Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


Home   —   Introduction   —   Appendices   —   Search   —   [ Browse Bibliography ]   —   Browse Index   —   Stats
ANONYMOUS  -  A  -  B  -  C  -  D  -  E  -  F  -  G  -  H  -  I  -  J  -  K  -  L  -  M  -  N  -  O  -  P  -  Q  -  R  -  S  -  [ T ]  -  U  -  V  -  W  -  X  -  Y  -  Z
 

T

 
D
Tabuce, Rodolphe; Asher, Robert J.; Lehmann, Thomas (detail)
   
2008
Afrotherian mammals: a review of current data.
Mammalia 72: 2-14. 6 figs. DOI 10.1515/MAMM.2008.004 Mar. 25, 2008 (Publ. online Mar. 7, 2008).
–Briefly outlines the family-level taxonomy and fossil record of sirenians; desmostylians are mentioned in passing.
 
 
Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Hartenberger, Jean-Louis; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques (detail)
   
2007
Early Tertiary mammals from North Africa reinforce the molecular Afrotheria clade.
Proc. Royal Soc. B 274: 1159-1166. 5 figs. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.0229 Feb. 28, 2007.
–ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic pattern and timing of the radiation of mammals, especially the geographical origins of major crown clades, are areas of controversy among molecular biologists, morphologists and palaeontologists. Molecular phylogeneticists have identified an Afrotheria clade, which includes several taxa as different as tenrecs (Tenrecidae), golden moles (Chrysochloridae), elephant-shrews (Macroscelididae), aardvarks (Tubulidentata) and paenungulates (elephants, sea cows and hyracoids). Molecular data also suggest a Cretaceous African origin for Afrotheria within Placentalia followed by a long period of endemic evolution on the Afro-Arabian continent after the mid-Cretaceous Gondwanan breakup (approx. 105–25 Myr ago). However, there was no morphological support for such a natural grouping so far. Here, we report new dental and postcranial evidence of Eocene stem hyrax and macroscelidid from North Africa that, for the first time, provides a congruent phylogenetic view with the molecular Afrotheria clade. These new fossils imply, however, substantial changes regarding the historical biogeography of afrotheres. Their long period of isolation in Africa, as assumed by molecular inferences, is now to be reconsidered inasmuch as Eocene paenungulates and elephant-shrews are here found to be related to some Early Tertiary Euramerican 'hyopsodontid condylarths' (archaic hoofed mammals). As a result, stem members of afrotherian clades are not strictly African but also include some Early Paleogene Holarctic mammals.
x
 
Tabuchi, Kiyoshi; Muku, Tatsunori; Satomichi, Tokuko; Hara, Motonobu; Imai, Nobumi; Iwamoto, Yasunori (detail)
   
1974
A dermatosis in manatee (Trichechus manatus): mycological report of a case.
Bull. Azabu Veter. Coll. No. 28: 127-134. 1 tab. 4 figs. Read Sept. 19-20, 1970.
–Abstr.: Jap. Jour. Veter. Sci. 32: 182, 1970. Reports the isolation of Cephalosporium sp. and Mucor sp. from the skin of two female and two male manatees in a Tokyo aquarium in 1969.
 
 
Tachard, Gui (detail)
   
1686
Voyage de Siam, des Pères Jesuites, envoyez par le Roy aux Indes & à la Chine. Avec leurs observations astronomiques, et leurs remarques de physique, de géographie, d'hydrographie, & d'histoire.
Paris, A. Seneuze & D. Horthemels: 1-424. Illus.
–Various later eds. & transls. Briefly mentions a "vaca marina", possibly the dugong, but the accompanying figure (reproduced by Durand, 1983: 207-208) resembles a hippopotamus.
 
D
Tagami, Masatosi (detail)
   
1936
A new locality of Desmostylus.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 43(508): 47-48. 2 figs. Jan. 20, 1936.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Tager, J. (detail)
   
1999
Going going dugong.
Earth Island Journal
Tagle, D. A.: SEE Czelusniak et al., 1990. (detail)
 
D
Taguchi, Eiji (detail)
   
1984
Paleoenvironmental conditions at the locality of Paleoparadoxia and in its environs in Tsuyama City, Okayama Prefecture.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 81-89. 1 tab. 3 figs. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. See also T. Kamei (1984).
Takada, Syun'ichi: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Takahashi, E. M.; Arthur, K. E.; Shaw, G. R. (detail)
   
2008
Occurrence of okadaic acid in the feeding grounds of dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Moreton Bay, Australia.
Harmful Algae 7(4): 430-437.
Takahashi, Keiichi: SEE Horikawa et al., 1987; Kobayashi et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Takahashi, Shizuo (detail)
   
1981
[Excavation of fossil sea cow.]
Yamagata Applied Geol. Assoc. Publ. No. 1: 1-5. 7 figs. Mar. 1981.
–In Japanese.
x
 
Takahashi, Shizuo; Domning, Daryl Paul; Saito, Tsunemasa (detail)
   
1979
[On the discovery of a fossil sea cow from Ohe town, Yamagata Prefecture.] [Abstr.]
Abstrs. 86th Ann. Meeting, Geol. Soc. Japan (Akita, Japan): 228.
–In Japanese. Reports a skeleton of Dusisiren n.sp. from the Late Miocene Hashigami Sandstone Member of the Hongo Formation, Ohe, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. See also Takahashi et al. (1986).
x
D
Takahashi, Shizuo; Domning, Daryl Paul; Saito, Tsunemasa (detail)
   
1986
Dusisiren dewana, n. sp. (Mammalia: Sirenia), a new ancestor of Steller's sea cow from the Upper Miocene of Yamagata Prefecture, northeastern Japan.
Trans. Proc. Pal. Soc. Japan (n.s.) No. 141: 296-321. 12 tabs. 15 figs. Pls. 53-62. https://doi.org/10.14825/prpsj1951.1986.141296 Apr. 30, 1986.
–Japanese summ. Abstrs.: Takahashi et al. (1979); East Asian Tertiary/Quaternary Newsletter No. 9: 44, 1989. Describes the skull and skeleton of Dusisiren dewana and compares it with D. jordani, Hydrodamalis cuestae, and H. gigas. It is considered phyletically intermediate between the former two and is 9.0-10.4 Ma old. (See Takahashi et al., 1983 for more details on the discovery of this specimen, the geology of the locality, and associated fossils.) Also summarizes other fossil sir. occurrences in Japan, and suggests that the tooth of "Dugong" reported by Inuzuka et al. (1980) may instead represent Paleoparadoxia (317).
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC2490D9-F183-467D-86E8-E68D4176B45F
x
 
Takahashi, Shizuo; Tamiya, Ryoichi; Uyeno, Teruya; Ogasawara, Kenshiro; Akiba, Fumio; Saito, Tsunemasa (detail)
   
1983
[Report on the excavation of the great Yamagata sea cow.]
Yamagata Pref. Mus. Spec. Publ. (Yamagata, Japan): 1-76. 6 tabs. 22 figs. 16 pls. Mar. 31, 1983.
–In Japanese. Describes the history of discovery of the specimen (subsequently named Dusisiren dewana), with photos of the major skeletal elements (Takahashi, 2-39); the geology of the locality (Tamiya, 41-54); fossil sharks (Uyeno, 55-59); molluscs (Ogasawara, 61-63); diatoms (Akiba, 65-69); and sedimentary structures (Saito, 71-75).
Takahashi, T.: SEE Onodera et al., 1967. (detail)
Takahashi, Yoshinori: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
Takai, Fuyuji: SEE ALSO Desmostylus Research Committee; Hanzawa et al., 1961; Yabe et al., 1952. (detail)
 
D
Takai, Fuyuji (detail)
   
1938
Cainozoic mammals in Japan (preliminary notes).
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 45(541): 745-763.
 
D
Takai, Fuyuji (detail)
   
1939a
The mammalian faunas of the Hiramakian and Togarian stages in the Japanese Miocene. In: Jubilee publication commemorating Prof. H. Yabe, M.I.A. sixtieth birthday.
Sendai (Japan), Tohoku Imper. Univ., Inst. Geol. Pal.: Vol. 1: 189-203. 1 fig.
 
D
Takai, Fuyuji (detail)
   
1939b
On some Cenozoic mammals from Japan, Part I.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 46: 481-489.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Abstrs.: Jap. Jour. Geol. Geogr. 17: 45-46; Pal. Zentralbl. 16: 36-37.
 
D
Takai, Fuyuji (detail)
   
1944
Desmostylus from phosphorus ore bed in Noto Peninsula.
Misc. Rept. Res. Inst. Nat. Resources (Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo Iho) 5: 59-62. 1 fig. Pl. 5.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Takai, Fuyuji; Shikama, Tokio; Ijiri, Shoji (detail)
   
1952
Re-excavation of Desmostylus and its horizon in Doki district, Gihu Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 58(679): 144.
–In Japanese. Engl. transl. done by Engineer Intelligence Division, Office of the Engineer, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces Far East, Tokyo, 1954; available from Military Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey?
 
D
Takaizumi, Y.; Sato, M. (detail)
   
2000
On a Paleoparadoxia newly found from the Moniwa Formation.
Michinokuensis 28: 17-31.
Takaizumi, Yukihiro: SEE Kohno & Takaizumi, 1992. (detail)
Takaku, Kouichi: SEE Kimura & Takaku, 1979. (detail)
 
 
Takamura, Naoto; Sakai, Rieko (detail)
   
1994
[Stars of the Toba Aquarium: dugong.]
Toba Super Aquarium (Toba, Japan) No. 12: 10-13. 15 figs. Winter 1994.
–In Japanese. Pop. acc. of dugongs in captivity.
 
D
Takashi, Yoichi (detail)
   
1971
[Phantom monsters - the story of the discovery of Desmostylus.]
Tokyo, Kaiseisya Publ. Co. (World Nonfiction for Boys & Girls No. 27): [6] + 221 + 3. Illus.
–In Japanese.
Takayanagi, Yokichi: SEE Ikebe et al., 1972. (detail)
Takayasu, Katsumi: SEE ALSO Inuzuka et al., 1985; Okubo et al., 1980. (detail)
 
D
Takayasu, Katsumi; Nakamura, Takeshi (detail)
   
1984
Desmostylia bearing beds in the southern border of Lake Shinji, West Japan, and their paleoenvironments from the viewpoint of molluscan fossils.
Monogr. Assoc. Geol. Collab. in Japan 28: 91-99. 1 tab. 2 figs. May 1984.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. See also T. Kamei (1984).
Takemura, Akira: SEE Sonoda & Takemura, 1973. (detail)
Taketani, Yojiro: SEE Hasegawa et al., 1995. (detail)
 
D
Taketani, Yojiro (detail)
   
2000
[The marine mammal Paleoparadoxia.]
Aizuwakamatsu, Japan, Fukushima Prefectural Museum: 1-64. Illus.
–In Japanese. Lavishly illustrated with color photos of specimens and fossil localities.
 
