author concludes that the population size declined as a result of climatic cooling about 2000 years ago and again during the Little Ice Age (14th-17th centuries A.D.). Given the small sample size and inadequate documentation of sampling procedure, this conclusion seems to go beyond the evidence.
 
 
Savinetsky, Arkady B.; Kiseleva, Nina K.; Khassanov, Bulat F. (detail)
   
2004
Dynamics of sea mammal and bird populations of the Bering Sea region over the last several millennia.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 209: 335-352. 10 figs.
x
 
Savory, Bryan W. (detail)
   
1958
A note on the dugong.
Tanganyika Notes & Records No. 51: 255-258. 1 fig. Dec. 1958.
–Gen. acc. of sirs., and observations, records, and anecdotes of dugongs in East Africa.
Sawamura, Hiroshi: SEE ALSO Kimura et al., 1998; Inuzuka et al., 2000. (detail)
 
D
Sawamura, Hiroshi (detail)
   
2001
Comparison of the vertebral position of mounted Keton skeletons of Desmostylus.
Bull. Ashoro Mus. Pal. 2: 27-32. 7 figs. Mar. 30, 2001.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Compares the vertebral formulae in the skeletal restorations of the Keton Desmostylus specimen by Nagao, Kamei, and Inuzuka.
Scammon, Charles Melville: SEE ALSO Gunter, G., 1954. (detail)
x
 
Scammon, Charles Melville (detail)
   
1889
The sea-cow.
Overland Monthly (2)14(84): 581-585. 2 figs. Dec. 1889.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees (581-582), including observations of two kept in Key West, and of Steller's sea cow (582-585), the latter mostly made up of quotations from Müller and Steller and illustrated with a figure of a manatee.
 
 
Scaramella, D. (detail)
   
1975
On the mammals of Yemen (Y.A.R.) examined to the subspecies level.
Bull. Soc. Nat. Napoli 84: 373-403.
x
 
Schad, Rebeca C.; Montgomery, G. Gene; Chancellor, Deborah (detail)
   
1981
La distribucion y frecuencia del manati en el Lago Gatun y en el Canal de Panama.
ConCiencia (Univ. de Panama) 8(2): 1-4. 1 tab. 2 figs. Sept. 1981.
–Discusses the introduction of manatees into the Panama Canal in 1964, and subsequent reported sightings and mortalities. Estimates that no more than 25 manatees are in the Canal at present. Illustrates Spanish and Engl. posters used to solicit manatee reports.
Schaefer, Joseph M.: SEE Buckingham et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Schafarzik, Ferencz (detail)
   
1902
Budapest és Szt.-Endre vidéke. 15. zóna/XX. rovat jelü lap. (1:75,000.)
Budapest, Franklin-Társulat Könyvnyomdája.
–German ed., 1904. Mentions Halitherium, 39.
x
 
Schäfer, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1962
Halitherium: Fossil und Leiche.
Natur und Museum 92(2): 53-56. 2 figs. Feb. 1962.
–Describes a skeleton of Halitherium schinzii (Oligocene), and experiments done with whale and pinniped carcasses to determine the rate and manner of disintegration of the sirenian's body.
x
 
Schäfer, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1977
Bericht des Direktors des Forschungsinstituts und Natur-Museums Senckenberg über das Jahr 1976.
Natur und Museum 107(7): 191-197. 3 figs. July 1, 1977.
–Reports the installation of a concrete-relief reconstruction of Halitherium schinzii in the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt a. M. (196-197).
 
 
Schäfer, Wilhelm (detail)
   
1978
Bericht des Direktors des Forschungsinstituts und Natur-Museums Senckenberg über das Jahr 1977.
Natur und Museum 108(7): 187-197. July 1, 1978.
–Mentions Halitherium.
 
 
Schaffelke, Britta; Waterhouse, Jane; Christie, Caroline (detail)
   
2002
A review of water quality issues influencing the habitat quality in dugong protection areas.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publ. 66: v + 73. Jan. 2002.
 
 
Scharff, Robert Francis (detail)
   
1911
Distribution and origin of life in America.
London, Constable & Co.: xvi + 497. 21 figs.
–Sirs., 278-280, 360.
Scheffer, Victor B.: SEE ALSO Rice & Scheffer, 1968. (detail)
x
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1942
A list of the marine mammals of the West Coast of North America.
Murrelet 23(2): 42-47. May-Aug. 1942.
–Lists Hydrodamalis gigas as "exterminated in 1768" (46).
 
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1967
Marine mammals and the history of Bering Strait. In: D. M. Hopkins (ed.), The Bering Land Bridge.
Stanford Univ. Press: 350-363.
–See also W.S. Laughlin (1967) and D.M. Hopkins (1967). Sirs., 358-361.
x
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1970
Growth layers in a dugong tooth.
Jour. Mamm. 51(1): 187-190. 2 figs. Feb. 20, 1970.
–Discusses the dugong dentition and the size of the tusks; suggests, on the basis of a study of a sectioned tusk, that finer growth layers in the dentin represent days, coarser layers lunar months. The calculated age, however, differs depending on which side of the tusk is used.
x
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1972
The weight of the Steller sea cow.
Jour. Mamm. 53(4): 912-914. 1 tab. Nov. 30, 1972.
–Based on Steller's measurements and estimates and on scale models, calculates the minimum size of the largest sea cow as 8 m or 25 feet in length and 10 metric tons in weight.
x
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1973
The last days of the sea cow.
Smithsonian 3(10): 64-67. 3 figs. Jan. 1973.
–Fictional account of a Russian boy's encounter with the last individual of Hydrodamalis, illustrated with two artist's reconstructions of the sea cow. Also relates a story, told to Scheffer by L. Stejneger, of how the latter acquired sea cow bones by bribing Russian workmen on Bering Island. Finally, summarizes recent studies on Hydrodamalis.
 
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1976
A natural history of marine mammals.
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons: 1-157.
–Rev.: Sci. Amer. 237(4): 31-32, Oct. 1977.
 
 
Scheffer, Victor B. (detail)
   
1981
Newborn size in marine mammals.
Pacif. Discovery 34(3): 19-26. 1 tab. 12 figs.
 
 
Scheffer, Victor B.; Rice, Dale W. (detail)
   
1963
A list of the marine mammals of the world.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv. Special Sci. Rept. Fisheries No. 431: 1-12.
 
 
Schérer, Jean Benoît (detail)
   
1776
Neue Nachrichten von denen neuentdeckten Insuln in der See zwischen Asien und Amerika; aus mitgetheilten Urkunden und Auszügen verfasset von J.L.S. [Johann Ludwig Schulze].
Hamburg, F. L. Gleditsch.
–Mentions the hunting of Hydrodamalis on Bering Is. in the course of four Russian voyages to the Aleutians, 1754-62 (38, 40, 45, 82). The sir. material is transcribed by Nordenskiöld (1881a: 274).
Scheuenstuhl, Gary: SEE Lowenstein & Scheuenstuhl, 1991. (detail)
x
 
Schevill, William E.; Watkins, W. A. (detail)
   
1965
Underwater calls of Trichechus (manatee).
Nature (London) 205(4969): 373-374. 3 figs. Jan. 23, 1965.
–Presents behavioral observations and sound spectrograms of the calls of free and captive Florida manatees; no evidence of echolocation was detected.
Schindler, Karina: SEE Schindler, Thomas. (detail)
 
 
Schindler, Thomas; Schindler, Karina (detail)
   
1992
Ein Fund von Säugerzähnen im Oberen Meeressand (Rupelium, Oligozän) von Bad Kreuznach (Mainzer Becken, SW-Deutschland) mit Anmerkungen zum Aufschluss und zum sonstigen Fossilinhalt.
Mainzer Geowiss. Mitt. 21: 35-40. Aug. 1992.
–Engl. summ. Mentions Halitherium schinzii.
 
 
Schinz, Heinrich Rudolph (detail)
   
1824
Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen der Säugethiere. Nach den neuesten Systemen zum gemeinnützigen Gebrauche entworfen, und mit Berücksichtigung für den Unterricht der Jugend bearbeitet.
Zürich, Brodtmanns Lithographischer Kunstanstalt: vi + 417 + [8]. 177 pls. in atlas.
–Ed. 2, 1827. Sirs., 392-397, pl. 174.
 
 
Schipper, Jan; 129 other authors including Self-Sullivan, Caryn (detail)
   
2008
The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge.
Science 322: 225-230. 1 tab. 4 figs. + supporting online material. DOI: 10.1126/science.1165115 Oct. 10, 2008.
x
 
Schiro, Andrew J.; Fertl, Dagmar C. (detail)
   
1995
Mermaids sighted in Galveston Bay.
Soundings (Galveston Bay Foundation) 7(3): 4-5. 1 fig. Fall 1995.
–Pop. acc. of four recent sets of manatee sightings along the Texas coast.
x
 
Schiro, Andrew J.; May, L. P.; Fertl, Dagmar C. (detail)
   
1996
Manatee occurrence in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. [Abstr.]
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 30(1): 28-29.
–Notes "an increasing number of reports of manatees in the northern Gulf" in the past five years, and the possibility of "moderate gene flow between the two subspecies" of T. manatus.
 
 
Schlegel, Hermann (detail)
   
1841
Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie. I. Beiträge zur Charakteristik der Cetaceen.
Leiden, A. Arnz & Comp. (3 vols., 1841-51): 1-44. Pls. 1-6.
 
 
Schleichert, Elizabeth (detail)
   
2002
Swimming with manatees.
Ranger Rick 36(11): 4-9. 6 figs. + cover photo. Nov. 2002.
Schlitter, Duane A.: SEE McLaren et al., 1986. (detail)
Schlosser, Max: SEE ALSO Yoshiwara & Iwasaki, 1902; Zittel & Schlosser, 1911, 1923. (detail)
 
 
Schlosser, Max (detail)
   
1889-90
Über die Modificationen des Extremitätenskelets bei den einzelnen Säugethierstämmen.
Biol. Zentralbl. 9 & 10 [?]: 684-698, 716-729.
 
 
Schlosser, Max (detail)
   
1899
[Review of W. Leche's "Untersuchungen über das Zahnsystem lebender und fossiler Halbaffen."]
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. Pal. 1899(1), Ref.: 356-360.
–Sirs., 351?
 
 
Schlosser, Max (detail)
   
1902
Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Säugethierreste aus den süddeutschen Bohnerzen.
Geol. Pal. Abh. (Koken) 9 (= n.s. 5)(3): 117-258. 3 figs. Pls. 6-10.
–Abstr.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 8(3): 108-110. Lists occurrences of Metaxytherium Christoli (pp. 115, 129, 134, 137-138 of Heft 3; pp. 229, etc., of entire volume).
 
 
Schlosser, Max (detail)
   
1911
Beiträge zur Kenntnis der oligozänen Landsäugetiere aus dem Fayum, Ägypten.
Beitr. Pal. Geol. Oesterr.-Ung. Orients 24(2): 51-167. 1 tab. 1 fig. Pls. 9-16.
–Rev.: Anthrop. (Paris) 23: 417-423, figs. 1-3, 1912. Sirs., 161.
Schmid, Axel: SEE Griebel & Schmid, 1996, 1997. (detail)
Schmid, H.: SEE Vine & Schmid, 1987. (detail)
 
 
Schmidt, F. A. (detail)
   
1846
Petrefacten-Buch, oder allgemeine und besondere Versteinerungskunde, mit Berücksichtigung der Lagerungsverhältnisse, besonders in Deutschland.
Stuttgart, Hoffmann'sche Verlags-Buchhandlung: 1-174 (text); 64 pls. (atlas).
–Reproduces and discusses drawings of Dinotherium by Klippstein and "Kaupp" (171, pl. 61).
Schmidt, M.: SEE Nicole et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Schmidt, Oskar (detail)
   
1886
The Mammalia in their relation to primeval times.
New York (Internatl. Scientific Series, 53): xxii + 308. 51 figs.
–Original ed., Leipzig, 280 pp., 1884; other transls.: London, 1885; Paris, 1887; Turin, 1887; ed. 2, 1894. Sirs., 242.
Schmidt-Kittler, Norbert: SEE Cappetta et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Schmidtgen, Otto (detail)
   
1911
Die Scapula von Halitherium schinzi.
Centralbl. Min. Geol. Pal. (Berlin) 1911: 221-223. 1 fig.
–Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 16: 713?; Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 15(3): 175?
 
 
Schmidtgen, Otto (detail)
   
1912
Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss der hinteren Extremität von Halitherium schinzi Kaup.
Zool. Jahrb. (Suppl.) 15 (= Spengel Festschr.), vol. 2: 457-498. 2 figs. Pl. 29.
x
 
Schmitz, O. J.; Lavigne, D. M. (detail)
   
1984
Intrinsic rate of increase, body size, and specific metabolic rate in marine mammals.
Oecologia (Berlin) 62(3): 305-309. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–Data on T. manatus and other marine mammals show no difference between marine and terrestrial mammals in the relationship between size and rate of increase.
Schneider, J.: SEE Winn & Schneider, 1977. (detail)
 
 
Schneider, K. M. (detail)
   
1931-34
Das Flehmen.
Zool. Garten 4(10/12): 349-364 (1931); 7(7/9): 182-201 (1934).
–Sirs., 349, 199.
Schnek, Arthur G.: SEE Jacquet et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Schober, W.; Brauer, K. (detail)
   
1974
Handbuch der Zoologie. Ein Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreichs. Bd. 8, Mammalia, Lief. 52. Makromorphologie des Zentralnervensystems, 2.
Berlin & New York, Walter De Gruyter: 1-296. 209 figs.
 
 
Schoenichen, W. (detail)
   
1903
Die Augen der im Wasser lebenden Säugetiere.
Prometheus 14: 332-333.
Schoevaert, Damien: SEE Buffrénil & Schoevaert, 1989. (detail)
x
 
Schoff, Wilfred H. (detail)
   
1920
The ship "Tyre": a symbol of the fate of conquerors as prophesied by Isaiah, Ezekiel and John and fulfilled at Nineveh, Babylon and Rome. A study in the commerce of the Bible.
New York & London, Longmans, Green & Co.: 1-156.
–Discusses the Biblical references to the use of dugong hide for the outer covering of the Tabernacle (10-11, 51-53, 77, 140).
 
 
Schöggl, Hubert; Micklich, Norbert (detail)
   
2012
Eine Seekuh aus dem Rupelton der Grube Unterfeld.
Kaupia: Darmstädter Beitr. Naturgesch. 18: 81-87. Dec. 18, 2012.
–Engl. summ.
Scholander, P. F.: SEE ALSO Irving et al., 1941. (detail)
 
 
Scholander, P. F. (detail)
   
1958
Counter current exchange - a principle in biology.
Hvalråd. Skr. 44: 1-24. 11 figs.
–Heat exchange in the flipper of T. manatus (14).
x
 
Scholander, P. F.; Irving, Laurence (detail)
   
1941
Experimental investigations on the respiration and diving of the Florida manatee.
Jour. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 17(2): 169-191. 2 tabs. 15 figs. April 1941.
–Study of breathing frequency, heart rate, respiratory dimensions, gas exchange, and blood chemistry and oxygen capacity of manatees during forced dives. The observed results included a slowly developing bradycardia during diving, very low resting oxygen consumption, low sensitivity to carbon dioxide, no increase of blood lactic acid until completion of the dive, and hence a very complete isolation of the muscles from the general circulation during the dive.
Scholl, Johann Baptist: SEE Kaup & Scholl, 1834a, 1834b. (detail)
Scholz, E.: SEE Vetter et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Schomburgk, Richard (detail)
   
1848
Versuch einer Fauna und Flora von Britisch-Guiana. Vol. 3 of: Reisen in Britisch-Guiana in den Jahren 1840-1844.
Leipzig, J. J. Weber: 534-1260.
–States (786) that T. manatus are frequently found at river mouths, but occur in the interior only during high water. However, they always remain below the falls of the Rio Branco. A missionary reported having kept a tame manatee for the past year at Fort São Joaquim on this river. Sir. material also in vol. 2: 156?
 
 
Schouteden, H. (detail)
   
1930
La faune du Congo. In: Louis Frank, Le Congo Belge.
Brussels: Vol. 2: 365-378.
–Sirs., 370.
 
 
Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von (detail)
   
1774-75
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen.... Zweyter Theil.
Erlangen, W. Walther'sche Kunst- und Buchhandlung: 191-280. Pls. 63-80.
–The entire work comprises 7 vols. + 3 vols. of pls., 1774-1846 (see also Schreber & Wagner, 1846). Dugong and manatee, 267-277 [1775]; manatee, pl. 80 [1774] (illustration after Buffon).
 
 
Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von; Wagner, Johann Andreas (detail)
   
1846
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.... Siebenter Theil.
Erlangen, in der Expedition des Schreber'schen Säugthier- und des Esper'schen Schmetterlingswerkes: viii + 427.
–Sirs., 103-160, pls. 378-385.
x
 
Schreider, Helen; Schreider, Frank (detail)
   
1970
Exploring the Amazon.
Washington, D.C., National Geographic Soc.: 1-207. Illus.
–Mentions the manatee [T. inunguis] among fauna kept by animal dealer Mike Tsalickis in Leticia, Colombia (142); quotes Carvajal's account of Indians' use of manatee-hide shields (151).
x
 
Schréter, Zoltán (detail)
   
1917
Mediterranes Metaxytherium-Skelett von Márcfalva.
Földt. Közlöny 47(1-3): 176-177. Jan.-Mar. 1917.
–Account of the excavation of a skeleton of Metaxytherium petersi in northwestern Hungary. The age of the specimen is not given, but is Miocene according to Kretzoi (1951).
Schryver, H. F.: SEE Hintz et al., 1978. (detail)
Schteingart, C. D.: SEE Kuroki et al., 1988. (detail)
x
 
Schuhmann, Hans-Jörg (detail)
   
1995
Der Manati, Trichechus senegalensis, im Rio Geba, Guinea-Bissau.
Natur und Museum (Frankfurt a. M.) 125(12): 402-409. 1 tab. 9 figs. Dec. 1, 1995.
–Repr.: Säugetierk. Mitt. 44(3): 121-128, 1999. Presents results of two surveys by boat and interview (including the successful use of sonar to detect submerged manatees), with some notes on the natural history of African manatees. (The survey team included personnel from the Toba Aquarium in Japan, which soon thereafter acquired African manatees from this region for display.) Despite their continued hunting by gun and net, Schuhmann regards manatees as abundant in Guinea-Bissau, having detected the presence of 109 along 140 km of river; but his extrapolation of this figure to a guesstimate of some 10,000 manatees in the entire country seems excessive.
 
 
Schulman, Mark (detail)
   
2001
Great Barrier Reef dugong population in question.
IZN Intl. Zoo News 48(4)(309): 258-259. June 2001.
Schulte, Kenneth C.: SEE Minch et al., 1970. (detail)
Schultz, Ortwin: SEE ALSO Symeonidis & Schultz, 1973. (detail)
 
 
Schultz, Ortwin (detail)
   
1972
Eine Fischzahn-Brekzie aus dem Ottnangien (Miozän) Oberoesterreichs.
Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 76: 485-490.
–Engl. summ.
Schultze, W.: SEE Dickerson et al., 1928. (detail)
 
 
Schumacher, G. H. (detail)
   
1973
The maxillo-mandibular apparatus in the light of experimental investigations. In: G. H. Schumacher (ed.), Morphology of the maxillo-mandibular apparatus.
Leipzig, G. Thieme: 13-25.
 
 
Schurz, W. L. (detail)
   
1926
The Amazon, father of waters.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 49(4): 445-463. Illus. Apr. 1926.
–Includes two photos (subsequently reproduced in various other publications) of carcasses of Amazonian manatees and pirarucus killed by hunters on the Rio Purús, Brazil and lined up on the riverbank (449, 450).
 
 
Schütz-Holzhausen, Damian von (detail)
   
1895
Der Amazonas. Wanderbilder aus Peru, Bolivia und Nordbrasilien.
Freiburg im Breisgau, Herdersche Verlagshandlung: xix + 444. 89 figs. 2 maps.
–Manatee, 200-201.
x
 
Schwartz, Frank J. (detail)
   
1995
Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus (Sirenia: Trichechidae), in North Carolina 1919-1994.
Brimleyana No. 22: 53-60. 1 tab. 1 fig. June 1995.
–Summarizes 59 records (44 of them new) of manatees in North Carolina. Suggests that increased numbers of sightings in recent years may be due to increased public awareness rather than an increase in the Florida manatee population.
 
 
Schwarz, Ernst (detail)
   
1920
Huftiere aus West- und Zentralafrika.
Ergebn. Zweit. Deutsch. Zentralafr. Exped. 1910-1911. I, Zool., 15: 831-1044.
–Sirs., 857.
 
 
Schwarz, Ernst (detail)
   
1924
On the evolution and radiation of mammalian fauna.
Acta Zool. 5: 393-423.
–Sirs., 420.
 
 
Schwarz, Lisa K. (detail)
   
2008
Methods and models to determine perinatal status of Florida manatee carcasses.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 24(4): 881-898. 2 tabs. 7 figs. Oct. 2008.
 
 
Schwarz, Lisa K.; Runge, Michael C. (detail)
   
2009
Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses.
Canad. Jour. Fish. Aquat. Scis. 66(10): 1775-1789. Oct. 2009.
–French summ.
x
 
Schweder, G. (detail)
   
1893
Die nordische Seekuh, ein in kürzester Frist ausgerottetes Säugetier.
Korresbl. Naturf.-Ver. Riga 36: 52-55.
–Gen. acc. of Hydrodamalis and its extermination, drawing heavily on Waxell's account (in Büchner, 1891).
x
 
Schweigert, F. J.; Uehlein-Harrell, Stephanie; Hegel, Giesela von; Wiesner, H. (detail)
   
1991
Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), α-tocopherol and lipid levels in plasma of captive wild mammals and birds.
Jour. Veter. Med., Ser. A, 38(1): 35-42.
–Compares data from T. manatus with that from other mammals and birds.
 
 
Schweinfurth, Georg (detail)
   
1874
The heart of Africa.
New York, Harper & Bros. (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xvi + 559; Vol. 2: x + 521.
–French transl.: Paris, Libr. Hachette & Cie, 2 vols., 1875. T. senegalensis, 2: 159-160, 512 (138, 422 in Paris ed.).
 
 
Schwenzer, Jürgen (detail)
   
1972
Makrofossilien des Mainzer Beckens; Fundorte und Exkursionsnotizen.
Aufschluss 23(11): 389-391. Nov. 1972.
 
 
Schwille, Friedrich (detail)
   
1960
Gammastrahlungsmessungen an fossilen Knochen und Zähnen aus dem Mainzer Becken und anderen Fundorten.
Jahresb. Mitt. Oberrhein. Geol. Ver. 42: 15-21.
 
 
Sclater, Philip Lutley (detail)
   
1866
Notice of additions to the Society's menagerie, and of the transmission of a manatee to the Society, by Mr. G. W. Latimer, of Porto Rico.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1866(2): 201. Sept. 1866.
 
 
Sclater, Philip Lutley (detail)
   
1876
Short notice on Manatus.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1875(4): 529. Apr. 1876.
x
 
Sclater, Philip Lutley (detail)
   
1896
[On the additions to the Society's Menagerie during the month of January.]
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1896(1): 212. June 1, 1896 (read Feb. 4, 1896).
–Reports a T. inunguis from the Rio Purus, Brazil, purchased Jan. 4, and lists four other manatees (T. manatus) previously received by the Society.
 
 
Sclater, Philip Lutley (detail)
   
1897
On the distribution of marine mammals.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1897(2): 349-359. Pl. 24. Aug. 1897.
–?Abstr.: Zoologist (4)1: 217? General outline of sir. distribution, 351-352.
 
 
Sclater, William Lutley (detail)
   
1891
Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Part 2.
Calcutta, Trustees of the Indian Museum: xxix + 375. June 1891.
–Lists dugongs (Halicore dugong and H. australis), 326-327.
 
 
Scopoli, Johann Anton (detail)
   
1777
Introdvctio ad historiam natvralem sistens genera lapidvm, plantarvm, et animalivm hactenvs detecta, caracteribvs essentialibvs donata, in tribvs divisa, svbinde ad leges natvrae.
Prague, Wolfgang Gerle: 1-506.
–Allen 344. Manatus, 490.
 
 
Scott, Alexander Walker (detail)
   
1873
Mammalia, Recent and extinct; an elementary treatise for the use of the public schools of New South Wales.
Sydney, T. Richards, govt. printer: xii + 141 + vii.
–Sirs., 48-57.
Scott, David: SEE Sorice et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Scott, Karen W. (detail)
   
1980
Antler and bone artifacts from the 1980 season at Colha, Belize. In: T. R. Hester, J. D. Eaton, & H. J. Shafer (eds.), The Colha Project Second Season, interim report.
San Antonio, Univ. Texas Center for Archaeol. Research: 317-326.
–Manatee-bone rasps, 324.
Scott, Michael D.: SEE ALSO Irvine & Scott, 1984. (detail)
x
 
Scott, Michael D.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr. (detail)
   
1982
Commensal feeding of little blue herons with manatees.
Wilson Bull. 94(2): 215-216. June 1982.
–Reports observations of commensal feeding at rafts of water hyacinth on the St. Johns River, Florida.
 
 
Scott, Thomas G.; Eschmeyer, Paul H. (eds.) (detail)
   
1981
Fisheries and wildlife research: 1980.
Denver, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service: iv + 202. Illus.
–Sirs., 55, 134-136.
 
 
Scott, William Berryman (detail)
   
1913
A history of land mammals in the Western Hemisphere.
New York, Macmillan Co.: xiv + 693. 304 figs. 32 pls.
–Rev.: Sci. Prog. 9: 559?; Science (n.s.) 39: 615-616?; Nature (London) 93: 553? Sirs., 442.
 
 
Scott-Johnson, C. (detail)
   
1967
Sound detection thresholds in marine mammals. In: W. N. Tavolga (ed.), Marine bio-acoustics. Vol. 2.
London, Pergamon Press: 159-186.
–Summarizes Schevill & Watkins (1965).
 
