Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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Vaksmut, Nikolai Sergeyevich (detail)
[Notes on the skeletons of Morskaja Korova.]
Priamurskie Wedomostim [Amur Pages], Apr. 25, 1899.
–In Russian. German transl., Rothauscher, 2008: 19-21. Article in a weekly newspaper by a former assistant administrator of the Commander Islands, listing skeletons of Hydrodamalis gigas found between 1875 and 1899, and which museums they were deposited in.
Valade, James A.: SEE Baugh et al., 1989; Kinnaird & Valade, 1983. (detail)
Valas, Robert B.: SEE Lew et al., 1986. (detail)
Valdevino, G. C. M.; da Silva, Vera M. F.; Amaral, R. S. (detail)
Using osteological measurements to estimate body length in Amazonian manatees.
Acta Amazonica 51(2): 156-161. 2 tabs. 3 figs.
–ABSTRACT: Body length is an important parameter in morphological, ecological and behavioral studies of a species and contributes to the understanding of the body condition of individuals. This parameter is essential for conservation and management strategies by informing studies evaluating growth rates, physical maturity and classification of individuals into age groups, promoting better accuracy for the biological parameters of the species. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of body length for Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) using metric characters of osteological materials. Eleven linear measurements of skull, jaw, scapulae and humeri were collected from 41 Amazonian manatee skeletons of different age classes (calf, juvenile and adult). Data were analyzed by simple linear regression. The condylobasal length was the best predictor of body length for the species (R = 0.943), however, all bones evaluated showed at least one measurement with the capacity to predict body size (R2 > 0.9). Results of this study are useful for inferring body length of Amazonian manatees using bones deposited in museums and biological collections, expanding the informative potential of these materials.
  RESUMO: O comprimento corporal é um importante parâmetro em estudos morfológicos, ecológicos e comportamentais de uma espécie e contribui para o entendimento da condição corporal de um indivíduo. Este parâmetro é essencial para estratégias de conservação e manejo, informando estudos que avaliam taxas de crescimento, maturidade física e classificação dos indivíduos em grupos de idade, promovendo uma melhor precisão aos parâmetros biológicos de uma espécie. O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar preditores de comprimento corporal para o peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis) utilizando caracteres métricos de material osteológico. Onze medidas lineares do crânio, mandíbula, escápula e úmero foram coletadas de 41 esqueletos de peixe-boi da Amazônia de diferentes classes de idade (filhote, juvenil e adulto). Os dados foram analisados por regressão linear simples. O comprimento côndilobasal foi o melhor preditor de comprimento corporal para a espécie (R = 0,943), entretanto, todos os ossos avaliados mostraram pelo menos um caractere com capacidade de predizer o comprimento corporal (R2 > 0,9). Os resultados deste estudo são úteis para inferir o comprimento corporal de peixes-boi da Amazônia a partir de ossos depositados em museus e coleções biológicas, expandindo o potencial informativo destes materiais.
Valentine, John F.; Heck, K. L., Jr. (detail)
The role of leaf nitrogen content in determining turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) grazing by a generalized herbivore in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Jour. Exper. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 258(1): 65-86. Mar. 30, 2001.
Valentine, John F.; Heck, K. L., Jr. (detail)
Seagrass herbivory: evidence for the continued grazing of marine grasses.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 176: 291-302. 1 tab. Jan. 18, 1999.
–ABSTRACT: Unlike the majority of marine plants, seagrasses are believed to experience little damage from the feeding activities of marine herbivores. Based on our previous work, plus a review of the literature, we suggest that this paradigm significantly underestimates the importance of seagrass herbivory in nearshore environments. In this review, we provide evidence from over 100 publications, showing that grazing on seagrasses is widespread in the world's oceans. Overwhelmingly, reports of grazing on seagrasses are based on observations, laboratory measurements, and bioenergetic calculations. To date, few field experiments have been conducted to evaluate the importance of seagrass grazing in the nearshore environment. Of these, even fewer have considered the possibility that herbivores may stimulate rates of primary production of the role of belowground nutrient reserves in determining the impacts of grazers on seagrasses. We contend that the currently accepted view that herbivory plays a minor role in the energetics of seagrass habitats needs to be reexamined by measuring seagrass responses to grazer induced tissue losses in controlled field manipulations. Only then will we be able to determine the importance of the seagrass-grazing pathway in marine food webs.
  Reviews literature on seagrass consumption by manatees and dugongs, among other herbivores.
Valentry, Duane (detail)
Sea cows that would not breed.
Sea Frontiers 19(5): 290-291. 1 fig. Sept.-Oct. 1973.
–Suggests (erroneously) that the captive manatees at the Miami Seaquarium failed to breed because sirs. "may have to float vertically with their heads out of water while mating and therefore would need to be in water deeper than their body length."
Valentyn, Franz (detail)
Oud en nieuw Oost-Indiën, vervattende een naaukeurige en uitvoerige verhandelinge van Nederlands mogentheyd in die gewestenk, benevens eene wydluftige beschryvinge der Moluccos ... en alle de eylanden onder dezelve landbestieringen behoorende; het Nederlands comptoir op Suratte, en de levens der Groote Mogols....
Dordrecht, J. van Braam (5 vols. in 9, 1724-26). Illus.
–Sirs., vol. 3: 330, 341. The figure of a mermaid, an artistic improvement on that of Renard, was reproduced by Durand (1983: 210-211).
Valera, Luis Augusto Cuní Y: SEE Cuní y Valera, Luis Augusto. (detail)
Vallee, Judith Delaney: SEE ALSO Delaney, Judith. (detail)
Vallee, Judith Delaney (detail)
Save the Manatee Club.
Florida Naturalist 64(2): 16. 1 fig. Summer 1991.
Vallee, Judith Delaney (detail)
Manatees and boats - a collision course.
Florida Naturalist 67(4): 15-17. Illus. Winter 1994.
Vallee, Judith Delaney (detail)
Florida's besieged manatees.
South Florida Sport Fishing Mag. 1(4): 60-62. 4 figs. Summer 2003.
Valmont de Bomare, J. C.: SEE Bomare, J. C. Valmont de. (detail)
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
La côte d'Ostende et les fouilles d'Anvers.
Bull. Acad. Sci. Belgique (2)12: 453-483.
–Abstr.: Geologist 5: 96-108, 1862? Mentions the extinction of Rhytina stelleri and the acquisition of a skeleton of this species by the St. Petersburg museum (461); discusses Halitherium from the regions of Darmstadt and Linz (481).
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
Sur le Rhytina stelleri.
Bull. Acad. Sci. Belgique (2)13(4): 340-341. Read Apr. 5, 1862.
–Quotes a letter from A. von Nordmann on the Helsinki and Russian skeletons, on the occasion of presenting to the Academy a copy of von Nordmann's (1862a) memoir on the Helsinki skeleton.
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
L'Institut 1862: 188.
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
Un sirénien nouveau du terrain rupélien.
Bull. Acad. Sci. Belgique (2)32(9/10): 164-178. 4 figs. 1 pl. Read Oct. 14, 1871.
–Abstrs.: Jour. Zool. (Paris) 1: 333-339, 344-351, 1872; L'Institut 1872(1): 85-87. Describes Crassitherium robustum, n.gen.n.sp., from the Oligocene of Belgium, based on part of a ?reptile skull and eight vertebrae referable to Halitherium schinzii (see Sickenberg, 1934: 205, 207).
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
Les Pachyacanthus du Musée de Vienne.