 
Takeuchi, Noel; Walsh, Michael T.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C., III; Barber, David S. (detail)
   
2016
Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize.
Aquatic Mammals 42(4): 440-453. 5 tabs. doi:10.1578/AM.42.4.2016.440. Dec. 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.
 
D
Takeyama, Kenichi; Azuma, Yoichi (detail)
   
1987
[Marine mammal fossils from Fukui Prefecture, Miocene.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 21-24. 2 tabs. 1 fig. 1 pl. March 1987.
–In Japanese.
 
D
Takeyama, Kenichi; Azuma, Yoichi (detail)
   
1988
[Present status of marine mammal fossils from Fukui Prefecture.] In: Y. Hasegawa (ed.), [Study on fossil marine mammals from Japan. (Subject of study) Studies on biostratigraphy and paleontology of Cenozoic marine mammals.]
Japan, Ministry of Education, Aid for Scientific Study, Synthetic Study A, Subject No. 61304010: 29-34. 1 tab. 3 figs. March 1988.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Takikawa Sea Cow Geological Investigation Group (detail)
   
1984
[Written report on an investigative study of the Takikawa sea cow.]
Takikawa City (Japan), Municipal Board of Education: [8] + 206. Illus. Mar. 1984?
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Describes the discovery and study of the specimen (subsequently named Hydrodamalis spissa Furusawa, 1988).
 
 
Takoukam, A. K.; Gomes, D. G. E.; Hoyer, M. V.; Keith-Diagne, Lucy W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Francis-Floyd, R. (detail)
   
2021
African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) habitat suitability at Lake Ossa, Cameroon using trophic state models and predictions of submerged aquatic vegetation.
Ecology and Evolution 11(19): 13068-13080.
Talukdar, S.: SEE Ramakrishna et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Tamayo, F. (detail)
   
1961
Mamíferos de los Llanos de Venezuela.
El Farol 23(196): 12-19.
Tamiya, Ryoichi: SEE Takahashi et al., 1983. (detail)
x
 
Tan, Bangjie (detail)
   
1996
Into the wild: the rare and endangered species of China.
Beijing, New World Press: 1-107. Illus.
–Gen. acc. of the dugong and its occurrence in China (82, 85-86). Alludes briefly to hunting of dugongs in Beihai City for meat, fat, oil, and hide "before the 1970s", and to the brief survival of "a few" dugongs in captivity in the Shanghai Zoo.
Tan, K.: SEE ALSO Kutsuzawa & Tan, 1954. (detail)
 
D
Tan, K.; Shikama, Tokio (detail)
   
1965
On Desmostylus teeth from Tashiro, Akita Prefecture.
Sci. Rept. Yokohama Natl. Univ. (2)12: 49-55. 2 pls.
 
 
Tan, Ria; Sheng, Loh Kok; Yaakub, Siti Maryam; Ling, Lim Wei (detail)
   
2012
Secret sirens.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 12-15. 6 figs. June 2012.
–Dugong use of seagrass beds in Singapore.
Tanabe, S.: SEE Kubota et al., 2001. (detail)
Tanaka, Hiroyuki: SEE Hasegawa & Tanaka, 1987. (detail)
 
D
Tanaka, K.; Seki, M. (detail)
   
1962
A Desmostylus-like marine mammal found from Toyoshina-cho.
Shinano Kyoiku No. 912: 55-65. 5 tabs. 7 figs.
 
 
Tanaka, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Nishizawa, H.; Kittiwattanawong, K.; Arai, N.; Mitamura, H. (detail)
   
2017
Differences in vocalisation patterns of dugongs between fine-scale habitats around Talibong Island, Thailand.
Acoustics Australia 45(2): 243-251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40857-017-0094-7
 
 
Tanaka, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Kittiwattanawong, K.; Arai, N.; Mitamura, H. (detail)
   
2021
Automated classification of dugong calls and tonal noise by combining contour and MFCC features.
Acoustics Australia 49: 385-394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40857-021-00234-5
Tanaka, Nobuyuki: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
Tanaka, Ryô: SEE Aoki et al., 1938. (detail)
 
 
Tangley, Laura (detail)
   
1979
Manatees on the brink: motorboats wound, powerplants warm Florida's seacows.
Defenders Mag. 54(6): 348-353. 13 figs. Dec. 1979.
Taniguchi, S.: SEE Suzuki et al., 1986. (detail)
Tanito, Shigeru: SEE Inuzuka et al., 1985. (detail)
Tanitsu, Ryotaro: SEE Yamaguchi et al., 1981. (detail)
 
 
Tappe, David T. (detail)
   
1704
Funffzehen jährige curiose und denckwürdige auch sehr gefährliche ost-indianische Reise-Beschreibung, so sich im Jahr Christi 1667 angefangen und durch göttlichen Beystand im 1682ten Jahre geendet hat auf vielfältiges Verlangen guter Freunde zum Druck übergeben.
Hanover & Wolffenbüttel, Gottfr. Freytag: 1-220 [i.e., 320].
–Allen 155. Seekühen, etc., 199-209.
 
 
Tarpley, R. J. (detail)
   
1987
Whales and dolphins in veterinary medicine.
Southwest Veter. 38(2): 59-84. Illus.
 
 
Taru, H.; Matsushima, Y. (detail)
   
1999
A sirenian fossil from the Nojima Formation in Kanagawa Prefecture.
Natural Data of Kanagawa Pref. 20: 7-17.
Taru, Hajime: SEE Hasegawa et al., 1995. (detail)
 
D
Taru, Hajime (detail)
   
2000
Inference of foraging and mastication from cranial morphology of Paleoparadoxia tabatai. In: Inuzuka et al. (eds.), Evolution of Desmostylia ... (q.v.).
Bull. Ashoro Mus. Pal. No. 1: 125-135. 1 tab. 17 figs. Mar. 29, 2000.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
Tas'an: SEE ALSO Hendrokusumo et al., 1981; Rathbun, Reid & Tas'an, 1987. (detail)
x
 
Tas'an (detail)
   
1976
Report on catching and life in captivity of Dugong dugon, Jaya Ancol Oceanarium.
Jakarta, Jaya Ancol Oceanarium: 1-12. 3 tabs. 2 figs. 2 tipped-in photos.
–Report presented at meeting of Northwestern Chapter, Amer. Assoc. Zool. Parks & Aquaria (IAAAM), Seattle, Washington, 1976. Describes the capture of 7 dugongs in South Sulawesi, their transport to Jakarta, and their brief survival in captivity.
x
 
Tas'an; Sumitro; Hendrokusumo, Sukiman (detail)
   
1979
Some biological notes of two male dugongs in captivity at the Jaya Ancol Oceanarium, Jakarta.
Jakarta, Gelanggang Samudra Jaya Ancol (Oceanarium): 1-30. 11 tabs. Frontisp. 11 figs.
–Describes the capture and transport of several Indonesian dugongs; their captive maintenance, growth, morphometrics, and observations of rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate; and necropsy data on an adult female and her aborted male fetus.
Tassy, Pascal: SEE ALSO Barriel & Tassy, 1991; Barriel et al., 1993; Fischer & Tassy, 1993. (detail)
x
 
Tassy, Pascal (detail)
   
1979
Relations phylogénétiques du genre Moeritherium Andrews, 1901 (Mammalia).
C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D, 289(2): 85-88. 1 fig. July 9, 1979.
–Engl. summ. Concludes that Moeritherium is closer to the Elephantoidea than to the Sirenia, based on cranial characters; it is therefore considered a proboscidean.
 
 
Tassy, Pascal (detail)
   
1981
Le crâne de Moeritherium (Proboscidea, Mammalia) de l'Éocène de Dor el Talha (Libye) et le problème de la classification phylogénétique du genre dans les Tethytheria McKenna, 1975.
Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (4)3, Sect. C, No. 1: 87-147. 15 figs. 6 pls.
 
 
Tassy, Pascal; Shoshani, Jeheskel (detail)
   
1988
The Tethytheria: elephants and their relatives. In: M. J. Benton (ed.), The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods. Vol. 2: Mammals.
Systematics Assoc. Spec. Vol. 35B: 283-315. 11 figs.
Tate, G. H. H.: SEE ALSO Carter et al., 1945. (detail)
x
 
Tate, G. H. H. (detail)
   
1931
Random observations on habits of South American mammals.
Jour. Mamm. 12(3): 248-256. Aug. 1931.
–P. 253: {"Trichechus and Inia. - To catch manatees or porpoises, which normally sink when they are killed, men working in pairs cautiously approach the animal in separate canoes. Simultaneously one of them shoots it through the head and the other throws his harpoon into its body. In this way they kill the animal and prevent the body from sinking."} The species of Trichechus and the region of South America to which these observations pertain are not stated.
 
 
Tate, G. H. H. (detail)
   
1947
Mammals of eastern Asia.
New York, Macmillan Co.: 1-366.
–Dugong, 308-309.
 
 
Tate, Suzanne (detail)
   
1990
Mary Manatee: a tale of sea cows.
Nags Head (North Carolina), Nags Head Art (Suzanne Tate's Tell-Tale Nature Series, No. 7): 1-28. Illus.
–Book for young children.
Tateishi, Shinkichi: SEE Aoki et al., 1938. (detail)
Taya, Kazuyoshi: SEE Wakai et al., 2002. (detail)
x
 
Taylor, David (detail)
   
1978
Is there a doctor in the zoo?
New York, Bantam Books: 1-213.
–First ed.: Doctor in the zoo: the making of a zoo vet. London & Boston, Allen & Unwin: 1-250, illus., 1978. First Amer. ed.: title given above; Philadelphia, Lippincott: 1-250, illus., 1978. Account of a dugong held in captivity in Sumatra to produce "tears" for aphrodisiac purposes (205-213).
 
 
Taylor, David C. (detail)
   
1985
Mermaids of Arabia.
Sunrise (Kuwait Airways), July 1985: 12-15. 3 figs.
–Arabic transl.: Sunrise, Aug. 1985: 14-17. 4 figs. Pop. acc. of dugongs.
 
 
Taylor, Douglas M. (detail)
   
1951
The Black Caribs of British Honduras.
Viking Fund Publ. in Anthrop. 17.
–Harpooning manatees.
Taylor, E. H.: SEE ALSO Dickerson et al., 1928. (detail)
 
 
Taylor, E. H. (detail)
   
1934
Philippine land mammals.
Manila, Bureau of Printing: 1-65?
x
 
Taylor, Geoff (detail)
   
2001
The dugong enigma.
Nature Australia 27(2): 34-41. 9 figs. + photo on contents page. Spring 2001.
–Pop. acc. of Australian dugongs, with anecdotes of dugong encounters on the west coast of Australia, including a description of an attack by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) on a sick female dugong in Shark Bay.
 
 
Taylor, Helen A. (detail)
   
2012
The Dugong Sanctuary.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 45: 20-24. 9 figs. June 2012.
–Status of the Dugong Sanctuary (overlapping with the Torres Strait Protected Zone, Papua New Guinea & Australia).
 