 
Scribner, Vaughn (detail)
   
2020
Merpeople: a human history.
London, Reaktion Books Ltd. Illus.
–A popular compendium of mermaid lore, with numerous unusual illustrations. Sirs. mentioned, 22-23, 154-156, 162, etc.
Scudder, S.: SEE Wing & Scudder, 1980. (detail)
 
 
Sea Aueng, S.; Witayasek, W.; Lukanawakulra, R.; Pearkwisak, W.; O'Sullivan, P. (detail)
   
1993
A survey of dugong in seagrass bed at Changwat Trang. In: The 31st Kasetsart University Annual Conference.
Bangkok, Kasetsart University: 363-368.
x
 
Seale, Alvin (detail)
   
1915
Note regarding the dugong in the Philippine Islands.
Philippine Jour. Sci., Sect. D, 10(3): 215-217. 1 pl. May 1915.
–Account of a dugong caught off Luzon, with notes on natives' observations of dugongs.
Searles, Stan W.: SEE Asper & Searles, 1981; Beusse et al.; O'Shea, Rathbun et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Seddon, Jennifer M.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Sneath, Helen L.; Broderick, Damien; Dudgeon, Christine L.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2014
Fine scale population structure of dugongs (Dugong dugon) implies low gene flow along the southern Queensland coastline.
Conservation Genetics, 6 tabs. 2 figs. DOI:10.1007/s10592-014-0624-x. June 2, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Populations of marine mammals can show the signature of phylogeographical breaks and restricted connectivity despite the apparent lack of physical boundaries in the marine environment and their high dispersal abilities. Dugongs (Dugong dugon) do not appear to undertake regular migrations but may show localised movement related to water temperature or seagrass availability. Previous mitochondrial DNA studies suggested that despite a strong phylogeographic break in the Torres Strait, there is local panmixia in Australian waters. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study of the four major dugong populations in southern Queensland. We analysed genotypes of 1,293 dugongs based on 24 microsatellite loci from the four major dugong locations in the region (from south to north): Moreton Bay, Great Sandy Straits, Hervey Bay and Shoalwater Bay. Diversity levels were similar across locations (observed heterozygosity 0.48–0.52, allelic richness 4.3–4.5). There was low but significant population differentiation in southern Queensland (FST ranged from 0.005 to 0.040 and Jost's DEST ranged from 0.001 to 0.031 for microsatellite data). Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in STRUCTURE largely distinguished the southern Moreton Bay population from the three more northern populations. Twelve mitochondrial control region haplotypes identified from a subset of 182 samples confirmed significant population structuring (FST ranged from 0.16 to 0.28). These data suggested that the frequency and extent of dugong movements are insufficient to disrupt the long-term existence of at least two breeding populations in southern Queensland.
Sedu, Duba: SEE Olewale & Sedu, 1980. (detail)
 
 
Seeley, Harry Govier (detail)
   
1876
Resemblances between the bones of typical living reptiles and the bones of other animals.
Jour. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 12: 155-195.
–Sirs., 177.
Seeman, Berthold: SEE Pim & Seeman, 1869. (detail)
Segawa, Isao: SEE Kimura et al., 1998. (detail)
x
 
Sehm, Gunter G. (detail)
   
1988
The ri is the Irrawaddy dolphin (comment on Williams [1986] and Greenwell [1987]).
Cryptozoology 6: 145-149. 1 fig. Feb. 1988.
–Disputes T. R. Williams' identification of the "ri" of New Ireland as the dugong, proposing instead that it is Orcaella brevirostris. See Williams (1988) for response.
 
 
Seidman, David (detail)
   
2012
Milking manatees - there's money in those floating speed bumps.
Boating Magazine, July/August 2012.
–An attack on behalf of the U.S. boating industry on the credibility of the Save the Manatee Club.
 
 
Seifert, Douglas David (detail)
   
1996a
The sirenian's final aria: the State of Florida and the state of the West Indian manatee.
Ocean Realm, Jan. 1996: 70-83.
–See also Seifert, 1996b.
 
 
Seifert, Douglas David (detail)
   
1996b
The sirenian's final area [sic], part two: Some good news, some bad news, and a spoonful of sugar.
Ocean Realm, Summer 1996: 7, 15.
–See also Seifert, 1996a.
 
 
Seiffert, Erik R. (detail)
   
2007
A new estimate of afrotherian phylogeny based on simultaneous analysis of genomic, morphological, and fossil evidence.
BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 224-237. 3 tabs. 2 figs. Nov. 13, 2007.
Seki, M.: SEE Tanaka & Seki, 1962. (detail)
Sekido, M.: SEE Asano et al., 1978; Nishimura et al., 1981. (detail)
Self-Sullivan, Caryn: SEE ALSO Williams et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A. (detail)
   
2012
West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the wider Caribbean region. Chap. 4 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 36-46. 2 tabs. 1 fig.
–Includes box essays by Haydée Domínguez Tejo (pp. 38-39, "Manatees in Hispaniola"), Carolina Mattosinho de Carvalho Alvite & Regis Pinto de Lima (pp. 42-43, "Antillean manatees in Brazil"), and Ignacio Jiménez Pérez (pp. 44-45, "Manatees in Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Central America").
 
 
Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Smith, G. W.; Packard, Jane M.; LaCommare, Katherine S. (detail)
   
2004
Seasonal occurrence of male Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the Belize Barrier Reef.
Aquatic Mammals 29(3): 342-354.
x
 
Sellards, E. H. (detail)
   
1916
Fossil vertebrates from Florida: a new Miocene fauna; new Pliocene species; the Pleistocene fauna.
Rept. Florida State Geol. Surv. 8: 77-119. Pls. 10-14.
–Lists T. manatus among Pleistocene fauna from the Withlacoochee River (104).
Selley, L. J.: SEE Ronald et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
Selley, R. C. (detail)
   
1968
Near-shore marine and continental sediments of the Sirte basin, Libya.
Proc. Geol. Soc. London 1968(1648): 81-90. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Oct. 11, 1968.
–Includes a "Contribution by Dr R. J. G. Savage" on "The vertebrate fauna of the Jebel Zelten ..." (pp. 85-88; 2 tabs., 1 fig.), which lists a "Sirenian gen. nov." (later described as Rytiodus heali Domning & Sorbi, 2011) and tabulates the distribution of sirs. at Jebel Zelten localities.
 
 
Semeyn, Deirdre J.; Cush, Carolyn C.; Scolardi, Kerri M.; Hebert, Jennifer; McBride, Justin D.; Grealish, Denis; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2011
Aerial surveys of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Lee County, Florida, provide insights regarding manatee abundance and real time information for managers and enforcement officers.
Journal of Coastal Conservation 15(4): 573-583. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI:10.1007/s11852-011-0146-3. Nov. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Conservation and management of the endangered Florida manatee is often centered on reducing mortality caused by watercraft collisions. Lee County, Florida, has led the state in watercraft-related mortality for eight of the last 10 years. This county is of particular concern as it contains important habitat for manatees, including extensive feeding grounds and an artificial warm-water refuge where more than 900 manatees have been recorded on a single day. Distributional aerial surveys were conducted from April 2007 through April 2009 over Lee County waters. Surveys yielded higher numbers of manatees than previously observed in this area. Using GIS methodology, kernel density analysis illustrated seasonal changes in distribution patterns and highlighted areas where manatees were most densely clustered. For example, during summer months, manatees were widely distributed throughout the survey area, with high-density areas associated with seagrass beds. During winter months, manatees were densely clustered at warm-water sites and over feeding grounds within close distance of these sites. These seasonal distribution patterns coincide well with speed zone designations. Counts and distributions of manatees were made available, almost immediately if necessary, to local marine law enforcement in an attempt to focus resources toward reducing manatee-watercraft collisions. Future studies should implement similar communication strategies to improve conservation efforts.
 
 
Semon, Richard Wolfgang (detail)
   
1903
Im australischen Busch und an den Küsten des Korallenmeeres. Reiseerlebnisse und Beobachtungen eines Naturforschers in Australien, Neu-Guinea und den Molukken. Ed. 2.
Leipzig, W. Engelmann: xvi + 565. 86 figs. 4 maps.
–Ed. 1, 1896. Engl. ed., London & New York, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1899.
 
 
Semper, Karl Gottfried (detail)
   
1869
Die Philippinen und ihre Bewohner. Sechs Skizzen. Nach einem im Frankfurter Geographischen Verein 1868 gehaltenen Cyclus von Vorträgen.
Würzburg, A. Stuber: 1-143. 2 maps.
–Sirs., 28-29.
 
 
Semper, Karl Gottfried (detail)
   
1873
Die Palau-Inseln im Stillen Ocean. Reisererlebnisse.
Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus: ix + 372. 1 map.
–Engl. transl.: Univ. of Guam, Micronesian Area Research Center, 1982. Use of dugong-atlas bracelets, 114.
Sen, Sevket: SEE S Thomas et al., 1982. (detail)
 
 
Sendra Saez, J. R. (detail)
   
1998
Excavación de un sirenio (Mammalia, Sirenia) parcialmente articulado en el Mioceno de Crevillente (Alicante). In: C. Castillo & M. Martín (eds.), Comunicaciones de las XIV Jornadas de Paleontología.
Tenerife: 161-164.
 
 
Sendra Saez, J. R.; Montoya, P.; Belinchón, M. (detail)
   
1999
Un cráneo de sirenio en el Plioceno de Pilar de la Horadada (Alicante, España).
Temas Geológico-Mineros, Inst. Tecnológico Geominero de Españ a 26: 350-355. 1 tab. 3 figs. 1 pl.
–Gives photos and measurements of a nearly complete skull referred to Metaxytherium serresii.
 
 
Sendra Saez, J. R.; Stokes, M.; Fortea Soler, F. A. (detail)
   
1998
Recuperación de un sirenio parcialmente articulado en el Plioceno inferior del sector norte de la cuenca de Vera (Almería). In: C. Castillo & M. Martín (eds.), Comunicaciones de las XIV Jornadas de Paleontología.
Tenerife: 173-176.
Senior, William: SEE ALSO Anonymous ("Redspinner"), 1881. (detail)
 
 
Senior, William (detail)
   
1888
Near and far: an angler's sketches of home sport and colonial life.
London, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington: xv + 304.
–Dugong, 202-213.
x
 
Senter, Phil; Snow, Vernetta B. (detail)
   
2013
Solution to a 300-year-old zoological mystery: the case of Thomas Bartholin's merman.
Archives of Natural History 40(2): 257-262. 11 figs.
–Identifies a flipper skeleton and rib from Brazil described by Bartholin (1654) as Trichechus sp. [It was actually T. manatus.]
 
 
Senthil-Kumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamamuro, Masumi; Pitaksintorn, Suwan; Takasuga, Takumi; Masunga, Shigeki (detail)
   
2002
Dioxins/furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in dugongs from Thailand coast.
Organohalogen Compounds 57: 177-180.
 
D
Sepkoski, J. John, Jr. (detail)
   
2002
A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. ... Edited [posthumously] by David Jablonski and Michael Foote.
Bulls. Amer. Paleontology No. 363. Sept. 16, 2002.
–Lists 30 nominal genera of sirs. (plus the erroneous inclusion of Scaldicetus), and 4 genera of desmostylians, with time intervals of their first and last known occurrences, and literature sources for these data (323).
 
D
Sera, Gioacchino Leone (detail)
   
1954
La posizione zoologica del genere mammale miocenico Desmostylus.
Arch. Zool. Ital. (Naples) 38: 485-506. 4 figs. Feb. 20, 1954.
–Engl. summ. Suggests that desmostylians (together with sirenians and proboscideans) were derived from anomodont therapsid reptiles, independently of other mammalian lineages.
x
 
Sereno, Paul C. (detail)
   
1982
An Early Eocene sirenian from Patagonia (Mammalia, Sirenia).
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 2729: 1-10. 1 tab. 4 figs. June 4, 1982.
–Redescribes Florentinoameghinia mystica Simpson, 1932, from the Notostylops beds of Argentina, and refers it (probably erroneously) to the Sirenia.
 
 
Serrano, Arturo; Daniel-Rentería, I. del Carmen; Hernández-Cabrera, T.; Sánchez-Rojas, G.; Cuervo-López, L.; Basáñez-Muñoz, A. (detail)
   
2017
Is the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) at the brink of extinction in the State of Veracruz, Mexico?
Aquat. Mamms. 43(2): 201-207. DOI: 10.1578/AM.43.2.2017.201
 
 
Serrano, Arturo; García-Jiménez, J. A.; González-Gándara, G. C. (detail)
   
2007
Has the manatee (Trichechus manatus) disappeared from the northern coast of the state of Veracruz, Mexico?
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 6: 109-112.
Serres, Marcel de: SEE ALSO Gervais & Serres. (detail)
 
 
Serres, Marcel de (detail)
   
1833
Mémoire sur la question de savoir si des animaux terrestres ont cessé d'exister depuis l'apparition de l'homme, et si l'homme a été contemporain des espèces perdues, ou du moins qui ne paraissent plus avoir de représentans sur la terre.
Bibl. Univ. Sci. Arts 53: 277-314.
–Allen 800. African manatee ("T. manatus") in ancient sculpture, 303?
x
 
Serres, Marcel de (detail)
   
1835
Essai sur les cavernes à ossemens et sur les causes qui les y ont accumulés.
Natuurk. Verh. Holland. Maatsch. Wet. 22: 1-222.
–Publ. as separate, Montpellier, 1836? Ed. 3, Paris, Lyon, & Montpellier, 1838: xvi + 412. Sirs.: 205-206 and 238-239 in 1838 ed.
  Mentions "hippopotamus minor" (205); "several indeterminate species" of "manatus" (238); and "halicore medius" from Montpellier (238-239) as taxa whose bones are found as fossils (localities otherwise not specified).
x
 
Serres, Marcel de (detail)
   
1838
Note sur les animaux des terrains tertiaires marins supérieurs découverts dans le sol immergé des environs de Montpellier.
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) (2)9: 280-292.
–Allen 942. Reports "Manatus" and "Halicore medius" [n.comb.] from [Pliocene] beds at Montpellier (285-286). Note that the new combination was misapplied to material specifically different from Desmarest's "Hippopotamus" medius; the Montpellier sirenian is now called Metaxytherium serresii.
 
 
Serres, Marcel de (detail)
   
1840
Note sur la découverte d'un squelette entier de Metaxytherium.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 11: 819-820.
–Engl. transl.: Edinburgh New Philos. Jour. 32: 173-174, 1842? Abstrs.: L'Institut 8(360): 392 [416?], Nov. 19, 1840 (Allen 1005); Rev. Mag. Zool. (Paris) 1840: 348? Repr.: Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) (2)16: 14-16, 1841?
 
 
Serventy, Vincent (detail)
   
1966
A continent in danger.
London, Deutsch: 1-240. Illus.
–Dugong, 93-96.
Setzer, Henry W.: SEE Meester & Setzer, 1971. (detail)
x
 
Severin, Kurt (detail)
   
1955
Grazers of the sea.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 64(3): 147-149. 5 figs. Mar. 1955.
–Pop. acc. of captive Florida manatees at Sea Zoo, South Daytona, Florida. A letter from Howard M. Mossman commenting on this article appeared in the May 1955 issue, p. 225.
x
 
Sey, O. (detail)
   
1980
Amphistome parasites of the dugong and a revision of the subfamily Solenorchiinae (Trematoda: Paramphistomidae).
Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 26(1-3): 223-228. 6 figs.
–Concludes that the dugong has only one species of amphistome parasite (Solenorchis travassosi), of which S. baeri, S. gohari, S. naguibmahfouzi, Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus, and Zygocotyle sp. (of Dollfus, 1950) are synonyms.
Seyfarth, Ernst-August: SEE Buchholtz & Seyfarth, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Sguros, Peter L. (detail)
   
1966
Research report and extension proposal submitted to the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Board on use of the Florida manatee as an agent for the suppression of aquatic and bankweed growth in essential inland waterways.
Boca Raton, Florida Atlantic Univ., Dept. of Biol. Sci.: 1-57 + appendices.
x
 
Shackley, Myra (detail)
   
1992
Manatees and tourism in southern Florida: opportunity or threat?
Jour. Environ. Manage. 34(4): 257-265. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Outlines the problems of manatee conservation in Florida, and concludes pessimistically that manatee-related tourism itself has become such a source of environmental stress that long-term manatee survival in the state seems unlikely.
Shafer, C. Scott: SEE Sorice et al., 2003. (detail)
 
 
Shane, Susan H. (detail)
   
1981
Abundance, distribution, and use of power plant effluents by manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Brevard County, Florida.
NTIS Document No. PB 81-147019: 1-240. Jan. 1, 1981.
x
 
Shane, Susan H. (detail)
   
1983a
Manatees and power plants.
Sea Frontiers 29(1): 40-44. 6 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1983.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatee aggregations at artificial and natural warm-water refugia.
x
 
Shane, Susan H. (detail)
   
1983b
Abundance, distribution and movement of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Brevard County, Florida.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 33(1): 1-9. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Presents aerial and land survey data, 1978-80, showing seasonal changes in abundance and distribution. Documents both winter aggregations at power plants, and almost equally predictable warm-season aggregations in marinas and dredged coves. Also documents movements and site fidelity of known individuals.
x
 
Shane, Susan H. (detail)
   
1984
Manatee use of power plant effluents in Brevard County, Florida.
Florida Scientist 47(3): 180-187. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Documents the inverse correlation between manatee numbers at two power plants and air and water temperatures in the area, 1978-80; describes manatee behavior in relation to the warm-water plumes; and recommends that no new artificial warm-water effluents be constructed north of the species' traditional winter range.
 
 
Shapiro, M. D.; Bell, M. A.; Kingsley, D. M. (detail)
   
2006
Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Scis. USA 103: 13753-13758.
–Discusses Trichechus.
 
 
Sharko, Fedor S.; Boulygina, Eugenia S.; Tsygankova, Svetlana V.; Slobodova, Natalia V.; Alekseev, Dmitry A.; Krasivskaya, Anna A.; Rastorguev, Sergey M.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Nedoluzhko, Artem V. (detail)
   
2021
Steller's sea cow genome suggests this species began going extinct before the arrival of Paleolithic humans.
Nature Communications 12(2215): 1-8. 3 figs. + online supplementary information. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22567-5 Publ. online Apr. 13, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic activity is the top factor directly related to the extinction of several animal species. The last Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) population on the Commander Islands(Russia) was wiped out in the second half of the 18th century due to sailors and fur traders hunting it for the meat and fat. However, new data suggests that the extinction process of this species began much earlier. Here, we present a nuclear de novo assembled genome of H. gigas with a 25.4× depth coverage. Our results demonstrate that the heterozygosity of the last population of this animal is low and comparable to the last woolly mammoth population that inhabited Wrangel Island 4000 years ago. Besides, as a matter of consideration, our findings also demonstrate that the extinction of this marine mammal starts along the North Pacific coastal line much earlier than the first Paleolithic humans arrived in the Bering sea region.
 
 
Sharko, Fedor S.; Rastorguev, Sergey M.; Boulygina, Eugenia S.; Tsygankova, Svetlana V.; Ibragimova, Amina S.; Tikhonov, Alexey N.; Nedoluzhko, Artem V. (detail)
   
2019
Molecular phylogeny of the extinct Steller's sea cow and other Sirenia species based on their complete mitochondrial genomes
Genomics 111(6): 1543-1546. 1 fig. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0888754318304750 Dec. 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The Steller's sea cow – Hydrodamalis gigas (Dugongidae: Sirenia) – is an extinct herbivorous marine mammal which inhabited the North Pacific Ocean during the Pleistocene and Holocene. H. gigas was the largest member of the Sirenia order and disappeared in the middle of the 18th century. Here, we present the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of this extinct animal. The Steller's sea cow mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is 16,872 base pairs (bp) in length and contains a set of mitochondrial genes typical for mammals. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete mitochondrial genomes of the sirenian species allows accurate assessment of the degree of their mitogenomic diversification during millions of years of evolution.
x
 
Sharma, P. N.; Gupta, A. N. (detail)
   
1971
Paracochleotrema indicum gen. nov. sp. nov. (Trematoda: Digenea) from India.
Folia Parasitol. (Prague) 18(3): 285-288. 1 fig. Sept. 1971.
–Describes a new trematode from the nasal passages of the dugong, and reviews and rediagnoses the family Opisthotrematidae.
 
 
Shattuck, George Burbank (detail)
   
1904
Geological and geographical distribution of species of Maryland Miocene.
Maryland Geol. Surv., Miocene: xciii-cxxxvii.
–Sirs., xciv.
Shaughnessy, Peter Douglas: SEE Bryden et al., 1998; Domning, D.P., 1999b; Marsh et al., 1993; Marsh, Corkeron et al., 1995; Reynolds, J.E., III, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Shaul, Wendy; Haynes, Ann M. (detail)
   
1986
Manatees and their struggle to survive.
Jamaica Jour. 19(3): 29-36. 12 figs. Aug.-Oct. 1986.
 
 
Shaw, George (detail)
   
1800
General zoology or systematic natural history.... Vol. I. Part 1. Mammalia.
London, G. Kearsley: xiii + 248. 70 pls.
–Allen 461 (the second of two items erroneously given this number). The whole work comprises 14 vols, 1800-26. Trichechus (including the Sirenia + the walrus), 233-248; T. Dugong, 239; T. Borealis (mainly = Rhytina borealis), 240-244; T. Australis, 244-245, pl. 69; T. Manatus (including as "varieties" T. Clusii from the West Indies and T. Amazonius from South America), 245-248; and T.? Hydropithechus, Steller's "sea-ape". Allen says "The history of the Sirenia ... is ... purely a compilation."
Shaw, J. J.: SEE Lainson et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Shaw, Norton (detail)
   
1857
Description of the ajuh, a kind of whale, found by Dr. Vogel in the River Benué (Central Africa) in September 1855. Translated and communicated by Dr. Shaw.
Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 26th Meeting (1856): 98-99.
–French transl.: L'Institut 25(1208): 61-62, Feb. 25, 1857. A description of the external appearance and habits of the West African manatee, by Vogel. Followed by a note (R. Owen, 1857b; q.v.) which compares the "ajuh" to other sirs. and proposes for it the name Manatus Vogelii.
 
 
Shawver, Lisa J. (detail)
   
1974
North American wildlife: the vanishing act.
Science News 105(23): 368-370. 5 figs. June 8, 1974.
 
 
Shearer, Walter (detail)
   
1988
Sea cattle ranching.
Development Forum, Jan.-Feb. 1988: 7. 1 fig.
–Pop. acc. of Recent sirs., making the ill-informed proposal that dugongs be raised for meat on marine ranches, "perhaps complete with porpoises trained for herding."
Sheffield, D.: SEE Kaiser et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Shepard, Charles U. (detail)
   
1833
Geological observations upon Alabama, Georgia and Florida.
Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts 25(1): 162-173. Oct. 1833.
–Allen 839. Reports [Pleistocene?] teeth and bones of "Manatus americanus" from "Suannee spring", Florida (164).
Shepherd, R.: SEE Marsh et al., 1994; Preen et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Sheppard, Charles; Price, Andrew; Roberts, Callum (detail)
   
1992
Marine ecology of the Arabian region: patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments.
London, Academic Press: 1-359. Illus.
–Discusses dugongs and their role in the seagrass community (151, 153, 214-216).
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Carter, A. B.; McKenzie, Len J.; Pitcher, C. R.; Coles, Rob G. (detail)
   
2008
Spatial patterns of sub-tidal seagrasses and their tissue nutrients in the Torres Strait, northern Australia: implications for management.
Continental Shelf Research 28: 2282-2291.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Jones, Rhondda E.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2009
Effects of tidal and diel cycles on dugong habitat use.
Jour. Wildl. Management 73: 45-59.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
2007
Seagrass as pasture for seacows: landscape-level dugong habitat evaluation.
Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science 71(1-2): 117-132. 3 tabs. 9 figs. Published online Aug. 30, 2006.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Marsh, Helene D.; Jones, Rhondda E.; Lawler, Ivan R. (detail)
   
2010
Dugong habitat use in relation to seagrass nutrients, tides, and diel cycles.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 26(4): 855-879. 4 tabs. 7 figs. Oct. 2010.
 
 
Sheppard, James K.; Preen, Anthony R.; Marsh, Helene D.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Whiting, Scott D.; Jones, Rhondda E. (detail)
   
2006
Movement heterogeneity of dugongs, Dugong dugon (Müller) over large spatial scales.
Jour. Exper. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 334(1): 64-83.
Sherman, Eloise B.: SEE Caldwell et al., 1969. (detail)
Shibata, A.: SEE Kawaguchi & Shibata, 1972. (detail)
 
D
Shibata, Ken; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Ishida, Masao; Nemoto, Takabumi (detail)
   
1981
Geochronology of the Desmostylus-bearing formation from Utanobori, Hokkaido, Japan.
Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan 32(10): 545-550.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Dates the Desmostylus horizon to circa 13.7-13.8 Ma.
Shibata, T.: SEE Asano et al., 1978. (detail)
Shibata, Y.: SEE Edmonds et al., 1997. (detail)
Shikama, Tokio: SEE ALSO Desmostylus Research Committee; Takai et al., 1952; Tan & Shikama, 1965; Yabe et al., 1952. (detail)
 
D
Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1957a
On the desmostylid skeletons.
Nat. Sci. & Mus. (Tokyo, Natl. Sci. Mus.) 24(1/2): 16-21. 2 pls.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 Although the Izumi skeleton is referred to on p. 20 as the "neotype" of Cornwallius (i.e., Paleoparadoxia) tabatai, a disclaimer at the end of the text on p. 21 states that the article is a "popular essay" written at the request of Dr. Yukio Ozaki, and "not an original article" (fide Dr. Naoki Kohno, in litt., 4 April 2006). Accordingly, under Art. 8.2 of the 1999 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, this work is not deemed "published" for nomenclatural purposes, and this neotype designation takes its correct date from Shikama (1966c: 155).
 
D
Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1966a
On some desmostylian teeth in Japan, with stratigraphical remarks on the Keton and Izumi desmostylids.
Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo) 9(2): 119-170. 16 tabs. 8 figs. 6 pls. June 15, 1966.
 
D
Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1966b
Study on the skeletons of Japanese desmostylids (excluding the skull).
Fossils (Kaseki) No. 11: 41-42. July 30, 1966.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1966c
Postcranial skeletons of Japanese Desmostylia. Limb bones and sternum of Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia, with considerations on their evolution.
Pal. Soc. Japan Special Paper No. 12: iii + 202. 31 tabs. 116 figs. 12 pls.
–See also Shikama (1968).
x
D
Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1968
Additional notes on the postcranial skeletons of Japanese Desmostylia.
Sci. Rept. Yokohama Natl. Univ., Sec. II, No. 14: 21-26. 5 figs. Pls. 3-6. Jan. 1968.
–Supplement to Shikama (1966c), listing errata in the description of the Izumi Paleoparadoxia skeleton. Also emends several of the figures of foot bones; gives a revised discussion of the skeleton's kinetics; and gives photographs of the mounted skeleton.
 
 
Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1971
Ushinawareta seibutsu. [The lost animal.]
Asahi Weekly (Shukan Asahi) No. 2720: 74-75. 3 figs. Feb. 12, 1971.
–In Japanese. Pop. acc. of Pliocene Hydrodamalis in Japan (see Shikama & Domning, 1970).
 