Bull. Acad. Sci. Belgique (2)40(9-10): 323-340.
–Also exists as a separate with pages numbered 1-20. Concludes that the vertebrae and ribs attributed to this genus are sirenian, the other elements cetacean; and that the generic name Pachyacanthus should be retained for the sirenian. (All are now considered cetacean.)
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
Les thalassothériens de Baltringen (Wurtemberg).
Bull. Acad. Sci. Belgique (2)41(3): 471-495. 1 pl. Mar. 1876.
–Also exists as a separate with pages numbered 1-27. Sirs., 18-19.
Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph (detail)
Description des ossements fossiles des environs d'Anvers. Deuxieme partie: Cétacés, genres Balaenula, Balaena, et Balaenotus.
Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 4: 1-83. 39 pls.
Van Bree, Peter J. H.: SEE ALSO Erdbrink & Van Bree, 1999. (detail)
Van Bree, Peter J. H.; Duguy, R. (detail)
Catalogue de la collection des mammifères marins du Muséum de Bordeaux.
Ann. Soc. Sci. Nat. Charente-Maritime 6(4): 289-307. 1 fig. Mar. 1977.
–Lists 19 Dugong specimens, mostly from Indochina and New Caledonia; 2 T. manatus from Guyana and Cuba; 2 T. senegalensis, no localities; 1 T. inunguis, Rio Ucayali, Peru; and 4 Trichechus sp., no localities (290-292). The T. inunguis may be the skeleton mentioned by P. Marcoy (1869: 2:155).
Van Den Bergh, Hendrik (detail)
Animal diving champions.
Animals 10(10): 449-451. 1 fig. Feb. 1968.
–Lists the longest recorded dives of T. manatus (16 min. 20 sec.) and T. senegalensis (7 min.).
Van Den Bosch, M.: SEE Bosch, M. van den. (detail)
Van den Driesch, A. (detail)
Vierhaltung, Jagd und Fischfang in der bronzezeitlichen Siedlung von Shimal bei Ras al-Khaimah - UAE.
Beiträge zur Altorientalischen Archäologie und Altertumskunde. Festschrift fuer Barthel Hrouda zum 65. Geburtstag (Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz): 73-85.
Van Der Hagen, Steven (detail)
Journael van seven voyagien, beschryvende de gantsche kust van Oost-Indien. 1. Bevaren door Steven van der Hagen.
Van Der Have, Tom M.: SEE Keijl & Van der Have, 2002. (detail)
Van Der Wal, Mark: SEE De Iongh et al., 1998. (detail)
Van Kampen, P. N.: SEE Kampen, P. N. van. (detail)
Van Meter, Victoria Brook (detail)
Ecology and life history of the West Indian manatee.
Miami, Florida Power & Light Co.
–Revised ed.: Van Meter (1982). 6,000 printed, 1977-81. This and subsequent eds. were distributed free by the Florida Power & Light Company as a public service.
Van Meter, Victoria Brook (detail)
The West Indian manatee in Florida. [Ed. 2.]
Miami, Florida Power & Light Co.: 1-29. 10 figs.
–A revised ed. of Van Meter (1977). First printing, 30,000; second, 40,000 (June 1984); third, 20,000 (Dec. 1985); fourth, 20,000 (1986). Ed. 3: Van Meter (1987).
Van Meter, Victoria Brook (detail)
The West Indian manatee in Florida. [Ed. 3.]
Miami, Florida Power & Light Co.: 1-41. 13 figs. Nov. 1987.
–A revised and expanded version of Van Meter (1982). First printing, 50,000; second printing, 50,000 (1988); third printing, 37,500 (1990); fourth printing, 20,000 (1991); fifth printing, 40,000 (1992).
Van Neer, W.; Gautier, A. (detail)
Preliminary report on the faunal remains from the coastal site of ed-Dur, 1st-4th century A.D., Umm al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates. In: H. Buitenhuis & A.T. Clason (eds.), Archaeozoology of the Near East.
Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on the Archaeozoology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas (Leiden): 110-118.
Van Oort, Edward Daniël (detail)
Ueber einen Sirenenwirbel aus dem Serro Colorado auf Aruba.
Samml. Geol. Mus. Leyden (Beitr. Geol. Niederl.-West-Indien?) (2)2: 164-168. 1 fig.
–Reports vertebra and ribs of "Manatus" of unknown age. See also J.H. Westermann (1932).
Van Oort, Edward Daniël (detail)
Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss von Halitherium (Lendengegend, Becken und Zungenbeinkörper).
Samml. Geol. Reichsmus. Leyden (3)2(3): 95-105. 1 fig. 1 pl.
–Abstr.: Jahresber. Anat. Entwickl. (n.s.) 9(3): 191?
Van Oort, Edward Daniël (detail)
Notiz über Halitherium.
Centralbl. Min. Geol. Pal. 1905: 21-22.
Van Orden, Belinda: SEE De Iongh, Wenno et al., 1995; De Iongh et al., 1997. (detail)
Van Reyk, Peter (detail)
Slaughter in the sun.
Loris 11(2): 86-87.
–On the cruelty of butchering dugongs in the markets of Ceylon.
Van Roosmalen, Marc G. M. (detail)
Hotspot of new megafauna found in the Central Amazon (Brazil): the lower Rio Aripuanã Basin.
Biodiversity Journal 6(1): 219-244. 2 tabs. 23 figs. Mar. 30, 2015.
–Names a supposed new species of manatee, Trichechus pygmaeus, from the Rio Aripuanã Basin, Amazonas, Brazil (230-240, figs. 18-23). This nominal species is evidently based on juvenile specimens of T. inunguis.
Van Vleet, Edward S.: SEE Ames & Van Vleet, 1996; Ames et al., 1996, 2002. (detail)
Van Vliet, Henk Jan; Abu el Khair, Gebely (detail)
A new Eocene marine mammal site in the Qattara depression (Egypt).
Cainozoic Research 7(1-2): 73-77. 5 figs. Apr. 2010.
–The first report of unidentified sirs. in the Qattara Depression (late Bartonian or early Priabonian deposits).
VanderHoof, Vertress Lawrence (detail)
Nature and distribution of Desmostylus, a marine Tertic mammal. [Abstr.]
Pan-Amer. Geol. 64(1): 80. Aug. 1935.
–?Repr.: Proc. Geol. Soc. Amer. 1935: 420, June 1936.
VanderHoof, Vertress Lawrence (detail)
A study of the Miocene sirenian Desmostylus.
Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 24(8): 165-261. 65 figs. 2 maps. Oct. 7, 1937.
VanderHoof, Vertress Lawrence (detail)
Miocene sea-cow from Santa Cruz, California, and its bearing on intercontinental correlation. [Abstr.]
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 52(12): 1984-1985. Dec. 1, 1941.
–Reports a skeleton tentatively identified as Metaxytherium petersi, and believed to be ancestral to Hydrodamalis. This specimen was referred to Dusisiren jordani by Domning (1978b).
VanderHoof, Vertress Lawrence (detail)
Oligocene sea-cow remains from east coast of Baja California. [Abstr.]
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 52(12): 1985. Dec. 1, 1941.
–Reports Cornwallius teeth from Baja California and uses them to correlate their source beds with the Sooke Formation of Vancouver Island.
VanderHoof, Vertress Lawrence (detail)
An occurrence of the Tertiary marine mammal Cornwallius in Lower California.
Amer. Jour. Sci. 240(4): 298-301. 3 figs. Apr. 1942.