 
Taylor, J. M. (detail)
   
1984
The Oxford guide to mammals of Australia.
Melbourne, Oxford, Auckland, & New York, Oxford Univ. Press: xii + 148. Illus.
x
 
Taylor, Michael A. (detail)
   
1994
Stone, bone or blubber? Buoyancy control strategies in aquatic tetrapods. In: L. Maddock, Q. Bone, & J. M. V. Rayner (eds.), Mechanics and physiology of animal swimming.
Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press (260 pp.): 151-161. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Suggests that sirs. are convergent on sea otters and placodonts in that they show increases in body density and submerged lung volume as adaptations for bottom-feeding in shallow water (160).
 
 
Tegetmaier, W. B. (detail)
   
1878
Short notice on Manatus.
Field, July 6, 1878.
 
 
Teixeira, Dante Martins; Papavero, Nelson (detail)
   
2006
Os animais do descobrimento: a fauna brasileira mencionada nos documentos relativos à viagem de Pedro Álvares Cabral (1500-1501).
Publ. Avulsas Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro) No. 111: 3-133. Illus. July 2006.
–Engl. summ. West Indian manatees in Bahia, Brazil, 44-47, figs. 9-10.
Teixeira, M. F. S.: SEE Vergara-Parente et al., 2003a, b. (detail)
x
 
Tekkaya, Ibrahim (detail)
   
1973
Preliminary note on the vertebrate fauna of Bayraktepe, southeast of Çanakkale (Dardanelles).
Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. (Mineral Research & Exploration Institute of Turkey), Bulletin, Foreign Ed. 81: 118-122. 1 fig. 2 pls. Oct. 1973.
–P. 118: {"Halitherium (Metaxytherium) sp."} included in list of "Upper Miocene or the beginning of the Lower Pliocene" fauna.
x
 
Telander, Rick (detail)
   
1980
Mermaid in a man's world.
Natl. Wildlife 18(1): 28-35. 5 figs.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees, with underwater photos.
 
 
Teleki, G.; Baldwin, L. (detail)
   
1981
Sierra Leone's wildlife legacy: options for survival.
Zoonooz 54(10): 21-27.
x
 
Telles-Antunes, Miguel Carlos F. (detail)
   
1959
Nota sobre um mamífero do Aquitaniano de Campo de Ourique (Lisboa).
Bol. Soc. Portug. Ciênc. Nat. 22(= (2)7)(3): 129-137. 5 pls.
–Engl. summ. Describes and illustrates a thoracic vertebra of "Halitherium sp." from the Early Miocene of Portugal, and discusses its stratigraphic context.
 
 
Telles-Antunes, Miguel Carlos F. (detail)
   
1979
Vertebrados miocénicos de Olhos de Água (Algarve), interesse estratigráfico.
Bol. Mus. Lab. Min. Geol., Fac. Ciênc. Univ. Lisboa 16(1): 343-352.
–Engl. & French summs. Reports an occurrence of Metaxytherium medium.
 
 
Telles-Antunes, Miguel Carlos F. (detail)
   
1984
Essai de synthèse sur les mammifères du Miocène du Portugal. In: Volume d'hommage au géologue Georges Zbyszewski à l'occasion de son passage à retraite (22 Octobre 1979).
Paris, Eds. Recherche sur les Civilisations: 301-323.
–Includes a brief synthesis of the sir. fossil record in Portugal.
 
 
Tembrock, G. (detail)
   
1963
Acoustic behavior of mammals. In: R.-G. Busnel (ed.), Acoustic behavior of animals.
Amsterdam, London, & New York, Elsevier Publ. Co.: 751-786. Tabs. 12 figs.
 
 
Temminck, Coenraad Jacob (detail)
   
1827-41
Monographies de mammalogie, ou description de quelques genres de mammifères, dont les espèces ont été observées dans les différens musées de l'Europe....
Paris & Leiden (2 vols.).
 
 
Tennent, James Emerson (detail)
   
1859
Ceylon: an account of the island, physical historical and topographical, with notices of its natural history, antiquities, and productions. Vol. 1.
London, Longman, Green, Longman & Roberts: (2 vols.) Illus.
 
 
Tennent, James Emerson (detail)
   
1861
Sketches of the natural history of Ceylon; with narratives and anecdotes illustrative of the habits and instincts of the mammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, &c. including a monograph of the elephant.
London, Longman, Green, Longman, & Roberts: xxiii + 500. Illus.
–Engraving of dugongs upright in the water, nursing their young; p. 104?
x
 
Tenney, S. M. (detail)
   
1958
Correlative observations on the electrocardiogram and morphology of the heart of the Florida manatee.
Amer. Heart Jour. 56(6): 933-938. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1016/0002-8703(58)90203-5. Dec. 1958.
–Describes gross features of the heart; reports that the heart weight/body weight ratio is the smallest of any mammal, and that the ECG has no distinctive features attributable to the heart's bifid apex.
x
 
Tenney, S. M.; Remmers, J. E. (detail)
   
1963
Comparative quantitative morphology of the mammalian lung: diffusing area.
Nature (London) 197(4862): 54-56. 1 tab. 3 figs. Jan. 5, 1963.
–Graphs lung volume against body weight, alveolar surface area against oxygen consumption, and alveolar diameter against metabolic rate for "the manatee", the dugong, and other mammals.
Terasaki, Yasufumi: SEE Pirika Sirenia Research Group, 1992. (detail)
 
 
Terra, Paul de (detail)
   
1911
Vergleichende Anatomie des menschlichen Gebisses und der Zähne der Vertebraten.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: xiii + 451. 200 figs.
–Sirs., 339.
 
 
Tertre, Jean Baptiste du (detail)
   
1667
Histoire generale des Antilles habitées par les François. Tome ii. Contenant l histoire natverelle, enrichy de cartes & de figures.
Paris, Thomas Iolly (3 vols., 1667-1671). Illus.
–Allen 94. Manatee, 2: 199-209, pl. facing p. 195. Allen says "The account of the Manatee is more detailed [than that of the cetaceans], treating of its external characters, habits, products, and capture. The figure is like Laet's, which is a copy from that of Clusius." Du Tertre's version of the fig. is reproduced by Durand (1983: 167).
Terwilliger, Karen: SEE Bruenderman & Terwilliger, 1994. (detail)
 
 
Teunissen, Sebastian; Altman, Jennifer (detail)
   
1986
Seductive siren or simple seacow - the manatee.
Underwater [Geographic] No. 16: 9-11. 7 figs. Autumn 1986.
Tewari, B. S.: SEE ALSO Savage & Tewari, 1977. (detail)
x
 
Tewari, B. S.; Savage, Robert Joseph Gay; Singh, Gurcharan (detail)
   
1977
On a fossil sea-cow from the Gaj Formation of Kutch, India.
Publ. Cent. Adv. Stud. Geol. Panjab Univ. No. 11: 45A-49A. 1 tab. 2 figs. 1 pl. 1 map.
–Abstr.: Himal. Geol. Sem., Panjab Univ., Chandigarh, Abstr. No. 18: 14-15, 1974. A revised and expanded version of Savage & Tewari (1977), this paper describes the same specimen of "Metaxytherium sp.", with identical descriptive text but with more detailed discussion of the locality, associated fauna, and age (here revised from Early Miocene to Late Oligocene) and with additional illustrations (photographs of upper molars and lumbar vertebra; geological map). The table of fossil sirenian records from the Indian Ocean is also revised to include those published by Sahni & Mishra (1975).
 
 
Thayer, Gordon W.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Ogden, John C.; Williams, Susan L.; Zieman, Joseph C. (detail)
   
1984
Role of larger herbivores in seagrass communities.
Estuaries 7(4A): 351-376. 6 tabs. 1 fig. Dec. 1984.
 
 
Themido, A. A. (detail)
   
1938?
Catalogue des ongulés et siréniens existants dans les collections du Muséum Zoologique de Coimbra.
Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1)49: 1-22.
x
 
Thenius, Erich (detail)
   
1949
Die tortone Säugetierfauna von Neudorf an der March (ČSR) und ihre Bedeutung für die Helvet-Torton-Grenze.
Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-natw. Kl. 86(7): 160-171. 1 tab. Read Apr. 28, 1949.
–Abstr.: Zentralbl. Geol. Pal. 1951(2): 143-144, 1951. Includes Thalattosiren petersi in list of the Miocene Neudorf fauna from Czechoslovakia, and briefly discusses the curious, apparently sandblasted erosion of the sir. bones (162-163).
x
 
Thenius, Erich (detail)
   
1952
Die Säugetierfauna aus dem Torton von Neudorf an der March (ČSR).
Neues Jahrb. Geol. Pal., Abh. 96(1): 27-136. 70 figs. Dec. 1952.
–Attributes the attrition and "sharpening" of some fossil sir. bones to subaerial sandblasting (33-36). Considers Halianassa a junior synonym of Halitherium; refers Halianassa studeri to Thalattosiren; describes a ?windworn humerus and scapula of T. petersi from Neudorf and discusses its diagnostic characters and relationships; and regards Haplosiren Kretzoi as a nomen nudum (109-113).
 
 
Thenius, Erich (detail)
   
1961
Die Meeressäugetiere von einst und jetzt.
Universum: Natur & Tech. 16: 669-675. 2 figs.
 
 
Thenius, Erich (detail)
   
1969
Sirenia. In: W. Kükenthal & T. Kaumbach (eds.), Handbuch der Zoologie. 8(2): Stammesgeschichte der Säugetiere (einschliesslich der Hominiden).
Berlin, Walter de Gruyter: 589-595.
 
 
Thenius, Erich; Hofer, Helmut (detail)
   
1960
Stammesgeschichte der Säugetiere; eine Uebersicht über Tatsachen und Probleme der Evolution der Säugetiere.
Berlin, Springer: 1-322.
–Sirs., 263-267.
 
 
Thenius, Erich; Rathbun, Galen B.; Kurt, Fred; Grzimek, Bernhard (detail)
   
1987
Seekühe. In: B. Grzimek (ed.), Grzimeks Enzyklopädie: Säugetiere. Vol. 4.
Munich, Kindler Verlag: 522-535. Illus.
–Includes sections on sir. evolutionary history (Thenius), manatees (Rathbun), dugongs (Kurt), and Steller's sea cow (Grzimek & Kurt).
Théobold, N.: SEE Gillet & Théobold, 1936. (detail)
 
 
Theodorou, R. (detail)
   
2001
Florida manatee (Animals in Danger).
Chicago, Heinemann Library: 1-32.
 
 
Thesiger, W. (detail)
   
1959
Arabian sands.
Middlesex, Penguin Books: 1-347.
 
 
Thevet, André (detail)
   
1558
Les singvlaritez de la France antarctiqve, avtrement nommée Amerique, & de plusieurs terres & isles decouuertes de nostre temps.
Antwerp, Christophle Plantin: 163 + 1. Illus.
–Allen 16. First ed.: Paris, heirs of Maurice de la Porte: 7 + 166 + 2 leaves, 1557 (often dated 1558, but these were remainders with a new title-page, fide Whitehead, 1977). The illustrations in the present ed. are said by Whitehead to be reduced, reversed, and inferior. Manatee, 138.
 
