Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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W

 
 
Wacher, T. (detail)
   
1990
Annex 3, Vertebrate ecology. In: V. C. Gilbert & A. Camara (eds.), Kiang West National Park, an integrated conservation and village development project.
Banjul, Biodiversity Support Program, with support from USAID/The Gambia and Ministry of Water Resources, Forestry & Fisheries.
–Manatees at Jali Bolon (recent), Bintang Bolon south of Keneba (in 1990), near Lamin, and Darsilami Tenda (3).
 
 
Wack (detail)
   
1901
[Title?]
Field & Stream 5(12): 737. Jan. 1901.
–Brief account of manatees in Florida.
Waddell, Victor G.: SEE Springer et al., 1997; Stanhope et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Wagler, Joh. (detail)
   
1830
Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugthiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie.
Munich, Stuttgart & Tübingen, J. G. Cotta'schen Buchhandlung: vi + 354.
–Allen 754. Manatus, 32; Halicore and Rytina, 33.
Wagner, Johann Andreas: SEE Schreber & Wagner, 1846. (detail)
x
 
Wagner, Roy (detail)
   
1982
The ri - unidentified aquatic animals of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.
Cryptozoology 1: 33-39. 4 figs. Winter 1982.
–Recounts native stories of "ri", describes his own sighting of one, and concludes that they are not dugongs.
x
 
Wagner, Roy (detail)
   
1985
The nature of the ri (response to Sibert, Ellis, and Britton). [P. 156] Objective evaluation lacking (response to Beckjord).
Cryptozoology 3: 149-151, 156. Apr. 1985.
–Two responses to comments by others on the "ri" of New Ireland. Agrees with Britton that it might be a small beluga whale.
x
 
Wagner, Roy; Greenwell, J. Richard; Raymond, Gale J.; Nieda, Kurt von (detail)
   
1983
Further investigations into the biological and cultural affinities of the ri.
Cryptozoology 2: 113-125. 6 figs. Winter 1983.
–Describes additional sightings of the "ri" or "ilkai" in New Ireland, and gives related information obtained from Barok and Susurunga villagers. Again concludes that the animals are not dugongs. Includes two inconclusive photos of a ri surfacing.
 
 
Wagner, Rudolf (detail)
   
1843
Lehrbuch der Anatomie der Wirbelthiere.
Leipzig: 1-296.
–Sirs., 12.
Waitkuwait, Ekkehard: SEE Roth & Waitkuwait, 1986. (detail)
Wakai, Yoshihito: SEE ALSO Aketa et al., 2001, 2003; Kataoka et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Wakai, Yoshihito (detail)
   
1997
Keeping dugongs and conservation activities in Toba Aquarium.
Aquabiology (Tokyo) 19(1)(108): 25-28. 4 figs. Feb. 1997.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Wakai, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Shinji; Asano, Shiro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi (detail)
   
2002
Annual changes of urinary progesterone and estradiol 17β of the dugong (Dugong dugon) in captivity.
Zoological Science (Tokyo) 19(6): 679-682. June 2002.
Wake, Judith Ann: SEE Heinsohn et al. (detail)
Wako, Ryo: SEE Suzuki & Wako, 1987. (detail)
x
 
Waldeyer, W. (detail)
   
1886
Beiträge zur normalen und vergleichenden Anatomie des Pharynx mit besonderer Beziehung auf den Schlingweg.
Sitzb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (Berlin) 1886(1): 233-250. Read Feb. 25, 1886.
–Describes the pharynx of Manatus americanus (245-246, 248).
x
 
Waldeyer, W. (detail)
   
1892
Über den feineren Bau des Magens und Darmkanales von Manatus americanus.
Sitzb. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (Berlin) 1892(8): 79-85. Feb. 18, 1892 (read Feb. 11, 1892).
–Describes the anatomy and histology of the digestive tract, with considerable attention to the musculature of the gut walls.
Waldheim, Gotthelf Fischer von: SEE Fischer von Waldheim, Gotthelf. (detail)
Waldron, John C.: SEE Powell & Waldron, 1981. (detail)
 
 
Walker, Braz (detail)
   
1975
Oddball fishes and other strange creatures of the deep.
New York, Sterling Publ. Co.; London, Oak Tree Press Co.: 1-192. Illus.
Walker, Cecil M.: SEE Cardeilhac et al., 1981. (detail)
x
 
Walker, Jane L.; Macko, Stephen A. (detail)
   
1999
Dietary studies of marine mammals using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios of teeth.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(2): 314-334. 4 tabs. 1 fig. Apr. 5, 1999.
–Florida manatees were found to have the lowest δ15N values and the heaviest δ13C values among marine mammals, reflecting herbivorous diets and diets high in seagrasses, respectively.
x
 
Walker, Kath (detail)
   
1972
Stradbroke dreamtime.
Sydney, Angus & Robertson: 1-120. Illus.
–Later ed.: Sydney, Angus & Robertson: 1-64, 1982. An Aboriginal woman's reminiscences of netting and eating dugongs in Queensland (71-74).
 