–Describes teeth of C. sookensis and correlates their horizon with the occurrence of the same species on Vancouver Island.
VanderHoof, Vertress Lawrence (detail)
Bearing of sea-cows on age of Vaqueros. Pp. 40-42 In: H. G. Schenck & T. S. Childs, Jr., Significance of Lepidocyclina ....
Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. Geol. Sci. 3: 25-84.
Varela, René A.: SEE Falcón et al., 2003. (detail)
Varela-Lasheras, I.; Bakker, A. J.; Van der Mije, S. D.; Metz, J. A. J.; Van der Alphen, J.; Galis, F. (detail)
Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: on sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations.
EvoDevo 2: 11.
Vargo, Tim: SEE Marsh et al., 1998. (detail)
Vargo, Timothy (detail)
Dentition morphology and feeding in the dugong, Dugong dugon [abstr.].
Jour. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 53(3): 20-21.
Varola, Angelo: SEE Bianucci et al., 2003; Borgia et al., 1981. (detail)
Varona, Luis S. (detail)
Un dugongido del Mioceno de Cuba (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Mem. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle (Caracas) No. 91, Tomo 32: 5-19. 4 tabs. 5 figs. Jan.-Apr., 1972.
–Engl. summ. Describes Metaxytherium riveroi, n.sp., on the basis of an immature partial skeleton from the Middle Miocene of Cuba.
Varona, Luis S. (detail)
Catalogo de los mamiferos vivientes y extinguidos de las Antillas.
Havana, Acad. Cienc. Cuba: viii + 139. Maps.
Varona, Luis S. (detail)
Mamíferos de Cuba.
Havana, Editorial Gente Nueva: 1-111. Illus.
–Gen. acc. of TMM and other sirs.; 46-52, 2 figs.
Vasquez, O.: SEE Mattila et al., 1994. (detail)
Vassilyev, A. A.: SEE Mukhametov et al., 1992, 1994. (detail)
Vaz-Ferreira, R. (detail)
Situación poblacional y conservación de los mamíferos marinos en Latinoamérica.
Acta Zool. Lilloana 34: 91-101.
Vazzana, A. (detail)
Sirenidi del Miocene in Calabria.
Not. Mineral. Pal. No. 56: 27-29. Illus.
Vazzana, Angelo (detail)
I sirenidi del Miocene in Calabria.
Calabria Sconosciuta (Reggio Calabria) No. 41: 25-27. 7 figs. Apr.-June 1988.
–Repr., with minor changes in the text and (in part) different figs., in Notiziario di Mineralogia e Paleontologia No. 56: 27-29, 7 figs. July 1988. Reports tusks, vertebrae, and ribs ascribed to Metaxytherium medium; most of these actually pertain to M. serresii (see Carone & Domning, 2007).
Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia: SEE Axis-Arroyo et al., 1998. (detail)
Vega-Guerra, Monica B.: SEE Mignucci G., Williams et al., 1999. (detail)
Vekua, A. K.: SEE Gabuniya & Vekua, 1974. (detail)
Velasco-Escudero, Mario: SEE Mignucci et al., 2003. (detail)
Vélez, Juan; Hirzmann, Jörg; Arévalo-González, Katerin; Lange, Malin K.; Seipp, Anika; Gärtner, Ulrich; Taubert, Anja; Caballero, Susana; Hermosilla, Carlos (detail)
Parasite fauna of wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) of the Andean Region, Colombia.
Parasites & Vectors
–ABSTRACT: Background: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are large herbivorous aquatic mammals living in limited areas of South, Central and North America. As with other aquatic mammals, Antillean manatees can be infected by a variety of protozoan and metazoan parasites, some of them with zoonotic potential, which affect not only their welfare but also population health status. Therefore, we conducted the first epidemiological survey in Colombian free-ranging Antillean manatees to estimate their actual gastrointestinal parasite status.
 Results: In total, 69 faecal samples were collected from free-ranging individual manatees during ecology field studies in the rivers Carare and San Juan and in two associated wetlands in the Andean region of Colombia. Parasite diversity encompassed six different endoparasite species. The highest prevalence was found for protozoan infections with Eimeria nodulosa (47.8%) and Eimeria manatus-like species (type A, B; 43.4%), followed by Entamoeba sp. (14.49%) and Giardia sp. (1.4%) infections. In addition, infections with the trematode Chiorchis fabaceus were detected at a high prevalence (33.3%). Molecular characterization of sirenian Eimeria species led to the distinction of three species, E. nodulosa and two E. manatus-like species (type A, B). Phylogenetic analyses indicated a host-specific adaptation of sirenian Eimeria species as previously reported for Eimeria species from other mammalian hosts.
 Conclusions: This study provides the first record of Antillean manatee infection with Giardia and Entamoeba species in Colombia, representing two important anthropozoonotic parasite genera. This survey should serve as a baseline investigation for future monitoring on parasitic zoonoses in this mammal and encourage investigations on their impact on both public health and wild manatee welfare.
Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge (detail)
Ghost of seagrasses past: using sirenians as a proxy for historical distribution of seagrasses.
Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 400: 41-49. 1 tab. 4 figs. Apr. 15, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Seagrasses are a notable component of shallow marine habitats, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Their fossil record extends back to the Mesozoic, but it is relatively poor and fragmentary, with large temporal and geographical gaps. As a result, very little is known about the paleobiogeography of these plants and how physical drivers, such as climatic or oceanic events, have affected their distribution. One approach is to infer the past distribution of seagrasses using fossils of organisms dependent of seagrasses with more complete records as proxies.
  Seagrass consumers, such as sirenians (seacows, manatees and dugongs), are much better represented in the fossil record than seagrasses are. The characteristically dense bones of sirenians together with the fact that they are usually found in marginal marine environments increases the potential for preservation and recognition of their fossils. The long evolutionary history of sirenians, extending throughout most of the last 50 Ma, together with their diet permits the use of their fossils as a proxy for inferring the paleobiogeography of seagrasses.
  Here I looked at the fossil record of sirenians and seagrasses from the Eocene, through the Miocene epochs. This comparison produced several inferences about seagrass paleobiogeography and how physical drivers, such as climate change, ocean currents and tectonic events, have been influential in their distribution: 1) seagrasses were well-established in the Western Atlantic–Caribbean prior to the middle Eocene, making possible at least two instances of trans-Atlantic sirenian dispersal events, either with the aid of Tethyan currents or along the nearly continuous Northern Atlantic coastline that was present in the Eocene; 2) climatic cooling during the early Oligocene seemed to have limited the extent of seagrasses and sirenians, although these groups recovered and further diversified and expanded their distributions by the late Oligocene in tandem with a climatic warming event; 3) by the Miocene, seagrasses and sirenians reached the southern Western Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific aided by the presence of the Central American Seaway, achieving a distribution similar to, and sometimes, surpassing that of today. The fossil record of sirenians can provide a broad overview of seagrass paleobiogeography through time. However, several aspects, such as when sirenians and seagrasses arrived to Australia and the seemingly late arrival of seagrasses to South America and the Eastern Pacific, still need further investigation.
Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. IX. Metaxytherium albifontanum, sp. nov.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34(2): 444-464. 11 tabs. 15 figs. + supplemental online material. Mar. 2014 (publ. online Mar. 4, 2014).