 
Thevet, André (detail)
   
1575
La cosmographie universelle.... Illustree de diverses figures des choses plus remarquables vevës par l'auteur, & incogneuës de noz anciens & modernes.
Paris, Guillaume Chaudiere (2 vols.): Vol. 1: leaves 1-467; Vol. 2: leaves 469-1025.
–Some copies, apparently identical, publ. by Pierre l'Huillier. Manatee, 2: 960 verso, 980 recto.
Thewissen, Johannes G. M.: SEE ALSO Savage et al., 1994. (detail)
x
 
Thewissen, Johannes G. M. (detail)
   
1985
Cephalic evidence for the affinities of Tubulidentata.
Mammalia 49(2): 257-284. 1 tab. 5 figs.
–Considers the evidence weak for ungulate relationships of tubulidentates; compares their brain and skull morphology and cranial foramina with, among others, Eocene sirs. (265, 268-269, 271-274, 279).
 
 
Thewissen, Johannes G. M. (detail)
   
1993
Eocene marine mammals from the Himalayan foothills.
Research & Exploration (National Geographic Society) 9(1): 125-127. Figs. 9-12. Winter 1993.
–Reports a sir. rib and skull fragments of a supposed sir. from the Early to Middle Eocene Kuldana Formation of Pakistan. The skull was later determined not to be sirenian.
x
D
Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1992
The role of phenacodontids in the origin of the modern orders of ungulate mammals.
Jour. Vert. Pal. 12(4): 494-504. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Dec. 15, 1992.
–Concludes that the mirorder Pantomesaxonia (including Sirenia, Desmostylia, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, and Perissodactyla) and the order Phenacodonta are sister groups together making up the superorder Paenungulata, but the relationships within the Pantomesaxonia remain unresolved.
 
 
Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Bajpai, Sunil (detail)
   
2009
A new Miocene sirenian from Kutch, India.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54(1): 7-13. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Mar. 2009.
–Describes Domningia sodhae, n.gen. n.sp.
  urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7E63EF87-F843-42DB-B113-892B6664C2C2
x
 
Thiel, Richard (detail)
   
1982
Manatees: gentle giants of the sea.
3-2-1 Contact (New York, Children's Television Workshop) No. 27: 4-7. Cover photo + 8 figs. June 1982.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and Steller's sea cow.
 
 
Thiemmedh, Jinda (detail)
   
1961
Notes on the sea cow (Halicore dugong Erxleben) in the Gulf of Thailand.
Thai Fish. Gaz. 14(3): 213-222.
–In Thai; Engl. summ.
 
 
Thiemmedh, Jinda (detail)
   
1968
Dugong mermaid, dolphin and fin whale.
Kasetsart Univ., College of Fisheries, Fisheries Popular Bull. No. 2: 1-21. 2 figs. 1 pl. Aug. 2, 1968.
–In Thai; Engl. summ.
Thoen, Charles O.: SEE Boever et al., 1976. (detail)
 
 
Thoisy, Benoît de; Spiegelberger, T.; Rosseau, S.; Talvy, G.; Vogel, I.; Vié, J. (detail)
   
2003
Distribution, habitat, and conservation status of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in French Guiana.
Oryx 37(4): 1-6.
Thomas, Annette: SEE Elliott et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Thomas, Davidson (detail)
   
1966
Natural history of dugong in Rameswaram waters.
Madras Jour. Fish. 2: 80-82. 1 fig. July 1966.
–Detailed account of dugong netting, with data on catch, seasonal occurrence, movements, miscellaneous behavior, economic and medicinal uses, and the capture and transport of two dugongs for display in Madras in 1961-62. Thomas' claim of large extant herds of dugongs was thought by S. Jones (1981: 46) to have been mistakenly based on Neophocaena.
Thomas, Herbert: SEE ALSO Domning & Thomas, 1987. (detail)
 
 
Thomas, Herbert; Şen, Şevket; Khan, Majeed; Battail, Bernard; Ligabue, Giancarlo (detail)
   
1982
The Lower Miocene fauna of Al-Sarrar (Eastern province, Saudi Arabia).
Atlal 5(3): 109-136. 2 tabs. Pls. 115-116.
–Arabic summ., 101-106. Two short paragraphs signed by H. Thomas discuss occurrences of ribs and a mandible fragment of indeterminate late Early Miocene sirs. in the Al-Sarrar area (120).
 
D
Thomas, Howell W.; Barnes, Lawrence G. (detail)
   
2015
The bone joint pathology osteochondrosis in extant and fossil marine mammals.
Contributions in Science (Museum of Nat. Hist. of Los Angeles County, Calif.) No. 523: 1-35. 22 figs. Aug. 21, 2015.
–Describes osteochondrosis on distal end of ulna of Neoparadoxia cecilialina (28-31).
 
 
Thomas, Lars (detail)
   
2009
Fabeldyr - en naturlig forklaring.
Natur og Museum (Naturhistorisk Museum, Århus) 48(1): 3-35. Illus. Mar. 2009.
–Sirs. and mermaid legends (30-31).
Thomas, Oldfield: SEE ALSO Yerbury & Thomas, 1895. (detail)
x
 
Thomas, Oldfield (detail)
   
1904
On a collection of mammals made by Mr. J. T. Tunney in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory of South Australia.
Novitates Zoologicae 11(1): 222-229. Mar. 1904.
–Describes the dentition and horizontal tooth replacement of the rock wallaby Peradorcas concinna in comparison with that of Trichechus (226-227).
x
 
Thomas, Oldfield (detail)
   
1911
The mammals of the tenth edition of Linnaeus; an attempt to fix the types of the genera and the exact bases and localities of the species.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1911(1): 120-158. Mar. 22, 1911 (read Dec. 13, 1910).
–The type locality of Trichechus manatus is fixed as the West Indies (131-132).
 
 
Thomas, Oldfield; Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1897
On the number of grinding-teeth possessed by the manatee.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1897(3): 595-600. Pl. 36. Oct. 1897 (read May 18, 1897).
–See also Thomas & Lydekker (1898). Coins the new combination Trichechus inunguis (596).
x
 
Thomas, Oldfield; Lydekker, Richard (detail)
   
1898
[Dentition of the manatee.]
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1897(4): 814. Apr. 1898 (read Nov. 16, 1897).
–Addendum to Thomas & Lydekker (1897), calling attention to the independent confirmation of their conclusions by Hartlaub (1886).
 
 
Thomas, Oldfield; et al. (detail)
   
1914
Nomina conservanda in Mammalia.
Zool. Anz. 44(6): 284-286.
–Same in substance as Thomas et al. (1924).
x
 
Thomas, Oldfield; et al. (detail)
   
1924
Nomina conservanda in Mammalia.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1924(2): 345-348. July 9, 1924 (read Apr. 1, 1924).
–Recommends the conservation of the names Manatus and Rhytina in preference to Trichechus and Hydrodamalis, respectively (347).
 
 
Thomas, Timothy D. (detail)
   
2001
Buddy Manatee.
Panama City (Florida), Thomas Expressions Publ. Co.: [1-45.] Illus.
–Children's book about the rescue, rehabilitation, and release of a Florida manatee calf injured by a boat.
Thompson, Barbara: SEE Moore, D.R., 1979. (detail)
Thompson, Ben H.: SEE Beard et al., 1942. (detail)
Thompson, J.: SEE Preen et al., 1992. (detail)
Thompson, N. P.: SEE Forrester et al., 1975. (detail)
Thompson, P.: SEE Goodwin & Thompson, 1991. (detail)
Thompson, Patti: SEE Delaney et al., 1986. (detail)
Thompson, R. C. Andrew: SEE Morgan et al., 2000. (detail)
Thompson, Steven I.: SEE Bradley et al., 1983. (detail)
Thomson, Denis H.: SEE Richardson et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Thomson, Donald Fergusson (detail)
   
1934
The dugong hunters of Cape York.
Jour. Roy. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain & Ireland 64: 237-263. 9 figs. Pls. 29-31. July-Dec. 1934.
–Detailed description of dugong hunting by the Aboriginal tribes of the eastern Cape York Peninsula, Australia, including their canoes, harpoons and lines, harpooning and butchering techniques, magic, and ritual; a myth of the making of the first dugong harpoon rope; and specialized vocabulary for dugongs and dugong hunting.
 
 
Thomson, Donald Fergusson (detail)
   
1956
The fishermen and dugong hunters of Princess Charlotte Bay.
Walkabout 22(11): 33-36. 3 figs. Nov. 1, 1956.
 
 
Thomson, Donald Fergusson (detail)
   
1985
Donald Thomson's mammals and fishes of northern Australia. Edited and annotated by Joan M. Dixon and Linda Huxley.
Melbourne, Thomas Nelson: xi + 210. Tabs. 24 figs. 91 pls. 60 maps.
–Dugong, 15, 17, 156-162, 191, 194, 197, 203.
 
 
Thomson, Stewart Craig (detail)
   
1940
Studies of the anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract in Mammalia.
Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 22(6)(481): 415-430. Tabs. Oct. 31, 1940.
–Manatee, 421-422, 424-425, 427-428.
 
 
Thorhaug, Anitra (detail)
   
1987
Large-scale seagrass restoration in a damaged estuary.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18(8): 442-446.
–Refers to Biscayne Bay, Florida.
 
 
Thorlacius, Örnólfur (detail)
   
1996
Fílar.
Náttúrufræðingurinn 65(3/4): 165-177. Illus.
–In Icelandic. Pop. acc. of proboscideans and their relatives. Includes a photograph of manatees, mislabeled Dugong dugon (172).
 