 
Walker, M. J. (detail)
   
1973
How wild animals help people.
Defenders Wildl. News 48: 327-329.
 
 
Walker, S. M. (detail)
   
1999
Manatees.
Minneapolis, Carolrhoda Books Inc. ("A Carolrhoda Nature Watch Book"): 1-48.
x
 
Wall, William P. (detail)
   
1983
The correlation between high limb-bone density and aquatic habits in Recent mammals.
Jour. Pal. 57(2): 197-207. 2 tabs. 3 figs. Mar. 1983.
–Compares bone densities of T. manatus and other mammals; considers the high density of sir. bones an adaptation for reducing buoyancy during shallow dives.
x
 
Wallace, Alfred Russell (detail)
   
1853
Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro.
London, Reeve & Co.: viii + 541.
–Ed. 2: London, Ward, Lock, & Co., 1889. Gives a mostly accurate gen. acc. of the Amazonian manatee's external and internal appearance, habits, and exploitation (185-187, 458-461).
 
 
Wallace, Alfred Russell (detail)
   
1876
The geographical distribution of animals.
New York (2 vols.): Vol. 1: xv + 503; Vol. 2: ix + 607. Illus.
–Sirs., 1: 502, 2: 210.
x
 
Wallace, Alfred Russell (detail)
   
1883
Australasia. In: Stanford's compendium of geography and travel. Ed. 3.
London, Edward Stanford: xx + 672.
–P. 54: {"... [O]n the warmer coasts of Queensland is found the sea-cow or dugong (Halicore australis), allied to the animal found in the Indian seas, but believed to be a distinct species."}
Wallace, Richard L.: SEE ALSO Rathbun & Wallace, 2000. (detail)
 
 
Wallace, Richard L. (detail)
   
1994
The Florida manatee recovery program: organizational learning and a model for improving recovery programs. In: T. W. Clark, R. P. Reading, & A.L. Clarke (eds.), Endangered species recovery: finding the lessons, improving the process.
Washington, D.C. & Covelo (Calif.), Island Press (xi + 450 pp.): 131-155. Illus.
 
 
Wallace, Richard L.; Clark, Tim W. (detail)
   
1999
Solving problems in endangered species conservation: an introduction to problem orientation.
Endangered Species Update 16(2): 28-34. Illus. Mar.-Apr. 1999.
–Also in Endang. Sp. Update 19(4): 81-86, July-Aug. 2002?
Wallach, Joel D.: SEE Boever et al., 1976. (detail)
 
 
Waller, Ben I. (detail)
   
1970
Some occurrences of Paleo-Indian projectile points in Florida waters.
Florida Anthropologist 23(4): 129-134.
 
 
Waller, Geoffrey (detail)
   
1996
Sirenians. In: G. Waller (ed.), Sealife: a complete guide to the marine environment.
East Sussex, Pica Press; South Africa, Russel Friedman; Netherlands & Belgium, GMB (504 pp.): 413-420. Figs. 308-318.
–Good gen. acc. of the morphology and biology of manatees and dugongs.
 
 
Walls, Gordon Lynn (detail)
   
1942
The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation.
Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull. (Bloomfield Hills, Michigan) No. 19: xiv + 785. Illus. Aug. 1942.
–Later eds.: New York, Hafner, 1963, 1967. Sirs., 408-410, 447.
Walsh, Catherine J.: SEE Bossart et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Walsh, Catherine J.; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; De Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2015
Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
Aquatic Toxicology 161: 73-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.01.019
–ABSTRACT: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats off Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus overall health, in the Florida manatee.
 