–ABSTRACT: We describe a new species of the halitheriine dugongid genus Metaxytherium from the late Oligocene of Florida and South Carolina. The new species is represented by cranial and postcranial material, including parts of the axial and appendicular skeleton. Metaxytherium albifontanum, sp. nov., differs from other species of Metaxytherium by the following unique combination of plesiomorphic and derived characters: posterior end of nasal process of premaxilla broad and flat relative to what is observed in most other members of the genus (somewhat resembling M. subapenninum); ventral extremity of jugal under posterior edge of orbit (character 85[1]) (shared with M. krahuletzi); exoccipitals separated in dorsal midline (character 66[1]) (shared with all other species in the genus, except some M. krahuletzi); and innominate with acetabulum (nearly lost or lost in M. crataegense, M. floridanum, M. serresii). This new species was sympatric with two dugongines, Crenatosiren olseni and Dioplotherium manigaulti. The small tusks and cranial morphology of M. albifontanum, sp. nov., indicate that it was likely a consumer of small seagrasses. Our phylogenetic analysis is consistent with previous ones in placing Hydrodamalinae within a paraphyletic Metaxytherium spp. and placing the Metaxytherium spp. + Hydrodamalinae clade as the sister group to Dugonginae. Metaxytherium albifontanum, sp. nov., is the oldest known member of its genus; this might indicate that the group originated in the West Atlantic and Caribbean region and later dispersed to the Old World Tethys region.
Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region: X. Priscosiren atlantica, gen. et sp. nov.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34(4): 951-964. 4 tabs. 9 figs. July 2014 (publ. online July 8, 2014).
–ABSTRACT: We describe a new genus and species of early Oligocene halitheriine dugongid from the Western Atlantic region. Priscosiren atlantica, gen. et sp. nov., differs from all other halitheriine dugongids by displaying the following unique combination of characters: supraorbital processes dorsoventrally thin (?1 cm) with well-developed prominent posterolateral corner; supraoccipitals wider in the dorsal half than the ventral half; exoccipitals meeting dorsal to the foramen magnum; posttympanic process with a prominent anteroventral process for attachment of m. sternomastoideus; nasals separated in midline; ventral extremity of jugal located ventral to orbit; ventral border of mandible strongly concave; absence of accessory mental foramina; dorsoventrally broad horizontal ramus of mandible; loss of all permanent premolars; and concave anteroventral surface of jugal (a possible autapomorphy). Differs further from the similar species Caribosiren turneri in having lesser rostral deflection (of about 44°); presence of small incisors; lower temporal crests; and slightly larger body size. The relationship of Priscosiren with other dugongids places it close to being a structural as well as temporal ancestor to the Metaxytherium + Hydrodamalinae and Dugonginae clades. This supports previous assumptions of a Western Atlantic and Caribbean origin for these groups, and indicates that the halitheriine-dugongine divergence must have occurred no later than the earliest Oligocene. Priscosiren, Caribosiren, and Crenatosiren evidently coexisted in the West Atlantic–Caribbean region, and constitute yet another case of a uniquely patterned fossil sirenian multispecies community.
Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. XI. Callistosiren boriquensis, gen. et sp. nov.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35(1): e885034 (16 pp.). 4 tabs. 11 figs. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2014.885034 Jan. 2015 (publ. online Jan. 26, 2015).
–Spanish summ.
  ABSTRACT: Here we describe a new taxon of late Oligocene dugongine from the Western Atlantic and Caribbean region. Known from cranial and postcranial material, Callistosiren boriquensis, gen. et sp. nov., differs from other members of the group by displaying the following unique combination of characters: nasal process of premaxilla tapering but thickened; supraorbital process of frontal dorsoventrally thin (<2 cm) and well developed with recurved, bluntly pointed posterolateral corner; ventral rim of orbit not overhanging the lateral surface of the jugal; pterygoid fossa tall; tusks large, lozenge- or kite-shaped in cross-section, and with enamel confined to the medial side; lacrimals with thin, elongated dorsal process that is wedged between the premaxilla and frontal; and osteosclerotic but minimally pachyostotic ribs and vertebrae. A phylogenetic analysis places Callistosiren as one of the more basal members of the Dugonginae, but we note that the relationships and taxonomy of more derived members are in need of revision. Characters of the cranial morphology, such as the shape and size of the incisor tusks and the nature of the contact between the premaxilla and frontal, indicate that this new taxon may have fed preferentially on large species of seagrasses and their rhizomes. In addition, possession of osteosclerotic but minimally pachyostotic ribs and vertebrae is a unique feature unknown in other extinct dugongines and may indicate foraging behavior not known from other fossil sirenians.
Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl Paul; Pyenson, Nicholas D. (detail)
Iterative evolution of sympatric seacow (Dugongidae, Sirenia) assemblages during the past ~26 million years.
PLoS ONE 7(2): e31294. 8 pp. 1 tab. 3 figs. + 1 fig. in Supporting Information. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031294. Feb. 3, 2012.
–Available online at:
 ABSTRACT: Extant sirenians show allopatric distributions throughout most of their range. However, their fossil record shows evidence of multispecies communities throughout most of the past ~26 million years, in different oceanic basins. Morphological differences among co-occurring sirenian taxa suggest that resource partitioning played a role in structuring these communities. We examined body size and ecomorphological differences (e.g., rostral deflection and tusk morphology) among sirenian assemblages from the late Oligocene of Florida, early Miocene of India and early Pliocene of Mexico; each with three species of the family Dugongidae. Although overlapping in several ecomorphological traits, each assemblage showed at least one dominant trait in which coexisting species differed. Fossil sirenian occurrences occasionally are monotypic, but the assemblages analyzed herein show iterative evolution of multispecies communities, a phenomenon unparalleled in extant sirenian ecology. As primary consumers of seagrasses, these communities likely had a strong impact on past seagrass ecology and diversity, although the sparse fossil record of seagrasses limits direct comparisons. Nonetheless, our results provide robust support for previous suggestions that some sirenians in these extinct assemblages served as keystone species, controlling the dominance of climax seagrass species, permitting more taxonomically diverse seagrass beds (and sirenian communities) than many of those observed today.
Veléz-Juarbe, Jorge; Noriega, Jorge I.; Ferrero, Brenda S. (detail)
Fossil Dugongidae (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Parana Formation (late Miocene) of Entre Rios Province, Argentina.
Ameghiniana 49(4): 585-593. 1 tab. 4 figs.
–Spanish summ.
Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Wood, Aaron R. (detail)
An early Miocene dugongine (Sirenia: Dugongidae) from Panama.
Jour. Vert. Paleo. 38(5): e1511799 (16 pp.). 4 tabs. 8 figs. "Sept. 2018"; publ. online Feb. 15, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Herein, we describe a new early Miocene dugongine from marine deposits of the Culebra Cut (Gaillard Cut) of the Panama Canal. The new taxon, Culebratherium alemani, gen. et sp. nov., represents one of the few records of late Aquitanian–early Burdigalian sirenians and the oldest sirenian from Central America. A phylogenetic analysis places Culebratherium in a clade with Dioplotherium cf. D. allisoni (Miocene of Brazil), Dioplotherium allisoni (Miocene of Baja California Sur, Mexico, and California, U.S.A.), and Dioplotherium sp. (Pliocene of Yucatan, Mexico). Similar to these taxa, Culebratherium is characterized by the presence of large incisor tusks, a premaxillary symphysis without a boss, a premaxilla-frontal suture forming a butt joint, and a moderately downturned rostrum. In addition, Culebratherium exhibits prominent occipital-cervical attachment sites for enlarged neck musculature. These features taken together are interpreted as adaptations for uprooting large, deeply buried seagrass rhizomes. Other dugongines with similar, yet convergent, dental and facial adaptations are known from earlier or coeval deposits in Puerto Rico, Florida, South Carolina, California, Baja California Sur, Brazil, and India and were constituents of sympatric paleocommunities of sirenians. Only fragmentary evidence of a second smaller and unidentifiable sirenian species is known from the Culebra Formation, but future discoveries may reveal a similar sympatric paleocommunity during the early Miocene of Panama. Finally, we used the results of the phylogenetic analysis to propose the new clade Pan-Sirenia as the most inclusive group consisting of stem and crown groups and redefine the Sirenia, Dugongidae, and Dugonginae clades.