D
Shikama, Tokio [et al.?] (detail)
   
1957b
Palaeontology. Vol. 2.
Tokyo, Asakura.
–Desmostylia, 552-557.
x
 
Shikama, Tokio; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1970
Pliocene Sirenia in Japan.
Trans. Proc. Pal. Soc. Japan (2)80: 390-396. 3 figs. Pl. 44. Dec. 20, 1970 (read June 27, 1970).
–Japanese summ. Reports a rib of Hydrodamalis sp. from the Late Pliocene Lower Sarumaru Formation, Do-ai, Nagano Prefecture, Honshu. This was the first record of a fossil sir. in Japan. Briefly reviews other records of Pacific hydrodamalines, and inadvertently coins the new combination M[etaxytherium]. vanderhoofi (395).
x
D
Shikama, Tokio; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Otsuka, Hiroyuki (detail)
   
1973
Geological range of mammals in the Japanese Neogene. In: Neogene biostratigraphy and radiometric dating of Japan.
Mem. Geol. Soc. Japan 8: 137-141. 2 figs.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Summarizes the stratigraphic ranges of Hydrodamalis sp., Desmostylus, and Paleoparadoxia.
Shikhobalova, N. P.: SEE Skrjabin et al., 1951. (detail)
Shiller, Jo: SEE Boever et al., 1977. (detail)
Shilov, Vasily: SEE Brandt, A., 1871; Pekarskiy, P. P., 1869. (detail)
x
D
Shimada, Kenshu; Inuzuka, Norihisa (detail)
   
1994
Desmostylian tooth remains from the Miocene Tokigawa Group at Kuzubukuro, Saitama, Japan.
Trans. Proc. Pal. Soc. Japan, N.S., No. 175: 553-577. 4 tabs. 23 figs. Sept. 30, 1994.
–Japanese summ. Describes 15 isolated teeth of Paleoparadoxia and Desmostylus from the Godo Conglomerate Member, and discusses their taphonomic setting and associated shark fauna.
 
D
Shimaguchi, Takashi (detail)
   
2008
A desmostylian coxal bone from the Middle Miocene of Shiomizaki, Fukaura Town, Aomori Prefecture, northeast Japan.
Jour. Fossil Research 41(1): 41-45.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Shinohara, Satoshi; Kimura, Masaichi; Furusawa, Hitoshi (detail)
   
1985
Steller's sea-cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) from the Nopporo Hills in the Ishikari Lowland, Hokkaido, Japan. In: M. Goto, M. Takahashi, M. Kimura, & H. Horikawa (eds.), Evolution and adaptation of marine vertebrates.
Assoc. Geol. Collaboration in Japan, Monogr. 30: 97-117. 1 tab. 21 figs. 4 pls. Dec. 1985.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
Shipman, W.: SEE Dempster & Shipman, 1969. (detail)
 
 
Shirakihara, Miki; Yoshida, Hideyoshi; Yokochi, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hisao; Hosokawa, Taro; Higashi, Naoto; Kasuya, Toshio (detail)
   
2007
Current status and conservation needs of dugongs in southern Japan.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23(3): 694-706. 3 tabs. 3 figs. July 2007.
x
 
Shisler, Michael (detail)
   
1987
Shells, sharks, and a log-built bugeye: the maritime museums at Solomons and St. Michaels present a rich history of Bay life.
Mid-Atlantic Country, July 1987: 34-?. Illus.
–P. 34: {"... 'Pepper' Langley [master woodcarver at the Calvert Marine Museum, Solomons, Maryland] will be glad to tell you his theory that Chessie [the legendary Chesapeake Bay monster] is just a wayward manatee that never returned to the subtropical waters of Florida. Pepper remembers rowing to work at the old Davis Shipyards in Solomons and seeing manatees in the creeks that form Solomons Harbor."}
x
 
Shoda, Lisl K. M.; Brown, Wendy C.; Rice-Ficht, Allison C. (detail)
   
1998
Sequence and characterization of phocine interleukin 2.
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 34(1): 81-90. 1 tab. 5 figs. Jan. 1998.
–Reports that interleukin 2 of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) demonstrates 82% nucleotide sequence identity and 71% amino acid sequence identity with that of the Florida manatee (85).
Shokita, S.: SEE Nishiwaki et al., 1982. (detail)
Short, R. V.: SEE Gaeth et al., 1999. (detail)
x
 
Short, R. V. (detail)
   
1984
Hopping mad. In: D. G. Garlick & P. I. Korner (eds.), Frontiers in physiological research.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press: 371-386. 15 figs.
–Gen. acc. of dugongs and their physiology (382-384). States (383-384) that "We were fortunate in being able to karyotype a male and a female dugong, both of which had a diploid number of 50, again with many more metacentrics and submetacentrics than the elephants." This brief statement was the first report of the dugong's chromosome number.
Shoshani, Jeheskel: SEE ALSO Czelusniak et al., 1990; Domning, Rice et al., 1982; Tassy & Shoshani, 1988. (detail)
x
D
Shoshani, Jeheskel (detail)
   
1986
Mammalian phylogeny: comparison of morphological and molecular results.
Molec. Biol. Evol. 3(3): 222-242. 8 tabs. 4 figs. May 1986.
–Presents alternative cladograms and extensive lists of character transformations. Considers the Sirenia and Desmostylia to be sister groups within more or less traditional versions of the "Paenungulata".
x
 
Shoshani, Jeheskel (detail)
   
1993
Hyracoidea-Tethytheria affinity based on myological data. Chap. 17 in: F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, & M. C. McKenna (eds.), Mammal phylogeny. Vol. 2. Placentals.
New York, Springer-Verlag (321 pp.): 235-256. 2 tabs. 10 figs.
–Concludes from extensive comparative data on muscles that both the Tethytheria and the Paenungulata (= Hyracoidea + Tethytheria) are monophyletic groups. Includes an original composite drawing of T. manatus gular muscles (246).
 
 
Shoshani, Jeheskel; McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1998
Higher taxonomic relationships among extant mammals based on morphology, with selected comparisons of results from molecular data.
Molec. Phylog. Evol. 9(3): 572-584. June 1998.
 
 
Shoshani, Jeheskel; Goodman, Morris; Barnhart, Marion I.; Prychodko, William; Mikhelson, Viktor M. (detail)
   
1981
[Blood cells and proteins in the Magadan mammoth calf: immunodiffusion comparisons of Mammuthus to extant paenungulates and tissue ultrastructure.] In: N. K. Vereshchagin & V. M. Mikhelson (eds.), [Magadan baby mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach).]
Leningrad, "Nauka": 191-220. 4 tabs. 14 figs.
–In Russian.
x
 
Shoshani, Jeheskel; Goodman, Morris; Prychodko, William; Czelusniak, John (detail)
   
1978
Cladistic analysis of the Paenungulata by computer. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 18(3): 601. Summer 1978.
–42 non-dental morphological characters (tarsus, carpus, and skull) confirm serological evidence that the Sirenia and Proboscidea form a monophyletic group, joined by the Hyracoidea and Moeritherium and then by the Tubulidentata.
x
 
Shoshani, Jeheskel; Lowenstein, Jerold M.; Walz, Daniel A.; Goodman, Morris (detail)
   
1986
Proboscidean origins of mastodon and woolly mammoth demonstrated immunologically.
Paleobiology 11(4): 429-437. 5 tabs. 4 figs. Fall 1985 (publ. Feb. 14, 1986).
–Concludes that, among non-proboscidean species tested, T. manatus is immunologically most similar to proboscideans (431-436).
x
D
Shotwell, J. Arnold (detail)
   
1950
New locality of Desmostylus hesperus Marsh, from the Astoria Miocene. [Abstr.]
Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 61(12): 1541.
–Reports a "fragmental skull with teeth" from Astoria, Oregon, and notes that the craters on the summits of many Desmostylus molar cusps are probably due to wear, as suggested by Marsh.
 
 
Shou, Z.-H. (detail)
   
1958
The dugong from Beibu Gulf.
Chinese Jour. Zool. 2(2 [or 3?]): 146-152.
–In Chinese.
 
 
Shufeldt, R. W. (detail)
   
1887
The manatees.
Forest & Stream 29: 244-245. 4 figs. Oct. 20, 1887.
–Gen. acc. of manatees and other sirs. Mentions sighting one that "had drawn itself partly out on the muddy ooze of the bank" of the Coatzacoalcos R., southern Mexico.
 
 
Shufeldt, R. W. (detail)
   
1889
Remarks on the extinct mammals of the United States.
Amer. Field 32(17-22): [38 pp.?]. 12 figs.
 
 
Sibbald, Jean H. (detail)
   
1990
The manatee.
Minneapolis, Dillon Press, Inc. (Dillon Remarkable Animals Books): 1-60. Illus.
–Children's book.
x
 
Sibert, John R. (detail)
   
1983
Ri-ality: a mermaid in the hand? (Comment on Wagner [1982].)
Cryptozoology 2: 159-161. Winrter 1983.
–Suggests that the "ri" of New Ireland is some sort of marine mammal, but urges caution in interpreting Melanesian terms that refer, at least in part, to spiritual entities.
x
 
Sibert, John R. (detail)
   
1985
Semantics versus cryptozoology (comment on Wagner et al. [1983]).
Cryptozoology 3: 144-145. Apr. 1985.
–Discusses the report of Wagner et al., concludes that the "ri" may indeed be a dugong, and suggests that the terms "ri" and "ilkai" may denote entities or concepts not strictly zoological. See R. Wagner (1985) and J. R. Greenwell (1985) for responses.
Sichevskaya, Yevgeniya Konstantinovna: SEE Sinel'nikova et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Siciliano, S.; Costa, A.F.; Emin-Lima, R.; Vidal, M.D. (detail)
   
2021
Resgatando a caça histórica de peixes-bois na Amazônia durante e após a época da fantasia. In: Nascimento, Carlos Alberto Sarmento do; Campos, Alexandre de Castro; Souza, Fernando da Cruz; Ayres, Ariadne DallAcqua (Org.): Povos originários e comunidades tradicionais: trabalhos de pesquisa e de extensão universitária. Capítulo 4, 1ed.
Porto Alegre, R.S.: Fi, Brazil 9: 61-77.
 
 
Siciliano, Salvatore; Emin-Lima, N. R.; Costa, A. F.; Rodrigues, A. L. F.; Sousa, M. E. M.; Silva, C.; Souza, S. P.; Silva Júnior, J. S. (detail)
   
2007
Going back to my roots: confirmed sightings of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) on the coast of Ilha de Marajó, northern Brazilian coast.
JMBA Global Marine Environment 6: 34-35.
x
 
Siciliano, Salvatore; Franco, Stella Maris S. (detail)
   
2005
Catálogo da coleção de mamíferos aquáticos do Museu Nacional.
Rio de Janeiro: 1-44. 5 figs. Sept. 2005.
–Lists 15 specimens of TI, 2 of TM, and 2 of Trichechus sp. (35-36).
Sickenberg, Otto: SEE ALSO Pia & Sickenberg, 1934. (detail)
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1927a
Ein neuer Fund einer Sirene aus dem marinen Miozän des Burgenlandes.
Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 77(3): 103-106.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1927b
Über einen neuen Fund einer tertiären Seekuh.
Forsch. Fortschr. (Berlin) 3: 278-279. 1 fig.
–Reports a skull of Metaxytherium petersi from the Miocene of Austria.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1928
Eine Sirene aus dem Leithakalk des Burgenlandes.
Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Natw. Kl. 101: 293-323. 6 figs. 2 pls.
–?Abstr.: Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 65: 149-150. Describes a skull from the Miocene of Austria, on the basis of which he refers the species Metaxytherium petersi to the new genus Thalattosiren.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1929a
Ein Schädelstück von Manatherium delheidi Hartl.
Pal. Zs. 11(2): 86-101. 3 figs. Pls. 3-4. July 22, 1929.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1929b
Eine tertiäre Seekuh aus dem St. Margarethner Steinbruch.
Burgenland 1: 12.
x
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1931
Morphologie und Stammesgeschichte der Sirenen.... I. Die Einflüsse des Wasserlebens auf die innere Sekretion und Formgestaltung der Sirenen.
Palaeobiologica (Wien) 4(6/7): 405-444.
–Presents anatomical, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic evidence that neoteny, arising from dysfunction of the thyroid and/or pituitary glands as a result of chronic oxygen deficiency and high iodine content of food, is a pervasive feature of sir. development and evolution.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1933
Die Einflüsse des Wasserlebens auf die innere Sekretion und Formgestaltung der Sirenen.
Forsch. Fortschr. (Berlin) 9(29): 427-429. Oct. 10, 1933.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1934a
Kontinentalverschiebung, Klimawechsel und die Verbreitung der tertiären landbewohnenden Säugetiere.
Biol. Gen. (Vienna) 10: 267-300. 4 figs.
 
 
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1934b
Beiträge zur Kenntnis tertiärer Sirenen. I. Die eozänen Sirenen des Mittelmeergebietes. II. Die Sirenen des belgischen Tertiärs.
Mém. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique No. 63: 1-352. 10 tabs. 52 figs. 11 pls. Dec. 31, 1934.
–One of the most valuable works on fossil sirs., this massive monograph was conceived as a continuation of Abel's (1913a) work on the skull of Eotherium aegyptiacum. Finding himself unable to complete his projected study of Mediterranean Eocene sirs., Abel turned the project over to his student Sickenberg, who in this work describes the postcrania of E. aegyptiacum; covers in detail the other Egyptian Eocene forms E. (Eosiren) abeli, n.sp., E. (Eosiren) libycum, E. stromeri, n.sp., and Protosiren fraasi; Prototherium veronense (Eocene, Italy); Protosiren(?) dubia (Eocene, France); and fragmentary Eocene sirs. from Transylvania and Hungary. In the second part he describes the fossil sirs. of Belgium: Halitherium schinzi forma delheidi (Oligocene), a new combination based on Hartlaub's Manatherium; and Miosiren kocki (Miocene). Sickenberg thereby filled in some significant gaps in the sir. record by his meticulous descriptions of several taxa that had previously been little more than names.
 
D
Sickenberg, Otto (detail)
   
1938
Ist Desmostylus eine Sirene?
Palaeobiologica (Vienna) 6(2): 340-357.
 
 
Sidney, Samuel (detail)
   
1852
The three colonies of Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia; their pastures, copper mines, & gold fields.
London, Ingram, Cooke, & Co.: xvi + 17-425. Illus.
 
 
Sidorov, Yevgeny (detail)
   
1998
[Will the monument to the sea cow be installed? (A letter to the editorial office.)]
Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 5-6: 48-49. Illus.
Sidrim, J. J. C.: SEE Vergara-Parente et al., 2003a, b. (detail)
 
 
Sidrim, J. J. C.; Carvalho, V. L.; Castelo-Branco, D. d. S. C. M.; Brilhante, R. S. N.; Bandeira, T. d. J. P. G.; Cordeiro, R. d. A.; Guedes, G. M. d. M.; Barbosa, G. R.; Lazzarini, S. M.; Oliveira, D. C. R.; de Meirelles, A. C. O.; Attademo, F. L. N.; Freire, A. C. d. B.; Moreira, J. L. B.; Monteiro, A. J.; Rocha, M. F. G. (detail)
   
2015
Yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in Brazil and its relevance for animal health and management in captivity.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology 61(10): 763-769. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2015-0341
 
 
Sidrim, J. J.; Carvalho, V. L.; Maia, D. Castelo-Branco de Souza Collares; Brilhante, R. S.; de Melo Guedes, G. M.; Barbosa, G. R.; Lazzarini, S. M.; Oliveira, D. C.; de Meirelles, A. C.; Attademo, F. L.; da Boaviagem Freire, A. C.; de Aquino Pereira-Neto, W.; de Aguiar Cordeiro, R.; Moreira, J. L.; Rocha, M. F. (detail)
   
2016
Antifungal resistance and virulence among Candida spp. from captive Amazonian manatees and West Indian manatees: potential impacts on animal and environmental health.
EcoHealth 13(2): 328-338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-015-1090-8
 
 
Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Maia, Débora Castelo Branco de Souza Collares; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira de; Silva, Cristine Pereira Negrão; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha (detail)
   
2015
Bipolaris hawaiiensis as an emerging cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 113(1): 69-73. 3 figs. DOI: 10.3354/dao02827. Feb. 10, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Phaeohyphomycoses are emerging and opportunistic diseases caused by dematiaceous fungi that infect many animal species. This paper describes a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Blackish skin lesions were observed in an Antillean manatee calf held captive in Brazil. Direct examination of skin scraping from the affected areas revealed the presence of dematious hyphae. Culture of skin fragments led to the isolation and subsequent identification of B. hawaiiensis as the etiologic agent. Treatment with itraconazole for 14 d was effective. Infections by Bipolaris spp. are rare in animals, and this is the first report of B. hawaiiensis in veterinary medicine.
 
 
Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Estrada, Amara; Bonde, Robert K.; Wong, Arthur; Estrada, Daniel J.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2006
Electrocardiography in two subspecies of manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus).
Jour. Zoo & Wildl. Med. 37(4): 447-453. 2 tabs. 6 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were recorded in two subspecies of awake, apparently healthy, wild manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus) undergoing routine field examinations in Florida and Belize. Six unsedated juveniles (dependent and independent calves) and 6 adults were restrained in ventral recumbency for ECG measurements. Six lead ECGs were recorded for all manatees and the following parameters were determined: heart rate and rhythm; P, QRS, and T wave morphology, amplitude, and duration; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Statistical differences using a t-test for equality of means were determined. No statistical difference was seen based on sex or subspecies of manatees in the above measured criteria. Statistical differences existed in heart rate (P=0.047), P wave duration (P=0.019), PR interval (P=0.025), and MEA (P=0.021) between adult manatees and calves. Our findings revealed normal sinus rhythms, no detectable arrhythmias, prolonged PR and QT intervals, prolonged P wave duration, and small R wave amplitude as compared with Cetacea and other marine mammals. This paper documents the techniques for and baseline recordings of ECGs in juvenile and adult free-living manatees. It also demonstrates that continual assessment of cardiac electrical activity in the awake manatee can be completed and can be used to aid veterinarians and biologists in routine health assessment, during procedures, and in detecting the presence of cardiac disease or dysfunction.
 
 
Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Harr, K.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Scott, K. C.; Gerlach, Trevor J.; Sirois, P.; Reuter, M.; Crewz, D. W.; Hill, R. C. (detail)
   
2010
Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Med. 41(4): 594-602.
 
 
Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Harr, Kendal E.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Bonde, Robert K.; Heard, Darryl (detail)
   
2013
Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus).
Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 44(2): 285-294. 6 tabs. DOI: 10.1638/2012-0093R.1. June 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P ? 0.05). Mean WB aluminum, calcium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, vanadium, and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower in BZ versus FL manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P ? 0.05). Females had significant and higher mean WB nickel and serum barium compared to males (P ? 0.05). Mean WB arsenic and zinc, and mean serum iron, magnesium, and zinc concentrations fell within toxic ranges reported for domestic species. Results reveal manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.
 
 
Siegfried, Paul (detail)
   
1965
Anomotherium langewieschei n. g. n. sp. (Sirenia) aus dem Ober-Oligozän des Dobergs bei Bünde (Westfalen).
Palaeontographica A 124: 116-150. 30 figs. 7 pls. March 1965.
x
 
Siegfried, Paul (detail)
   
1967
Das Femur von Eotheroides libyca (Owen) (Sirenia).
Pal. Zs. 41(3/4): 165-172. 2 figs. Pl. 17. Oct. 1967.
–Describes a femur from the Upper Eocene of the Fayum and compares it with that of Halitherium schinzii. Concludes that the hind limb could not have protruded from the body in Eotheroides, though a vestigial tibia may have been present.
x
 
Sigurdsson, J. B.; Yang, C. M. (detail)
   
1990
Marine mammals of Singapore. In: Chou Loke Ming & P. K. L. Ng (eds.), Essays in zoology. Papers commemorating the 40th anniversary of the Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore.
Singapore, Dept. Zool., Natl. Univ. of Singapore (476 pp.): 25-37. Illus.
–Summarizes in detail the records of dugongs in Singapore waters, 1821-1989 (25-29, 33-34), concluding that a viable population still exists in the Johore River estuary. Notes recent evidence of dugongs killed by boats and possibly by fishing nets. Also reproduces in full the report of Abraham (1924) (29).
x
 
Sikes, Sylvia K. (detail)
   
1974
How to save the mermaids.
Oryx 12(4): 465-470. 3 figs. June 1974.
–Discusses the status of T. senegalensis in Nigeria, including individuals kept in captivity; describes the harpooning technique used by the Kabawa tribe; proposes ranching of manatees for meat as a means of conservation.
  Fauna Preservation Society funding for Sikes' research was announced in Oryx 12(2): 167, Oct. 1973.
 
 
Sikes, Sylvia K. (detail)
   
2010
Manatees in West Africa: elephants' elusive and rare aquatic cousins.
Newbury (U.K.), Mirage Newbury: a-g + 1-100. 68 figs. 2 maps.
–Describes the author's fieldwork with manatees in Nigeria in the 1970s.
x
 
Silas, E. G. (detail)
   
1961
'Occurrence of the sea cow, Halicore dugong (Erxl.), off the Saurashtra coast.'
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 58(1): 263-266. Apr. 1961.
–Comments on Mani's (1960) paper of the same title, with notes on dugong behavior (especially use of the flippers) and occurrences and captures in India.
 
 
Silas, E. G. (detail)
   
1964
Marine mammals. In: Book of Indian animals.
Bombay, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.: 304-316. Pl. 69.
–Publ. 1965?
 
 
Silas, E. G.; Fernando, A. Bastian (detail)
   
1988
The dugong in India - is it going the way of the dodo?
Proc. Symp. Endangered Marine Animals & Marine Parks (Cochin, India, Jan. 12-16, 1985) 1: 167-176. 1 fig. Oct. 1988.
 
 
Silberman, Ulrike (detail)
   
1929
Zur vergleichenden Morphologie des Zwischengewebes im Säugerhoden.
Zs. Ges. Anat., Abt. 1, Zs. Anat. Entwickl. 90(5/6): 597-613. 21 figs.
x
 
Siler, Walter L. (detail)
   
1964
A Middle Eocene sirenian in Alabama.
Jour. Pal. 38(6): 1108-1109. Nov. 1964.
–Reports a rib fragment from the Gosport Sand (Claiborne Group), Monroe County, Alabama.
Silva Guimarães, João Joaquim da: SEE Guimarães, João Joaquim da Silva. (detail)
Silva Rondon, Cândido Mariano da: SEE Rondon, Cândido Mariano da Silva. (detail)
Silva, Bernardo da Costa e: SEE Costa e Silva, Bernardo da. (detail)
 
 
Silva, Fernanda M. O.; Marmontel, Miriam; Guterres-Pazin, Michelle Gil; Marsicano, Gleide; Suertegaray, Rafael R.; Medeiros, Giliard; Ferraz, Maria Isabel C. P. (detail)
   
2011
The healing process of skin lesions in a captive Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) calf: a case report.
Uakari 7(2): 43-47. 3 figs.
–Portuguese summ. Available at: http://www.uakari.org.br/index.php/UAKARI/article/view/105/127
 
 
Silva, Fernanda M. O.; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Gomes, J. K. N.; Teixeira, M. N.; Attademo, F. L. N.; Silva, J. C. R. (detail)
   
2009
Blood chemistry of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus): age variations.
Aquatic Mammals 35(2): 253-258.
 
 
Silva, Fernanda M. O.; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Gomes, J. K. N.; Teixeira, M. N.; Lima, R. P. (detail)
   
2007
A contribution for the definition of serum chemistry values in captive adult Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758).
Jour. Veter. Med. Series A - Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 54(3): 119-122.
 
 
Silva, J.; Montes, D.; Elias, R. (detail)
   
2015
Conocimientos, conservación y avistamiento del manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis), según los pobladores de la cuenca del río Ucayali (Loreto, Perú).
Salud Y Tecnología Veterinaria 2(1): 32-38.
Silva, José Bonifacio de Andrada e: SEE Andrada e Silva, José Bonifacio de. (detail)
 
 
Silva, Marina; Downing, John A. (detail)
   
1995
CRC handbook of mammalian body masses.
Boca Raton, CRC Press: 1-359.
–Chap. 20 (Sirenia, p. 281) lists body-mass data for the four living species, compiled from published sources.
 
 
Silva, Mónica A.; Araújo, António (detail)
   
2001
Distribution and current status of the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) in Guinea-Bissau.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 17(2): 418-424. 2 figs. "Apr. 2001" (mailed Mar. 13, 2001).
 
 
Silva, Mónica A.; Araújo, António; Djedo, F.; Gomes, L.; Monteiro, H. (detail)
   
1999
Status of the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) in Guinea-Bissau. In: P. G. H. Evans, J. Cruz, & J. A. Raga (eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Valencia, Spain, 5-8 April 1999.
European Research on Cetaceans (Valencia, Spain) 13: 263-266. Illus. Dec. 1999.
Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da: SEE ALSO Best et al.; Rosas et al., 1991. (detail)
 
 
Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Souza, Diogo Alexandre de; d'Affonseca, Anselmo; Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Romero, Ricardo (detail)
   
2019
Mamíferos Aquáticos da Amazônia. Aquatic mammals of the Amazon.
Manaus, Editora INPA: 1-120. Illus.
–Text in both Portuguese and English. Richly illustrated history and description of the Aquatic Mammals Program at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus, Brazil. Preface by D. Domning, pp. 6-7. The Amazonian Manatee Project is covered mainly on pp. 32-41, but numerous other photographs of T. inunguis are scattered throughout.
Silveira, Estanislau Kostka Pinto da: SEE Pinto da Silveira, Estanislau Kostka. (detail)
Silveira, Simão Estacio da: SEE Estacio da Silveira, Simão (detail)
 
 
Silverberg, D. J.; Morris, John G. (detail)
   
1988
The role of nutrients and energy in the winter diet selection of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) at Homosassa Springs, Florida. [Abstr.]
Florida Scientist 51 (Suppl. 1): 51.
–Also publ. in Amer. Zool. 27, 1987?
 
 
Silverstein, Alvin; Silverstein, Virginia B.; Silverstein, Robert; Nunn, Laura Silverstein (detail)
   
1995
The manatee.
Brookfield (Connecticut), Millbrook Press (Endangered in America series): 1-64. Illus.
–Pop. acc. of manatee biology, research, and conservation.
Silverstein, Robert: SEE Silverstein et al., 1995. (detail)
Silverstein, Virginia B.: SEE Silverstein et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Simberloff, Daniel (detail)
   
2009
Moving beyond strawmen and artificial dichotomies: Adaptive management when an endangered species uses an invasive one.
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22(1): 73-80. DOI: 10.1007/s10806-008-9126-5. Feb. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Evans et al. (Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2008) have attempted to enmesh me in their dispute with the Florida Bureau of Invasive Plant Management about a specific system, Kings Bay/Crystal River. In so doing, they repeatedly mischaracterize my positions in order to depict, incorrectly, invasion biology as monolithic and me as a representative of one extreme of a false dichotomy about management of introduced species. In addition, they introduce an issue irrelevant in this case (extinctions) and cite incorrect data. Proposing to manage people, manatees, introduced plants, and cyanobacteria in Kings Bay by participative adaptive management, they ignore the fact that living organisms can both disperse autonomously and hitchhike. Finally, they present few details on any aspect of their management proposal and do not address the myriad problems that have beset previous attempts at scientific adaptive management, especially at large scales. Until such a management approach is fleshed out and implemented, it is impossible to assess its validity for Kings Bay, and it is very premature to suggest it as a general model for dealing with invasive species disputes.
x
 
Simenstad, Charles A.; Estes, James A.; Kenyon, Karl W. (detail)
   
1978
Aleuts, sea otters, and alternate stable-state communities.
Science 200: 403-411. 2 tabs. 5 figs. Apr. 28, 1978.
–Mentions the former role of Hydrodamalis gigas in nearshore marine communities of the Aleutians (409).
x
 
Simionescu, Ion (detail)
   
1931
Mamifere marine din Sarmaticul dela Balcic.
Acad. Română, Mem. Sect. Štiinţif. (Bucharest) (3)8: 145-157. 14 figs.
–French summ. Reports a marine mammal fauna from the Sarmatian (Miocene) of Balcic, Romania, including a rib of "Manatus (maeoticus Eichw.)" (146, 154-155, 157).
 