 
Walsh, Catherine J.; Stuckey, J. E.; Cox, H.; Smith, B.; Funke, C.; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Colle, C.; Gaspard, J.; Manire, Charles A. (detail)
   
2007
Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Veter. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118(3-4): 199-209.
x
 
Walsh, Kathleen (detail)
   
1989
Manatees.
Ranger Rick (Natl. Wildlife Federation) 23(6): 4-9. 6 figs. + fig. on pp. 2-3. June 1989.
–Children's article on Florida manatees, with excellent underwater color photos.
Walsh, Michael T.: SEE ALSO Duignan et al., 1995; Upton et al., 1989. (detail)
 
 
Walsh, Michael T.; Bossart, Gregory D. (detail)
   
1999
Manatee medicine. In: M. E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (eds.), Zoo and wild animal medicine: current therapy. 4th Ed.
Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co. (xxiii + 747 pp.): 507-516. Illus.
 
 
Walsh, Michael T.; Blyde, David J. (detail)
   
2017
Sirenian health and well-being in managed care. Chap. 20 in: Andy Butterworth (ed.), Marine mammal welfare: human induced change in the marine environment and its impacts on marine mammal welfare.
Springer International Publishing: Animal Welfare Series, Vol. 17: 359-380. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46994-2. June 20, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: The recorded history of Sirenia species in managed care is short and quite variable with many areas of early efforts poorly documented with anecdotal material. The three extant Sirenia species of the Trichechidae family and the one extant species of the Dugongidae family are all listed as threatened by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature). Initially hunted as a source of food in many locations, our understanding of their physiology, history, and role in the environment was slow to develop. Early literature on human interaction contributed by scientists, anatomists, and the curiosity of those who wished to share their involvement with the species was fragmented but important. Managed care of Sirenia in zoos and aquariums was initially catalyzed by a desire to show these strange animals to the public, but has morphed into a developing concern for the conservation of Sirenia populations. Public and scientific concern for the species led to protective measures in some of their ecosystems with improvements in our understanding of their biology, genetics, reproduction, disease challenges, and the influence of humans on their welfare. This evolution of public involvement led to rescue and rehabilitation efforts by aquariums, zoos, state, and federal agencies to intervene in individual animal health. Research into human mortality causes also supported better documentation of natural illnesses that affect the population's survival. The Florida manatee rehabilitation programs and Australian dugong efforts illustrate the intersection of science, medicine, and ecosystem health in advocating the needs of these unique animals and what is required to support their survival and encourage recovery. As we intersect with Sirenia in rehabilitation and exhibit exposure for encouraging public support, it is important to provide suitable habitats for health and welfare and design their environments to their special needs while increasing protection of the wild habitats.
x
 
Walsh, Michael T.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Young, W. Glenn, Jr.; Rose, Patrick M. (detail)
   
1987
Omphalitis and peritonitis in a young West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 23(4): 702-704.
–Describes necropsy findings in a newborn female manatee from the west coast of Florida, which died of septicemia apparently originating at the umbilicus.
 
 
Walsh, Michael T.; Murphy, David; Innis, Sheila M. (detail)
   
1999
Pneumotosis intestinalis in orphan manatees (Trichicus [sic] manatus): diagnosis, pathological findings and potential therapy.
Intl. Assoc. Aquat. Animal Med. Proc. 30: 1.
–Abstract only?
 
 
Walter, Jaime (Ed.) (detail)
   
1967
Frei Cristóvão de Lisboa: História dos animais e ávores do Maranhão.
Lisbon, Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino e Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos: xii + 159. Illus.
–Facsimile, with biography, transcript, modern version, and notes, of a MS. dating from 1624-36. See also Whitehead (1977: 176-178), according to whom this is the first Brazilian record to provide a description, drawing, and firm locality of a manatee (T. m. manatus).
x
 
Walters, Mark J. (detail)
   
1985
Marvelous, magnificent manatees.
Reader's Digest 127(760): 171-172, 175-176. 3 figs. Aug. 1985.
–Pop. acc. of manatees in Florida.
Walton, P. J.: SEE Miyake et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Walton, William, Jr. (detail)
   
1810
Present state of the Spanish colonies, including a particular report of Hispañola, or the Spanish part of Santo Domingo; with a general survey of the settlements on the south continent of America.
London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown (2 vols.). Illus.
Walz, Daniel A.: SEE Shoshani et al., 1986. (detail)
 
 
Wamukoya, G.M.; Mirangi, J.M.; Ottichillo, W.K. (detail)
   
1996
Report on the marine aerial survey of marine mammals, sea turtles, sharks and rays.
Kenya Wildlife Service Technical Series Report No. 1: 1-22.
 