  ["Pan-Sirenia" was previously defined by O'Leary et al., 2013.]
Venkateswarlu, T. (detail)
Marine mammals of the Indian seas.
Environ. Ecol. (Kalyani) 8(3): 1050-1052.
Ventura-Gonzalez, Margarita: SEE Mignucci G., Williams et al., 1999. (detail)
Venzo, Sergio (detail)
La fauna cattiana delle glauconie Bellunesi.
Mem. Ist. Geol. Univ. Padova 13: 1-209. 12 pls.
–Considers Halitherium bellunense to be Chattian (Late Oligocene) in age (7, 13, 196).
Verdon, Michael (detail)
Can boaters and manatees coexist?
Boating World, Mar. 2002: 89-94. 8 figs.
–Nonpartisan account of the disputes between boating interests and environmental groups over manatee protection regulations in Florida.
Vergara, Jociery Einhardt; Parente, Cristiano Leite; Sommerfeld, P. A.; Lima, Régis Pinto de (detail)
Estudo de composição do leite do peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linneaus [sic] 1856) do nordeste do Brasil com inferências para uma dieta artificial.
Ciênc. Vet. Tróp. 3(3): 159-166.
Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt (detail)
Parte I - Resgate, reabilitação e soltura: sirênios. In: Vergara-Parente, J. E. (ed.), Protocolo de conduta para encalhes de mamíferos aquáticos.
Recife, IBAMA: 83-97.
Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Parente, Cristiano Leite; Marmontel, Miriam; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Bezerra Sá, Fabrício (detail)
Growth curve of free-ranging Trichechus inunguis.
Biota Neotropica 10(3): 89-92. 2 figs. July/Sept. 2010 (publ. July 14, 2010).
–Portuguese summ.
Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Parente, Cristiano Leite; Marmontel, Miriam; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Bezerra Sá, Fabrício (detail)
Standard of measurement among local inhabitants in the middle Solimões, occidental Amazonia, and its use in morphometrics of Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883).
Uakari 6(2): 37-43. Dec. 2010.
–Portuguese summ. Measurements of the hand span (tip of thumb to tip of little finger) of 22 Amazonian manatee hunters yielded a mean value of 21.71 cm for the "palmo", the usual unit of measurement they employ for curved-line body lengths of captured manatees. This value differs from some conversion values used in the literature. In the English text of this paper, "palmo" is consistently mistranslated as "inch" rather than "span".
Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Pessoa, A. G. P. E.; Parente, Cristiano Leite; Marcondes, M. M. C.; Teixeira, M. F. S.; Rocha, M. F. G. (detail)
Bacterial flora of upper respiratory tract of captive Antillean manatees.
Aquatic Mammals 29(1): 124-130.
Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Teixeira, M. F. S.; Marcondes, M. M. C.; Rocha, M. F. G. (detail)
Salmonellosis in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) calf: a fatal case.
Aquatic Mammals 29(1): 131-136.
Verhaart, W. J. C. (detail)
Comparative anatomical aspects of the mammalian brain stem and the cord.
Assen (The Netherlands), Konink. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V.: Vol. 1 (text): 1-338; Vol. 2 (tabs. & illus.): 1-311.
–Describes a brain of Manatus (1: 208-213); considers its central nervous system to be degenerate.
Verhaart, W. J. C. (detail)
The brain of the seacow Trichechis [sic].
Psychiatr. Neurol. Neurochir. 75(4): 271-292. 14 figs.
–Redescribes G. Jelgersma's (1934) stained serial sections of a brain of T. manatus.
Veríssimo, José (detail)
A pesca na Amazônia.
Rio de Janeiro, Livr. Classica de Alves & Cia.: 1-206.
–Repr.: Univ. Fed. do Pará: 1-130, 1970. A classic work on Brazilian fisheries. Describes in detail the hunting and past and present economic use of T. inunguis in the Brazilian Amazon (35-40, 55, 92-93, 96, 99-102, 117, 119), including some commercial statistics. Also discusses the use of manatees (T. m. manatus) for food in Maranhão (99; page references here and in the Index are to the 1970 reprint ed.).
Vermeij, Geerat J. (detail)
Biogeography of recently extinct marine species: implications for conservation.
Conserv. Biol. 7(2): 391-397. 1 tab. June 1993.
–Mentions Hydrodamalis gigas as an example of a marine species that became extinct despite having an initially large range (392-394).
Vermeulen, J. (detail)
M.U.L.O. dierkunde voor Suriname. Ed. 6.
Paramaribo: 1-227. 246 figs.
Verne, Jules (detail)
Five weeks in a balloon; or, journeys and discoveries in Africa, by three Englishmen.
New York, D. Appleton & Co.: 1-345. Illus.
Verne, Jules (detail)
The mysterious island.
New York, Scribner, Armstrong & Co.: 1-110. Illus.
–Includes a fanciful account of an encounter with a dugong.
Vernon, Robert Orion (detail)
Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida.
Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull. No. 33: xi + 256. Illus. + geol. map.
–Mentions {"a Manatee rib"} found in the Middle Eocene Avon Park Limestone, New Lebanon Dolomite pit, Levy County, Florida (110).
Veron, G.; Patterson, B. D.; Reeves, Randall R. (detail)
Global diversity of mammals (Mammalia) in freshwater.
Hydrobiologia 595(1): 607-617.
Veron, John: SEE Heinsohn et al., 1985. (detail)
Verrill, Alpheus Hyatt (detail)
Strange animals and their stories. Animals in armor. The land of marsupials. Topsyturvy creatures. Behemoths of Scripture. Giants who took to the sea. Camels of the Andes. The strangest animal of all.
Boston, L. C. Page & Co.: xiv + 235. Illus. Jan. 1939.
–Sirs., 113-115.
Versaggi, Charles S. (detail)
Studies on the structure and function of bone in marine mammals [abstr.].
Science of Biol. Jour. 3(2): 305-306. Mar.-Apr. 1977.
–Mentions sirs. in passing (305) when noting resemblances in bone structure and physiology among secondarily marine vertebrates.
Verschuren, J.: SEE Dupuy & Verschuren, 1977. (detail)
Vessey-Fitzgerald, D. (detail)
Trinidad mammals.
Tropical Agriculture 13(6).
Vetter, W.; Scholz, E.; Gaus, C.; Muller, Jochen F.; Haynes, David (detail)
Anthropogenic and natural organohalogen compounds in blubber of dolphins and dugongs (Dugong dugon) from northeastern Australia.
Arch. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 41(2): 221-231.
Veyra, Rhodora T. D. Ramirez de: SEE Kataoka et al., 1995. (detail)
Via Boada, Luis: SEE ALSO Crusafont-Pairó, M., 1973; Pilleri et al., 1989, 1990; Santafé & Via, 1985. (detail)
Via Boada, Luis (detail)
Un monstruo marino en Vilafranca.