 
Thorne, Ebenezer (detail)
   
1876
The queen of the colonies; or Queensland as I knew it as an eight years' resident.
London, Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle and Ribington: 1-352.
–Quotes from several other pop. accs. of dugongs and their oil, especially articles in Queensland newspapers (248-266).
Thos y Codina, S.: SEE Maureta & Thos, 1881. (detail)
 
 
Thula, Taili T.; Rodriguez, Douglas E.; Lee, Myong Hwa; Pendi, Laura; Podschun, Jacob; Gower, Laurie B. (detail)
   
2011
In vitro mineralization of dense collagen substrates: A biomimetic approach toward the development of bone-graft materials.
Acta Biomaterialia 7(8): 3158-3169. 8 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2011.04.014. Aug. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Bone is an organic–inorganic composite which has hierarchical structuring that leads to high strength and toughness. The nanostructure of bone consists of nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite embedded and aligned within the interstices of collagen fibrils. This unique nanostructure leads to exceptional properties, both mechanical and biological, making it difficult to emulate bone properties without having a bone-like nanostructured material. A primary goal of our group's work is to use biomimetic processing techniques that lead to bone-like structures. In our prior studies, we demonstrated that intrafibrillar mineralization of porous collagen sponges, leading to a bone-like nanostructure, can be achieved using a polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of this polymer-directed crystallization process to mineralize dense collagen substrates. To examine collagen scaffolds that truly represent the dense-packed matrix of bone, manatee bone was demineralized to isolate its collagen matrix, consisting of a dense, lamellar osteonal microstructure. This biogenic collagen scaffold was then remineralized using polyaspartate to direct the mineralization process through an amorphous precursor pathway. The various conditions investigated included polymer molecular weight, substrate dimension and mineralization time. Mineral penetration depths of up to 100 ?ms were achieved using this PILP process, compared to no penetration with only surface precipitates observed for the conventional crystallization process. Electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were used to characterize the resulting hydroxyapatite/collagen composites. These studies demonstrate that the original interpenetrating bone nanostructure and osteonal microstructure could be recovered in a biogenic matrix using the PILP process.
Thuoc, Chu Van: SEE Smith et al., 1995, 1997. (detail)
x
 
Thurston, Edgar (detail)
   
1895
Rámésvaram Island and the fauna of the Gulf of Mannar.
Madras Govt. Mus. Bull. 1(3): 79-138.
–Dugong material repr. in Phipson (1895). Brief account of the dugong (98-99), including the native tradition that a box of money was found in a dugong's stomach.
x
 
Tiedemann, Friedrich (detail)
   
1808
Zoologie. Zu seinen Vorlesungen entworfen. Bd. 1. Allgemeine Zoologie, Mensch und Saugthiere.
Landshut (Germany), Weberschen Buchhandlung: 1-610.
–Gen. acc. of the living sirs., recognizing the following species: Dugungus indicus, n.gen.n.sp., based on "Trichechus dugong"; Manatus australis (= African and American Trichechus); and M. borealis (= Hydrodamalis gigas) (554-556).
x
 
Tiedemann, John A. (detail)
   
1983
Observations of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus, in Turkey Creek, Brevard County, Florida.
Florida Scientist 46(1): 1-8. 2 figs.
–Describes seasonal changes in manatee use of and abundance in the creek, and observations of group size, behavior, and feeding.
 
 
Tighe, Rachel L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Avery, Julie P. (detail)
   
2016
Seasonal response of ghrelin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in the free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 81(3): 247-254. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2016.02.006. May 2016 (publ. online Feb. 17, 2016).
–ABSTRACT: Seasonal changes in light, temperature, and food availability stimulate a physiological response in an animal. Seasonal adaptations are well studied in Arctic, Sub-Arctic, and hibernating mammals; however, limited studies have been conducted in sub-tropical species. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a sub-tropical marine mammal, forages less during colder temperatures and may rely on adipose stores for maintenance energy requirements. Metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and ghrelin influence growth rate, accretion of lean and adipose tissue. They have been shown to regulate seasonal changes in body composition. The objective of this research was to investigate manatee metabolic hormones in two seasons to determine if manatees exhibit seasonality and if these hormones are associated with seasonal changes in body composition. In addition, age related differences in these metabolic hormones were assessed in multiple age classes. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and ghrelin were quantified in adult manatee serum using heterologous radioimmunoassays. Samples were compared between short (winter) and long (summer) photoperiods (n = 22 male, 20 female) and by age class (adult, juvenile, and calf) in long photoperiods (n = 37). Short photoperiods tended to have reduced GH (p = 0.08), greater IGF-I (p = 0.01), and greater blubber depth (p = 0.03) compared with long photoperiods. No differences were observed in ghrelin (p = 0.66). Surprisingly, no age related differences were observed in IGF-I or ghrelin concentrations (p > 0.05). However, serum concentrations of GH tended (p = 0.07) to be greater in calves and juveniles compared with adults. Increased IGF-I, greater blubber thickness, and reduced GH during short photoperiod suggest a prioritization for adipose deposition. Whereas, increased GH, reduced blubber thickness, and decreased IGF-I in long photoperiod suggest prioritization of lean tissue accretion. Hormone profiles in conjunction with difference in body composition between photoperiods indicate seasonal adjustments in manatee nutrient partitioning priorities.
x
 
Tikel, Daniela; Blair, David; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
   
1996
Marine mammal faeces as a source of DNA.
Molec. Ecol. 5(3): 456-457. 1 fig.
–Reports a mtDNA D-loop sequence obtained from feces of a dugong from Borroloola, Australia, and compares it with sequences from a Torres Strait dugong and a Florida manatee.
Tikhomirov, E. A.: SEE Berzin et al., 1963. (detail)
Tikhonov, Alexei: SEE Greenwood et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Tilesius von Tilenau, Wilhelm Gottlieb (detail)
   
1802
Untersuchung derjenigen Thiere, welche aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach die Fabel von Sirenen oder Seemenschen veranlasst haben.
Jahrb. Naturgesch. 1: 3-26.
–Discusses Manatus australis and Rhytina borealis, 23.
 
 
Tilesius von Tilenau, Wilhelm Gottlieb (detail)
   
1813
Naturhistorische Früchte der ersten kaiserlich-russischen unter dem Kommando des Herrn v. Krusenstern glücklich vollbrachten Erdumseeglung.
St. Petersburg.
 
 
Tilesius von Tilenau, Wilhelm Gottlieb (detail)
   
1835
Die Wallfische.
Isis von Oken 1835(8): 709-752; 1835(9): 801-828.
–Allen 874. Sirs., 709-719. Allen says "Of the many pieces of bad cetological composition there are few more worthless, viewed from the stand-point of to-day, than this pretentious compilation of some fifty closely printed pages of Oken's Isis...."
x
 
Tilmant, James T.; Curry, Richard W.; Jones, Ronald; Szmant, Alina; Zieman, Joseph C.; Flora, Mark; Robblee, Michael B.; Smith, Dewitt; Snow, R.W.; Wanless, Harold (detail)
   
1994
Hurricane Andrew's effects on marine resources: the small underwater impact contrasts sharply with the destruction in mangrove and upland-forest communities.
Bioscience 44(4): 230-237. 2 figs. 2 pls. Apr. 1994.
–Aerial surveys in south Florida before and after the 24 Aug. 1992 hurricane revealed no negative impact on manatees (236).
 
 
Timbs, John (detail)
   
1869
Eccentricities of the animal creation.
London, Seeley, Jackson, & Halliday: 1-352. Illus.
–"Mermaids", including sirs., 33-48.
x
 
Timm, Robert M.; Albuja V., Luis; Clauson, Barbara L. (detail)
   
1986
Ecology, distribution, harvest, and conservation of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in Ecuador.
Biotropica 18(2): 150-156. 2 figs.
–Gives detailed manatee locality records for eastern Ecuador and northern Peru, lists food plants and other natural history anecdotes reported by hunters, describes present-day meat hunting and the Siona Indians' self-imposed ban on manatee hunting, and makes recommendations for manatee protection in the area.
x
 
Timm, Robert M.; Albuja V., Luis; Clauson, Barbara L. (detail)
   
1989
Siona hunting techniques for the larger aquatic vertebrates in Amazonian Ecuador.
Studs. Neotropical Fauna & Envir. 24(1): 1-7. 2 figs.
–Describes in detail the manatee harpoons and hunting method used by the Siona Indians, notes that they are now voluntarily refraining from killing manatees in order to conserve the reduced numbers of the latter, and suggests that manatees may help maintain the Sionas' canoe routes by controlling water hyacinths.
Tindale, Norman B.: SEE ALSO Hale & Tindale, 1934. (detail)
 
 
Tindale, Norman B. (detail)
   
1925
Natives of Groote Eylandt and of the west coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Recs. So. Austral. Mus. 3: 61-102. Figs. 23-41. Pls. 6-11.
–Dugong hunting, 78-79.
 
 
Tinelli, Chiara; Ribolini, Adriano; Bianucci, Giovanni; Bini, Monica; Landini, Walter (detail)
   
2012
Ground penetrating radar and palaeontology: The detection of sirenian fossil bones under a sunflower field in Tuscany (Italy).
Comptes Rendus Palevol 11: 445-454. 7 figs. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2012.04.002 Available online July 19, 2012.
–French summ.
 ABSTRACT: The application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in vertebrate palaeontology is very rare. We describe the discovery of an Early Pliocene sirenian skeleton detected by GPR in a locality near Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy). The specimen represents one of the most complete skeletons of Metaxytherium subapenninum (Mammalia: Sirenia) ever found in the Mediterranean area. Using a monostatic antenna of 200 MHz, this non-invasive technique allowed us to detect most of the bones of the skeleton (skull, mandible, vertebrae and ribs) revealed in a distinct zone reflecting the electromagnetic waves. Other bones were found in correspondence with some smaller reflective zones of high back-scattered energy. Each bone was located in a grid system to compare its position with the spatial distribution of reflective zones. We are confident that the positive outcomes experienced in this work will encourage the use of GPR for future field research in vertebrate palaeontology.
x
 
Tinley, K. L.; Rosinha, A. J.; Lobão Tello, José L. P.; Dutton, T. P. (detail)
   
1976
Wildlife and wild places in Mozambique.
Oryx 13(4): 344-350. 1 map. July 1976.
–Notes that dugongs occur in national parks and reserves at Bazaruto and Pomene (346, 348, 350).
x
 
Tisdell, Clement Allan (detail)
   
1983
Conserving living resources in Third World countries: economic and social issues.
Internatl. Jour. Envir. Stud. 22(1): 11-24. 1 tab.
–Uses dugong hunting by the Kiwai of Papua New Guinea to illustrate problems of resource use and conservation (14-15).
x
 
Tisdell, Clement Allan (detail)
   
1986
Conflicts about living marine resources in Southeast Asian and Australian waters: turtles and dugong as cases.
Marine Resource Economics 3(1): 89-109. 1 fig.
–Discusses problems of dugong conservation in Australia and Papua New Guinea (102-104).
 