 
Wamukoya, G.M.; Ottichilo, W.K.; Salm, Rodney (detail)
   
1997
Aerial survey of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Ungwana Bay and the Lamu Archipelago, Kenya.
Kenya Wildlife Service Technical Series Report No. 2: 1-13.
Wang, Guangjie: SEE Dong et al., 1992. (detail)
x
 
Wang, Peilie (detail)
   
1993
Fauna of marine mammals in China.
Acta Oceanologica Sinica 12(2): 273-278. 1 tab.
–Records the presence of Dugong dugon in the South China Sea and in coastal waters of Taiwan (275-278).
 
 
Wang, Peilie; Sun, Jianyun (detail)
   
1986
Distribution of the dugong off the coast of China.
Acta Theriol. Sinica 6(3): 175-181. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Aug. 1986.
–In Chinese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Wang, Peilie; Han, Jiabo; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Nianbin (detail)
   
2007
Survey on the resource status of dugongs in Hainan Province, China.
Acta Theriologica Sinica 27(1): 68-73. 4 tabs. 1 fig.
–In Chinese; Engl. summ.
 
 
Wang, Zuyan (detail)
   
1989
Manatee, an ugly treasure.
Nature (Beijing) No. 37: 46-47. Aug. 8, 1989.
–In Chinese.
Wanless, Harold: SEE Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
x
 
Ward, Henry L. (detail)
   
1887
The pelvis of the dugong.
Science 9(226): 536. 1 fig. June 3, 1887.
–Describes accurately the orientation of the pelvis and the composition of the vertebral column, based on examination of 6 ligamentary skeletons.
 
 
Ward, Lauck W. (detail)
   
2005
John Finch and the first geological description of the cliffs at Stratford Hall[,] March, 1824. In: L.W. Ward & A.C. Dooley, Jr. (eds.), Geology and paleontology of the Stratford Hall Plantation and Westmoreland State Park. 35th Annual Virginia Geological Field Conference September 23-25, 2005.
Virginia Mus. Nat. Hist. Guidebook No. 5: 43-46.
Ward, Leslie I.: SEE ALSO Flamm, Ward, & Weigle, 2000; Wright et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Ward, Leslie I.; Weigle, Bradley L. (detail)
   
1993
To save a species: GIS for manatee research and management.
GIS World 6(8): 34-37. Cover illus. + 4 figs. Aug. 1993.
Ward, T. M.: SEE Marsh et al., 1993, Marsh, Corkeron et al., 1995. (detail)
 
 
Wargasasmita, S. (detail)
   
1985
Manatee and other herbivorous animals. In: Proc. [of symposium on?] Ecology & Management of Aquatic Vegetation in the Tropics, Mar. 26-29, 1985.
Jakarta, Univ. of Indonesia: p. WVI/19-9. [?]
x
 
Warhol, Patricia (detail)
   
1982
Steller's sea cow: gentle giant of the North Pacific.
Whalewatcher (Jour. Amer. Cetacean Soc.) 16(1): 10-12. 3 figs. Spring 1982.
–Pop. acc. of Hydrodamalis gigas, with an artist's reconstruction by Pamela Vesterby. See also R. K. Bonde (1982).
 
 
Warren, George (detail)
   
1667
An impartial description of Surinam upon the continent of Guiana in America. With a history of several strange beasts, birds, fishes, serpents, insects, and customs of that colony, &c.
London, N. Brooke: 1-28.
–Various later eds. Manatee, 2 (quoted in Husson, 1978): "There is another [fish], call'd the Manatee, who feeds upon Bushes by the River side, gives suck like a Cow, and eats more like Flesh than Fish.'
x
 
Warren, J. C. (detail)
   
1849
[Presentation of the stuffed skin and skeleton of an American manati.]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 3: 199. Nov. 21, 1849.
–Briefly notes the existence of two manatee species (Manatus Senegalensis and M. Americanus). Prof. [Louis] Agassiz remarked that "the skin was the only one of this animal in any scientific collection" [in America?], although some bones were in collections in Philadelphia and Charleston.
x
 
Warren, John Esaias (detail)
   
1851
Para; or, scenes and adventures on the banks of the Amazon.
New York, G. P. Putnam: 1-271.
–Brief account of the manatee (149).
 
 
Wartzok, Douglas; Ketten, Darlene R. (detail)
   
1999
Marine mammal sensory systems. Chap. 4 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 117-175. 3 tabs. 14 figs.
Watanabe, Gen: SEE Wakai et al., 2002. (detail)
 
D
Watanabe, Kagetaka (detail)
   
1953
Some considerations on the geological horizons of desmostylids from the Chichibu basin, Saitama Prefecture and from other localities of Honshu, Japan.
Bull. Chichibu Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 3: 43-60. Illus.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ.
 