Acción Católica (Vilafranca del Penedès, Spain) No. 33 (Numero Extraord. Dedicado a la Fiesta Mayor de 1950): 8.
Vialleton, L. (detail)
Mammifères pisciformes.In: Membres et ceintures des vertébrés Tétrapodes.
Paris, G. Doin: 372-395.
Vialli, M.: SEE Milani & Vialli, 1928. (detail)
Vianna, Juliana A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Caballero, Susana; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Pinto de Lima, Régis; Clark, Annmarie; Marmontel, Miriam; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Souza, Maria José de; Parr, Leslee; Rodríguez-Lopez, Marta A.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Santos, Fabrício R. (detail)
Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation.
Molec. Ecol. 15(2): 433-447. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
Viaud, Jean-Marc (detail)
Contribution à l'étude des dépôts tertiaires dans la région de Saint-Hilaire-de-Clisson (44).
Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Ouest France (n.s.) 1(3): 146-162. 5 tabs. 4 figs. 6 pls. Sept. 1979.
–Mention of Halitherium.
Vickers, Eddie D. (detail)
Notes on Miocene mammal remains in the Georgia-Florida district.
Georgia Mineral Newsletter (Georgia Geol. Survey) 15(1-2): 28-29. 1 fig. Spring-Summer 1962.
–Records, with a generalized stratigraphic section, sir. rib fragments from fuller's earth mines in Grady and Decatur Counties, Georgia, and Gadsden County, Florida.
Vicq-d'Azyr, Felix (detail)
Quadrupèdes. In: Encyclop. Méthod. Syst. Anat.
Vol. 2: clxiv + 632.
–Sirs., cvii.
Vidal, N.: SEE Richard-Hansen et al., 1999. (detail)
Vidal, O. (detail)
Aquatic mammal conservation in Latin America: problems and perspectives.
Conserv. Biol. 7(4): 788-795. Illus. Dec. 1993.
Vie, J. C.: SEE Richard-Hansen et al., 1999. (detail)
Vieira, Antonio (detail)
Cartas do P. Antonio Vieyra da Companhia de Jesu Tomo Segundo....
Lisboa Occidental, Officina da Congregação do Oratorio: [10] + 479.
–Pp. 25-26 (in "Carta II. A El Rey", dated at Maranhão, Brazil, Feb. 11, 1660; pp. 12-45): {"Chegou finalmente o anno passado de mil seis centos sincoenta e oito o Governador D. Pedro de Mello com as novas da guerra apregoada com os Ollandezes, com os quaes alguma das naçoens dos Nheengaîbas [26] ha muito tempo tinhão commercio, pela vizinhança dos seos portos com os do Cabo do Norte, em que todos os annos carregaõ de peyxe Boy mais de vinte navios de Ollanda...."}
  This letter is the original source of the oft-quoted statement that in the 17th century "more than 20 Dutch ships" a year sailed from Brazil loaded with manatee meat. Their destination is not stated.
Vieira, Carlos O. Da Cunha (detail)
Nova contribuição ao conhecimento dos mamíferos do Rio Juruá.
Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi 10: 239-274.
–Gives skull measurements of 2 young T. inunguis caught on the Rio Juruá near João Pessôa, Brazil, between July 1936 and Feb. 1937. Briefly summarizes the taxonomy of Trichechus, regarding T. senegalensis as a subspecies of T. manatus and coining for it the new combination T. manatus senegalensis (241, 268-269).
Vieira, Carlos O. Da Cunha (detail)
Lista remissiva dos mamíferos do Brasil.
Arq. Zool. (São Paulo) 8(11): 341-474.
–Lists T. inunguis (456) and T. m. manatus (457), with their synonyms and brief summaries of their distributions.
Vieira, João Pedro Dias (detail)
Relatorio apresentado á Assembléa Legislativa Provincial ... no dia 8 de Julho de 1856....
Barra do Rio Negro [= Manaus, Brazil], Typ. de F. J. S. Ramos.
–Repr.: pp. 469-527 in collected Relatorios da Presidencia do Amazonas, 1852-1858, Rio de Janeiro, Typ. Universal de Laemmert, Dec. 1905. Statistics on manatee exploitation, 516, 517, 519 (of 1905 ed.).
Vietmeyer, Noel D.: SEE ALSO Anonymous, 1976f. (detail)
Vietmeyer, Noel D. (detail)
The endangered but useful manatee.
Smithsonian 5(9): 60-65. 6 figs. Dec. 1974.
–Pop. acc. of manatees, their use in weed control, and the manatee research center in Guyana, with photos of Florida manatees and Guyanese canals.
Vietmeyer, Noel D. (detail)
A scheme to save the manatee. In: Proceedings of Symposium on endangered and threatened species of North America.
Washington, D.C., W.C.S.R.C. Wolf Sanctuary (St. Louis, Missouri): 219-221.
Vietmeyer, Noel D. (detail)
The beautiful blue devil.
Nat. Hist. (New York) 84(9): 64-73. 5 figs. Nov. 1975.
–Article on Eichhornia crassipes, mentioning manatees (71), with a photo of a manatee eating a water hyacinth (72-73).
Viguier, Maurice-Gabriel (detail)
Pliocène des environs de Montpellier.
C.R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci. 20(2): 405-416. Tabs. 1 fig.
–Mentions Halitherium sp.
Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Lima, Camilla S.; Mazzoni, Camila J.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Thoisy, Benoit de (detail)
Manatee genomics supports a special conservation area along the Guianas coastline under the influence of the Amazon River plume.
Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science 226(1): 106286. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Oct. 15, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) occurs along the Atlantic coastline and the adjacent freshwater systems of South, Central and North America, from Alagoas (Brazil) to Florida (USA) and the Greater Antilles. The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is the only sirenian adapted exclusively to freshwater and is endemic to the Amazon River basin. Previous studies have reported hybrids between T. inunguis and T. manatus close to the Amazon River mouth, likely composing an extensive hybrid zone under the influence of the Amazon River plume along the Guianas coast in South America. We have generated ddRAD SNP data, and sequences of nuclear and mtDNA loci to characterize the manatees' genomic composition along the French Guiana coastline. Using analyses and simulations to examine the process of hybridization, we found this population to be formed by introgressed or later generation interspecific hybrids. We also describe the first pure T. inunguis found outside the Amazon River basin. Our results indicate that T. inunguis can survive in the Amazon River plume and have colonized independent water streams of the Guianas coastline where they likely hybridize with T. manatus. This hypothesis offers a plausible explanation for the known extension of the hybrid zone between the two species along the Guianas coastline. It also reinforces the importance of the Amazon plume, which flows westwards to the Guianas coastline and favors the dispersion of the freshwater species. The Amazon plume functions as a large estuary-like system that provides an ecological continuum from the Amazon River mouth to the disconnected waterflows of the Guianas, which deserves status as a special conservation area.
Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Santos, Fabrício R. (detail)
Complete mitochondrial genome of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris, Sirenia).
Genetics & Molecular Biology 42(4): e20190210. 2 figs. Feb. 3, 2020.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered subspecies of the West Indian manatee (T. manatus), which inhabits inland and marine waters of southeastern United States. In this study, we assembled the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of the Florida manatee from whole genome shotgun reads. As a result, we show that the currently annotated T. manatus mtDNA belongs to a different species, the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis). The newly assembled Florida manatee mtDNA is 16,881 bp in length, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and one non-coding control region (D-loop). Phylogenetic analysis based on the control region indicates the newly assembled mtDNA is haplotype A01, characteristic of T. m. latirostris, while the current mtDNA associated with the Florida manatee genome assembly has a Ti02 haplotype that is found in Amazonian manatees and hybrids.