 
Simkins, Cleveland Sylvester (detail)
   
1937
History of the human teeth.
Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc.: viii + 329. 111 figs.
x
 
Simmons, Nancy (detail)
   
1992
A wetsuit for a manatee.
Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 9. 1 fig. Mar.-Apr. 1992.
–Brief pop. acc. of the use of custom-made flotation gear in the rehabilitation of a boat-injured manatee at Sea World of Florida.
Simões, Paias: SEE Reiner & Simões, 1999. (detail)
Simon, Noel: SEE ALSO Fisher et al., 1969. (detail)
 
 
Simon, Noel; Géroudet, Paul (detail)
   
1970
Last survivors - the natural history of animals in danger of extinction.
New York, World Publ. Co.: 1-275. Illus.
–Dugong, 247-254, color illus.
 
 
Simon, Pedro (detail)
   
1627
Primera parte de las noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias Occidentales.
Cuenca, D. de la Yglesia: 1-671 + [40].
–Various later eds.
 
 
Simoneau, E. L. (detail)
   
1974?
Les animaux du territoire français des Afars et des Issas.
Djibouti, publ. by the author.
 
 
Simonelli, V. (detail)
   
1921
Di alcuni fossili terziari raccolti in Cirenaica da Don Vito Zanon.
Rendiconto delle R. Accademia delle Scienze Dell' Instituto di Bologna, Classe di Scienze Fisiche 25:124-128.
Simonetta, A. M.: SEE Funaioli & Simonetta, 1966. (detail)
Simons, Elwyn L.: SEE ALSO Domning et al., 1994; Fleagle et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Simons, Elwyn L. (detail)
   
1968a
Early Cenozoic mammalian faunas - Fayum Province, Egypt. Part I. African Oligocene mammals: introduction, history of study, and faunal succession.
Peabody Mus. Bull. No. 28: 1-21, 103-105. 1 fig. Nov. 20, 1968.
–Sirs., 8, 15.
 
 
Simons, Elwyn L. (detail)
   
1968b
Hunting the "dawn apes" of Africa.
Discovery 4(1): 19-32. 10 figs. Fall 1968.
 
 
Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Goodreid, Adrian B.; McAuley, Rory B. (detail)
   
2001
Size, sex and geographic variation in the diet of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, from Western Australian waters.
Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 37-46. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1011021710183.
–ABSTRACT: Stomach contents from tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, caught on lines off the central coast of Western Australia were analysed to investigate variations in the diet due to sex, size and geographic location. Stomachs from 84 specimens contained food, while 26 had empty stomachs and 66 had regurgitated. Twelve prey groups were identified, the most common being turtles, sea snakes, teleost fishes, dugongs and sea birds. Dietary overlap was high between males and females. An ontogenetic shift was observed in the diet. Smaller prey (e.g. cephalopods, teleosts and sea snakes) were more common in small individuals, while the occurrence of larger prey (e.g. turtles, dugongs and elasmobranchs) increased with increasing shark size. Differences in the diet were observed between four regions along the central Western Australian coast. The ability to catch and consume large prey, prey availability, prey density, and prey profitability were identified as factors influencing the diet. The high level of occurrence of dugongs and turtles in the diet of G. cuvier, relative to their abundance, suggests that shark predation may play an important role in regulating populations of these species.
  Contains data on dugongs in shark stomachs.
x
 
Simpson, Donald A. (detail)
   
1956
Eugenie is a lady! (-- or, how wrong can you be!)
Aquarium Jour. 27(2): 54, 57, 74. Cover photo. Feb. 1956.
–Pop. acc. of the dugong at Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, and its transport from the Palau Islands. The author assumes the animal to be a female, but its death and autopsy prior to publication revealed the opposite, as noted by the editor, who evidently added the article's subtitle.
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1929a
Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County, Florida.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 56(8): 561-599. 22 figs. Feb. 19, 1929.
–The faunal list includes the following (p. 564): {"SIRENIA / Trichechus sp. Tooth, rib fragments."}
x
D
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1929b
The dentition of Ornithorhynchus as evidence of its affinities.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 390: 1-15. 2 figs. Dec. 6, 1929.
–Refutes Abel's idea of the relationship of Desmostylus to monotremes (12-13).
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1929c
Hunting extinct animals in Florida.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 29(5): 506-518. 14 figs. Sept.-Oct. 1929.
–Mentions Miocene and Pleistocene fossil sirs. in Florida (508, 510-511), and gives a photograph of the site of discovery of a Miocene sir. [Hesperosiren] in Gadsden County (518).
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1930a
Sea sirens: the strange mammals from which came the ancient ideas of mermaids and sirens.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 30(1): 41-47. 6 figs. Jan. 1930.
–Pop. acc. of Recent and fossil sirs. Comments on possible West Indian or African origins of the name "manatee" (43).
 
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1930b
Tertiary land mammals of Florida.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 59(3): 149-211. 2 tabs. 31 figs. June 5, 1930.
–Mentions sirs. at Quincy (158) and Bone Valley (184-185), Florida.
x
D
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1932a
Fossil Sirenia of Florida and the evolution of the Sirenia.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 59(8): 419-503. 2 tabs. 23 figs. Sept. 6, 1932.
–A comprehensive and judicious review of the order that formed a major and much-cited milestone in sirenian paleontology. Reviews previous knowledge of American fossil sirs., gives a synoptic classification with diagnoses of suprageneric taxa (without noting that two new subfamilies, Dugonginae and Hydrodamalinae, are being established), and describes new taxa from Florida: Hesperosiren crataegensis, n.gen.n.sp. (Miocene), Felsinotherium ossivallense, n.sp., and F. floridanum, n.comb. (both considered Pliocene but now known to be Miocene). The name Halitherium alleni, n.sp., is also given to previously published specimens from South Carolina. Pleistocene occurrences of Trichechus in Florida are discussed, the remaining fossil sirs. of the world are reviewed, and the osteology of the three Recent genera is detailed in an attempt to decipher their origins. Finally, the history of study of sir. affinities is summarized, along with the fossil and Recent distribution of the better-known genera.
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1932b
Mounted skeletons of Eohippus, Merychippus, and Hesperosiren.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 587: 1-7. 3 figs. Dec. 15, 1932.
–Describes and illustrates the Hesperosiren mount in the American Museum of Natural History, and comments on previous restorations of Halitherium schinzii (5-7).
x
D
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1932c
A new classification of mammals.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 59(5): 259-293. Mar. 18, 1932.
–Presents a classification of the Sirenia to the family level (Trichechiformes: Prorastomidae, Dugongidae, Trichechidae; Desmostyliformes: Desmostylidae) (281-282), with comments (292).
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1941a
Vernacular names of South American mammals.
Jour. Mamm. 22(1): 1-17. Feb. 14, 1941.
–Suggests that the name "manatee" is derived from the Carib manatí = (a woman's) breast (14).
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1941b
Some Carib Indian mammal names.
Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 1119: 1-10. June 6, 1941.
–States (p. 1) that Simpson (1941a) was "written after the present paper but published first." Of the two, this paper is the more detailed and informative. It lists yalawa, kayumoru, and several variants of the latter as names for the manatee (erroneously supposed to be T. inunguis rather than T. manatus) in various Venezuelan Carib dialects. Concludes that the name manati was derived from Carib words for "(a woman's) breast" (9).
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1942
The beginnings of vertebrate paleontology in North America.
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 86(1): 130-188. 23 figs. Sept. 1942.
–P. 177: {"The occurrence of sirenian bones along the Atlantic coast from New Jersey to Georgia had been observed [by 1842], but identification had gone no further than to establish their generally manatee-like character."}
x
D
Simpson, George Gaylord (detail)
   
1945
The principles of classification and a classification of mammals.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85: xvi + 350. Oct. 5, 1945.
–Presents a revised classification of the Sirenia (including desmostylians) to genus; recognizes four trichechiform families (Prorastomidae, Protosirenidae, Dugongidae, Trichechidae) (135-136, 240, 251-252). Resurrects Halianassa as a senior synonym of Metaxytherium, thereby causing much later instability in nomenclature. Comments on Owen's term "Mutilata" (= Sirenia + Cetacea) (214).
x
 
Simpson, George Gaylord; Paula Couto, Carlos de (detail)
   
1981
Fossil mammals from the Cenozoic of Acre, Brazil. III - Pleistocene Edentata Pilosa, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla.
Iheringia, Sér. Geol. 6: 11-73. 2 tabs. 32 figs. Apr. 15, 1981.
–A mandible, 3 molars, and a skullcap from the upper Rio Juruá are described (by Paula Couto, not Simpson as indicated; Simpson, pers. commun. to Domning, Dec. 17, 1981) and referred to Trichechus inunguis (48-49, 69); but see Domning (1982b: 603-604).
Simpson, H. H., Sr.: SEE Jenks & Simpson, 1941. (detail)
Sinclair, D. F.: SEE Marsh & Sinclair, 1989a, 1989b. (detail)
x
 
Sinclair, W. F. (detail)
   
1897
The dugong.
Nature (London) 57(1470): 198. Dec. 30, 1897.
–Letter to the editor. Suggests that a description of "seal" flesh in the Christian Topography of Cosmas of Alexandria, a 6th-century Egyptian monk (London, Hakluyt Society, 1897), probably pertained to the dugong. Also mentions the sale in London of "potted dugong" from Queensland.
Sinel'nikova, Valentina Nikolayevna: SEE ALSO Dubrovo & Sinel'nikova, 1971. (detail)
 
D
Sinel'nikova, Valentina Nikolayevna; Brattseva, Greta Mikhaylovna; Dubrovo, Irina Aleksandrovna; Sichevskaya, Yevgeniya Konstantinovna (detail)
   
1985
[Subdivision and paleontological characteristics of the Neogene section of Kavano-Utkholok Harbor (western Kamchatka).] In: Korrelyatsiya kaynozoyskikh tolshch Dal'nogo Vostoka. Trudy vostochnoy kompleksnoy geologicheskoy ekspeditsii. Chast' I. [Correlation of the Cenozoic strata of the Far East. Works of the Eastern Interdisciplinary Geological Expedition. Part I.]
Moscow: 84-157. 1 tab. 14 figs. 5 pls.
–In Russian. Reports a specimen of Desmostylus, 123-127, 148, pl. 1.
Singh, Gurcharan: SEE Tewari et al., 1977?. (detail)
 
 
Singh, H. S. (detail)
   
2003
Sea mammals in marine protected area in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat State, India.
Indian Jour. Mar. Scis. 32(3): 258-262. Sept. 2003.
 
 
Singh, L. A. K. (detail)
   
2020
The state of wildlife and protected areas in Maharashtra: news and information from the protected area update 1996-2015.
Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(3): 15405-15406. https://10.11609/jot.5791.12.3.15405-15406
Singh, M. P.: SEE Bajpai et al., 1987. (detail)
Singh, Pratap: SEE Bajpai et al., 1987. (detail)
 
 
Singh, Shilpa; Kar, Ratan (detail)
   
2011
Melissopalynological studies on mangrove honeys from Sunderbans (Bangladesh) and Little Andaman (India).
Current Science 100(9): 1290-1293. 1 table. 2 figures. May 2011.
–ABSTRACT: The present study is aimed to understand the composition of mangrove vegetation around the bee hives and identify the major, medium and minor pollen plants through analysis of pollen content of regional honeys of the respective areas, and also to establish a basis for differentiation between honey samples procured from Katka, the Sunderbans, Bangladesh and from Dugong Creek and Jackson Creek, Little Andaman, India.
Siniff, Donald B.: SEE Packard et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Sinzov, Ivan Fedorovich (detail)
   
1900
Geologische und paläontologische Beobachtungen im Südrussland.
Denkschr. [= Zapiski] Neuruss. Univ. (Odessa) 79: 347-412. 6 pls.
x
 
Sittler, Claude (detail)
   
1972
Le Sundgau, aspect géologique et structural.
Sci. Géol., Bull. (Strasbourg) 25(2-3): 93-118.
–Notes the presence of vertebrae of Halitherium schinzii in lower Rupelian (Oligocene) deposits bordering the Sundgau region of Alsace (113).
Sivadas, M.: SEE Krishna Pillai et al., 1989. (detail)
Sivak, J. G.: SEE West et al., 1991. (detail)
 
 
Sivakumar, K. (detail)
   
2013
Status of Dugong dugon in India: strategies for species recovery. In: K. Venkataraman, C. Sivaperuman, & C. Raghunatghan (eds.), Ecology and conservation of tropical marine faunal communities.
Berlin & Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag: 419-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38200-027
 
 
Sjöstedt, Y. (detail)
   
1897
Die Säugethiere des nordwestlichen Kamerungebietes.
Mitt. Forsch. Gel. Deutsch. Schutzgebieten 10: 25-45.
–Sirs., 45.
 
 
Skrjabin, K. I.; Shikhobalova, N. P.; Mozgovoy, A. A. (detail)
   
1951
[Key to parasitic nematodes, Vol. II. Oxyurata and Ascaridata.]
Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Akad. Nauk SSSR: 1-631.
–In Russian.
 
 
Slade, D. D. (detail)
   
1888
On certain vacuities or deficiencies in the crania of mammals.
Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. 13: 241-246. 2 pls.
–Sirs., 244.
 
 
Slade, Robert; Preen, Anthony R.; Bowerman, Martin (detail)
   
1989
Discover dugongs.
Underwater Geographic No. 25: 24-27. 7 figs. June 1989.
–Comprises 3 separate articles: "Nature's survivors" by Slade; "Some current dugong research" by Preen; and "Dugong & commercial fishermen - there's room for both" by Bowerman; plus a letter to the editor from Tony and Cathy Tubbenhauer.
 
 
Slater, Janet; Stokes, Tony (detail)
   
1996
Shoalwater Bay (dugong) plan of management.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (Australia): xi + 7 + 3. 1 map. Nov. 20, 1996.
–ISBN 0 642 23017 X.
Slaughter, Bob H.: SEE James & Slaughter, 1974. (detail)
x
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1980a
The case of the mistaken manatees.
Adventure Travel 2(8): 42-47. 6 figs. Jan. 1980.
–Notice: Adventure Travel 2(7): 87, Dec. 1979. Pop. acc. of manatees and manatee research and conservation efforts in Florida.
 
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1980b
Mermaids of Crystal River.
Wildlife 22(3): 22. Mar. 1980.
x
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1981
Gone condo: development of Florida's coastal waterways could be disastrous for the endangered manatee.
Animals 114(2): 16-20. 4 figs. Apr. 1981.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees.
 
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1984
Manatee: North America's most unusual mammal struggles for survival.
Pacific Discovery 37(1): 14-23. 11 figs. Jan.-Mar. 1984.
x
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1986
A far cry from a sea nymph.
Audubon 88(2): 86-99. 15 figs. Mar. 1986.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees.
x
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1987
Manatees: forging troubled waters.
Animals 120(3): 18-22. 5 figs. May/June 1987.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees.
 
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1988
Sleuthing by satellite.
Animals 121(2): 22-27. 10 figs. Mar./Apr. 1988.
 
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
1990
Manatees.
Whalewatcher 24(1): 3-7. Illus.
 
 
Sleeper, Barbara (detail)
   
2000
In the company of manatees: a tribute.
New York, Three Rivers Press: xii + 181. Illus.
–Photographs by Jeff Foott.
 
 
Slezak, Roy E. (detail)
   
2012
Marsha the manatee.
Frederick (Maryland), PublishAmerica: 1-32. Illus. Nov. 2012.
–Children's book about a boat-injured manatee rescued and released at Wakulla Springs, Florida.
 
 
Slijper, Everhard J. (detail)
   
1931
Über Verletzungen und Erkrankungen der Wirbelsäule und Rippen bei den Cetaceen.
Anat. Anz. 71(7/9): 156-185. 17 figs. Jan. 24, 1931.
–Dugong ribs, 161.
 
 
Slijper, Everhard J. (detail)
   
1936
Die Cetaceen: vergleichend-anatomisch und systematisch. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Anatomie des Blutgefäss-, Nerven- und Muskelsystems, sowie des Rumpfskelettes der Säugetiere, mit Studien über die Theorie des Aussterbens und der Foetalisation.
Capita Zool. 7: vii + 590. 256 figs.
–Sirs.: 41, 65, 79, 87-89, 95, 98, 108-110, 114, 117, 134, 142, 147, 172, 192-195, 240-241, 245-246, 249, 261, 263-264, 286-289, 295, 297-298, 323, 335, 366, 378, 385, 391, 446, 449, 453-455, 462-464, 470-472, 481-482, 488, 491-492, 494, 525-526, 530.
x
 
Slijper, Everhard J. (detail)
   
1946
Comparative biologic-anatomical investigations on the vertebral column and spinal musculature of mammals.
Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetens., Afd. Natuurk. (2)42(5): 1-128. 8 tabs. 125 figs.
–Includes observations on the spinal column, back muscles and associated structures in Trichechus and Dugong (28, 42-43, 46-47, 50-53, 71-78, 111-112, 114, 120; tabs. 1, 3, 5, 6).
 
 
Slijper, Everhard J. (detail)
   
1956
Some remarks on gestation and birth in Cetacea and other aquatic mammals.
Hvalråd. Skr. 41: 1-62.
x
 
Slijper, Everhard J. (detail)
   
1961
Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus Botalli in aquatic mammals.
Mammalia 25: 528-561. 6 tabs.
–Discusses the time of closure of the foramen and duct in various mammals, and possible reasons; tabulates and briefly discusses the published data on sirs. (536-537, 544, 548-549).
 
 
Sloane, Hans (detail)
   
1725
A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica, with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four-footed beasts, fishes, birds, insects, reptiles, &c. of the last of those islands.... Vol. 2.
London, printed by B. M. for the author (2 vols., 1707-25).
–Manati, 2: 329. Sir. material repr. in J. A. Murray (ed.), The islands and the sea ..., Oxford Univ. Press, 1991, p. 120.
 
 
Slone, Daniel (detail)
   
2011
Temperature inverted haloclines provide winter warm-water refugia for manatees in Southwest Florida.
Estuaries and Coasts
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) overwintering in the Ten Thousand Islands and western Everglades have no access to power plants or major artesian springs that provide warm-water refugia in other parts of Florida. Instead, hundreds of manatees aggregate at artificial canals, basins, and natural deep water sites that act as passive thermal refugia (PTR). Monitoring at two canal sites revealed temperature inverted haloclines, which provided warm salty bottom layers that generally remained above temperatures considered adverse for manatees. At the largest PTR, the warmer bottom layer disappeared unless significant salt stratification was maintained by upstream freshwater inflow over a persistent tidal wedge. A detailed three-dimensional hydrology model showed that salinity stratification inhibited vertical convection induced by atmospheric cooling. Management or creation of temperature inverted haloclines may be a feasible and desirable option for resource managers to provide passive thermal refugia for manatees and other temperature sensitive aquatic species.
 
 
Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.; Haase, Catherine G. (detail)
   
2017
Timing of warm water refuge use in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge by manatees -- results and insights from Global Positioning System telemetry data.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2017–1146: 1-17. 1 tab. 11 figs. doi:10.3133/ofr20171146.
–ABSTRACT: Managers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) desire to update their management plan regarding the operation of select springs including Three Sisters Springs. They wish to refine existing parameters used to predict the presence of federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) in the springs and thereby improve their manatee management options. The U.S. Geological Survey Sirenia Project has been tracking manatees in the CRNWR area since 2006 with floating Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-monitored telemetry tags. Analyzing movements of these tagged manatees will provide valuable insight into their habitat use patterns.
  A total of 136 GPS telemetry bouts were available for this project, representing 730,009 locations generated from 40 manatees tagged in the Gulf of Mexico north of Tampa, Florida. Dates from October through March were included to correspond to the times that cold ambient temperatures were expected, thus requiring a need for manatee thermoregulation and a physiologic need for warm water. Water level (tide) and water temperatures were obtained for the study from Salt River, Crystal River mouth, Bagley Cove, Kings Bay mouth, and Magnolia Spring. Polygons were drawn to subdivide the manatee locations into areas around the most-used springs (Three Sisters/Idiots Delight, House/Hunter/Jurassic, Magnolia and King), Kings Bay, Crystal/Salt Rivers and the Gulf of Mexico.
  Manatees were found in the Crystal or Salt Rivers or in the Gulf of Mexico when ambient temperatures were warmer (>20 °C), while they were found in or near the springs (especially Three Sisters Springs) at colder ambient water temperatures. There was a trend of manatees entering springs early in the morning and leaving in the afternoon. There was a strong association of manatee movements in and out of the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon with tide cycles: manatees were more likely to enter the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon on an incoming tide, and leave the polygon on an outgoing tide. Both movement directions were associated with midtide. Future analysis will incorporate human activity and a finer spatial scale, including movements between Three Sisters Springs and Idiots Delight and nearby canals.
 
 
Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Butler, Susan M. (detail)
   
2012
Manatees mapping seagrass.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 46: 8-11. 7 figs. June 2012.
–Using manatee-tracking data to map seagrass distribution and abundance in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, and in southeastern Puerto Rico.
 
 
Smart, Peter (detail)
   
1951
The dugong.
Walkabout 17(11): 34-35. 3 figs. Nov. 1, 1951.
x
 
Smethurst, David; Nietschmann, Bernard (detail)
   
1999
The distribution of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the coastal waterways of Tortuguero, Costa Rica.
Biol. Conserv. 89(3): 267-274. 2 figs. "Aug. 1999" (publ. Apr. 1999).
–Boat and interview surveys done in 1996-98 indicated that manatees were more abundant in the area than previously thought. However, canal construction, deforestation and siltation (due to banana cultivation, logging, and cattle ranching), increasing boat traffic and ecotourism, and hunting remain as threats, and protection is inadequate.
 
 
Smith, Andrew (detail)
   
1838-45
Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa; consisting chiefly of figures and descriptions of the objects of natural history collected during an expedition into the interior of South Africa, in the years 1834, 1835, and 1836; fitted out by "The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa": together with a summary of African zoology, and an inquiry into the geographical ranges of species in that quarter of the globe. [Vol. 1.] Mammalia.
London, Smith, Elder & Co. (entire work: 5 vols., 1838-50). 51 pls.
–Discusses Halicore dugung, 122.
 
 
Smith, Andrew J. (detail)
   
1988
The usage of marine resources by the people of the Hopevale Aboriginal community on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula: preliminary results. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Workshop Ser. No. 8: 54-67. 2 figs.
 
 
Smith, Andrew J. (detail)
   
1989
Usage of marine resources by Aboriginal communities on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Townsville (Australia), Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: [8] + 137. 10 tabs. 13 figs. 6 pls. Mar. 1989.
–Summ.: Reeflections (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority) No. 22: 8-9, 2 figs., Nov. 1988.
x
 
Smith, Andrew J.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1990
Management of tradtional hunting of dugongs [Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776)] in the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Environ. Manage. 14(1): 47-55. 1 tab. 1 fig. Jan. 1990.
–Outlines relevant legislation and past attempts to regulate dugong take in the Hopevale and Lockhart River aboriginal communities; summarizes aerial survey and catch data. Concludes that present harvest levels are probably less than the sustainable yield, and recommends a flexible management system that is conservative but involves the traditional hunters themselves in making management decisions.
x
 
Smith, Brian D.; Jefferson, Thomas A.; Ho, Dao Tan; Leatherwood, J. Stephen; Thuoc, Chu Van; Andersen, Michael; Chiam, Ernest (detail)
   
1995
Marine mammals of Vietnam: a preliminary checklist.
Collection of Marine Research Works 6: 147-176. 2 tabs. 13 figs.
–Cites literature records plus five new records of dugongs in Vietnam, the latter based on skulls preserved in "whale temples" maintained by fishermen in coastal villages (147-148, 161, 163-164, 166, 170).
 
 
Smith, Brian D.; Jefferson, Thomas A.; Leatherwood, J. Stephen; Ho, Dao Tan; Thuoc, Chu Van; Quang, Le Hai (detail)
   
1997
Investigations of marine mammals in Vietnam.
Asian Marine Biology 14: 145-172.
x
 
Smith, David (detail)
   
1988
Nature's mysterious mermaid.
Pursuit (Victoria, Australia, Ministry of Education) No. 1: 44-47. 6 figs.
–Pop. acc. (for children) of dugongs and dugong hunting in Australia.
Smith, Dewitt: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
 
 
Smith, E. R.; Funderburg, John B.; Quay, T. L. (detail)
   
1960
A checklist of North Carolina mammals.
Raleigh, North Carolina Wildlife Resource Commission.
x
 
Smith, F. G. Walton (detail)
   
1959
Science and the mermaid.
Sea Frontiers 5(2): 74-82. 10 figs.
–Pop. acc. of sirs. and mermaid legends, concluding that the latter owe more to mythology than to real manatees and dugongs.
 
 
Smith, G. Elliot (detail)
   
1902
Brain. Mammalia. In: Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the physiological series of comparative anatomy in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Ed. 2.
London, Taylor & Francis: Vol. 2: 138-481.
–Sirs., 344-348, 465.
x
 
Smith, G. Elliot (detail)
   
1903a
The brain of the Archaeoceti.
Proc. Roy. Soc. London 71(2)(2): 322-331. 4 figs. April 1903 (read Jan. 15, 1903).
–Mentions features of sir. brains (326, 328) in comparison with other mammals.
 
 
Smith, G. Elliot (detail)
   
1903b
The brain of the Archaeoceti.
Jour. Compar. Neurol. 13: 41-52. 4 figs. 2 pls.
–?Repr. of 1903a. Sirs., 49.
Smith, Herbert H.: SEE Allen, J. A., 1904. (detail)
Smith, J. A.: SEE Mitchill et al., 1828. (detail)
x
 
Smith, J. Lawrence (detail)
   
1844
[Communication on some fossil bones.]
Amer. Jour. Sci. (1)47: 116-117.
–Pp. 116-117: {{"Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, of Charleston, S. C., made a communication on some fossil bones from the vicinity of Charleston. The bones noticed were fragments of a rib, resembling that of the Manatus, and of a marine turtle and ray. The character of [117] the formation in which they occur was described, it being that extensive calcareous bed which underlies a large portion of South Carolina and some of the neighboring states.
  "A discussion arose upon the geological age of the formation furnishing the specimens exhibited by Dr. Smith."}}
 
 
Smith, John (detail)
   
1614?
[Title?]
–"In 1614, Capt. John Smith encountered [a manatee] in the Caribbean and described it as 'by no means unattractive,' adding that he'd 'begun to experience the first effects of love." One wonders what Pocahontas, who'd saved his life seven years earlier, thought of this." (From "The big mermaids" by John Flinn, Staff Writer, The San Francisco Chronicle [Calif.], Sunday, Oct. 14, 2007.)
 