D
Watanabe, Kagetaka; Iwahori, Shojiro (detail)
   
1952
Stratigraphical studies of the Tertiary strata in the Toki basin, Gifu Prefecture.
Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan 58(684 [983?]): 433-443. Illus.
–In Japanese; Engl. summ. Desmostylus.
 
D
Watanabe, Masayo; Kimura, Masaichi (detail)
   
2002
[Chap. 4: Description and classification of desmostylian fossils from the second locality, 1999-2000 (fourth and fifth expeditions).] In: [Research report on Akan vertebrate fossils (second report).]
Akan City (Japan), Akan City Board of Education, Akan Vertebrate Fossil Study Group: 54-75. 8 tabs. 22 figs. 5 pls. Mar. 2002.
–In Japanese.
 
 
Waterhouse, George Robert (detail)
   
1838
Catalogue of the Mammalia preserved in the Museum of the Zoological Society of London. Ed. 2.
London, Zoological Society (printed by Richard & John E. Taylor): 1-68.
–Allen 948. P. 35: {"Dugong.... From Sumatra./Halicore Dugong. F. Cuv./Presented by Sir T. S. Raffles."}
Waterstrat, P.: SEE White, Francis-Floyd & Waterstrat, 1984. (detail)
Watkins, W. A.: SEE Schevill & Watkins, 1965. (detail)
x
 
Watson, Alastair G.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
1986
Congenital malformations of the flipper in three West Indian manatees, Trichechus manatus, and a proposed mechanism for development of ectrodactyly and cleft hand in mammals.
Clinical Orthopaedics 202: 294-301. 6 figs. Jan. 1986.
–Describes 3 cases of complete or partial absence of digits found among 784 manatee carcasses salvaged in the southeastern USA.
x
 
Watson, Ernest (detail)
   
1923
The principal articles of Chinese commerce (import and export).
Shanghai, Inspectorate General of Customs (China. The Maritime Customs. II. - Special Series: No. 38): 1-630.
–Includes a paragraph on the nature and use of dugong oil (103).
x
 
Watterlond, Michael (detail)
   
1982
The coyote next door.
Science 82 3(2): 94, 96. 3 figs. Mar. 1982.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees frequenting power plant discharges during cold weather.
x
 
Watters, David R.; Reitz, Elizabeth J.; Steadman, David W.; Pregill, Gregory K. (detail)
   
1984
Vertebrates from archaeological sites on Barbuda, West Indies.
Ann. Carnegie Mus. 53(13): 383-411. 2 tabs. 8 figs. Sept. 28, 1984.
–Reports a manatee humerus from the Indiantown Trail site, the first record of T. manatus from Barbuda (404, 406-407, 409).
 
 
Watts (detail)
   
1890
Dictionary of economic products.
[Publisher?]
–Sirs., 3: 197.
 
 
Wauchope, Robert (Ed.) (detail)
   
1964
Handbook of Middle American Indians. I. Natural environment and early cultures.
Austin, Univ. of Texas Press: vii + 570.
–Sirs., 141, 320.
Waugh, Arthur: SEE Benwell & Waugh, 1961. (detail)
Waugh, Gregg: SEE Odell et al., 1978. (detail)
x
 
Wavrin, Marquis de (detail)
   
1939
Les bêtes sauvages de l'Amazonie et des autres régions de l'Amérique du Sud.
Paris, Payot: 1-301. 24 pls. 1 map.
–General and often inaccurate account of manatees and manatee hunting in northern South America and Amazonia; does not distinguish between T. manatus and T. inunguis (194-196).
Waxell, Sven Larsson: SEE ALSO Büchner, E., 1891; Golder, F. A., 1922. (detail)
 
 
Waxell, Sven Larsson (detail)
   
1940
Vtoraya kamchatskaya ekspeditsiya Vitusa Beringa. [Vitus Bering's Second Kamchatka Expedition.]
Leningrad & Moscow, Izdatelstvo Glavsevmorputi: 1-170. Illus.
–Most of this work is a Russian transl. of the manuscript also translated by Michael (see Waxell, 1962), but Michael's ed. lacks the material on pp. 138ff. here. This latter material is Waxell's report translated in Golder (1922). Steller's sea cow, 126-128, 149, etc.?
 