 
Tisdell, Clement Allan (detail)
   
2002
Optimal Australian dugong populations and conservation plans: an economic perspective. In: C.A. Tisdell, The economics of conserving wildlife and natural areas.
Cheltenham & Northampton, Edward Elgar (x + 308): 182-192. 5 figs.
–Repr. from Economic Analysis & Policy 29(1): 59-69, 1999.
Tiwari, B. N.: SEE Sahni et al., 1980. (detail)
Tobayama, Teruo: SEE Nishiwaki et al., 1979; Uchida et al., 1978. (detail)
Tobien, Heinz: SEE ALSO Bahlo & Tobien, 1982. (detail)
 
 
Tobien, Heinz (detail)
   
1971
Moeritherium, Palaeomastodon, Phiomia aus dem Paläogen Nordafrikas und die Abstammung der Mastodonten (Proboscidea, Mammalia).
Mitt. Geol. Inst. Tech. Univ. Hannover 10: 141-162. 1 tab. 10 figs. May 1971.
–Sirs., 152.
x
 
Tobien, Heinz (detail)
   
1980
Taxonomic status of some Cenozoic mammalian local faunas from the Mainz Basin.
Mainzer Geowiss. Mitt. 9: 203-235. 1 tab. 1 fig. Dec. 1980.
–Summarizes the localities and horizons in the Mainz Basin, Germany, at which Halitherium schinzii occurs (207-209).
Toccheton, Armando J.: SEE Carvalho & Toccheton, 1969. (detail)
Todd, Ethel I.: SEE Rice & Scheffer, 1968. (detail)
x
 
Todd, T. Wingate; Todd, Arthur W. (detail)
   
1938
The epiphysial union pattern of the ungulates with a note on Sirenia.
Amer. Jour. Anat. 63(1): 1-36. 4 tabs. 11 figs. 12 charts. July 1938.
–Describes the epiphyseal union sequence in 19 sir. skeletons, representing all Trichechus species and D. dugon (4-5, 31-35). Concludes that sirs. show the same union sequence as all other ungulates, though union of epiphyses of the hand is delayed as in other aquatic mammals.
 
 
Todd, Victoria L. G.; Todd, Ian B.; Gardiner, Jane C.; Morrin, Erica C. N.; MacPherson, Nicola A.; DiMarzio, Nancy A.; Thomsen, Frank (detail)
   
2014
A review of impacts of marine dredging activities on marine mammals.
ICES Jour. Marine Science 72(2): 328-340. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsu187. Publ. online Nov. 4, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Marine dredging is an excavation activity carried out worldwide by many industries. Concern about the impact dredging has on marine life, including marine mammals (cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) exists, but effects are largely unknown. Through consulting available literature, this review aims to expand on existing knowledge of the direct and indirect, negative and positive impacts on marine mammals. In terms of direct effects, collisions are possible, but unlikely, given the slow speed of dredgers. Noise emitted is broadband, with most energy below 1 kHz and unlikely to cause damage to marine mammal auditory systems, but masking and behavioural changes are possible. Sediment plumes are generally localized, and marine mammals reside often in turbid waters, so significant impacts from turbidity are improbable. Entrainment, habitat degradation, noise, contaminant remobilization, suspended sediments, and sedimentation can affect benthic, epibenthic, and infaunal communities, which may impact marine mammals indirectly through changes to prey. Eggs and larvae are at highest risk from entrainment, so dredging in spawning areas can be detrimental, but effects are minimized through the use of environmental windows. Sensitive environments such as seagrass beds are at risk from smothering, removal, or damage, but careful planning can reduce degradation. Assessing impacts of contaminant remobilization is difficult, but as long as contaminated sediments are disposed of correctly, remobilization is limited in space and time. Effects of suspended sediments and sedimentation are species-specific, but invertebrates, eggs, and larvae are most vulnerable. Positive effects, including an increase in food, result from greater nutrient loads, but are often short term. Dredging has the potential to impact marine mammals, but effects are species and location-specific, varying also with dredging equipment type. In general, evidence suggests that if management procedures are implemented, effects are most likely to be masking and short-term behavioural alterations and changes to prey availability.
Togo, Y.: SEE Nojo et al., 1999. (detail)
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu: SEE ALSO Yoshiwara, Shigeyasu (detail)
 
D
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu (= Yoshiwara, Shigeyasu) (detail)
   
1915
Systematic position of Desmostylus.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Tokyo 22(258): 119-124.
 
D
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu (= Yoshiwara, Shigeyasu) (detail)
   
1936
Desmostylus found near the town of Yumoto, Fukushima Prefecture.
Jour. Geogr. (Tokyo) 48(572): 473-484. 1 fig. Pls. 6-8. Oct. 1936.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu (= Yoshiwara, Shigeyasu) (detail)
   
1939a
A new fossil mammal belonging to the Desmostylidae. In: Jubilee publication commemorating Prof. H. Yabe, M.I.A. sixtieth birthday.
Sendai (Japan), Tohoku Imper. Univ., Inst. Geol. Pal.: Vol. 1: 289-299. 2 figs. Pl. 19.
–Japanese summ. Describes Cornwallius tabatai, n.sp.
 
D
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu (= Yoshiwara, Shigeyasu) (detail)
   
1939b
[Autobiographical sketch.] In: [Memorial papers on Dr. Tokunaga.]
iii+vi. 1 fig. May 1939 (Showa 14).
–In Japanese. Preface to a multiauthored book written by Tokunaga's former students; he wrote this autobiographical sketch to thank them. It includes a portrait of him.
  Tokunaga explains that he and H. F. Osborn did not initially recognize the identity of the Togari Desmostylus skull because the description of the genus by O. C. Marsh had been based on only a fragment of a tooth.
 
D
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu (= Yoshiwara, Shigeyasu); Iwasaki, Chozo (detail)
   
1914
Notes on Desmostylus japonicus.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Tokyo 21(250): 33. July 20, 1914.
–Coins the name Desmostylus japonicus, n.sp.
 
 
Tol, S. J.; Jarvis, J. C.; York, P. H.; Grech, A.; Congdon, B. C.; Coles, R. G. (detail)
   
2017
Long distance biotic dispersal of tropical seagrass seeds by marine mega-herbivores.
Scientific Reports 7: 1-8.
–Discusses dispersal of tropical seagrass seeds by dugongs and green sea turtles.
x
 
Toldt, C. (detail)
   
1905
Der Winkelfortsatz des Unterkiefers beim Menschen und bei den Säugetieren und die Beziehungen der Kaumuskeln zu demselben. (II. Teil.)
Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-natw. Kl. 114(3): 315-476. 18 figs. 3 pls. Presented Mar. 9, 1905.
–Comments briefly on the medially inflected angular process of the mandible in Rhytina and Halicore (337).
x
 
Toledo, Peter Mann de (detail)
   
1989
Sobre novos achados de sirênios (Sirenotherium pirabense Paula Couto, 1967) na Formação Pirabas (Pará, Brasil).
Bol. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Sér. Ciênc. da Terra 1(1): 5-10. 2 figs. July 1989.
–Engl. summ. Describes new material from the "Oligo-Miocene" (actually Early Miocene) of Brazil, including the first complete fossil sir. skull found in South America. These specimens were here referred to Sirenotherium pirabense, which was in turn referred to the Dugongidae; however, they were later redescribed as Dioplotherium cf. allisoni by Toledo & Domning (1991).
x
 
Toledo, Peter Mann De; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
1991
Fossil Sirenia (Mammalia: Dugongidae) from the Pirabas Formation (Early Miocene), northern Brazil.
Bol. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Sér. Ciênc. da Terra 1(2): 119-146. 3 tabs. 12 figs. "1989" [publ. 1991].
–Portuguese summ. Describes the first complete fossil sir. skull from South America (Dioplotherium cf. allisoni), as well as cranial fragments of cf. Rytiodus (the first possible New World record for this genus) and cf. Metaxytherium, all from Burdigalian-age deposits on the coast of Pará.
x
 
Tolmachoff, Innokenti Pavlovich (detail)
   
1928
Extinction and extermination.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 39: 1131-1148.
–Repr.: Ann. Rept. Smithson. Inst. 1929: 269-284, 1930. Believes that Steller's sea cow was "probably already well advanced toward extinction" at the time of its discovery (1137-1138).
 
 
Tomblin, Marian Strong (detail)
   
2006
Manatee moon.
Ormond Beach (Florida), Avery Goode-Reid Publications. Illus.
–Illustrations by JoAnne Thorn. Novel for young adults about the dangers facing Florida manatees.
 
 
Tomes, Charles Sissmore (detail)
   
1878
On the structure and development of vascular dentine.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 169: 25-47. Pls. 3-5.
–Sirs., 34.
 
 
Tomes, Charles Sissmore (detail)
   
1898
A manual of dental anatomy, human and comparative. Ed. 5.
London, J. & A. Churchill; Philadelphia, P. Blakiston: viii + 596. 273 figs.
–Ed. 1, 1876; ed. 8, 1923. Sirs., 83, 385-390.
 
D
Tomida, Yukimitsu; Ohta, Toshikazu (detail)
   
2007
Discovery of a desmostylian tooth from Kitami City, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan.
Mem. Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum 6: 57-61.
–Japanese summ. A fragmentary tooth of Desmostylus sp. from the late Middle Mioc. is considered probably one of the youngest remains of the genus in Japan.
Tomilin, A. G.: SEE Sokolov, Pershin et al., 1986. (detail)
x
 
Tomkins, Ivan R. (detail)
   
1956
The manatee along the Georgia coast.
Jour. Mamm. 37(2): 288-289. "May 1956" (mailed Jun. 9, 1956).
–Reports manatees in Georgia, circa 1940-45 and 1955; notes that Florida manatees may spend much time in salt water.
x
 
Tomkins, Ivan R. (detail)
   
1958
A Georgia specimen of the manatee.
Jour. Mamm. 39(1): 154. Feb. 20, 1958.
–Reports manatee bones, probably less than 50 years old, dug from a riverbank in Savannah.
Tomlinson, J. D. W.: SEE Harrison & Tomlinson, 1964. (detail)
Tonosaki, Tokuji: SEE Kimura et al., 1983. (detail)
Toots, Heinrich: SEE Parker & Toots, 1980. (detail)
 
 
Torquemada, Antonio de (detail)
   
1570
Iardin de flores curiosas, en q~ se tratã algunas materias de humanidad, philosophia, theologia, y geographia, con otras cosas curiosas, y apazibles.
Salamanca, Iuan Baptista de Terranoua: 286 numb. l.
–Repeats manatee material from Gómara, Oviedo, and Martyr (trat. VI, fol. 270 recto & verso; reprinted by Durand, 1983: 48-49, 89).
Torre, Danilo: SEE Azzaroli et al., 1982. (detail)
Torres Fundora, Orlando: SEE Ortiz et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Torres, John Albert (detail)
   
2004
The manatee.
MyReportLinks.com Books (Endangered and Threatened Animals Series): 1-48. Illus.
Torruco-Gómez, Daniel: SEE Axis-Arroyo et al., 1998. (detail)
Tosquella, J.: SEE Astibia et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Toula, Franz (detail)
   
1896
Über neue Wirbelthierreste aus dem Tertiär Oesterreichs und Rumeliens.
Zs. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. 48: 915-924. 3 figs.
–Describes (as Halitherium Schinzi) the distal part of a large humerus from the Leithakalk of Kalksburg, Austria (919); but according to Abel (1904a: 105), the specimen in question is actually a rhinoceros.
 
 
Toula, Franz (detail)
   
1899
Zwei neue Säugethierreste aus dem "kristallisierten Sandstein" von Walsee in Nieder- und Perg in Oberösterreich.... 2. Sirene von Perg in Oberösterreich (Metaxytherium (?) pergense n. sp.).
Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. Pal., Beilage-Band 12: 459-476. Fig. 4. Pl. 12.
 