 
Smith, K.; Mezich, R. (detail)
   
2004
Managing natural aquatic plant communities in Manatee Springs: the effects of manatee grazing, nutrient pollution and flooding.
Aquatics 26(2): 12-20.
 
 
Smith, Kenneth N. (detail)
   
1993
Manatee habitat and human-related threats to seagrass in Florida: a review.
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection: i + 38. 3 tabs. 1 fig. Oct. 1993.
 
 
Smith, Lauren N.; Rotstein, David S.; Ball, Ray L.; Gerlach, Trevor J.; Kinsel, Michael; Rodriguez, Maya; de Wit, Martine (detail)
   
2015
Reproductive neoplasms in wild and long-term captive female Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)
JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE 46 (4):895-903. 1 table. 5 figures. DOI: 10.1638/2014-0195.1. December 2015.
–Abstract- Few reports of neoplastic diseases in manatees exist in the veterinary literature. This case series presents reproductive neoplasia noted in eight wild and long-term captive female Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) obtained through carcass recovery and animal rehabilitation programs between April 2009 and May 2014. All cases were evaluated histologically, and diagnoses of uterine carcinoma (n = 1), granulosa cell tumor (n = 2), ovarian adnexal tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 5) were made. The underlying cause of tumor development and effects on reproductive success is currently unknown, but possible asymmetric reproductive aging and/or a correlation between obesity and reproductive disorder in long-term nonreproductive female manatees are of interest and warrant further investigation.
x
 
Smith, Nigel J. H. (detail)
   
1981a
Caimans, capybaras, otters, manatees, and man in Amazonia.
Biol. Conserv. 19(3): 177-187. 9 tabs. 2 figs. Feb. 1981.
–Gives a brief history of the commercial exploitation of T. inunguis, with notes on prices and availability of manatee meat in Brazil in the 1970s (184-186).
x
 
Smith, Nigel J. H. (detail)
   
1981b
Man, fishes, and the Amazon.
New York, Columbia Univ. Press: x + 180. Tabs. Illus.
–Records two T. inunguis caught in 1977 near Itacoatiara, Brazil, by harpoon and seine, respectively. Manatees are said to be much rarer in Amazonia than formerly, but their meat is still sold illegally for US$0.40/kg (95-96).
x
 
Smith, Reeves (detail)
   
1879
The death of the manatee [M. in the Brighton Aquarium].
Hardwicke's Science-Gossip 15(173): 112.
–-Mr. Smith, "of the Brighton Aquarium", says here nothing about their deceased manatee, but instead calls attention to the fossil Halitherium canhami, based on W. H. Flower's (1874) description.
Smith, Richard T.: SEE Cardeilhac et al., 1981. (detail)
Smith, S.: SEE Wilhelm et al., 1988. (detail)
 
D
Smith, Warren Dupre; Packard, Earl L. (detail)
   
1919
The salient features of the geology of Oregon.
Jour. Geol. 27: 79-120. 1 tab. 3 figs. 1 pl.
–Desmostylians, 97.
 
 
Smithers, Reay H. N.; Lobão Tello, José L. P. (detail)
   
1976
Check list and atlas of the mammals of Moçambique.
Museum Memoir (Salisbury, Trustees of the National Museums & Monuments of Rhodesia) No. 8: viii + 184. 16 pls. Maps.
–Dugong, 166.
 
 
Smoll, L. I.; Beard, L. A.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2020
Osmoregulation and electrolyte balance in a fully marine mammal, the dugong (Dugong dugon).
Jour. Comp. Physiol. B 190: 139-148. 4 tabs. 1 fig. doi: 10.1007/s00360-019-01250-8. Publ. online Jan. 1, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are fully marine mammals that live independently of fresh water so must balance water and electrolytes in a hyperosmotic environment. To investigate osmoregulation, matched plasma and urine from 51 live wild dugongs were analysed for osmolality, major electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+), urea, creatinine, and glucose. Maximum urine osmolality (1468 mOsm kg -1) and Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations (757, 131.3, 677 mmol L-1, respectively) indicate that dugongs are capable of concentrating urine above seawater and could potentially realise a net gain of free water from drinking seawater. However, mean urine osmolality of 925.4 (±?46.6) mOsm kg-1 suggests that mariposia is unlikely to be an important osmoregulatory mechanism. Dugongs may obtain enough preformed water from their seagrass diet and metabolic oxidation to maintain homeostasis. Mean plasma osmolality of 339.6 (±?1.8) mOsm kg-1 is higher than in the related manatees but within the range for fully marine cetaceans. Relatively high mean plasma Na+ (175.5?±?1.7 mmol L-1) and K+ (6.9?±?0.1 mmol L-1), as well as mean urinary Na+ (469.6?±?22.5 mmol L-1) and K+ levels (32.5?±?4.5 mmol L-1) may reflect a salt-rich seagrass diet. Pregnant females had higher mean plasma osmolality (355.3?±?4.9 mmol L-1) than non-pregnant females and males (337.9?±?1.7 mOsm kg-1), suggesting that fluid retention was not a feature of pregnancy. Further research on water intake and endocrinology will enhance our understanding of osmoregulation in dugongs.
x
 
Smyth, W.; Lowe, F. (detail)
   
1836
Narrative of a journey from Lima to Para, across the Andes and down the Amazon....
London, John Murray: viii + 305. Figs. 2 maps.
–Brief account (with measurements and a good illustration) of a manatee caught at Sarayacu, Peru (197), and an account of manatee hunting and use by Indians (242-243). The constellation Scorpio is identified as the "Vaca Marina" (manatee) by the Sencis Indians (229).
x
 
Snipes, Robert L. (detail)
   
1984
Anatomy of the cecum of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus (Mammalia, Sirenia).
Zoomorphology (Berlin) 104(2): 67-78. 2 tabs. 10 figs. Mar. 1984.
–Describes the gross and microscopic anatomy of the cecum; notes keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, perhaps a protection against bulky roughage; considers manatees to be colon rather than cecum fermenters, but their fermentation is probably incomplete; considers the morphology of their cecum and intestine to be generally primitive.
 
 
Snow, D. W. (detail)
   
1970
The eastern Indian Ocean islands: a summary of their geography, fauna and flora.
Internatl. Union Conserv. Nature Publ. (Morges, Switzerland) (n.s.)17: 212-223.
–Data on dugong distribution around specific islands.
Snow, R. W.: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
Snyder, G. L.: SEE Drewes et al., 1961. (detail)
 
 
Soares, Francisco (detail)
   
1904
Das cousas do Brasil e costumes da terra polo.
Arq. Bibliographico Univ. Coimbra 4.
–Repr.: Rev. Inst. Hist. Geogr. Bras. 94(148): 371-421, 1927 (manatee, 414-415). Based on an anonymous MS. dating from about 1580; Soares was identified as the author by Serafim Leite (História da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil, 2, século XVI - a obra, Lisbon & Rio de Janeiro: 582, 1938), according to Whitehead (1978: 500). The description of the manatee is said to be similar to that of F. Cardim.
Soavinski, Ricardo José: SEE Grubel da Silva, Paludo, et al., 1992; Grubel da Silva, Soavinski, et al., 1992; Pinto de Lima et al., 1992a, 1992b. (detail)
 
 
Sobtzick, Susan (detail)
   
2012
Extreme weather & dugongs.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 106. 5 figs. June 2012.
–Effects on dugongs of heavy rain and cyclones in Queensland in 2011.
Socci, M. C.: SEE Lee & Socci, 1989. (detail)
Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin: SEE Hutton & Sogandares-Bernal, 1960. (detail)
 
 
Soimonov, F. I. (detail)
   
1764
Drevnyaya poslovitsa Sibir zolotoye dno. [The old proverb "Siberia is a gold mine".]
Yezhemesyachnia Sochineniya ... 11: 44-59. Jan. 1764.
–Use of seacow-hide baidaras (boats) for hunting, 50.
x
 
Sokoloff, Demetrio; Caballero y C., Eduardo (detail)
   
1932
Una nueva especie de trematodo parasito del intestino del manati: Schizamphistoma manati sp. n.
Anal. Inst. Biol. Mexico 3(2): 163-167. 5 figs. June 1932.
–Describes Schizamphistoma manati, n.sp., from the large intestine of a manatee from Tampico, Mexico.
Sokolov, A. S.: SEE Sokolov, Pershin et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Sokolov, Vladimir E. (detail)
   
1979
[Systematics of mammals: orders Cetacea, Carnivora Pinnipedia, Tubulidentata, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Sirenia, Artiodactyla, camels and Perissodactyla.]
Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola: 1-527. Illus.
–In Russian.
 
 
Sokolov, Vladimir E. (detail)
   
1982
Mammal skin.
Berkeley, Univ. California Press: 1-695. Illus.
–Sirs. (DD, TI), 458-461, tab. 104, figs. 156-157.
 
 
Sokolov, Vladimir E. (Ed.) (detail)
   
1986
Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii. [Manatee: morphological adaptations.]
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR): 1-405. 16 tabs. 155 figs.
–In Russian. A detailed treatise on manatee anatomy, based mainly on a specimen of T. m. manatus collected in Cuba. Comprises an introduction by Sokolov and Fernando M. Gonzales Bermudez, and 15 papers, listed here by their authors: Sukhanov (2), Sokolov et al. (2), Sukhanov & Manzij, Sukhanov et al., Gambaryan & Sukhanov, Naumova, Galantsev, Gambaryan, Andreev, Rodionov, Umnova & Novoselova, Kalashnikova & Kazanskaya, and Mukhametov & Galantsev.
 
 
Sokolov, Vladimir E.; Mukhametov, L. M. (detail)
   
1982
Electrophysiological investigation on the sleep in the manatee Trichechus manatus.
Zhur. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 18(2): 191-193. 1 fig. Mar.-Apr. 1982.
–In Russian; Engl. summ.
 
 
Sokolov, Vladimir E.; Chernova, O. F.; Stepanova, L. V.; Petrishchev, B. I. (detail)
   
1986
[Comparative morphology of the integument of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 44-76.
–In Russian.
 
 
Sokolov, Vladimir E.; Pershin, S. V.; Sokolov, A. S.; Tomilin, A. G. (detail)
   
1986
[The locomotory complex of the manatee and its features.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 306-311.
–In Russian.
 
 
Sokolowsky, Alexander (detail)
   
1928
Erlebnisse mit wilden Tieren. Schilderungen aus meinem Berufsleben.
Leipzig, E. Haberland: 1-260. Illus.
 
 
Solis-Guzman, Gloria; Ramirez-Santos, Jesus; Souza, Valeria; Gomez-Eichelmann, M. Carmen (detail)
   
2001
Analysis of the regulatory region of the heat shock gene rpoH of Escherichia coli strains isolated from non-human hosts.
FEMS Microbiology Letters 205(2): 191-196. Dec. 18, 2001.
 
 
Sollberger, A. (detail)
   
1965
Biological rhythm research.
Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Solt, Péter: SEE Kordos & Solt, 1984. (detail)
Sömmerring, W.: SEE Rüppell, E., 1834. (detail)
 
D
Sone, H. (detail)
   
1927
Summary of geological and chronological distribution of sirenians.
Jour. of Zoology of Japan 39: 435-437.
 
D
Sone, H. (detail)
   
1941
A check list of the fossil mammals found in Japan. In: Jubilee publication commemorating Prof. H. Yabe's sixtieth birthday.
Vol. 2: 1089-1115.
Song, Guangze: SEE Dong et al., 1992. (detail)
Sonnini, Charles Nicolas Sigisbert: SEE Buffon & Sonnini, 1800; Ledru & Sonnini, 1810. (detail)
Sonntag, Charles F.: SEE ALSO Clark & Sonntag, 1926. (detail)
x
 
Sonntag, Charles F. (detail)
   
1922
The comparative anatomy of the tongues of the Mammalia. VII. Cetacea, Sirenia, and Ungulata.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1922(3): 639-657. 6 figs. Sept. 28, 1922.
–Describes the tongues of the dugong and manatee (646-647); concludes that the Sirenia show convergence with ungulates in their tongue anatomy (654-655).
x
 
Sonoda, Seizaburo; Takemura, Akira (detail)
   
1973
Underwater sounds of the manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus and T. inunguis (Trichechidae).
Rept. Inst. Breeding Res., Tokyo Univ. Agric. No. 4: 19-24. 18 figs.
–Describes and illustrates various calls of each species; the main frequency range of both was 2-4 kHz. A spectrogram of chewing sounds of T. manatus is also included, as well as photos of both species and of a captive Dugong.
 
 
Sorbi, Silvia (detail)
   
2008
New record of Metaxytherium (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the lower Miocene of Manosque (Provence, France).
Geodiversitas 30(2): 433-444. 4 tabs. 5 figs.
–A skull and partial skeleton is described and referred to M. cf. krahuletzi.
 
 
Sorbi, Silvia; Domning, Daryl Paul; Vaiani, Stefano Claudio; Bianucci, Giovanni (detail)
   
2012
Metaxytherium subapenninum (Bruno, 1839) (Mammalia, Dugongidae), the latest sirenian of the Mediterranean Basin.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 32(3): 686-707. 4 tabs. 12 figs. 3 appendix tabs. Supplementary Data at www.tandfonline.com/UJVP. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2012.659100 May 2012.
 
 
Sorbi, Silvia; Vaiani, Stefano Claudio (detail)
   
2007
New sirenian record from Lower Pliocene sediments of Tuscany (Italy).
Riv. Ital. Pal. Strat. 113(2): 299-304. 1 tab. 3 figs. 1 pl. July 2007.
–Italian summ. Reports a badly eroded humerus of Metaxytherium cf. subapenninum from early Zanclean deposits (~5.1-4.5 Ma) at Camigliano.
 
 
Sorice, M. G.; Shafer, C. S.; Ditton, R. B. (detail)
   
2006
Managing endangered species within the use–preservation paradox: the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a tourism attraction.
Environmental Management 37:69–83.
 
 
Sorice, Michael G.; Shafer, C. Scott; Scott, David (detail)
   
2003
Managing endangered species within the use/preservation paradox: understanding and defining harassment of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Coastal Management 31: 319-338. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
Sotozaki, Hideto: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Sousa, Gabriel Soares de (detail)
   
1879
Tratado descritivo do Brasil em 1587. Edição castigada pelo estudo e exame de muitos códices manuscritos existentes no Brasil, em Portugal, Espanha e Franca, e ascrescentada de alguns commentários por Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen. Ed. 4.
Rev. Trimestral Inst. Hist. Geogr. Brasil (Rio de Janeiro) 14.
–Ed. 3, Rio de Janeiro, Typ. Universal de Laemmert: xii + 422, 1851. Ed. 4 (reprs.): Sousa (1945); São Paulo, Comp. Editora Nac. (Brasiliana, Vol. 117): 1-389, 1971.
  This work, dating from 1587, "remained unpublished until the 19th century, existing in at least twenty manuscript versions which Varnhagen carefully edited to produce a fourth and very accurate edition" (Whitehead, 1977: 172). Sirs., chap. 129 (pp. 279, 380 in 1971 ed.?).
 
 
Sousa, Gabriel Soares de (detail)
   
1945
Notícia do Brasil. Introdução, comentários e notas pelo Professor Pirajá da Silva.
São Paulo, Livr. Martins Editôra (Biblioteca Histórico Editôra, 16; 2 vols.): Vol. 2: 339 + 14.
–Text is the same (4th) ed. as that of Sousa (1879), Tratado .... The Introduction includes the history of the various eds. Sirs., 197-198.
 
 
Sousa, I. K. F.; Sousa, R. S.; Azevedo, A. C. P.; Corrêa, I. F. C. B.; Oliveira, J. M.; Matos, S. P.; Mori, C. S.; Ortolani, E. L.; Almosny, N. R. P. (detail)
   
2016
Variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas de peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis) jovens.
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(9): 869-873. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2016000900013
 
 
Sousa, M. E.M.; Martins, B. M. L.; Fernandes, M. E. B. (detail)
   
2013
Meeting the giants: The need for local ecological knowledge (LEK) as a tool for the participative management of manatees on Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazonian coast.
Ocean & Coastal Management 86: 53-60. 4 tabs. 2 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.08.016. Dec. 2013.
–ABSTRACT: Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been widely used as a source of reliable information for the development of research on the ecology of manatees. Based on this approach, the present study evaluated the level of knowledge related to manatees among the local fishermen on the east coast of Marajó Island on the Brazilian Amazonian coast, which represents a zone of sympatry and hybridization between marine and Amazon species of manatees. Most of the interviewees (70%) displayed a high level of knowledge with regard to these mammals, and provided reliable information for mapping of the occurrence of the manatees within the study area, including identifying the habitats and areas that are most appropriate for their occurrence (based on their eating habits, preferred areas and records of sightings). The challenges faced by fishers as well as knowledge of other issues related to the challenges present in the Amazon region demonstrate the relevance of the data presented in this study. Furthermore, our findings reinforce the value of such information provided by fishermen, and demonstrate how it can be associated with scientific knowledge as an effective tool for the participatory management of manatees along the Brazilian Amazonian coast.
 
 
Sousa-Lima, Renata S.; Paglia, Adriano P.; Fonseca, Gustavo A. B. da (detail)
   
2002
Signature information and individual recognition in the isolation calls of Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Animal Behaviour 63(2): 301-310. Feb. 2002.
 
 
Sousa-Lima, Renata S.; Paglia, Adriano P.; Fonseca, Gustavo A. B. da (detail)
   
2008
Gender, age, and identity in the isolation calls of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).
Aquatic Mammals 34(1): 109-122.
x
 
Southwell, Thomas (detail)
   
1876
On the Sirenia.
Hardwicke's Science-Gossip 12(135): 56-59. Fig. 27; 12(136): 75-77. Fig. 33.
–Gen. acc. of the species of Manatus and Halicore and of Rhytina, abstracted from other authors. A brief comment by P. H. Gosse is in Hardwicke's Science-Gossip 12(136): 88, 1876. Gosse also mentions that an accurate figure of the manatee, based on Gosse's own drawings from life, is in the "Large Series of Natural History Engravings" published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Souza Netto, Felippe Joaquim de: SEE Netto, Felippe Joaquim de Souza. (detail)
 
 
Souza, D. A.; Gonçalves, A. L. S.; Muhlen, E.; da Silva, Vera M. F. (detail)
   
2021
Estimating occupancy and detection probability of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), in Central Amazon, Brazil.
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 19(3): 354-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2021.03.009
 
 
Souza, D. A.; D'Affonseca Neto, J. A.; Amaral, R. S.; Da Silva, V. M. F. (detail)
   
2021
The first confirmed pregnancy of a released Amazonian manatee.
Oryx 55(6): 814. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605321001241
 
 
Souza, D. A.; Da Silva, V. M. F.; Amaral, R. S.; Kikuchi, M.; D'Affonseca Neto, J. A.; Rosas, F. C. W. (detail)
   
2018
Reintroduction of captive-raised Amazonian manatees in Brazil. In: P. S. Soorae (ed.), Global Reintroduction Perspectives: 2018. Case Studies from Around the Globe (6th ed.).
Gland, IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group: 187-192.
 
 
Souza, Érica Martinha Silva de; Freitas, Lucas; Ramos, Elisa Karen da Silva; Veiga, Giovanna Selleghin; Rachid-Ribeiro, Michelle Carneiro; Silva, Felipe André; Marmontel, Miriam; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues dos; Laudisoit, Anne; Verheyen, Erik; Domning, Daryl Paul; Nery, Mariana Freitas (detail)
   
2021
The evolutionary history of manatees told by their mitogenomes.
Scientific Reports 11: 3564. 2 tabs. 5 figs. + online supplementary material. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82390-2
–ABSTRACT: The manatee family encompasses three extant congeneric species: Trichechus senegalensis (African manatee), T. inunguis (Amazonian manatee), and T. manatus (West Indian manatee). The fossil record for manatees is scant, and few phylogenetic studies have focused on their evolutionary history. We use full mitogenomes of all extant manatee species to infer the divergence dates and biogeographical histories of these species and the effect of natural selection on their mitogenomes. The complete mitochondrial genomes of T. inunguis (16,851 bp), T. senegalensis (16,882 bp), and T. manatus(16,882 bp), comprise 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA - 12S and 16S), and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), and (D-loop/CR). Our analyses show that the first split within Trichechus occurred during the Late Miocene (posterior mean 6.56 Ma and 95% HPD 3.81–10.66 Ma), followed by a iversifcation event in the Plio-Pleistocene (posterior mean 1.34 Ma, 95% HPD 0.1–4.23) in the clade composed by T. inunguis and T. manatus; T. senegalensis is the sister group of this clade with higher support values (pp> 0.90). The branch-site test identifed positive selection on T. inunguis in the 181st position of the ND4 amino acid gene (LRT= 6.06, p = 0.0069, BEB posterior probability = 0.96). The ND4 gene encodes one subunit of the NADH dehydrogenase complex, part of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. In conclusion, our results provide novel insight into the evolutionary history of the Trichechidae during the Late Miocene, which was influenced by geological events, such as Amazon Basin formation.
 
 
Souza, Francisco Bernardino de (detail)
   
1873
Lembranças e curiosidades do Valle do Amazonas.
Pará, Typ. do Futuro: 1-328.
–Manatee, 16, 29, 296.
 
 
Souza, Francisco Bernardino de (detail)
   
1875
Commissão do Madeira. Pará e Amazonas. [Parts 2-3.]
Rio de Janeiro, Typ. Nac.: Part 1 (1874): 1-145; Part 2: 1-177; Part 3: 1-145.
–Statistics on manatee meat exported from the province of Amazonas, 1871-72 (Part 2: 177) and 1867 (Part 3: 20).
Souza, Valeria: SEE Solis et al., 2001. (detail)
x
 
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle (detail)
   
1923
The naturalist in Manchuria. Vol. II: The mammals and birds of Manchuria.
Tientsin, Tientsin Press (5 vols., 1922-30): xxvii + 191.
–Gen. acc. of Steller's sea cow (135-137). Refers to Arthur Adams' (1870) finding of a "dugong" skull in Saghalien; suggests that it was actually a skull of Hydrodamalis and an indication of that animal's survival after 1768 (136-137). This seems unlikely (see Domning, 1978b: 138).
x
 
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle (detail)
   
1935
[The former occurrence of the dugong in Chinese waters.]
China Jour. (Shanghai) 22(2): 81-82. Feb. 1935.
–Comments on the foregoing article by G. M. Allen (1935); questions the occurrence of the dugong in China. Also discusses the accounts of Read (1931) and Arthur Adams (1870). I consider Sowerby's identification of the dugong with Read's (1931: 52) "sea animal" too tenuous.
x
 
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle (detail)
   
1936
The dugong in Chinese waters.
China Jour. (Shanghai) 25(1): 41-42. July 1936.
–Comments on papers by Hirasaka (1932, 1934) recording dugongs in Formosa, Korea, and elsewhere, and notes the absence of dugong records from the Chinese mainland.
 
 
Soza de Castro, Francisco de (detail)
   
1907
Naturbeobachtungen eines Reisenden von 1660.
Natw. Wochenschr. 22(= n.s. 6)(11): 173-174. Mar. 17, 1907.
–Quotation of a passage describing the East African dugong from a 17th-century work by Soza de Castro. Communicated by Harro Magnussen.
Spain, Alister V.: SEE ALSO Heinsohn et al.; Marsh et al., 1977, 1978; Murray et al., 1977. (detail)
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1973
Cyclone associated feeding changes in the dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Mammalia 37(4): 678-680. 1 tab. Dec. 1973.
–Reports (on the basis of stomach contents) a dietary shift in Queensland dugongs from seagrasses to Sargassum and other brown and red algae following the destruction of seagrass beds by a cyclone. Hydroids, holothurian and ascidian remains, and silt and sand were also found in the dugongs' stomachs.
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1974
A biometric analysis of measurement data from a collection of North Queensland dugong skulls, Dugong dugon (Müller).
Austral. Jour. Zool. 22: 249-257. 3 tabs. 8 figs.
–A study of size allometry in 52 skulls and mandibles using 26 variables indicated that condylo-premaxillary length at the attainment of sexual maturity is about 34 cm, and that the snout region shows positive allometry, the cranial region, negative or no allometry.
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin (detail)
   
1975
Size and weight allometry in a North Queensland population of Dugong dugon (Müller) (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Austral. Jour. Zool. 23(2): 159-168. 2 tabs. 6 figs. May 1975.
–Concludes, from a sample of 53 animals, that body weight (the dependent variable) and length are related by the equation y = (-34.251) - 14.976x + 55.218xý; that there are no sexual weight-length differences; that weight at puberty (about 2.4 m length) is about 248 kg; that only the large intestine and not the small intestine or cecum shows positive allometry; and that dorsal and ventral skin thicknesses are isometric while lateral skin thickness is more or less constant.
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981a
Geographic variation and sexual dimorphism in the skulls of two Australian populations of Dugong dugon (Müller) (Mammalia: Sirenia). In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 143-161. 2 tabs.
–Compares adult skulls from the Townsville and Wellesley Island areas, Queensland, on the basis of 74 variables. Sexual dimorphism was found in a wider range of characters than previously known, and geographic differences were also found.
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1981b
Dugong skull measurements. In: H. Marsh (ed.), The dugong. Proceedings of a seminar/workshop held at James Cook University of North Queensland 8-13 May 1979 (q.v.).
[Townsville (Australia)], James Cook Univ. (vii + 400): 286-301. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Describes in detail a set of 79 standard cranial measurements, noting which are important in studies of allometry, sexual dimorphism, and geographic variation within Queensland.
x
 
Spain, Alister V.; Heinsohn, George Edwin; Marsh, Helene D.; Correll, R. L. (detail)
   
1976
Sexual dimorphism and other sources of variation in a sample of dugong skulls from North Queensland (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Austral. Jour. Zool. 24(4): 491-497. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Analysis of 26 variables in 32 adult skulls found sexual dimorphism principally in the snout region; also found were lesser amounts of allometric variation, again mainly in the anterior part of the skull.
 
 
Sparrman, Andreas (= Anders) (detail)
   
1777
An account of a journey into Africa from the Cape of Good Hope.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 67: 38-47.
–Sirs., 40.
 
 
Sparrman, Andreas (= Anders) (detail)
   
1785
A voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, towards the Antarctic polar circle, and round the world: but chiefly into the country of the Hottentots and Caffres, from the year 1772, to 1776.... Translated from the Swedish original [by George Forster].
London, G. G. J. & J. Robinson (2 vols.).
–First Engl. ed. Original ed.: Stockholm, 1783-1818.
 