Villa-Ramírez, Bernardo; Colmenero-Rolón, Luz del Carmen (detail)
Presencia y distribución de los manatíes o tlacamichin, Trichechus manatus Linneo 1782, en México.
An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México (Ser. Zool.) 51(1): 703-707. 1 tab. 2 figs. Dec. 28, 1981.
–Briefly summarizes manatee distribution records obtained in a questionnaire, interview, and aerial survey of southeastern Mexico. The term "tlacamichin" is not explained.
Villiers, A.: SEE Bessac & Villiers, 1948. (detail)
Vincent, J.: SEE Fisher et al., 1969. (detail)
Vincent, Thierry (detail)
[Occurrence of a dugong, Dugong dugon (Mueller, 1776) (Mammalia, Sirenia, Dugongidae) in October 1994, near Hurghada (Egypt) in the Red Sea.]
Ann. Inst. Oceanographique 72(2): 179-183.
–In French; Engl. summ.
Vine, Peter; Schmid, H. (detail)
Red Sea explorers.
London, Immel Publishing: 1-206.
Violante-Huerta, Marco; Suárez-Morales, E. (detail)
The epiphytic copepod Metis holothuriae (Edwards, 1891) (Harpacticoida), a new epibiont of the Caribbean manatee.
Crustaceana 89(5): 639-644. DOI 10.1163/15685403-00003538. Published online May 30, 2016.
Violante-Huerta, Marco; Díaz-Gamboa, Raúl; Ordóñez-López, Uriel (detail)
Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus (Sirenia: Trichechidae) as a motile ecosystem of epibiont fauna in the Caribbean Sea, Mexico.
Therya 8(3): 273-276. 1 tab. 1 fig. DOI: 10.12933/therya-17-517 ISSN 2007-3364. Publ. online Sept. 26, 2017.
–Spanish summ.
 ABSTRACT: The study of epibionts allows inferring ecological, biogeographic and health aspects of the host species (basibiont), and their study on marine mammals is scarce. The aim of this work was to characterize the epibiont fauna associated with the skin of captive individuals of the West Indian manatee in three sites from the Mexican Caribbean. In autumn 2014, 22 dorsal skin scrapings were collected from 11 captive manatees. The biological material was scraped off the skin with a blunt spatula, covering 100 cm2 of sampled area of the dorsal skin of each manatee. Samples were immediately fixed in 8% formalin solution and placed in labeled vials for laboratory analysis. We used specialized literature to identify epibionts at the lowest taxonomic level possible. A total of 1,353 individuals from 31 taxa were found, belonging to eight phyla. Twenty-nine taxa are new records of epibionts from sirenians. The nematodes Monhystera sp. and Rabdolaimus sp., the adult and larvae of copepods from the Order Harpacticoida, the foraminifer Ammonia sp. and the rotifer Lecane sp. were the dominant epibionts. These new interactions may suggest that in the Caribbean Sea, manatee skin represents a nutrient-rich substrate for an opportunistic fauna that is more diverse than previously estimated.
Viret, Jean (detail)
Siréniens (fossiles). In: P.-P. Grassé (ed.), Traité de Zoologie.
Paris, Masson & Cie: Vol. 17(1): 993-1001. Figs. 953-960.
Vivekanandan, E.; Jeyabaskaran, R. (detail)
Marine mammal species of India.
Kochi (India), Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute: 1-228.
Vivien, Jacques: SEE Depierre & Vivien, 1992. (detail)
Vogel, Dr.: SEE Shaw, N., 1857. (detail)
Vogelbein, Wolfgang: SEE Dailey et al., 1988. (detail)
Vogelsang, Enrique G.: SEE Khalil & Vogelsang, 1932; Travassos & Vogelsang, 1931. (detail)
Vogt, C.; Specht, F. (detail)
Die Säugetiere in Wort und Bild.
–Manatee illustration, reproduced by Matthies (1994).
Vogt, H.-H. (detail)
Seekühe gegen die Algenplage.
Tauchen 2(11): 58.
Voigt, E.: SEE Hucke & Voigt, 1929. (detail)
Voisin, Marie Estelle (detail)
Mieux connaître le lamantin ouest africain Trichechus senegalensis.
[Dakar?], Wetlands International/Programme Régional de Conservation de la Zone Côtiere et Marine en Afrique de l'Ouest (PRCM): [1]-19. Illus.
–Colorful and informative paperback booklet for primary-school children.
Von Zharen, Wyndylyn M. (detail)
The role of law in protecting sirenians and their habitat in developing nations. Chap. 26 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 235-242.
Vondra, Carl F. (detail)
Upper Eocene transitional and near-shore marine Qasr el Sagha Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt.
Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4: 79-94. 6 figs.
–Notes the stratigraphic occurrence of sirs. in the Fayum (83-84).
Voorhies, Barbara: SEE Stark & Voorhies, 1978. (detail)
Voorhies, Michael R.: SEE ALSO Frey et al., 1975. (detail)
Voorhies, Michael R. (detail)
An Eocene sea cow tooth from Twiggs County, Georgia. [Abstr.]
Bull. Georgia Acad. Sci. 27(2): 93-94. Apr. 1969.
–Reports a lower molar from the Upper Eocene Ocala Formation, and states incorrectly that it was "the first Eocene sirenian known from the United States." In the end it turned out not even to be a sir., but rather an entelodont (see Domning, Morgan & Ray, 1982: 3).
Voorhies, Michael R. (detail)
Vertebrate fossils of coastal Georgia; a field geologist's guide.
Georgia Geol. Soc. Guidebook No. 8: 81-102.
Voorhies, Michael R. (detail)
Late Miocene terrestrial mammals, Echols County, Georgia.
Southeast. Geol. 15(4): 223-235. 9 figs. Apr. 1974.
–Reports sir. rib fragments associated with Barstovian land mammals in the Statenville Local Fauna (228).
Vorderman, A. G. (detail)
Enhalus koeningii Rich. als voedingsgewas in Bantam.
Teysmannia 4: 705-709.
Vorontsov, N. N. (detail)
Pochemu morskaya korova sokhranyalas' na Komandorakh? [Why had the sea cow persisted in the Commander Islands?]
Priroda 62(11): 124. Nov. 1973.
–In Russian. Concludes that Hydrodamalis formerly inhabited the entire North Pacific littoral, and was exterminated by aboriginal hunters everywhere but in the Commander Islands, which humans had not reached.
Vorontsov, N. N. (detail)
[Macromutation and evolution: the fixation of Goldschmidt's macromutation as species and genus traits. Hairlessness mutations in mammals.]
Genetika 24(6): 1081-1088. June 1988.
–In Russian.
Vosburgh, Frederick G.: SEE Truslow & Vosburgh, 1967. (detail)
Voss (Voß), Manja (detail)
New finds of Halitherium (Sirenia, Mammalia) from the lower Oligocene of the Rhine area, Germany.
Neues Jb. Geol. Pal. Abh. 249(3): 257-269. 2 tabs. 10 figs. DOI: 10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0249-0257 Sept. 2008.
Voss (Voß), Manja (detail)
Character evolution, homoplasy and interrelationships of Sirenia.
Zitteliana B 29: 103.