 
Toula, Franz; Kail, J. A. (detail)
   
1885
Über einen Krokodil-Schädel aus den Tertiärablagerungen von Eggenburg in Niederösterreich.
Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien 50: 299-356. 3 figs. 3 pls.
–Mentions "Halitherium Schinzi" (i.e., Metaxytherium krahuletzi), 300.
Townsend, Charles Haskins: SEE ALSO Anonymous, 1908b, 1915. (detail)
 
 
Townsend, Charles Haskins (detail)
   
1904
Note on the manatee or sea-cow.
Ann. Rept. New York Zool. Soc. 8: 85-87. 1 pl. Apr. 1, 1904.
x
 
Townsend, Charles Haskins (detail)
   
1905
Report of the Director of the Aquarium to the Board of Managers.
Ann. Rept. New York Zool. Soc. 9: 89-103. 5 figs. Jan. 1905.
–Brief account (97) of two Florida manatees obtained in June 1904, with two photos (91, 94) and notes on their feeding and other behavior.
x
 
Townsend, Charles Haskins (detail)
   
1907
Report of the Director of the Aquarium to the Board of Managers.
Ann. Rept. New York Zool. Soc. 11: 86. Jan. 1907.
–Acknowledges two Florida manatees donated by Mr. A. W. Dimock to the Aquarium (see also A. W. Dimock, 1907). One, 10 feet long and weighing 910 pounds, soon died; the other, six feet long, was still living after 5 months.
Toyos-González, Gian M.: SEE Falcón et al., 2003; Mignucci et al., 1997. (detail)
Toyos-González, Gian M.: SEE Mignucci G., Williams et al., 1999. (detail)
 
 
Trainer, Vera L.; Baden, Daniel G. (detail)
   
1999
High affinity binding of red tide neurotoxins to marine mammal brain.
Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam) 46(2): 139-148. July 1999.
 
 
Trainito, Egidio (detail)
   
2004
Dugongo: quale futuro?
Bol. Gruppo Paleontologico Tropeano 10: 7-11. 2 figs. Dec. 2004.
x
 
Tranngocloi, Nt. (Tran Ngoc Loi) (detail)
   
1962
Capture d'un dugong au Viet-Nam.
Mammalia 26(3): 451-452. Pl. 12. Sept. 1962.
–Gives measurements and photos of a young male captured near Nhatrang on July 19, 1960.
 
 
Travassos, Lauro P. (detail)
   
1933
Sobre os Ascaroidea parasitos dos crocodilos Sul-Americanos.
An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc. 5: 153-170.
 
 
Travassos, Lauro P. (detail)
   
1934
Synopse dos Paramphistomoidea.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 29: 19-178.
x
 
Travassos, Lauro P.; Vogelsang, Enrique G. (detail)
   
1931
Novo tipo de trematodeo Opisthotrematidae.
Bol. Biol. (Rio de Janeiro) 19: 143-147. 2 figs. Dec. 20, 1931.
–Describes the trematode Cochleotrema cochleotrema, n.gen.n.sp., from the stomach of a T. manatus in Hagenbeck's zoological garden, Hamburg (see also Khalil & Vogelsang, 1932).
 
 
Travassos, Lauro P.; Freitas, J. F. Teixeira de; Kohn, Anna (detail)
   
1969
Trematódeos do Brasil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 67: 1-886. 557 figs.
–Sirs., 625-626, 752.
 
 
Travis, William (detail)
   
1967
The voice of the turtle.
London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.: 1-203.
–Observations on dugongs in Somalia, 168-176.
 
 
Tredgold, A. F. (detail)
   
1897
Variations of ribs in the Primates, with especial reference to the number of sternal ribs in man.
Jour. Anat. Physiol. (London) 31: 288-302.
–Sirs., 295.
Trefry, John H.: SEE Trocine & Trefry, 1996. (detail)
x
 
Trelles-Duelo, Laudelino (detail)
   
1936
Restos fosilizados de un manati extinguido del periodo oligoceno inferior.
Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat. 9(4): 269-270. Jan. 1936.
–Reports the discovery of a Lower Oligocene sir. rib in Cuba.
Trillo-Figueroa, A.: SEE Carbonell & Trillo-Figueroa, 1926. (detail)
 
 
Tringali, M. D.; Seyoum, S.; Carney, S. L.; Davis, M. C.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Reynolds, John E., III; Haubold, Elsa M. (detail)
   
2008
Eighteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Florida manatee, Ttichechus manatus latirostris.
Molec. Ecol. Resources 8(2): 328-331.
 
 
Tringali, Michael D.; Davis, Michelle C.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Bolen, Ellen E.; Sullivan, Jamie G.; Haubold, Elsa M. (detail)
   
2008
Simultaneous use of the X- and Y-chromosome genes SMCX, SMCY, and DBY for sex determination in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 24(1): 218-224. 1 tab. 2 figs. Jan. 2008.
 
 
Tripp, Kathleen M.; Dubois, M.; Delahaut, P.; Verstegen, J. P. (detail)
   
2009
Detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using GC/MS/MS.
Theriogenology 72(3): 365-371. 1 tab. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2009.03.004. Aug. 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants--terrestrial manatee relatives--were targeted. These included 5?-reduced progestins (5?-pregnane-3,20-dione [5?-DHP] and 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one [5?-P3-OH]) and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20?-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5?-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5?-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17?-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20?-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.
 
 
Tripp, Kathleen M.; Verstegen, John P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; De Wit, Martine; Manire, Charles A.; Gaspard, Joseph; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2010
Evaluation of adrenocortical function in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Zoo Biology 29: 1-15. 3 tabs.
–[Or: vol. 30(1): 17-31, 2011?]
 
 
Tripp, Kathleen M.; Verstegen, John P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Bonde, Robert K.; Rodriguez, M.; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Schmitt, D. L.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2008
Validation of a serum immunoassay to measure progesterone and diagnose pregnancy in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Theriogenology 70(7): 1030-1040.
 
 
Tripp, Katie (detail)
   
2012
Florida's endangered manatees.
Seagrass-Watch News (Cairns, Australia, Northern Fisheries Centre) Issue 46: 2-7. 8 figs. June 2012.
Trivedy, A. N.: SEE Satsangi & Trivedy, 1978. (detail)
x
 
Trocine, Robert P.; Trefry, John H. (detail)
   
1996
Metal concentrations in sediment, water and clams from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32(10): 754-759. 3 tabs. 1 fig.
–Analysis of samples from manatee habitat found high variation in metal concentrations, with some locally elevated concentrations probably attributable to pollution.
Troinin, V. I.: SEE Berzin et al., 1963. (detail)
Trono, Romeo B.: SEE Kataoka et al., 1995. (detail)
x
 
Trotignon, Jacques (detail)
   
1982
Le sauvetage du lamantin. Saving the sea cow.
Distance (Paris) No. 51: 61-64. 5 figs. Mar.-Apr. 1982.
–Text in French & Engl. Pop. acc. of the rescue of a T. senegalensis from a swamp being drained, and its release in the Djoudj National Park, Senegal.
Trouessart, Édouard-Louis: SEE ALSO Ameghino, F., 1893. (detail)
 
 
Trouessart, Édouard-Louis (detail)
   
1898
Catalogus mammalium tam viventium quam fossilium.
Berlin, R. Friedländer & Sohn (1898-99): Fasc. 5.
–Rev.: T. S. Palmer (1899). Sirs., 999-1008, 1357.
 
 
Trouessart, Édouard-Louis (detail)
   
1904-05
Catalogus mammalium tam viventium quam fossilium.... Quinquennale supplementum anno 1904.
Berlin, R. Friedländer & Sohn: Vol. 1: iv + 546 (1904); Vol. 2: 547-929 (1905).
–Sirs., 748-752. Coins the following new combinations: Trichechus koellikeri, Eotheroides aegyptiacum, E. coulombi (749).
 
 
Troughton, Ellis Le G. (detail)
   
1928
Sea-cows. The story of the dugong.
Austral. Mus. Mag. 3(7): 220-228. 7 figs.
 
 
Troughton, Ellis Le G. (detail)
   
1966
Furred animals of Australia.
Narbeth (Penn.), Livingston Publ. Co.: xxxii + 376.
–Other eds.: New York, Scribner's, 1947; Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1951, 1957, 1965, 1973.
x
 
Troxell, Edward L. (detail)
   
1925
Mechanics of crocodile vertebrae.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 36: 605-614. 6 figs. Dec. 30, 1925 (read Dec. 30, 1924).
–P. 613: {"Chevrons are found also in Cetaceans and Sirenians, where aquatic locomotion is brought about by the movement, upward and downward, of a horizontally flattened tail."}
True, A. Charles: SEE True, F. W., 1884b. (detail)
x
 
True, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1884a
A provisional list of the mammals of North and Central America, and the West Indian islands.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 7: 587-611. Nov. 29, 1884?
–P. 588: {"Order SIRENIA. Sea-cows. / Family TRICHECHIDAE. The Manatees. / Trichechus manatus, Linné. South American Manatee. / Texas to Brazil. / Trichechus latirostris, (Harlan) True. Florida Manatee. / Florida."}
  The combination T. latirostris is new here.
x
 
True, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1884b
The sirenians or sea-cows. In: G. B. Goode et al., The fisheries and fishery industries of the United States.... Section 1. Natural history of useful aquatic animals.
Washington, D.C., Govt. Printing Off. (xxxiv + 3-895): 114-136. Pls. 33-34 (in separate atlas).
–An interesting collection of general information on American manatees (114-128) and Steller's sea cow (128-136); quotes extensively from earlier authors and thereby provides a handy literature review. Includes a partial transl. of Steller (1751) by A. Charles True (130-134), and a report by Lucien Turner "that an aged Aleut woman stated that Rhytina had been seen at Attu by her father" (136).
 
 
True, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1884c
Great International Fisheries Exhibition. London, 1883. United States of America. H. Catalogue of the aquatic mammals exhibited by the United States National Museum....
Washington, Govt. Printing Off.: 1-22.
–Sirs., 6-7, 15.
x
 
True, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1906
Description of a new genus and species of fossil seal from the Miocene of Maryland.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 30(1475): 835-840. Pls. 75-76.
–Abstrs.: Geol. Zentralbl. 11: 379?; Sci. Prog. 1: 452? Describes a sir. humerus from the Calvert Formation, thought to be perhaps "allied to Metaxytherium" (835, 840, pl. 76).
x
 
True, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1907
Observations on the type specimen of the fossil cetacean Anoplonassa forcipata Cope.
Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. 51(4): 97-106. 3 pls. July 1907.
–Abstr.: Sci. Prog. 2: 512? Notes that Cope at one time considered this species to be a sirenian (97).
 