 
Spencer, Joseph William Winthrop (detail)
   
1895
Reconstruction of the Antillean continent.
Jour. Geol. 6: 103-140. 1 pl.
–Sirs., 137.
 
 
Sperber, I. (detail)
   
1944
Studies on the mammalian kidney.
Zoologiska Bidrag 22: 249-432.
 
 
Spiegelberger, T.; Ganslosser, U. (detail)
   
2005
Habitat analysis and exclusive bank feeding of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of French Guiana, South America.
Tropical Zoology 18(1): 1-12. 2 tabs. 1 fig. https://www.academia.edu/20517130/HabitatanalysisandexclusivebankfeedingoftheAntilleanmanateeTrichechusmanatusmanatusL1758intheCoswineSwampsofFrenchGuianaSouthAmerica?emailworkcard=view-paper July 2005.
–ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in the study area. A botanical survey along the banks revealed that most plants seem to be potential forage for manatees. Red Mangrove is very abundant throughout the area. It is suggested, therefore, that manatees graze on the bank vegetation, where feeding traces were found, or leave the area to feed.The Coswine Swamps provide a suitable manatee habitat and are able to support a large manatee population. Food supply is sufficient, brackish and fresh water are available, and the site is free from human disturbance. Further studies should be carried out to assess the population size, travel routes and foraging patterns, as well as acquire detailed information about the other manatee habitats in French Guiana.
 
 
Spielman, Derek (detail)
   
1994
Marine mammals stranding.
Univ. Sydney Postgrad. Comm. Veter. Sci. Proc. 233: 299-336. Illus.
 
 
Spillan, T. (detail)
   
1984
If you see a manatee.
Florida Wildlife, July-Aug. 1984: 45-46. 1 fig.
–Brief report on Florida manatee mortality and research efforts, with a photo of a manatee rubbing noses with Galen Rathbun's dog.
 
 
Spillmann, Franz (detail)
   
1959
Die Sirenen aus dem Oligozän des Linzer Beckens (Oberösterreich), mit Ausführungen über "Osteosklerose" und "Pachyostose".
Denkschr. Österr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-nat. Klasse 110(3): 1-68. 34 figs. 4 pls.
–Recognizes three species, supposed to be stratigraphically successive, in the Late Oligocene deposits of the Linz Basin, Austria: Halitherium pergense (Toula), n.comb., H. christoli Fitzinger, and H. abeli, n.sp. The available material of these forms and their stratigraphic contexts are described or redescribed, and they are concluded to be transitional forms between Halitherium and Metaxytherium. Bone histology of sirs. is discussed, and some apparent differences among the three species in the internal structure of the ribs are pointed out. Concludes that the terms pachyostosis and osteosclerosis are inappropriate for Tertiary sirs., and proposes instead the term "Ponderosität" to describe their bone histology, which is adapted to provide ballast for diving.
 
 
Spillmann, Franz (detail)
   
1969
Die fossilen Säugetierfaunen des Linzer Raumes. In: W. Podzeit & F. Steininger (eds.), Geologie und Paläontologie des Linzer Raumes. Der Boden von Linz. Ausstellung.
Kataloge des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums 64 (200 pp.): 55-66. 3 pls.
x
 
Spillmann, Franz (detail)
   
1973
Halitherium pergense (Toula); eine Polemik um die Taxonomie und Alterseinstufung der Sirenenreste aus dem Sandstein von Perg (OÖ.) und Wallsee (NÖ.).
Jahrb. Oberoesterr. Musealverein 118(1): 197-210. 4 figs. Pls. 39-40.
–Discusses the morphological and stratigraphic relationship of H. pergense to H. christolii and other Halitherium species; corrects errors in Spillmann (1959); and reaffirms the phyletic sequence H. schinzii-pergense-christolii-abeli.
x
 
Spittel, R. L. (detail)
   
1959
[Note on captures of dugongs.]
Loris 8: 174-175. June 1959.
–Gives some statistics on dugongs captured in Ceylon in 1958.
x
 
Spittel, R. L. (detail)
   
1960
A sanctuary for dugongs.
Loris 8(5): 304-305. June 1960.
–Suggests that a dugong preserve be established in the Gulf of Mannar between India and Ceylon.
 
 
Spivey, Helen Digges (detail)
   
2011
Tepee the manatee.
Smashwords.com. Illus. http://www.smashwords.com/books/view/86833 Sept. 6, 2011.
–Children's eBook about the adventures of a young Florida manatee.
 
 
Spivey, Helen Digges (detail)
   
2014
Tepee the manatee's Christmas wish.
Smashwords.com: 1-32. Illus. http://www.smashwords.com/books/view/483829 Oct. 10, 2014.
–Children's eBook about the adventures of a young Florida manatee.
x
 
Spix, Johann Baptist von; Martius, Carl Friedr. Phil. von (detail)
   
1831
Reise in Brasilien auf Befehl Sr. Majestät Maximilian Joseph I. Königs von Baiern in den Jahren 1817 bis 1820 gemacht.... Dritter und letzter Theil....
Munich, bei dem Verfasser; Leipzig, Friedr. Fleischer (entire work: 3 vols., 1823-31): Vol. 3: lvi + 887-1388. 1 map.
–Allen 774. Repr. Stuttgart, 1967. Discusses the distribution (coastal and fluviatile), natural history, and economic uses of "Manatus americanus" in Brazil (1122-1123). States that manatees are hunted at high water; that they reach a size of 20 feet and 80 hundredweight in the Amazon basin; that the Indians believe their gestation lasts 11 months and their nursing half a year; and that the Indians "commit a shameful vice" with captured manatees, especially females, to increase their luck in the hunt.
x
 
Spoor, F.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Kumar, K.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M. (detail)
   
2002
Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans.
Nature 417: 163-166. 1 tab. 3 figs. May 9, 2002.
–Graphs the relationship of semicircular canal curvature to body mass in Dugong dugon and other mammals; it lies within the range for terrestrial species.
 
 
Spotte, Stephen (detail)
   
1990
Artificial milks for unweaned marine mammals. In: L. A. Dierauf (ed.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease, rehabilitation.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (735 pp.): 521-532.
–Table 25 (531) gives a formula for manatee milk developed by Jesse R. White: Esbilac (powdered), 23 scoops; soybean meal milk replacer, 1,131 ml; multivitamin concentrate, 28 ml; Stamin-Atom, 10 ml; water, 1,044 ml.
x
 
Sprent, John F. A. (detail)
   
1981
Ascaridoid nematodes of sirenians - the Heterocheilinae redefined.
Jour. Helminthol. 54(4): 309-327. 3 tabs. 30 figs. 3 pls. Mar. 9, 1981.
–Redescribes Heterocheilus tunicatus and Paradujardinia halicoris, giving new locality records; redefines the Heterocheilinae to include these and 6 other genera; suggests that ascaridoids of sirs. were derived from those of fluviatile lower vertebrates.
x
 
Sprent, John F. A. (detail)
   
1983
Ascaridoid nematodes of sirenians - a new species in the Senegal manatee.
Jour. Helminthol. 57(1): 69-76. 2 tabs. 15 figs. 1 pl. Mar. 1983.
–Describes Heterocheilus domningi, n.sp., from T. senegalensis, and compares it with H. tunicatus; suggests that the distribution of these parasites supports a South American rather than African origin for manatees. Also reports H. tunicatus from T. manatus.
Springer, Mark S.: SEE ALSO Amrine & Springer, 1999; Lavergne et al., 1996; Stanhope et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Springer, Mark S.; Kirsch, John A. W. (detail)
   
1993
A molecular perspective on the phylogeny of placental mammals based on mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequences, with special reference to the problem of the Paenungulata.
Jour. Mamm. Evol. 1(2): 149-166. 2 tabs. 7 figs. June 1993.
–All analyses united Loxodonta and Dugong, with Procavia as their sister group, supporting the Paenungulata clade.
x
 
Springer, Mark S.; Cleven, Gregory C.; Madsen, Ole; De Jong, Wilfried W.; Waddell, Victor G.; Amrine, Heather M.; Stanhope, Michael J. (detail)
   
1997
Endemic African mammals shake the phylogenetic tree.
Nature 388(6637): 61-64. 3 tabs. 1 fig. July 3, 1997.
–Reports evidence from DNA sequences that supports a close relationship of sirs. with hyracoids, proboscideans, golden moles, elephant shrews, and aardvarks.
 
 
Springer, Mark S.; Signore, Anthony V.; Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl Paul; Bauer, Cameron E.; He, Kai; Crerar, Lorelei D.; Campos, Paula F.; Murphy, William J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Willerslev, Eske; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Hofreiter, Michael; Campbell, Kevin L. (detail)
   
2015
Interordinal gene capture, the phylogenetic position of Steller's sea cow based on molecular and morphological data, and the macroevolutionary history of Sirenia.
Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 91: 178-193. 5 tabs. 5 figs. 9 tabs. in online Supplementary Material. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.05.022 Publ. online June 4, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The recently extinct (ca. 1768) Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was a large, edentulous North Pacific sirenian. The phylogenetic affinities of this taxon to other members of this clade, living and extinct, are uncertain based on previous morphological and molecular studies. We employed hybridization capture methods and second generation sequencing technology to obtain >30 kb of exon sequences from 26 nuclear genes for both H. gigas and Dugong dugon. We also obtained complete coding sequences for the tooth-related enamelin (ENAM) gene. Hybridization probes designed using dugong and manatee sequences were both highly effective in retrieving sequences from H. gigas (mean = 98.8% coverage), as were more divergent probes for regions of ENAM (99.0% coverage) that were designed exclusively from a proboscidean (African elephant) and a hyracoid (Cape hyrax). New sequences were combined with available sequences for representatives of all other afrotherian orders. We also expanded a previously published morphological matrix for living and fossil Sirenia by adding both new taxa and nine new postcranial characters. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data provide robust support for an association of H. gigas and D. dugon to the exclusion of living trichechids (manatees). Parsimony analyses of the morphological data also support the inclusion of H. gigas in Dugongidae with D. dugon and fossil dugongids. Timetree analyses based on calibration density approaches with hard- and soft-bounded constraints suggest that H. gigas and D. dugon diverged in the Oligocene and that crown sirenians last shared a common ancestor in the Eocene. The coding sequence for the ENAM gene in H. gigas does not contain frameshift mutations or stop codons, but there is a transversion mutation (AG to CG) in the acceptor splice site of intron 2. This disruption in the edentulous Steller's sea cow is consistent with previous studies that have documented inactivating mutations in tooth-specific loci of a variety of edentulous and enamelless vertebrates including birds, turtles, aardvarks, pangolins, xenarthrans, and baleen whales. Further, branch-site dN/dS analyses provide evidence for positive selection in ENAM on the stem dugongid branch where extensive tooth reduction occurred, followed by neutral evolution on the Hydrodamalis branch. Finally, we present a synthetic evolutionary tree for living and fossil sirenians showing several key innovations in the history of this clade including character state changes that parallel those that occurred in the evolutionary history of cetaceans.
 
 
Springer, Mark S.; Stanhope, M. J.; Madsen, Ole; De Jong, Wilfried W. (detail)
   
2004
Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree.
Trends in Ecol. & Evol. 19(8): 430-438. 1 tab. 4 figs. Aug. 2004.
Sprinkel, Jay: SEE Patton et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Sprunt, Alexander, Jr. (detail)
   
1949
Mystery mammal - the Florida manatee.
Audubon Mag. 51(5): 286-288, 337. 5 figs. Sept.-Oct. 1949.
–Pop. acc. of manatees and other sirs., with anecdotes on Florida sightings and occurrences, and mention of manatees in Texas in 1928 and 1937 (288).
x
 
Spurgeon, David (detail)
   
1974a
Sea cows eat their way to domestication.
New Scientist 63(908): 238-239. 1 fig. Aug. 1, 1974.
–Report of a conference on a manatee research center in Guyana and on the use of manatees for aquatic weed control (see Anon., 1973a).
x
 
Spurgeon, David (detail)
   
1974b
Can manatees help solve problems of tropical water weeds?
Science Forum 7(4): 10-11. 2 figs. Aug. 1974.
–Report of a conference on a manatee research center in Guyana and on the use of manatees for aquatic weed control (see Anon., 1973a).
 
 
Squier, Ephraim George (detail)
   
1965
Waikna: or adventures on the Mosquito shore.
Gainesville (Florida), Univ. Florida Press.
–First ed.: New York, Harper & Bros.: ix + 366, illus., 1855. Sirs., 130-137.
 
 
Squier, Ephraim George; Davis, Edwin H. (detail)
   
1848
Ancient monuments of the Mississippi Valley.
New York, Bartlett & Welford; Cincinnati, J.A. & U.P. James: xxxix + 306. Illus.
–Also publ. in Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Repr.: Smithsonian Inst. Press, 1998. Discusses and illustrates seven supposed manatee effigies in the form of stone tobacco pipes found in Indian mounds (251-252, 254).
  Concerning this work, Henshaw (1883: 126) wrote that "each succeeding writer who has attempted to show that the Mound-Builders were of a race different from the North American Indian, or had other than an autochthonous origin, has not failed to lay especial stress upon the presence in the mounds of sculptures of the manatee, as well as of other strange beasts and birds, carved evidently by the same hands that portrayed many of our native fauna. Except that the theories based upon the sculptures have by recent writers been annunciated more positively and given a wider range, they have been left almost precisely as set forth by the authors of the "Ancient Monuments," while absolutely nothing appears to have been brought to light since their time in the way of additional sculptured evidence of the same character. It is indeed a little curious to note the perfect unanimity with which most writers fall back upon the above authors as at once the source of the data they adduce in support of the several theories, and as their final, nay, their only, authority." Henshaw (q.v.), for his part, concluded that the sculptures in question most probably represent otters, but certainly not manatees.
 
D
Squires, R. L.; Fritsche, A. E. (detail)
   
1978
Miocene macrofauna along Sespe Creek, Ventura County, California. In: A. E. Fritsche (ed.), Depositional environments of Tertiary rocks along Sespe Creek, Ventura County, California.
Soc. Econ. Pal. Min., Pacif. Section, Oct. 13, 1978: 6-26.
Srivastava, Suresh: SEE Bajpai et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Ssimaschko (detail)
   
1850
Russkaya fauna. II. Mlekopitaiushchie.
[Publisher?]
–Reconstruction of Hydrodamalis, 1052, pl. 90.
St. Aubin, David J.: SEE ALSO Geraci & St. Aubin, 1987. (detail)
 
 
St. Aubin, David J.; Lounsbury, Valerie J. (detail)
   
1990
Oil effects on manatees: evaluating the risks. In: J. R. Geraci & D. J. St. Aubin (eds.), Sea mammals and oil: confronting the risks.
New York, Academic Press (282 pp.): 241-251. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Rev.: R. W. Davis, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 9(3): 337-339, July 1993.
 
 
St. Clair, Thomas Staunton (detail)
   
1834
A residence in the West Indies and America; with a narrative of the expedition to the island of Walcheren.
London, R. Bentley (2 vols.). Illus.
–Also publ. under the title A soldier's recollections of the West Indies and America; with a narrative of the expedition to the island of Walcheren; same publisher and date. Describes methods of hunting manatees by moonlight.
x
 
Stache, Guido (detail)
   
1867
Die geologischen Verhältnisse der Fundstätte des Halitherium-Skelettes bei Hainburg an der Donau.
Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1867(7): 141-144. Read Apr. 16, 1867.
–Discusses the geological context of the sir. skeleton found in the Miocene Leithakalk at Hainburg, Austria, and described by von Hauer (1867) and Peters (1867).
Stadum, Carol J.: SEE Susuki & Stadum, 1978. (detail)
 
 
Stahl, Agustín (detail)
   
1882
Fauna de Puerto-Rico. Catálogo del gabinete zoológico del Dr. A. Stahl en Bayamon....
Puerto Rico, Impr. del "Boletin Mercantil": 1-248.
 
 
Stamper, M. Andrew; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2012
Health assessment of captive and wild-caught West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Chap. 16 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 139-147. 1 tab. 6 figs.
x
 
Stanbury, Peter J. (detail)
   
1978
Australia's animals: who discovered them?
Sydney, Univ. of Sydney, Macleay Museum: 1-124. Illus. Sept. 1978.
–Quotes accounts of Australian dugongs by William Dampier (1688, 1699) and Nathaniel Portlock (1792) (18-19).
Standiford, Les: SEE Hiaasen et al., 1997. (detail)
Stanhope, Michael J.: SEE ALSO Springer et al., 1997. (detail)
 
 
Stanhope, Michael J.; Madsen, Ole; Waddell, Victor G.; Cleven, Gregory C.; De Jong, Wilfried W.; Springer, Mark S. (detail)
   
1998
Highly congruent molecular support for a diverse superordinal clade of endemic African mammals.
Molec. Phylog. Evol. 9(3): 501-508. June 1998.
 
 
Stanley, W. B. (detail)
   
1912
Chaps. III, IV, and Appendix in: H. F. Reeve, The Gambia.
London, Smith, Elder & Co.
–Manatees at Elephant Island (260).
 
 
Stannius, Hermann F. (detail)
   
1840
Erster Bericht über das zootomisch-physiologische Institut der Universität Rostock. In: Erster Bericht von dem zootomisch-physiologische Institut der Universität Rostock.
Rostock, J. M. Oeberg (24 pp.?): 1-5.
–P. 3: {"Unter den zahlreich vorhandenen Säugthierschädeln befinden sich z. B. ... Bruchstücke eines Schädels von Manatus americanus."}
 
 
Stannius, Hermann F. (detail)
   
1845
Beiträge zur Kenntniss der amerikanischen Manati's.
Rektorats-Programm zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaftlichen Institut der Universität Rostock. Rostock, Adler's Erben: 1-37. 2 pls.
–Describes a dissection of T. inunguis. The fig. of the head is reproduced by Durand (1983: 185).
 
 
Stannius, Hermann F. (detail)
   
1849
Beschreibung der Muskeln des Tümmlers (Delphinus phocaena).
Müllers Arch. Anat. 1849: 1-41.
–Sirs., 14, 16, 22, 31, 32, 35, 36, 41.
 
 
Stapley, W. (detail)
   
1912
The occurrence and development of cervical ribs in man and some of the mammals that have abandoned quadrupedal progression.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria (n.s.) 25: 82-104.
Starin, E. D.: SEE Grubb et al., 1998. (detail)
Stark, Barbara L.: SEE ALSO Bradley et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Stark, Barbara L.; Voorhies, Barbara (detail)
   
1978
Future research directions. In: B. L. Stark & B. Voorhies (eds.), Prehistoric coastal adaptations: the economy and ecology of maritime Middle America.
Acad. Press: 275-304.
x
 
Staub, France (detail)
   
1993
Fauna of Mauritius and associated flora.
Mauritius, printed by Précigraph Ltd.: 1-97. 7 figs. 36 pls. Sept. 1993.
–Quotes several 16th-18th century accounts of dugongs in Mauritius and reproduces a drawing of one done by Hubert Hugo in the 1670s, but notes that the species is extinct in Mauritius today (10-11, 48-49).
 
 
Stavros, H. W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Fair, P. A. (detail)
   
2008
Concentrations of trace elements in blood and skin of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56(6): 1221-1225.
Steadman, David W.: SEE Watters et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Stedman, J. M. (detail)
   
1889
Researches on the anatomy of Amphistomum fabaceum Diesing.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Microscopists 11: 85-101.
x
 
Stedman, John Gabriel (detail)
   
1796
Narrative, of a five years' expedition against the revolted Negroes of Surinam, in Guiana, on the wild coast of South America; from the year 1772, to 1777: elucidating the history of that country, and describing its productions, viz. quadrupedes, birds, fishes, reptiles, trees, shrubs, fruits, & roots; with an account of the Indians of Guiana, & Negroes of Guinea.
London, J. Johnson & J. Edwards (2 vols.): Vol. 2: Illus.
–Allen 444. Various later eds. & transls. Reprs.: Barre (Mass.), Imprint Soc., 1971 (2 vols.); Amherst (Mass.), Univ. Massachusetts, 1972 (1 vol.). Describes the near-capsizing of a boat, supposedly by a manatee (1: 221), and gives a tolerably accurate description and illustration of a manatee encountered in Surinam (2: 175-176, pl. facing 176). Stedman also mentions "mermaids" described to him, which he takes to be fish, though his description of them better fits manatees (2: 177). Also mentions the natives' fear of the "Watra Mama", but offers no identification of it (2: 178). In 1971 & 1972 eds., sir. material at 121-122, 316-317.
x
 
Steel, Cathy (detail)
   
1983
Vocalization patterns and corresponding behavior of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). [Abstr.]
Dissert. Abstrs. Internatl. B. Sci. Engin. 43(10): 3160-3161. Apr. 1983.
–Outlines the general results of recordings in captive and natural environments. Nine categories of adult vocalizations were established; sexual and age differences were observed; and vocalizations in contexts of approach, submergence, play, interactions, and distress were recorded.
x
 
Steel, Cathy; Morris, John G. (detail)
   
1982
The West Indian manatee: an acoustic analysis. [Abstr.]
Amer. Zool. 22(4): 925.
–A less detailed abstract appeared in Florida Scientist 45 (Suppl. 1): 40. Summarizes data from recordings of sounds made by wild and captive manatees.
 
 
Steele, D. G.; Kuhl, R. L. (detail)
   
1993
Temperature modelling in a dugong habitat. In: O.N. Crimp (ed.), Moreton Bay in the balance.
Moorooka, Australian Littoral Soc. (ix + 127): 161-162.
 
 
Steele, J. G. (detail)
   
1972
The explorers of the Moreton Bay district 1770-1830.
Brisbane, Univ. of Queensland Press: 1-386.
–Dugong, 3, 27; dugong nets, 22, 34, 38.
 
 
Stefen, Clara (detail)
   
2003
Hydrodamalis gigas (Mammalia, Sirenia, Dugongidae) material in the Museum für Tierkunde Dresden.
Zool. Abh. (Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden) 53(1): 205-214.
–German summ. Lists a skull and 77 other bones, and gives some measurements of them. The skull was obtained in 1891, and the skeleton in 1903. These were lost during World War II and were returned by Russia in 1982.
 
 
Stein, Christian Gottfried Daniel (detail)
   
1829
Handbuch der Naturgeschichte für die gebildeten Stände, Gymnasien und Schulen, besonders in Hinsicht auf Geographie.... Dritte verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage.
Leipzig, T. C. Hinrichsche Buchhandlung (2 vols.): Vol. 1: viii + 382; Vol. 2: xxxii + 274, 15 pls.
–Allen 737. Sirs., 1: 82-83.
 
 
Steinbacher, G. (detail)
   
1958
Von den Seekühen von Miami.
Orion 13: 371-?
Steinberg, Peter D.: SEE Estes & Steinberg, 1988, 1989. (detail)
 
 
Steinicke, E. (detail)
   
1996
[The Great Northern Expedition of Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746). A Lutheran's research of Siberia and Alaska. An exhibition in the Franconian Institution of Halle/S.]
Praeparator 42(3): 104-105. Illus. July 1996.
Steininger, Fritz F.: SEE ALSO Pervesler & Steininger, 1986; Pervesler et al., 1995, 1996; Rabeder & Steininger, 1976. (detail)
 
 
Steininger, Fritz F. (detail)
   
1969
Das Tertiär des Linzer Raumes. In: Katalog Geologie und Paläontologie des Linzer Raumes:
35-52. 1 tab. 14 pls.
x
 
Steininger, Fritz F. (detail)
   
1986
Erste Ergebnisse über Untersuchungen zu Ernährungsstrategien des Arawaken-Siedlungsplatzes Pointe der Caille, NNW Vieux Fort, St. Lucia, West Indies. [or] First results of researches on nutrition strategies at the Arawak settlement at Pointe de Caille, NNW Vieux Fort, St. Lucia, West Indies.
Mitt. Prähist. Kommission Oesterr. Akad. Wiss. 23: 37-50, 69-75. 1 tab. 7 pls.
–Text in both German (37-43) and Engl. (69-75). Reports bones of T. manatus from an archaeological site on St. Lucia (42, 74, pl. 7).
Steinitz, Heinz: SEE Hellwing & Steinitz, 1971. (detail)
 
 
Steinmann, Gustav (detail)
   
1907
Einführung in die Paläontologie. Ed. 2.
Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann: xii + 542. 902 figs.
–First ed., 1903. Abstrs.: Natw. Wochenschr. 24: 408-412?; Geol. Mag., (5)5: 38? Rev.: Nature (London) 77: 558, 1908? Sirs., 503.
 
 
Steinmann, Gustav (detail)
   
1912
Die Bedeutung der Paläontologie für die Abstammungslehre.
Proc. Internatl. Zool. Congr. (Boston, 1907) 7: 714-732.
–Sirs., 718.
 
 
Steinmann, Gustav; Döderlein, Ludwig (detail)
   
1890
Elemente der Paläontologie.
Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann: xix + 848. 1,030 figs.
–Sirs., 708.
Stejneger, Leonhard: SEE ALSO Anonymous, 1883; Lucas, F. A., 1891; Scheffer, V. B., 1973; Steller, G. W., 1925. (detail)
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1883
Contributions to the history of the Commander Islands. No. 1. Notes on the natural history, including descriptions of new cetaceans.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 6(4-6): 58-89. June 20, 22, 23, 1883.
–Gives an account of collecting Hydrodamalis bones on Bering Island (59, 61-62); discusses individual and sexual variation in the skulls and mandibles (78-83); defends 1768 as the date of the sea cow's extermination (83-84); concludes that its geographic distribution included the Aleutians but probably not the northern Bering Sea (84). Lucien M. Turner's report (cited here) of sea cow bones in the Aleutians, and of an Aleutian vernacular name for the sea cow (kukh-sukh-tukh), was never published so far as I know; but see also F. W. True (1884b: 136). Notes the destruction of Hydrodamalis specimens by a fire in the Irkutsk museum (84); discusses the Kamchadal name kapustnik for the sea cow (85); and weighs the evidence concerning the shape of the animal's caudal fin (85-86).
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1884a
Contributions to the history of the Commander Islands. No. 2. Investigations relating to the date of the extermination of Steller's sea-cow.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 7(12): 181-189. July 29, 1884.
–Criticizes Nordenskiöld's (1881a) reports of Hydrodamalis alive at Bering Island after 1768. Includes detailed transcripts of Stejneger's interrogation of witnesses, and concludes that the report circa 1780 was due to a chronological error and that the report circa 1854 was based on a female narwhal.
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1884b
Ueberblick über meine Reise nach Kamtschatka und den Commander-Inseln (1882 und 1883).
Deutsche Geogr. Blätter 7(1): 106-108.
–Alludes to "twelve skulls and four series of vertebrae with arm bones, shoulder blades" and other bones of Hydrodamalis which he collected on Bering Island (107-108).
 