 
Waxell, Sven Larsson (detail)
   
1962
The Russian expedition to America. With an introduction and notes by M. A. Michael.
New York, Collier Books: 1-190.
–"Translated from Johan Skalberg's Danish version, Vitus Berings eventyrlige opdagerfærd 1733-1743 [Copenhagen, Rosenkilde & Bagger: 1-139, 1948], by M. A. Michael." Originally published in Engl. under the title The American Expedition (London, Edinburgh, & Glasgow, Wm. Hodge: 1-236, 1952). The German manuscript original was first discovered and published in part by E. Büchner (1891). The MS. itself was lost during the Russian Revolution, then reappeared in a bookshop and was purchased by the State Library in Leningrad, according to Michael's introduction to this ed. (p. 22). A photocopy of this MS. was the basis for the Danish translation which in turn is translated here into English. Steller's sea cow, 157-159.
 
 
Waycott, Michelle; Duarte, Carlos M.; Carruthers, Tim J. B.; Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Olyarnik, Suzanne; Calladine, Ainsley; Fourqurean, James W.; Heck, Kenneth L., Jr.; Hughes, A. Randall; Kendrick, Gary A.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Short, Frederick T.; Williams, Susan L. (detail)
   
2009
Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(30): 12377-12381. 1 tab. 2 figs. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106. July 28, 2009.
–ABSTRACT: Coastal ecosystems and the services they provide are adversely affected by a wide variety of human activities. In particular, seagrass meadows are negatively affected by impacts accruing from the billion or more people who live within 50 km of them. Seagrass meadows provide important ecosystem services, including an estimated $1.9 trillion per year in the form of nutrient cycling; an order of magnitude enhancement of coral reef fish productivity; a habitat for thousands of fish, bird, and invertebrate species; and a major food source for endangered dugong, manatee, and green turtle. Although individual impacts from coastal development, degraded water quality, and climate change have been documented, there has been no quantitative global assessment of seagrass loss until now. Our comprehensive global assessment of 215 studies found that seagrasses have been disappearing at a rate of 110 km2 yr?1 since 1980 and that 29% of the known areal extent has disappeared since seagrass areas were initially recorded in 1879. Furthermore, rates of decline have accelerated from a median of 0.9% yr?1 before 1940 to 7% yr?1 since 1990. Seagrass loss rates are comparable to those reported for mangroves, coral reefs, and tropical rainforests and place seagrass meadows among the most threatened ecosystems on earth.
x
 
Webb, S. David (detail)
   
1974
Chronology of Florida Pleistocene mammals. In: S. D. Webb (ed.), Pleistocene mammals of Florida.
Gainesville, Univ. Florida Press (x + 270): 5-31. 1 tab. 3 figs.
–Lists T. manatus at 9 Pleistocene localities (18), of which the records at Punta Gorda, Aucilla R. IA, and Chipola R. IA have since proven to be erroneous (S. D. Webb, pers. commun.).
x
 
Webb, S. David (detail)
   
1976
Mammalian faunal dynamics of the great American interchange.
Paleobiology 2(3): 220-234. 4 tabs. 4 figs. Summer 1976.
–Cites Trichechus as an example of a South American immigrant to North America in the Late Blancan (Pliocene), based on its occurrence at Santa Fe locality "IA" [actually IB], Florida (221, 223, 226). The fauna at this locality is now considered mixed, and the manatee probably Pleistocene (Morgan & Hulbert, 1995, Bull. Florida Mus. Nat. Hist. 37, Part I: 53, 64).
 
 
Webb, S. David (detail)
   
1979
Fossil vertebrates of Florida.
Rocks & Minerals 54(4): 141-144. Aug. 1979.
x
 
Webb, S. David; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Baskin, Jon A. (detail)
   
1981
Geology and paleontology of the Love Bone Bed from the Late Miocene of Florida.
Amer. Jour. Sci. 281: 513-544. 3 tabs. 4 figs. May 1981.
–Reports Metaxytherium sp. in a latest Clarendonian mammal assemblage from Alachua County, Florida (517, 521, 535). The specimens in question were referred to M. floridanum by Domning (1988).
 
 
Weber, Max Wilhelm Carl (detail)
   
1904
Die Säugethiere. Einführung in die Anatomie und Systematik der recenten und fossilen Mammalia.
Jena, Gustav Fischer: xii + 866. 567 figs.
–Sirs., 727-740.
 