 
True, Frederick W. (detail)
   
1912
Symposium on ten years progress in vertebrate paleontology. Marine mammals.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 23: 197-200.
–Sirs., 197-198.
x
 
Trumbull, Stephen (detail)
   
1949
Sea cows making comback [sic]: ancients called them mermaids.
Audubon Mag. 51(5): 337. Sept.-Oct. 1949.
–Reprinted from Miami Herald, Apr. 29, 1949. Brief pop. acc. of sirs. and Florida manatees. Suggests that damage to natural aquatic vegetation from excessive drainage is a cause of manatee population decline.
x
 
Truslow, Frederick Kent; Vosburgh, Frederick G. (detail)
   
1967
Threatened glories of Everglades National Park.
Natl. Geogr. Mag. 132(4): 508-553. Illus. Oct. 1967.
–Describes a sighting of a manatee in the Park (537-538).
 
 
Tryland, M.; Nesbakken, T.; Robertson, L.; Grahek-Ogden, D.; Lunestad, B. T. (detail)
   
2014
Human pathogens in marine mammal meat - a northern perspective.
Zoonoses & Public Health 61(6): 377-394. DOI: 10.1111/zph.12080. Sept. 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.
x
 
Tschada, Peter (detail)
   
1994
Verhaltensweisen der Seekühe (Trichechus manatus).
Tiergarten Aktuell (Nuremberg) 10(1): 33-50. 14 figs. Oct. 1994.
–Gen. acc. of captive behavior of Guyanese manatees kept at Nuremberg, including feeding, nursing, aggression, play, resting, sexual and social behavior, space utilization, etc. Includes an account of developmental changes in the behavior and respiratory style of calves during their first weeks of life (45-49).
Tsuda, R. T.: SEE Randall et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Tsukinowa, E.; Karita, S.; Asano, S.; Wakai, Y.; Oka, Y.; Furuta, M.; Goto, M. (detail)
   
2008
Fecal microbiota of a dugong (Dugong dugon) in captivity at Toba Aquarium.
Jour. General & Applied Microbiol. 54(1): 25-38.
 
D
Tsunoda, F.; Ogano Collaborative Research Group (detail)
   
1978
Lithological features and stratigraphic succession of the basal part of the Miocene groups - the members bearing on Paleoparadoxia tabatai - developed in the Chichibu Basin.
Jour. College Liberal Arts, Saitama Univ. Nat. Sci. 14: 129-138.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Tsutsumi, C.; Ichikawa, K.; Arai, N.; Akamatsu, T.; Shinke, T.; Adulyanukosol, K. (detail)
   
2006
Feeding behavior of wild dugongs monitored by a passive acoustical method.
Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 120(3): 1356-1360.
Tsuyuki, Hideo: SEE ALSO Itoh & Tsuyuki, 1974. (detail)
x
 
Tsuyuki, Hideo; Itoh, Shingo (detail)
   
1967
Fatty acid composition of the dugong oil.
Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fisheries 33(11): 1035-1037. 4 tabs. Nov. 1967.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Engl. transl.: Fish. Res. Board Canada Transl. Ser. No. 1052: 1-6, 1968. Reports on the analysis of dugong fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography; 18 types of fatty acids were detected.
 
 
Tubbs, S. E.; Bas, A. B.; Cote, G.; Jones, A. L.; Notman, G. (detail)
   
2019
Sighting and stranding reports of Irrawaddy Dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) and dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Kep and Kampot, Cambodia.
Aquatic Mammals 45(5): 563-568. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.45.5.2019.563
Tuboku-Metzger, Daphne: SEE Reeves et al., 1988. (detail)
Tucker, Gail S.: SEE Cohen et al., 1982. (detail)
x
 
Tucker, M. J.; Puddicombe, R. A. (detail)
   
1988
Protection status of marine mammals in Commonwealth waters. In: M. L. Augee (ed.), Marine mammals of Australasia: field biology and captive management.
Sydney, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales (vii + 140): 79-85.
–Also appeared in Austral. Zool. 24(3)? Briefly summarizes Australian legislation pertaining to dugongs (82-83).
 
 
Tucker, R. (detail)
   
1955
Studies in functional and analytical craniology. VIII. The planoarcuate skull.
Austral. Jour. Zool. 3(4): 523-529. 9 figs. 1 pl. Dec. 1955.
x
 
Tuckerman, Frederick (detail)
   
1892
Further observations on the gustatory organs of the Mammalia.
Jour. Morph. 7(1): 69-94. Oct. 1892.
–Describes the tongue of a young Manatus latirostris (77).
 
 
Tulogdy, J. (detail)
   
1944
Szirénafog a Bácsi-torok eocén felső durvamészkövéből.
Múz. Füzetek (Cluj) 1944(2): 56-59.
 
 
Tuomey, Michael (detail)
   
1848
Report on the geology of South Carolina.
Columbia (South Carolina), A. S. Johnson: vi + 293 + lvi. 47 figs. 1 map.
–Rev.: T. S. Bouvé, Amer. Jour. Sci. (2)8: 61-74, 1849? Sirs., 165-166, 208.
 
 
Turnbull, William D. (detail)
   
1970
Mammalian masticatory apparatus.
Fieldiana: Geology 18(2): 147-356. 5 tabs. 48 figs. Mar. 24, 1970.
–Sirs., 349.
Turner, B. L., II: SEE Bradley et al., 1983. (detail)
Turner, F. E.: SEE Stenzel & Turner, 1944; Stenzel et al., 1944. (detail)
 
 
Turner, H. N. (detail)
   
1847
Observations on the distinction between the cervical and dorsal vertebrae in the Class Mammalia.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London 15: 110-114. Nov. 10, 1847.
x
 
Turner, John Peter (detail)
   
1937
Along the airways of the golden plover.
Canad. Geogr. Jour. 13(9): 488-505. 16 figs. Jan. 1937.
–Includes a photo of four "manatees ... in British Guiana", one partly out of the water and grazing on bank vegetation (498).
Turner, Lucien M.: SEE Stejneger, L., 1883; True, F. W., 1884b. (detail)
x
 
Turner, Lucien McShan (detail)
   
2008
An Aleutian ethnography. (Raymond L. Hudson, ed.)
Fairbanks, Univ. Alaska Press: xiii + 242. 4 tabs. 58 figs. 16 pls.
–Based on a MS. in the Smithsonian Archives, dating from ca. 1886-1887. Includes only one paragraph of native oral history concerning Steller's sea cow at Attu (106-107), shorter and less detailed than the MS. account by Turner reproduced by Domning, Thomason, & Corbett (2007).
 
 
Turner, R. Eugene (detail)
   
2001
Of manatees, mangroves, and the Mississippi River: is there an estuarine signature for the Gulf of Mexico?
Estuaries 24(2): 139-150. Apr. 2001.
x
 
Turner, Robert O. (detail)
   
1990a
New manatee sanctuary established at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 15(5): 10.
–Discusses manatee status in Florida, and announces a new sanctuary near Cape Canaveral. Other information on manatee rehabilitation and mortality is given on p. 11.
x
 
Turner, Robert O. (detail)
   
1990b
Florida adopts new manatee protection law.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 15(8): 7. 1 fig.
–Informal summary of new provisions of the Florida Manatee Sanctuary Act.
x
 
Turner, Robert O. (detail)
   
1996
Die-off decimates Florida manatee.
Endangered Species Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 21(3): 27. 1 fig. May/June 1996.
–Briefly describes the spring 1996 manatee die-off in southwest Florida, noting that test results are still inconclusive but that the evidence is consistent with red tide as the cause.
x
 
Turner, Robert O.; Buckingham, Cheryl A. (detail)
   
1993
Navy is enlisted in plan to protect manatees.
Endangered Species Tech. Bull. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 18(2): 1, 10-11. 2 figs. Mar.-May 1993.
–Describes the development and implementation of a manatee protection plan for the Naval Submarine Base at Kings Bay, Georgia, after several manatees were killed there by tugboats.
 
 
Turner, William (detail)
   
1889
On the placentation of Halicore dugong.
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 35(2)(17): 641-662. 1 tab. 1 fig. Pls. 1-3. Read July 1, 1889.
–Abstr.: Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 16: 264-265.
 
 
Turner, William (detail)
   
1894
The foetus of Halicore dugong and of Manatus senegalensis.
Jour. Anat. Physiol., Norm. & Path., Hum. & Compar. 28(= n.s. 8): 315-332. 6 figs.
 
 
Turner, William (detail)
   
1912
The marine mammals in the Anatomical Museum of the University of Edinburgh.
London, Macmillan & Co.: xv + 207. 100+ figs. 17 pls.
–Lists 22 specimens of sirs. (143-158, pls. 16-17).
 
 
Turton, William (detail)
   
1806
A general system of nature, through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties, with their habitations, manners, economy, structure, and peculiarities. By Sir Charles Linnè: translated Gmelin, Fabricius, Willdenow, &c. Together with various modern arrangements and corrections, derived from the Transactions of the Linnean and other Societies, as well as from the classical works of Shaw, Thornton, Abbot, Donovan, Sowerby, Latham, Dillwyn Lewin, Martyn, Andrews, Lambert, &c. &c. with a life of Linnè, appropriate copper-plates, and a dictionary explanatory of the terms which occur in the several departments of natural history.... In seven volumes. Animal Kingdom. Vol. I. Mammalia. Birds. Amphibia. Fishes.
London, Lackington, Allen, & Co.: vii + 944.
–Allen 479. Also appeared in an earlier ed. (4 vols., 1800-01). The Sirenia comprise Trichechus Durong [sic] and T. Manatus (with varieties Australis [= African and American manatees], Borealis [= Hydrodamalis], and Siren [= Steller's fabulous sea-ape]) (36-37). Allen considers this work worthless.
 
 
Turvey, Samuel T.; Risley, C. L. (detail)
   
2005
Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.
Biology Letters 2(1): 94-97, 2006; (publ. online; doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0415): 4 pp. 1 tab. 2 figs. + online appendix with 1 tab. & 3 figs.
 
 
Tweedie, M. (detail)
   
1969
Adaptation. Part 4. The swimming animal.
Animals 11(10): 475-476. 2 pls.
 
 
Tweedie, M. W. F. (detail)
   
1978
Mammals of Malaysia.
Malaysia, Longman: 1-87.
 
 
Tweedie, M.W.F.; Harrison, J.I. (detail)
   
1954
Malayan animal life.
London, Longman.
x
 
Twiss, John R., Jr. (detail)
   
1979
Manatee: endangered marine mammal.
Water Spectrum (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) 12(1): 10-17. 13 figs. Winter 1979-80.
–Pop. acc. of conservation problems of Florida manatees and other marine mammals.
 
 
Tytler, Robert (detail)
   
1838
[Title?]
Corbyn's India Review 3: 46.
–Mentions a partial dugong skeleton from the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia.
 
 
Tzimoulis, P. (detail)
   
1966
Crystal River - Florida's fun spot for year-round diving.
Skin Diver, Oct. 1966: 33-49.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
Compendium Software Systems, LLC