Voss (Voß), Manja (detail)
A new sea cow record from the lower Oligocene of western Germany: new indications on the skeletal morphology of Halitherium schinzii (Mammalia: Sirenia).
Paläontol. Zs. 86: 205-217. 10 figs. DOI: 10.1007/s12542-011-0125-x. Published online Nov. 19, 2011.
–German summ.
Voss (Voß), Manja (detail)
On the invalidity of Halitherium schinzii Kaup, 1838 (Mammalia, Sirenia), with comments on systematic consequences.
Zoosyst. Evol. 90(1): 87-93. 3 figs. DOI 10.3897/zse.90.7421
Voss (Voß), Manja; Asbach, P.; Hilger, A. (detail)
Vertebral anomaly in fossil sea cows (Mammalia, Sirenia).
Anat. Rec. 294(6): 980-986.
Voss (Voß), Manja; Berning, Björn; Reiter, Erich (detail)
A taxonomic and morphological re-evaluation of "Halitherium" cristolii Fitzinger, 1842 (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the late Oligocene of Austria, with the description of a new genus.
European Journal of Taxonomy 256: 1-32. 5 tabs. 10 figs. DOI: Dec. 30, 2016.
–ABSTRACT: The fossil sirenian material from the upper Oligocene Linz Sands of Upper Austria is reviewed and re-described in detail following a recent approach on the invalidity of the genus Halitherium Kaup, 1838. This morphological study provides the first evidence for the synonymy of "Halitherium" cristolii Fitzinger 1842, "H." abeli Spillmann, 1959 and "H." pergense (Toula, 1899), supporting the hypothesis that only a single species inhabited the late Oligocene shores of present-day Upper Austria. In the course of the taxonomic revision of the "Halitherium" species-complex, this taxon is now assigned to the new genus Lentiarenium Voss gen. nov. It represents a more derived sirenian compared to Eocene and early Oligocene taxa distributed across Central Europe and North Africa, which is in accordance with the stratigraphical data. An updated inventory list of all identifiable and referable skeletal material is provided, including a detailed synonymy list for the new taxonomic combination.
Voss (Voß), Manja; Hampe, O.; Mata Lleonart, R.; Ferrer Lopez, J. (detail)
Fossil sea cow remains (Mammalia: Sirenia) on paving stones in the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain).
Voss (Voß), Manja; Sorbi, Silvia; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
Morphological and systematic re-assessment of the late Oligocene "Halitherium" bellunense reveals a new crown group genus of Sirenia.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 62(1): 163-172. 2 tabs. 2 figs. Publ. online March 6, 2017.
Voss, Manja; Hampe, Oliver (detail)
Evidence for two sympatric sirenian species (Mammalia, Tethytheria)in the early Oligocene of Central Europe.
Jour. Paleontology 91(2): 337-367. DOI: Mar. 2017 (publ. online Jan. 1, 2017.)
–ABSTRACT: The early Oligocene (Rupelian) sirenian Halitherium schinzii Kaup, 1838, which represents the type species of the genus Halitherium Kaup, 1838, is revised herein based on a morphological re-evaluation of skeletal material originally assigned to this taxon. This study provides new and comprehensive information on the cranial and postcranial anatomy and allows the distinction of two sympatric species. Following a recent approach on the invalidity and subsequent rejection of H. schinzii Kaup, 1838, Kaupitherium gruelli new genus new species is established on the basis of a nearly complete holotype. The second taxon resembles K. gruelli n. sp. in a number of skeletal features, such as reduced nasals and absence of the canines, but can be clearly distinguished mainly by the post-canine dental formula and the supraoccipital morphology. The diagnostic skullcap of a species formerly synonymized under "H. schinzii" is re-validated as the holotype of K. bronni (Krauss, 1858). On the basis of paleoecological implications, a hypothesis is established to explain the overlapping stratigraphic and biogeographic occurrences (i.e., sympatry of both taxa). A diagnosis and up-to-date synonymy complement the taxonomical information. The revision of "H. schinzii" provides new data on the past sirenian diversity and forms the basis for a taxonomic and systematic re-evaluation of species originally grouped in the genus "Halitherium."
Vosseler, J.: SEE ALSO Hentschel & Vosseler, 1915. (detail)
Vosseler, J. (detail)
Aus dem Leben ostafrikanischer Säuger.
Zool. Beob. 48: 225-241.
Vosseler, J. (detail)
Pflege und Haltung der Seekühe (Trichechus) nebst Beiträgen zu ihrer Biologie.
Pallasia (Dresden) 2(2): 58-67, 113-133, pls. 5-6; 2(3): 167-180, 213-230, 2 tabs. 2 figs.
–Perhaps the most elaborate anecdotal account of the captive biology of sirs. yet written. After listing and discussing 24 instances of manatees kept in captivity (59-63), Vosseler describes the capture and transport of two T. inunguis from Brazil to Germany, and gives detailed advice on transporting manatees by sea and land (63-67, 113-114). He then describes many aspects of the biology and life in captivity of the two Amazonian specimens in Hamburg, including: captive conditions (114-119), feeding (including coprophagy and eating meat and fish) and defecation (119-129), illnesses (129-133), growth and external measurements (167-173), supposed sexual dimorphism of the tail, flipper, and head (173-175), sexual behavior (175-180), characteristics of the epidermis (213-217), experiments on their senses of taste and smell (217-220), appearance of their eyes (220), hearing (220-221), movements, breathing, sleep, and locomotion on land (221-225). (Their subsequent fatal illnesses are described in Vosseler, 1930.) Notes that their feeding and activity are not exclusively nocturnal (226), and that manatees are compatible with other species in zoo exhibits (227); extols the value of sirs. to zoos and the relative ease of keeping them (228-230).
  Finally and most unexpectedly, this work includes some (rather insignificant) observations and remarks on Dugong in German East Africa and the author's unsuccessful attempts to determine whether they use their tusks in feeding (225-226).
Vosseler, J. (detail)
Krankheit und Tod des Hamburger Sirenenpaares.
Zs. Säugetierk. 5(6): 362-364. Dec. 22, 1930.
–Reports the deaths of a long-captive pair of T. inunguis from enteritis and fungal infection, ascribed to an accidental change in water temperature.
Vousden, D. H. (detail)
Dugong herd.
New Scientist 1450: 47.
–Letter to the editor.
Vrolik, Willem Th. (detail)
Bijdrage tot de natuur- en ontleedkundige kennis van den Manatus Americanus.
Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (Amsterdam, Koninklijk Zoologisch Genootschap Natura Artis Magistra) Afl. 4, D. 1, Afd. 2 [?]: 53-80. 6 pls.
–Publ. 1851? Detailed account of the external morphology, osteology, dentition, digestive tract, heart, larynx, penis, and other organs of T. manatus.
Vúletin, Alberto (detail)
Zoonimia Andina (nomenclador zoológico).
Publ. Univ. Nac. de Tucumán, Fac. Filos. y Letras, Inst. Ling. Folklore y Arq. (Santiago del Estero, Argentina) No. 807: 1-204. 28 figs. 1 map. Nov. 14, 1960.
–Brief gen. acc. of T. manatus, the use of its meat and hide, the origin of the name "manatí", and its occurrence in the Rio Orinoco and Lake Maracaibo; also indicates (possibly by a misprint) that it is found on "the coasts of Chile" (124).
Vyvyan, C. C. (detail)
Cornhill Mag. 154: 366-379. Sept. 1938.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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