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1884c
Fra det yderste Østen. IV. Kapitlet om Berings-Øen i Nordenskiöld's "Vega-færden".
Naturen (Kristiania) 8(5): 65-69. May 1884.
–Sir. material ?also in other parts of this series of articles: 1882 (vol. 6): 69, 71?, 1883 (vol. 7): 111?, 1885 (vol. 9): 150-157?
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1885
Eine Umsegelung der Berings-Insel. Herbst 1882.
Deutsche Geogr. Blätter 8(3): 225-273. 2 figs. Pls. 5-6.
–Engl. transl. of sir. material: F.A. Lucas (1891: 626). Account of the excavation of a badly weathered Hydrodamalis skeleton (256-257).
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1886
On the extermination of the great northern sea-cow (Rytina). A reply to Professor A. E. Nordenskiöld.
Jour. [Bull.] Amer. Geogr. Soc. 18(4): 317-328.
–A reply to Nordenskiöld's (1885a, b) response to Stejneger's (1884a) criticisms of Nordenskiöld's (1881a) reports of Hydrodamalis alive at Bering Island after 1768.
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1887
How the great northern sea-cow (Rytina) became exterminated.
Amer. Naturalist 21(12): 1047-1054. Dec. 1887.
–A final refutation of Nordenskiöld's arguments for the survival of Hydrodamalis past 1768, backed up by statistics on sea-cow hunting in the Commander Islands. Hopefully the last word on the subject.
 
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1891
[Title?]
Proc. Geogr. Soc. Bremen.
x
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1893
Skeletons of Steller's sea-cow preserved in the various museums.
Science 21(523): 81. Feb. 10, 1893.
–Mentions several specimens overlooked by B. W. Evermann (1893).
 
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1897
The Russian fur-seal islands.
U.S. Fish. Comm. Bull. 16(1): 1-148. Pls. 1-66.
–Also issued separately, Washington, 1896. Also in Seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska (4 vols.), Vol. 4, Washington, 1898: 613-754. Rev.: Geogr. Jour. 9: 322-324, 1897? Steller's sea cow, 20.
 
 
Stejneger, Leonhard (detail)
   
1936
Georg Wilhelm Steller: the pioneer of Alaskan natural history.
Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press: xxiv + 623. Frontisp. 1 fig. 29 pls.
–Repr.: Farnborough (England), Gregg Internatl. Publishers Ltd., 1970. The definitive biography of the discoverer of Hydrodamalis. Includes an appendix analyzing in detail the origin and variant versions of the eyewitness drawings of the sea cow (511-527), and a very detailed and annotated bibliography (565-599).
Steller, Georg Wilhelm: SEE ALSO Pekarskiy, P. P., 1869; Stejneger, L., 1936. (detail)
 
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1751
De bestiis marinis.
Novi Comm. Acad. Sci. Petropolitanae 2: 289-398. Pls. 14-16.
–Allen 257. See also Mém. Acad. Sci. (4)11 (=25?): 294-330? Engl. transl.: Steller (1899), which is the version fully indexed here. For a critical edition of the original Latin text of the introduction, see Mattioli (2019). French transl.: F. Cuvier (1836). German transls.: Steller (1753a, b); J. C. Adelung (1768).
  This description of the marine mammals of Bering Island, perhaps Steller's greatest work, is justly renowned for its detail and precision, despite having been written by a man literally shipwrecked on a desert island, with only a few books and under extremely difficult physical conditions. It was, moreover, published posthumously (after Steller's untimely death in 1746), without benefit of final revisions or corrections by its author, which doubtless accounts for some errors and discrepancies in the text. (For comparison of the printed work with the original manuscript, see P. P. Pekarskiy, 1869.) Nonetheless it provides a clear and thorough description of four previously unknown large marine mammals: the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), the fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), Steller's sea lion (Eumetopias jubata), and Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas). This paper must therefore rank high on any list of the truly heroic achievements in natural history. Moreover, as it is by far the most detailed eyewitness account of the sea cow (though not, as sometimes imagined, the only one) and the only one written by a trained naturalist, it will forever remain our chief source of information on the biology of this great animal.
  The section on the "Manati" which Steller discovered on Bering Island comprises the measurements (294-296) and a detailed account of the external (296-309) and internal anatomy (309-318) of a 7.5-meter female killed on July 12, 1742, with a description of the species' osteology (318-320), habits, and natural history (320-330), including parasites (311, 330). Pl. 14 illustrates the rostral masticating plates, which were the only specimens of Hydrodamalis which Steller was able to take with him when he left the island. Although he did not propose here any formal name for the sea cow (which would have been pre-Linnaean in any case), this verbal description was the ultimate and sole basis for all subsequent names applied to the species; no type specimens were ever designated. Likewise this description served as the basis for the names of the parasites Sirenocyamus Rhytinae J. F. Brandt, 1846 and Ascaris Rytinae Diesing, 1851.
 
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1753a
Ausführliche Beschreibung von sonderbaren Meerthieren, mit Erläuterungen und nöthigen Kupfern versehen.
Halle, Carl Christian Kümmel: [xviii] + 218. 1 pl.
–Allen 263. Consists mainly of a German transl. of Steller (1751) (41-208). The account of the sea cow is on pp. 48-107; it includes many anatomical notes and corrections by an editor (see L. Stejneger, 1936: 593-594).
 
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1753b
Beschreibung des Manati, oder der sogenannten Seekuh.
Hamburgisches Magazin 11(1 [or 2?]): 132-187. 1 pl.
–German transl. of Steller's (1751) account of Hydrodamalis. According to Stubbe (1996: 289), the translator was Johann Daniel Titius.
x
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1774
Beschreibung von dem Lande Kamtschatka dessen Einwohnern, deren Sitten, Nahmen, Lebensart und verschiedenen Gewohnheiten herausgegeben von J. B. S. [Jean Benoît Schérer]
Frankfurt & Leipzig, Johann Georg Fleischer: [viii] + 28 + 384 + 72. 10 pls. 2 maps.
–Pp. 97-98: {"Die Seekuh Manati, auf russisch Morskaia Korowa.... Die Seekühe befinden sich zwar allein um America und in den Inseln in dem Canale, werden aber dennoch zuweilen todt an das kamtschatkische Ufer getrieben, und daselbst ausgeworfen; ihre äuserliche und innerliche Gestalt und Beschaffenheit, ihr Nutzen und Nahrung, Sitte und Art wie sie dieselben fangen, sind hier überflüssig anzuführen, wie auch derer übrigen drey See- [98] thiere, und werde ich nur kürzlich von denen so noch zu beschreiben übrig, handeln."}
  The use of the name Manati in this passage has been deemed to constitute the uninominal publication of a new generic name, which has been formally suppressed (see R. V. Melville, 1985). The statement that Hydrodamalis was found near America and the "islands in the Channel" probably refers merely to the Commander and western Aleutian islands (see Steller, 1925: 73, 82; Domning, 1978b: 135).
 
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1781
Topographische und physikalische Beschreibung der Beringsinsel, welche im östlichen Weltmeer an der Küste von Kamtschatka liegt. In: P. S. Pallas, Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte, und Oekonomie.
St. Petersburg & Leipzig, Johann Zacharias Logan: Vol. 2: 255-301.
–Engl. transl.: Steller (1925: 189-241; see also p. 180). Extracts from Steller's manuscript journal of the 1741-42 voyage, edited by Pallas.
 
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1793a
Tagebuch seiner Seereise aus dem Petripauls Hafen in Kamtschatka bis an die westlichen Küsten von Amerika und seiner Begebenheiten auf der Rückreise. In: P. S. Pallas, Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte, und Oekonomie.
St. Petersburg & Leipzig, Johann Zacharias Logan: Vol. 5: 129-236; Vol. 6: 1-26.
–See also Steller (1793b). Engl. transl.: Steller (1925: 9-187).
 
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1793b
Reise von Kamtschatka nach Amerika mit dem Commandeur-Capitän Bering. Ein Pendant zu dessen Beschreibung von Kamtschatka.
St. Petersburg, Johann Zacharias Logan: 1-133.
–Steller's journal, issued in book form from the type in Pallas' Neue nordische Beyträge, Vols. 5 & 6 (see Steller, 1793a). For differences in pagination of these two versions, see Steller (1925: 255-256).
x
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1899
The beasts of the sea. In: D. S. Jordan et al., The fur seals and fur-seal islands of the North Pacific Ocean. Part III. Special papers relating to the fur seal and to the natural history of the Pribilof Islands.
Washington, Govt. Printing Off. (xii + 629): 179-218.
–Abridged transl. of Steller (1751) by Walter and Jennie Emerson Miller; includes all of the material on Hydrodamalis (181-201). For comments, see under Steller (1751).
x
 
Steller, Georg Wilhelm (detail)
   
1925
Bering's voyages: an account of the efforts of the Russians to determine the relation of Asia and America. By F. A. Golder. In two volumes. Volume II: Steller's journal of the sea voyage from Kamchatka to America and return on the second expedition 1741-1742. Translated and in part annotated by Leonhard Stejneger.
Amer. Geogr. Soc. Research Series No. 2: xi + 290. 30 figs. 2 pls.
–Vol. 1 (1922) is listed here as F. A. Golder (1922). Vol. 2 includes a biographical note on Steller by Golder (1-7); Steller's journal (9-187; transl. from Steller, 1793a); his description of Bering Island (189-241; transl. from Steller, 1781); his letter to Gmelin about the voyage (242-249); a detailed and annotated bibliography (including manuscript sources) on Steller, on the Commander Islands and adjacent regions, and on Bering's expeditions (251-266); and an index and errata for both volumes (267-291). The transl. of the journal incorporates critical comparisons with the original manuscript.
  The material on Steller's sea cow (vii, 139-140, 161, 180, 182, 226-237, 245) briefly summarizes the anatomical and behavioral observations reported in Steller (1751, 1899), and describes the techniques used by Bering's crew to kill sea cows on Bering Island and the use made of their meat and fat. The anatomical material is not indexed here in as great detail as for Steller (1899) (q.v.), as it is largely redundant.
  The biographical note contains statements (pp. 3, 5) that Steller travelled to and wintered on Bering Island a second time, in 1743-44. As explained by Stejneger (1936: 439-440), however, this false idea is based on a misunderstanding and on confusion with Basov's first voyage.
  A new transl. of Steller's journal was published as Journal of a voyage with Bering, 1741-1742 (O. W. Frost, ed.), Stanford Univ. Press: vi + 252, 1988.
 
 
Stensland, Eva; Berggren, Per; Johnstone, Ron; Jiddawi, Narriman (detail)
   
1998
Marine mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment.
Ambio 27(8): 771-774. Dec. 1998.
x
D
Stenzel, H. B.; Turner, F. E. (detail)
   
1944
A Miocene invertebrate fauna from Burkeville, Newton County, Texas.
Amer. Jour. Sci. 242(6): 289-308. June 1944.
–P. 289: {"The following fossil remains have been found near Burkeville [in the Late Miocene Fleming Formation]: / Vertebrates: / ?Desmostylus Sea cow, teeth"}
  These tooth fragments are probably proboscidean; see R. H. Reinhart (1976: 286-287).
 
D
Stenzel, H. B.; Turner, F. E.; Hesse, C. J. (detail)
   
1944
Brackish and non-marine Miocene in southeastern Texas.
Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 28: 977-1011. 7 figs.
–See R.H. Reinhart (1976: 286-287).
Stepanova, L. V.: SEE Sokolov, Chernova et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Stephan, E. (detail)
   
1995
Preliminary report on the faunal remains of the first two seasons of Tell Abraq/Umm al Quwain/United Arab Emirates. In: H. Buitenhuis & H.-P. Uerpmann (eds.), Archaeozoology in the Near East (II).
Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on the Archaeozoology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas (Leiden): 52-63.
Stephan, Heinz: SEE Bauchot & Stephan, 1968. (detail)
 
 
Stephens, Wade H., III (detail)
   
1974
Forgotten mermaids.
Defenders Wildlife News 49(2): 122-124. 3 figs.
 
 
Stephens, William M. (detail)
   
1972
Florida mermaids.
Natl. Parks & Conserv. Mag. 46(3): 28-31. 6 figs. Mar. 1972.
x
 
Sterling, Stefan (detail)
   
1910
Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Musculatur des Schultergürtels und der Vorderextremität bei Zahn- und Bartenwalen.
Jena. Zs. Natw. 46(= n.s. 39): 667-680. 4 figs. Pl. 24.
–Attributes the lack of reduction of the muscles in the sir. forearm to their lesser degree of aquatic adaptation compared to cetaceans; considers them more similar to pinnipeds in this regard (667-668).
 
 
Sterling, Tom (detail)
   
1973
The Amazon.
Amsterdam, Time-Life Internatl. (Nederland) B.V. (The World's Wild Places/Time-Life Books): 1-183. Illus.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, with much misinformation (27, 100, 102, 104, 106).
Stermer, Dugald: SEE Haley, D., 1980. (detail)
Stevens, C. E.: SEE Hintz et al., 1978. (detail)
 
 
Stevenson, Charles H. (detail)
   
1904
Utilization of the skins of aquatic animals.
Rept. of the Commissioner, U.S. Comm. Fish & Fisheries, for the year ending June 30, 1902. _Part 28._ Washington, Govt. Printing Off.: 281-352. Pls. 26-38.
–Manatee and dugong leather, 338-339, pl. 34.
Stewart, A. D. G.: SEE Boyde & Stewart, 1963. (detail)
Stewart, Brent S.: SEE Reeves et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Stewart, Charles (detail)
   
1801
Elements of natural history; being an introduction to the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus....
London, T. Cadell Jun. & W. Davies; Edinburgh, Wm. Creech (2 vols.): Vol. 1: iv + 408. 6 pls.
–Places "Trichechus manatus" in the same genus with the walrus; recognizes 2 subspecies, "Australis" and "Borealis", corresponding respectively to Trichechus and Hydrodamalis. It is "Said to delight in music" and to bellow like a bull. "The carcase of one of these animals was about sixteen years ago [i.e., 1785] thrown ashore near Leith [on the North Sea coast of Scotland, near Edinburgh on the Firth of Forth]. It was much disfigured; and the Fishermen extracted its liver and other parts, from which a considerable quantity of oil was obtained" (85).
x
 
Stewart, Charles (detail)
   
1817
Elements of the natural history of the animal kingdom....
Edinburgh, Bell & Bradfute; London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown (2 vols.): Vol. 1: vi + 446. 6 pls.
–"Second Edition"; sir. material almost identical to that in the 1801 ed. Specifies 1785 as the year of the Leith stranding (125).
x
 
Stewart, Darryl (detail)
   
1978
From the edge of extinction: the fight to save endangered species.
Toronto, McClelland & Stewart: 1-191. Illus.
–Chap. 13 (113-118) is a pop. acc. of conservation problems of manatees in Florida and elsewhere. Mentions the display at Florida Atlantic University of the mounted skin of a manatee that had been used in abortive weed-control experiments in 1964 (see P. L. Sguros, 1966).
x
 
Stewart, Doug (detail)
   
1999
Making sense of manatees.
Natl. Wildlife 37(3): 40-47. 4 figs. Apr./May 1999.
–Pop. acc. of manatee biology and behavior.
Stewart, Ralph: SEE Woodring et al., 1940. (detail)
 
 
Stewart, Richard (detail)
   
1976
Blue Springs manatees.
Florida Diver 1(4): 11-13. 3 figs. Feb. 1976.
 
 
Stewart, Vi N. (detail)
   
1980
A perceptive irony of the times.
Florida Conservation News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(6): 14-15. 1 fig. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1. Pop. acc. of Steller's sea cow.
 
 
Stewart, Vi N. (detail)
   
1982
Manatee - endangered Floridian.
Geojourney (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 2(3): 2 unnumbered pages on back of pullout centerfold manatee poster. 1 fig. Summer 1982.
 
 
Stewart, Vi N. (detail)
   
1988
Manatees.
Sea-Stats (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Marine Research Inst.) No. 13: 1-16. 3 figs. Nov. 1988.
Stichler, Todd: SEE Lavergne et al., 1996. (detail)
x
 
Stiles, Charles Wardell (detail)
   
1919
[Manatees in North Carolina.] In: Proceedings, 600th meeting, Biological Society of Washington.
Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 9(21): 657-659. Dec. 19, 1919.
–Listed by title in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 32: xiii, Mar. 11, 1920. P. 658: {"Dr. Stiles also announced that recently two manatees (Trichechus manatus Linn.) had appeared in Wrightsville Sound, eight miles from Wilmington, N.C., a northern record for this mammal. One of these manatees had been captured and was now on exhibition in Wilmington."}
x
 
Stiles, Charles Wardell; Hassall, Albert (detail)
   
1899
Internal parasites of the fur seal. In: D. S. Jordan et al., The fur seals and fur-seal islands of the North Pacific Ocean. Part III. Special papers relating to the fur seal and to the natural history of the Pribilof Islands.
Washington, Govt. Printing Off. (xii + 629): 99-177. 100 figs.
–Gives keys, synonymies, diagnoses, and histories of study of Ascaris halicoris and A. rytinae, with illustrations of the former (99, 100, 107-108, 147-151, 163-164, 169-171).
 
 
Stinson, D. W. (detail)
   
1994
Birds and mammals recorded from the Mariana Islands.
Nat. Hist. Research, Special Issue 1: 333-344. Mar. 1994.
x
 
Stirton, Ruben Arthur (detail)
   
1953
Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 64(6): 603-622. 13 figs. June 1953.
–Lists Potamosiren magdalenensis with the rest of the Late Miocene La Venta fauna (614); discusses the fauna and gives locality maps.
 
 
Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Easton, Dean E.; Butler, Susan (detail)
   
2003
Modeling manatee response to restoration in the Everglades and Ten Thousand Islands.
GEER Program & Abstracts: Joint Conference on the Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem, from Kissimmee to the Keys: 521-523.
 
 
Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Doyle, Terry J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Soderqvist, Lars E. (detail)
   
2011
Temperature inverted haloclines provide winter warm-water refugia for manatees in southwest Florida.
Estuaries & Coasts 34(1): 106-119. 2 tabs. 11 figs. DOI 10.1007/s12237-010-9286-1 Published online April 21, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) overwintering in the Ten Thousand Islands and western Everglades have no access to power plants or major artesian springs that provide warm-water refugia in other parts of Florida. Instead, hundreds of manatees aggregate at artificial canals, basins, and natural deep water sites that act as passive thermal refugia (PTR). Monitoring at two canal sites revealed temperature inverted haloclines, which provided warm salty bottom layers that generally remained above temperatures considered adverse for manatees. At the largest PTR, the warmer bottom layer disappeared unless significant salt stratification was maintained by upstream freshwater inflow over a persistent tidal wedge. A detailed three-dimensional hydrology model showed that salinity stratification inhibited vertical convection induced by atmospheric cooling. Management or creation of temperature inverted haloclines may be a feasible and desirable option for resource managers to provide passive thermal refugia for manatees and other temperature sensitive aquatic species.
 
 
Stith, Bradley M.; Slone, D. H.; De Wit, Martine; Edwards, Holly H.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, E. D.; Soderqvist, L. E.; Reid, James P. (detail)
   
2012
Passive thermal refugia provided warm water for Florida manatees during the severe winter of 2009-2010.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 462: 287-301. DOI:10.3354/meps09732. Aug. 21, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Haloclines induced by freshwater inflow over tidal water have been identified as an important mechanism for maintaining warm water in passive thermal refugia (PTR) used by Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris during winter in extreme southwestern Florida. Record-setting cold during winter 2009-2010 resulted in an unprecedented number of manatee deaths, adding to concerns that PTR may provide inadequate thermal protection during severe cold periods. Hydrological data from 2009-2010 indicate that 2 canal systems in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region acted as PTR and maintained warm bottom-water temperatures, even during severe and prolonged cold periods. Aerial survey counts of live and dead manatees in TTI during the winter of 2009-2010 suggest that these PTR were effective at preventing mass mortality from hypothermia, in contrast to the nearby Everglades region, which lacks similar artificial PTR and showed high manatee carcass counts. Hydrological data from winter 2008-2009 confirmed earlier findings that without haloclines these artificial PTR may become ineffective as warm-water sites. Tidal pumping of groundwater appears to provide additional heat to bottom water during low tide cycles, but the associated thermal inversion is not observed unless salinity stratification is present. The finding that halocline-driven PTR can maintain warm water even under extreme winter conditions suggests that they may have significant potential as warm-water sites. However, availability and conflicting uses of freshwater and other management issues may make halocline-driven PTR unreliable or difficult to manage during winter.
 
 
Stivens, D.; Černý, K. (detail)
   
1976
[Will "sea cows" become extinct?]
Živa 24(4): 151-154. Illus.
–In Czech.
 
D
Stock, Chester (detail)
   
1924
Mammalian forms occurring in association with marine invertebrates in western North America.
Proc. Pan-Pacif. Sci. Congr. (Australia, 1923) 1: 880-881.
x
 
Stoddart, D. R. (detail)
   
1972
Pinnipeds or sirenians at western Indian Ocean islands?
Jour. Zool. (London) 167(2): 207-217. 1 fig.
–Summarizes early travel accounts relating to dugongs in the Mascarenes and perhaps the Chagos Archipelago, and supposed dugongs (probably seals) in the Seychelles. The dugongs seem to have become extinct in these areas by about 1800.
 
 
Stojaspal, Franz (detail)
   
1990
Das Eggenburgien am Ostrand der Böhmische Masse. In: W. K. Weidert (ed.), Klassische Fundstellen der Paläontologie. Band 2: 23 Fundgebiete und Aufschlüsse in Dänemark, Deutschland, England, Frankreich, Österreich, Schweiz und Tschechoslowakei.
Korb (Germany), Goldschneck-Verlag (256 pp.): 205-213, 249. Illus.
Stoll, M. L.: SEE Reep et al., 1998, 2001, 2002. (detail)
x
 
Stoll, Otto (detail)
   
1883
Esquisse de la faune du Guatemala.
Bibliothéque Universelle, Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. (Geneva) (3)10: 343-346. Oct. 1883.
–P. 346: {"Enfin nous retrouvons sur ce littoral [Atlantic] une lacune, celle de Izabal dans laquelle vit un Sirénien, le Manatus australis."}
Stone, Renee: SEE Delaney et al., 1985. (detail)
x
 
Stone, Witmer; Cram, William Everett (detail)
   
1916
American animals; a popular guide to the mammals of North America north of Mexico, with intimate biographies of the more familiar species.
Garden City (New York), Doubleday, Page & Co. (The New Nature Library, Vol. 3): 1-318. Pls.
–First ed., 1902. Gen. acc. of the Florida manatee (26-27), with a color painting of an underwater scene with two rather oddly-shaped manatees.
Stopp, Klaus: SEE Faust et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Storr, Gottlieb Konrad Christian (detail)
   
1780
Prodromus methodi mammalium.
Tübingen, Litteris Reissianis: 1-43. 4 tabs.
–Mentions Manatus, 41, tab. C.
Stoskopf, Michael K.: SEE ALSO Williams et al., 1990. (detail)
 
 
Stoskopf, Michael K. (detail)
   
1990
Marine mammal pharmacology. In: L. A. Dierauf (ed.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease, rehabilitation.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (735 pp.): 139-161. 5 tabs.
–Table 4 (153-155) is a compilation of drug doses and administration frequencies and routes recommended for T. manatus and D. dugon.
 
 
Stossich, M. (detail)
   
1896
Il genere Ascaris Linné. Lavoro monographico.
Boll. Soc. Adriatica Sci. Nat. (Trieste) 17: 9-120.
–Includes A. halicoris and A. Rhytinae (68).
 
 
Strachey, William (detail)
   
1625
A true reportory of the wracke. In: S. Purchas, ... Purchas his pilgrimes ... (q.v.).
London, Henry Fetherston: 19: [pp.?]
–Manuscript written in 1610. Sir. material repr. in J. A. Murray (ed.), The islands and the sea ..., Oxford Univ. Press, 1991, p. 95: {"[The meat of the sea turtle is] like the Manati at Saint Dominique, which made the Spanish Friars (at their first arrivall) make some scruple to eate them on a Friday, because in Colour and taste the flesh is like to morsells of Veale."}
x
 
Stradelli, Ermano (detail)
   
1929
Vocabularios da lingua geral portuguez-nheêngatú e nheêngatú-portuguez, precedidos de um esboço de grammatica nheênga-umbuê-sáua mirî e seguidos de contos em lingua geral nheêngatú poranduna.
Rev. Inst. Hist. Geogr. Brasil. 158(104): 5-768.
–Gives the word for manatee in lingua geral as Iauarauá (285).
x
 
Strahan, Ronald (detail)
   
1981
A dictionary of Australian mammal names: Pronunciation, derivation, and significance of the names; with biographical and bibliographical notes.
Sydney, Angus & Robertson: xxiii + 196. Illus.
–Dugong, p. 33. Includes a crude sketch of the animal from Cuvier, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, 1816.
 
 
Strauss (detail)
   
1837
Considérations sur le genre de vie du Dinotherium et sur la place qu'il convient de lui assigner dans une distribution naturelle des mammifères.
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 4(14): 529-532. Apr. 3, 1837.
x
 
Strauss, Michael B. (detail)
   
1969
Mammalian adaptations to diving.
Report U.S. Naval Submarine Medical Center (Groton, Conn.) No. 562: v + 31. 5 tabs. 3 charts. Jan. 28, 1969.
–A summary of the subject, mentioning manatees (2, 5, 10).
x
 
Strauss-Durckheim, H. (detail)
   
1861
Rectification d'une nouvelle.
Cosmos, Revue Encycl. Hebd. Prog. Sci., etc. (Paris) 19: 513-514. Nov. 8, 1861.
–Comments on a report (in the Oct. 18 issue of Cosmos) of an animal captured in Hudson's Bay, supposedly having "eight feet" but allied to the manatee; suggests that it was instead eight feet in length, and possibly Rytina (of which he thought only one individual had ever been found, and that in the area of Bering Strait) or a near relative. He was taken to task for these remarks by J. F. Brandt (1863c: 563).
 
 
Strehlow, H. (detail)
   
1987
Zur Geschichte des Berliner Aquariums Unter den Linden.
Zool. Garten (N.F.) 1987: 26-40.
 
D
Strelkov, S. A. (detail)
   
1970
K istorii peremeshcheniia beregovoĭ linii Arkticheskogo basseĭna v kaĭnozoe. [On the history of shifting of the shoreline of the Arctic basin during the Cenozoic.] In: Severnyĭ ledovityĭ okean i ego poberezhe v kaĭnozoe:
222-227.
–In Russian.
 
 
Stretton, W. G. (detail)
   
1893
Customs, rites and superstitions of the Aboriginal tribes of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia 17: 227-253.
–Mentions the fabrication of rope for dugong fishing (249).
 
 
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1902
Über die Bedeutung des Foramen entepicondyloideum und des Trochanter tertius der Säugethiere.
Morph. Jahrb. 29: 553-562. 2 figs.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 6: 53? Sirs., 555.
 
 
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1911
Neue Forschungen über fossile lungenatmende Meeresbewohner.
Fortschr. Natw. Forsch. (Berlin) 2: 83-114. 13 figs. 3 pls.
 