 
Weber, Max Wilhelm Carl (detail)
   
1927-28
Die Säugetiere. Einführung in die Anatomie und Systematik der recenten und fossilen Mammalia. Ed. 2.
Jena, Gustav Fischer (2 vols.). Illus.
–Sirs., 1: passim; 2: 479-504. Authored in part by O. Abel and H. M. de Burlet. See also O. Abel (1928).
Weber, Roy E.: SEE Farmer et al., 1979a, 1979b. (detail)
x
 
Weber, Tom, Jr. (detail)
   
1975
Drop me a line! Bridge fishing in Florida.
The Salt Water Sportsman 36(4): 36-37, 66-67. 4 figs. Apr. 1975.
–Describes a formerly used method of poaching manatees by dropping weighted harpoons from bridges (66-67).
x
 
Wegner, Richard N. (detail)
   
1951
Der Tütenfortsatz (Processus cucullaris mandibulae) beim Elefanten, den Sirenen, Rhinozerotiden und Suiden.
Anat. Anz. 98: 66-82. 12 figs.
–Describes the dental capsules of T. inunguis and T. senegalensis, and attributes to these structures a "braking" effect on tooth movement (76-81).
Weigle, Bradley L.: SEE ALSO Flamm, Ward, & Weigle, 2000; Ward & Weigle, 1993; Wright et al., 2002. (detail)
 
 
Weigle, Bradley L.; Haddad, Kenneth D. (detail)
   
1990
Applications of the Florida Department of Natural Resources' Marine Resources Geographic Information System to manatee biology and management. In: J. E. Reynolds, III & K. D. Haddad (eds.), Report of the Workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an Aid to Managing Habitat for West Indian Manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. 49: 23-27. 1 fig. Dec. 1990.
 
 
Weigle, Bradley L.; Reynolds, John E., III; Patton, Geoffrey W.; Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1988
Manatee (Trichechus manatus) winter use of warm water discharges in Tampa Bay. In: K. Mahadevan, R. K. Evans, P. Behrens, T. Biffar, & L. Olsen (eds.), Proc. Southeastern Workshop on Aquatic Ecological Effects of Power Generation.
Mote Marine Lab. Rept. No. 124: 153-164.
 
 
Weigle, Bradley L.; Wright, Irene Elizabeth; Ross, Monica; Flamm, Richard O. (detail)
   
2001
Movements of radio-tagged manatees in Tampa Bay and along Florida's west coast 1991-1996.
Florida Marine Research Institute Technical Report (St. Petersburg) TR-7: ii + 156. 9 tabs. 5 figs. 58 maps & 6 charts in appendices (pp. 27-156).
 
 
Weiss, F. (detail)
   
1964
Seadogs and dugongs.
Fur Review (London), July 1964: 18-20.
 
 
Welcomme, J.-L.; Marivaux, L.; Antoine, P.O.; Benammi, M. (detail)
   
1999
Mammifères fossiles des Collines Bugti (Balouchistan, Pakistan): nouvelles données.
Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 135: 135-139.
–Engl. summ.
Welker, W. I.: SEE Reep et al., 1989. (detail)
Wells, Neil A.: SEE ALSO Gingerich et al., 1990. (detail)
 
D
Wells, Neil A.; Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
   
1983
Review of Eocene Anthracobunidae (Mammalia, Proboscidea) with a new genus and species, Jozaria palustris, from the Kuldana Formation of Kohat (Pakistan).
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 26(7): 117-139. 3 tabs. 6 figs. Dec. 31, 1983.
x
 
Wells, Randall (detail)
   
1997
New state-funded manatee research initiative at Mote.
Mote News (Sarasota, Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory) 42(3): 12. 3 figs. Fall 1997.
–Outlines six manatee-related research and education projects funded during 1997-98.
Wells, Randall S.: SEE Flamm et al., 2000. (detail)
 
 
Wells, Randall S.; Boness, Daryl J.; Rathbun, Galen B. (detail)
   
1999
Behavior. Chap. 8 in: J.E. Reynolds, III & S.A. Rommel (eds.), Biology of marine mammals.
Washington & London, Smithsonian Inst. Press (viii + 578 pp.): 324-399. 5 tabs. 35 figs.
 
 
Welsby, Thomas (detail)
   
1905
Schnappering and fishing in the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay waters. Also included: a wandering discourse on fishing generally.
Brisbane, Outridge Printing Co.: ix + 319. Illus.
–Dugong, 94-108.
 