 
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1912
Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie. II. Theil: Wirbelthiere.
Leipzig & Berlin, B. G. Teubner: vii + 325. 2 tabs. 234 figs.
–Abstrs.: Zs. Morph. Anthrop. 17: 449?; Geol. Zentralbl. 18: 516-518?; Geol. Mag. (5)10: 37? Rev.: Nature (London) 93: 265? Sirs., 220, 246.
 
 
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1921a
Untersuchungen der Hüftbeine und Hüftgelenke von Sirenia und Archaeoceti.
Sitzb. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 1921: 41-59. 6 figs. [pp. 331-340?]
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 26: 314?
 
 
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1921b
Die Rückbildung der Hüftbeine bei Seekühen.
Natw. Wochenschr. 20: 411-413. 11 figs. [vol. 36?]
 
 
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1923
Discussion on pachyosteosis.
Pal. Zs. 5: 258-261 [+?].
 
D
Stromer von Reichenbach, Ernst (detail)
   
1924
Beobachtungen über die Schmelzstructur der Säugethiere, besonders der Hyracoidea und Multituberculata.
Pal. Zs. 6: 248-256. 5 figs.
–Abstr.: Geol. Zentralbl. 31: 317? Desmostylians, 254.
 
 
Strong, William D. (detail)
   
1935
Archaeological investigations in the Bay Islands, Spanish Honduras.
Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 92(14): 1-176.
–Manatee heads depicted on pottery.
 
 
Stroud, Richard H. (detail)
   
1964
Florida manatees.
SFI Bull. 155: 8.
x
 
Stuart, Chris; Stuart, Tilde (detail)
   
1994
Southern, Central and East African mammals: a photographic guide.
Sanibel Island (Florida), Ralph Curtis Books: 1-144. Illus.
–First printing: London, New Holland (Publishers) Ltd., 1992. Brief account of dugong distribution & status, 97, 2 figs.
x
 
Stuart, H. Villiers (detail)
   
1891
Adventures amidst the equatorial forests and rivers of South America; also in the West Indies and the wilds of Florida. To which is added "Jamaica Revisited."
London, John Murray: xxi + 268.
–P. 137: {"After leaving Jupiter Inlet [Florida] we sailed some miles up St. Lucie River and saw a manatee and her calf feeding among the water weeds.
  "We were informed that the hunters forward the flesh of this creature in refrigerator trucks to New York, where it is sold as prime beef; the carcase often weighs 1000 pounds."}
Stuart, Tilde: SEE Stuart, Chris. (detail)
 
 
Stubbe, Michael (detail)
   
1996
Die Stellersche Seekuh (Hydrodamalis gigas, Syn.: Rhytina stelleri). In: W. Hintzsche & T. Nickol (eds.), Die grosse nordische Expedition: Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746) - ein Lutheraner erforscht Sibirien und Alaska. Eine Ausstellung der Franckeschen Stiftungen zu Halle [12 May 1996-31 Jan. 1997].
Gotha, Justus Perthes Verlag ([xii] + 347 pp.): 285-290. Figs. 413-420.
–This lavishly illustrated exhibit catalog also reproduces the original drawing of the sea cow from Waxell's chart (268, 284). Besides photos of other remains in St. Petersburg (pp. 286-289), a sternum preserved in Vladivostok is illustrated on p. 290. The sea cow is also mentioned on pp. 253, 281, 315, and 324.
x
 
Stubbings, H. G. (detail)
   
1965
West african [sic] Cirripedia in the collections of the Institut Français d'Afrique Noire, Dakar, Senegal.
Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Sér. A, 27(3): 876-907. 8 figs.
–Reports the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Chelonibia patula, C. manati, and Platylepas hexastylos collected from T. senegalensis near Dakar (876, 891, 893-902).
Studenetskaya, I. S.: SEE ALSO Arseniev et al., 1973. (detail)
 
 
Studenetskaya, I. S. (detail)
   
1984
[The state of studies on marine mammals off the north-western coast of Africa.] In: A. V. Yablokov (ed.), [Marine mammals.]
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (312 pp.): 117-129. Illus.
–In Russian.
 
 
Studer, Theophil (detail)
   
1887
Über den Steinkern des Gehirnraumes einer Sirenoide aus dem Muschelsandstein von Würenlos (Kanton Aargau), nebst Bemerkungen über die Gattung Halianassa H. von Meyer und die Bildung des Muschelsandsteins.
Abh. Schweiz. Pal. Ges. (Zurich) 14(3): 1-20. 2 pls.
–Abstrs.: Verh. Schweiz. Ges. Natw. 70: 49?; C.R. Soc. Helvét. Sci. Nat. 70: 22-23?; Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. (13)18: 357-358? This paper provided the first illustration and adequate description of the maxilla and upper dentition on which the name Manatus Studeri von Meyer, 1837 had been based. Also described here for the first time is a braincase and cranial endocast, likewise from Miocene deposits in Switzerland.
 
 
Studer, Theophil (detail)
   
1899
Über fossile Knochen vom Wadi-Natrùn, Unteregypten.
Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern 1898: 72-77.
x
 
Stunkard, Horace W. (detail)
   
1929
The parasitic worms collected by the American Museum of Natural History Expedition to the Belgian Congo, 1909-1914. I. Trematoda.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 58(6): 233-289. 37 figs.
–Gives the history of study of the genus Chiorchis, and describes specimens of C. fabaceus from a T. senegalensis taken at Banana, Belgian Congo (254-258, 282-283, figs. 21-26). Concerning this manatee, see also R.T. Hatt (1934).
 
 
Suarez, Catalina; Gelfo, Javier N.; Moreno-Bernal, Jorge W.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge (detail)
   
2021
An early Miocene manatee from Colombia and the initial Sirenian invasion of freshwater ecosystems.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences 109: 103277. 1 tab. 5 figs. Supplementary data at https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jsames.2021.10327 Publ. online Mar. 24, 2021.
–ABSTRACT: Potamosiren magdalenensis Reinhart, is an extinct species of manatee (Sirenia, Trichechidae, Trichechinae), which has only been recorded for the middle Miocene Honda Group, in the La Venta area (Huila Department, Colombia). A new specimen referable to Potamosiren cf. P. magdalenensis is reported herein, collected from the early Miocene Barzalosa Formation. This unit crops out in the Pubenza locality, at the Tocaima municipality of the Cundinamarca Department, Colombia. The material described here represents the first evidence of a mammal from the Barzalosa Formation, the earliest record of Potamosiren so far reported and one of the only two trichechid records for the early Miocene of South America. The new specimen adds to a small but growing record of extinct trichechids, increasing the fossil record of this group in South America and allowing us to further explore their evolutionary history. The early Miocene appearance of trichechines coincides geographically and temporally with the onset of the Pebas Mega-Wetland System, which likely provided favourable conditions for the invasion of freshwater ecosystems of this group of fully aquatic mammals. Finally, the depositional environments represented by the Barzalosa Fm. and a review of the fossil record of trichechines further support the notion that manatees have had a close association with freshwater systems since early in their evolutionary history, and that reinvasion of marine ecosystems did not occur until much later.
x
 
Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth A.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo (detail)
   
2010
The copepod Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortíz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) (Harpacticoida), an epibiont of the Caribbean manatee.
Journal of Natural History 44(13-14): 847-859. 1 tab. 6 figs. DOI:10.1080/00222931003615711. April 2010.
–ABSTRACT: The harpacticoid copepod Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortíz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) was originally described based on a few specimens collected from a single manatee in Cuba. Since its description it has been recorded exclusively as a symbiont of sea turtles worldwide; there were no further records of this species from the manatee and this association remained unconfirmed. During a long-term survey on the biology and ecology of the manatee Trichechus manatus manatus L. in Mexican waters of the western Caribbean, epibionts were collected from 54 individuals, including males, females and juveniles. Many specimens of B. manatorum were recorded from several manatees and analysed morphologically; a comparison is made with specimens from turtles of the Mexican Pacific. Manatees captured in two different bay systems were examined, but only those from Chetumal Bay were positive for copepods. Infestation comprised 14 manatees (26%), eight females and six males; incidence was higher than that previously found for other crustacean epibionts. Copepods were found as soft yellowish masses arranged along skin folds and wrinkles of the muzzle, the base of the fins, and the nipple area; there was no evidence of skin damage caused by the copepod. The presence of B. manatorum on manatees is confirmed and the first data are provided on the prevalence of this epibiont in one of the main populations of this mammal in the western Caribbean.
Subaraj, R.: SEE Ho et al., 1994. (detail)
Sudara, S.: SEE Nateekanjanalarp & Sudara, 1994. (detail)
 
 
Suess, Eduard (detail)
   
1866
Untersuchungen über den Charakter der österreichischen Tertiärablagerungen.
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 54(1): 87-149, 218-257. 2 pls.
–Mentions "Halitherium" (97, 101, 125) and "Halianassa" (100) in Lower Austria (both refer to Metaxytherium krahuletzi), and fossil "Manatus" near Vienna (228).
Sugiyama, Masahiro: SEE Abe et al., 1982. (detail)
Sukhanov, V. B.: SEE ALSO Gambaryan & Sukhanov, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Sukhanov, V. B. (detail)
   
1986a
[General characteristics and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia) and the place of manatees in the system.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 11-43. Figs. 2-5.
–In Russian.
 
 
Sukhanov, V. B. (detail)
   
1986b
[Specifics of adaptations in Sirenia (by way of conclusion).] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 385-393.
–In Russian.
 
 
Sukhanov, V. B.; Manzij, S. F. (detail)
   
1986
[Morphology and basic directions of specialization of the axial skeleton of Sirenia.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 77-156. Tab. 3. Figs. 19-49.
–In Russian.
 
 
Sukhanov, V. B.; Gambaryan, P. P.; Klykov, V. I. (detail)
   
1986
[Specifics of the forelimb skeleton of the manatee.] In: V. E. Sokolov (ed.), Lamantin: morfologicheskie adaptatsii (q.v.).
Moscow, "Nauka" (Akad. Nauk SSSR) (405 pp.): 157-187. Figs. 50-67.
–In Russian.
 
 
Šuklje, Fran (detail)
   
1938
Mediteranska sirena iz Vrapča kod Zagreba i Otruševca kod Samobora. [Mediterranean sirenians from Vrapce near Zagreb and Otrusevac near Samobor.]
Glasnik Hrvatskoga Prirodoslovnoga Društva Zagreb 49-50: 87-93. 3 figs.
–In Croatian; German summ. Describes ?Mioc. sir. teeth from Croatia.
 
 
Sulzner, Kathryn; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Bonde, Robert K.; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso (detail)
   
2012
Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).
PLoS ONE 7(9): e44517. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044517. 11 pp. 4 tabs. 2 figs Sept. 12, 2012.
–ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.
x
 
Sumichrast, François (detail)
   
1882
Enumeracion de las especies de mamíferos, aves, reptiles y batracios observados en la parte central y meridional de la Republica Mexicana.
La Naturaleza (México) 5: 199-213 [+ later installments].
–Notes the occurrence of manatees in rivers on the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and mentions their continued hunting in the area of Minatitlan (213).
Sumitro, Dr.: SEE Allen et al., 1976; Hendrokusumo et al., 1981; Tas'an et al., 1979. (detail)
Summers, Robert C.: SEE Packard et al., 1983, 1985. (detail)
Sun, Jianyun: SEE Wang & Sun, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Sunseri, Sev M. (detail)
   
1980a
Lee County youngsters among first to notice plight of the manatee.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(6): 8-9. 5 figs. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1.
 
 
Sunseri, Sev M. (detail)
   
1980b
Salvage crew keeps nose to the grind.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(6): 18-19. 5 figs. + fig. on p. 3. Mar. 1980.
–See also Appendix 1.
x
 
Sunter, G. H. (detail)
   
1936
The dugong.
Walkabout 2: 47-48. 1 fig. Mar. 1, 1936.
–Pop. acc. of harpooning a dugong in the Northern Territory of Australia.
x
 
Sunter, G. H. (detail)
   
1937
Adventures of a trepang fisher.
London, Hurst & Blackett Ltd.: 1-288.
–Accounts of two dugong-harpooning expeditions in the Northern Territory of Australia, and a report of a bull dugong killing a crocodile by repeatedly jumping out of the water and landing on top of it (53-61).
 
 
Supanwanid, Chatcharee (detail)
   
1996
Recovery of the seagrass Halophila ovalis after grazing by dugongs. In: J. Kuo, R. C. Phillips, D. I. Walker, & H. Kirkman (eds.), Seagrass biology: proceedings of an international workshop, Rottnest Island, Western Australia, 25-29 January 1996.
Nedlands, Univ. of Western Australia, Faculty of Science: 315-318. 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–The "grazing" described was simulated, by creation of artificial "feeding" trails in Haad Chao Mai National Park, Thailand. Recovery of the seagrass was complete in two months.
Supin, A. Ya.: SEE Klishin et al., 1990; Mass et al., 1997; Popov & Supin, 1990. (detail)
 
 
Suraru, Nicolae; Codrea, Vlad A. (detail)
   
1988
[Ein Sireniden Prämolare (P/4 dext.) im Horizont der Grobkalke bei Cluj-Napoca: Baciu Schluchten.]
Nymphaea [= Crisia] 18: 689-695. 2 pls.
–In Rumanian; French summ.
x
D
Susuki, Takeo; Stadum, Carol J. (detail)
   
1978
A Neogene section, northeastern San Clemente Island, California.
Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County Contr. Sci. No. 299: 1-24. 29 figs. June 16, 1978.
–Reports a large desmostylian tooth (Paleoparadoxia tabatai?) from Miocene sandstone on San Clemente Island (5, 21).
x
 
Sutty, Lesley (detail)
   
1993
Fauna of the Caribbean: the last survivors.
London & Basingstoke, Macmillan Press Ltd.
–Brief pop. acc. of TM (20-21, 3 figs.).
Suzuki, Akihiko: SEE Kimura et al., 1995, 1998; Nojo et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Suzuki, Akihiko; Ueda, Keiichi; Segawa, Takao; Suzuki, Miwa (detail)
   
2019
Fecal microbiota of captive Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus.
FEMS Microbiology Letters 366(11): doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz134 June 18, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Herbivorous animals have unique intestinal microbiota that greatly helps with plant digestion in the host; however, knowledge on the microbiota of marine herbivores is limited. To better understand the taxonomy of intestinal microbiota in manatees, and the possible effects of captive conditions on that, we characterized the fecal microbiota of captive Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus and compared the bacterial community with that of wild Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris. Fecal samples were collected from four captive Antillean manatees in Ocean Expo Park, Okinawa, Japan. The high-quality sequences of the V3–V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA obtained using an Illumina MiSeq platform were assigned to 16 bacterial phyla, and the most dominant was Firmicutes (84.05 ± 3.50%), followed by Bacteroidetes (8.60 ± 1.71%). Seven of the top 20 bacterial genera were responsible for hydrolyzing cellulose and metabolizing bile acid. The microbiota composition was remarkably different from that found in wild Florida manatees and more diverse than the composition in wild Florida manatees; hence, this result may be dependent on a captive environment. Our results highlight the unique intestinal microbiota in captive manatees, reflecting their diet and possibly an impact of the captive environment.
 
D
Suzuki, Keiji; Wako, Ryo (detail)
   
1987
Stratigraphy and structure of the Late Tertiary in the area of the north margin of the Fukushima Basin.
Sci. Rept. Fac. Educ. Fukushima Univ. 40: 33-48. Illus. Nov. 1987.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Mentions Paleoparadoxia.
 
D
Suzuki, Keiji; et al. (detail)
   
1986b
Investigated report on Paleoparadoxia of the Yanagawa Formation.
Yanagawa (Japan), Yanagawa Town Educational Committee: 1-22. 7 pls.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Suzuki, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Ogasawara, Kenshiro; Yomogida, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Katsumasa; Taniguchi, Satoru; Makuta, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Takashi; Kawamura, Tomoyoshi; Yamaki, Zenbei; Kumasaka, Hiroko; Kato, Yoshiaki (detail)
   
1986a
New skeleton of Paleoparadoxia with stratigraphical and sedimentary environmental remarks in Yanagawa-town, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In: Essay in Geology (Prof. Makoto Kitamura Commemorative Volume):
453-464. 2 tabs. 4 figs. 1 pl.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Suzuki, Koichi (detail)
   
1952
[The desmostylids-bearing formation discussed from the standpoint of stratigraphic classification.]
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 58(686): 550-551.
–In Japanese.
Suzuki, Kunihiro: SEE ALSO Kozawa et al., 1996. (detail)
 
D
Suzuki, Kunihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige (detail)
   
1999
Crestal pit of Desmostylus molar.
Jour. Fossil Research 31(2): 44-51. ? figs. Mar. 1999.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Suzuki, Kunihiro; Sakae, Toshiro; Kanemaru, Takashi; Kozawa, Yukishige (detail)
   
2000
A large lacuna at the summit of cusp of human premolar -- comparison with crestal pit of Desmostylus molar.
Jour. Fossil Research 33(2): 67-69.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Suzuki, Naoki (detail)
   
1979
Dugong & manatee.
Aqua-Life 1(2): 18-23. 14 figs. Sept. 1979.
–In Japanese. Pop. acc. of sirs. (See also A. Sakurai, 1979.)
 
 
Svana, K.; Iliopoulos, G.; Fassoulas, C. (detail)
   
2010
New sirenian findings from Crete Island.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece 43: 746-753.
 
 
Svartman, M.; Stanyon, R. (detail)
   
2012
The chromosomes of Afrotheria and their bearing on mammalian genome evolution.
Cytogenet. Genome Research 137(2-4): 144-153. DOI: 10.1159/000341387. August 2012.
–ABSTRACT: Afrotheria is the clade of placental mammals that, together with Xenarthra, Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria, represents 1 of the 4 main recognized supraordinal eutherian clades. It reunites 6 orders of African origin: Proboscidea, Sirenia, Hyracoidea, Macroscelidea, Afrosoricida and Tubulidentata. The apparently unlikely relationship among such disparate morphological taxa and their possible basal position at the base of the eutherian phylogenetic tree led to a great deal of attention and research on the group. The use of biomolecular data was pivotal in Afrotheria studies, as they were the basis for the recognition of this clade. Although morphological evidence is still scarce, a plethora of molecular data firmly attests to the phylogenetic relationship among these mammals of African origin. Modern cytogenetic techniques also gave a significant contribution to the study of Afrotheria, revealing chromosome signatures for the group as a whole, as well as for some of its internal relationships. The associations of human chromosomes HSA1/19 and 5/21 were found to be chromosome signatures for the group and provided further support for Afrotheria. Additional chromosome synapomorphies were also identified linking elephants and manatees in Tethytheria (the associations HSA2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the lack of HSA4/8) and elephant shrews with the aardvark (HSA2/8, 3/20 and 10/17). Herein, we review the current knowledge on Afrotheria chromosomes and genome evolution. The already available data on the group suggests that further work on this apparently bizarre assemblage of mammals will provide important data to a better understanding on mammalian genome evolution.
x
 
Sverdrup, Harald Ulrik (detail)
   
1926
Tre aar i isen med Maud. [Three years among the ices aboard the Maud.]
Oslo, Gyldendal, Norsk Forlag: 1-285. 1 map.
–P. 205: {"I denne forbindelse kan det ogsaa nævnes at en russer fortalte os, at et eksemplar av havkoen (Rhytina), som skal være utdød omkring 1770 eller senest 1850, drev iland ved Indian Point for 8 -- 10 aar siden."} (Translation: "In this connection it may also be recalled that a Russian told us, that a specimen of sea cow (Rhytina), which should be extinct around 1770 or at the latest in 1850, drifted ashore at Indian Point about 8-10 years ago [i.e., circa 1911-1913].")
  "Indian Point" is now known as Cape Chaplin, on the Bering Sea coast of Russia. This is an earlier publication of the record in Sverdrup (1930)(q.v.).
x
 
Sverdrup, Harald Ulrik (detail)
   
1930
Plavanie na sudne "Mod" v vodakh morei Laptevykh i Vostochno-Sibirskogo. [Voyage of the ship "Maud" to the waters of the Laptev Sea and eastern Siberia.]
Akad. Nauk SSSR, Komissiia po Izucheniiu Iàkuťskoi ASSR, Materialy No. 30: lviii + 440. 17 figs. 31 pls. 4 portraits. 11 maps.
–In Russian. The sir. material (p. 248) may be translated as follows: {"In connection with this it is worth mentioning that one Russian told us about a specimen of the sea cow (Rhitina), extinct by now since about the 1770s or, at the latest, the 1850s; this sea cow specimen was brought by the current to Cape Chaplin 8-10 years ago [i.e., during the period 1910-1917]."} This hearsay report is uncorroborated.
 
 
Swain, Eric; Decker, Jeremy (detail)
   
2010
Measurement-derived heat-budget approaches for simulating coastal wetland temperature with a hydrodynamic model.
Wetlands 30(3): 635-648. 3 tabs. 8 figs. DOI:10.1007/s13157-010-0053-7. June 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Numerical modeling is needed to predict environmental temperatures, which affect a number of biota in southern Florida, U.S.A., such as the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), which uses thermal basins for refuge from lethal winter cold fronts. To numerically simulate heat-transport through a dynamic coastal wetland region, an algorithm was developed for the FTLOADDS coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/ground-water model that uses formulations and coefficients suited to the coastal wetland thermal environment. In this study, two field sites provided atmospheric data to develop coefficients for the heat flux terms representing this particular study area. Several methods were examined to represent the heat-flux components used to compute temperature. A Dalton equation was compared with a Penman formulation for latent heat computations, producing similar daily-average temperatures. Simulation of heat-transport in the southern Everglades indicates that the model represents the daily fluctuation in coastal temperatures better than at inland locations; possibly due to the lack of information on the spatial variations in heat-transport parameters such as soil heat capacity and surface albedo. These simulation results indicate that the new formulation is suitable for defining the existing thermohydrologic system and evaluating the ecological effect of proposed restoration efforts in the southern Everglades of Florida.
 
 
Swanson, Jess (detail)
   
2021
The ultimate guide to spotting a Florida manatee.
American Way Magazine (American Airlines) 12 figs. + video. https://www.americanway.com/articles/the-ultimate-guide-to-spotting-a-florida-manatee/ Feb. 2021.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and viewing spots such as Crystal River, Blue Spring, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Lee County Manatee Park, Homosassa Springs, and Manatee Springs.
x
 
Swanton, John R. (detail)
   
1922
Early history of the Creek Indians and their neighbors.
Bull. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 73: 1-492.
–Quotes manuscripts of Lopez de Velasco to the effect that the Tekesta Indians of southeast Florida hunted manatees by jumping on their backs and driving stakes into their nostrils. They then took two bones from the manatee's head and placed these in the coffins of their dead (389).
x
 
Swanton, John R. (detail)
   
1946
The Indians of the southeastern United States.
Bull. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 137: xiii + 943. 107 pls.
–Again quotes Velasco to the effect that the southeast Florida Indians killed manatees by driving stakes into their nostrils (329); suggests there was confusion with manatees in accounts describing similar methods of hunting cetaceans (297-298, 329). Swanton interprets the "two large bones" from the manatee's head that were placed in graves as "tusks" (250, 282); doubtless they were really the periotic bones.
 
 
Swayne, S. H. (detail)
   
1872
Travaux récents sur les sirénides vivants et fossiles (analyse des publications de MM. Van Beneden, E. Lartet, Delfortrie, Capellini etc.).
Jour. Zool. 1: 332-353. 4 figs. 2 pls.
–Same as P. Gervais, 1872a; correct authorship to be determined.
 
 
Sweat, J. M.; Johnson, C. M.; Marikar, Y.; Gibbs, E. P. (detail)
   
2005
Characterization of surface interleukin-2 receptor expression on gated populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Veter. Immunol. Immunopathol. 108(3-4): 269-283.
Sweat, James M.: SEE ALSO Wright et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Sweat, James M.; Dunigan, D. D.; Wright, Scott D. (detail)
   
2001
Characterization of kidney epithelial cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 37(6): 386-394.
Sweat, Mark: SEE Bossart et al., 2002. (detail)
Sweeney, J. C.: SEE Geraci & Sweeney, 1978. (detail)
 
 
Sweeney, James B. (detail)
   
1972
A pictorial history of sea monsters and other dangerous marine life.
New York, Crown Publs., Inc.: 1-314.
 
 
Swinburne, Stephen R. (detail)
   
2010
Saving manatees.
Honesdale (Pennsylvania), Boyds Mills Press: 1-40. Illus.
–Children's book.
 
 
Swinton, G. (detail)
   
1831
Letters accompanying a dugong (Halicore dugong, Ill.), presented by G. Swinton.
Proc. Comm. Sci. & Corres., Zool. Soc. London 1(10): 113. Oct. 25, 1831.
Switzer, Robert C.: SEE Johnson et al., 1994; Reep et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Syafutra, R.: Adi, W.: Iqbal, M.: Yustian, I. (detail)
   
2018
Short communication: Dugong dugon Müller, 1776 (Sirenia, Dugongidae) in Bangka Island, Indonesia.
Biodiversitas 19(3): 773-780. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d190310
 
 
Syllacio, Nicolò (detail)
   
1494?
Ad sapientissimum Ludovicum Mariam Sforzam ....
Pavia: 1-20.
–Facsimile: Florence, 1900. Engl. transl.: S. E. Morison (1963: 229-245; q.v.). A letter to the Duke of Milan, dated Dec. 13, 1494, and publ. in 1494 or 1495, which gives a partial account of Christopher Columbus's second voyage to the New World. Only four copies exist. According to Morison, this is "the earliest imprint on the New World after Columbus's own Letter." This is also the earliest reference cited in this bibliography.
 
 
Sylvestre, Jean-Pierre (detail)
   
1983
La fascinante histoire de la rhytine de Steller.
Amazone [?] No. 2: 4-8. 4 figs. Jan. 1983.
x
 
Sylvestre, Jean-Pierre; Barloy, Jean-Jacques (detail)
   
1982
Le glouton d'Amérique.
Oceans No. 112: 62-63. 1 fig. Sept. 1982.
–Gen. acc. of the distribution, economic use, and biology of T. m. manatus.
 
 
Symeonidis, N.; Schultz, Ortwin (detail)
   
1973
Bemerkungen zur neogenen Fischfauna Kretas und Beschreibung zweier Fundstellen mit miozänen Mollusken, Echiniiden, etc., Insel Kreta, Griechenland.
Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 141-147. Dec. 1973.
 
 
Sysoeva, O. V. (detail)
   
2001
Mirovaya sensaciya.
Zapiski Grodekovskogo Museya (Khabarovsk Museum of Local Lore) 2: 221-229.
Szabo, B. J.: SEE ALSO Gard & Szabo, 1971. (detail)
x
 
Szabo, B. J.; Gard, L. M., Jr. (detail)
   
1975
Age of the South Bight II marine transgression at Amchitka Island, Aleutians.
Geology 3(8): 457-459. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Aug. 1975.
–Uranium-series dates on the Hydrodamalis gigas-bearing deposit gave an average age of 127,000 ± 8,000 years.
Szelistowski, William A.: SEE Reynolds et al., 1995; Wright et al., 2002. (detail)
Szmant, Alina: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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