 
Welsby, Thomas (detail)
   
1931
Sport and pastime in Moreton Bay.
Brisbane, Simpson, Halligan & Co. Ltd.: v + 294. Illus.
–Edition limited to 300 copies. Repr.: Welsby (1967).
x
 
Welsby, Thomas (detail)
   
1967
The collected works of Thomas Welsby... edited by A. K. Thomson.
Brisbane, Jacaranda Press (2 vols.).
–Reprints an article by Fred Campbell (written circa 1894?) on dugong habits and the Moreton Bay (Queensland) dugong fishery (1: 102-108; from Schnappering and fishing ...), a letter by Saville Kent on dugong spears (1: 109-110), and detailed accounts of netting and butchering dugongs and rendering their oil (2: 233-257; from Sport and pastime in Moreton Bay).
Welton, Bruce J.: SEE Barnes et al., 1981; Phillips et al., 1976. (detail)
Welton, Joann: SEE Phillips et al., 1976. (detail)
Wendt, Herbert: SEE ALSO Kurt & Wendt, 1972. (detail)
 
 
Wendt, Herbert (detail)
   
1959
Out of Noah's Ark: the story of man's discovery of the animal kingdom.
Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
–Transl. from German (Auf Noahs Spuren, C. A. Koch, 1956?) by Michael Bullock. Sirs., 210-222.
Wenno, Bob J.: SEE De Iongh, Wenno & Meelis, 1995; De Iongh, Wenno et al., 1995. (detail)
 
D
Werth, Alexander (detail)
   
2000
Feeding in marine mammals. Chap. 16 in: K. Schwenk (ed.), Feeding: form, function, and evolution in tetrapod vertebrates.
San Diego, Academic Press (xv + 537): 487-526. 1 tab. 20 figs.
–Sirs. & desmostylians, 487-491, 516-521.
x
 
Werzinger, Joachim (detail)
   
1982
Sensation im Tiergarten Nürnberg: die Flaschen-Seekuh.
Tier 22(11): 34-37. 3 figs.
–Pop. acc. of a T. manatus conceived and born in captivity in Nuremberg, and raised on a bottle because the mother seemed unwilling or unable to feed it.
Wesling, John R.: SEE Jefferson et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
West, J. A.; Sivak, J. G.; Murphy, C. J.; Kovacs, K. M. (detail)
   
1991
A comparative study of the anatomy of the iris and ciliary body in aquatic mammals.
Canad. Jour. Zool. 69(10): 2594-2607. Illus.
–French summ. Discusses Trichechus manatus.
x
 
West, Robert M. (detail)
   
1980
Middle Eocene large mammal assemblage with Tethyan affinities, Ganda Kas region, Pakistan.
Jour. Pal. 54(3): 508-533. 1 fig. 5 pls. May 1980.
–Compares Anthracobune pinfoldi (Moeritheriidae) with Prorastomus and other Eocene sirs., and considers Anthracobune to be closer to Moeritherium (520, 531).
 
 
Westermann, J. H. (detail)
   
1932
The geology of Aruba.
Geogr. en Geol. Meded., Physiogr.-Geol. Reeks (Utrecht) No. 7: 1-129. 1 fig. 3 pls. 1 map.
–States that Van Oort's (1902) sir. came from the Quaternary phosphorites of Seroe Colorado.
 
 
Westermann, J. H. (detail)
   
1953
Nature preservation in the Caribbean.
Publ. Found. Sci. Res. Surinam & Netherlands Antilles (Utrecht) 9: 1-106.
–Survey of legal protection for manatees in the region.
 
 
Westgate, James W. (detail)
   
1990
Uintan land mammals (excluding rodents) from an estuarine facies of the Laredo Formation (Middle Eocene, Claiborne Group) of Webb County, Texas.
Jour. Pal. 64(3): 454-468. Illus. May 1990.
Wetterqvist, Orjan F.: SEE Packard & Wetterqvist, 1986. (detail)
 
 
Wetzel, Dana L.; Pulster, Erin; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
2012
Organic contaminants and sirenians. Chap. 22 in: E. M. Hines et al. (eds.), Sirenian conservation: issues and strategies in developing countries (q.v.).
Gainesville, University Press of Florida (xiv + 326): 196-203. 1 fig.
 
 
Wetzel, Dana L.; Reynolds, John E., III; Bonde, Robert K.; Schloesser, Ryan W.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Roudebush, William E. (detail)
   
2019
Enhancing reproductive assessments of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) by establishing optimal time period and inhibin B baseline concentrations.
Endangered Species Research 39: 283-292. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00972 Aug. 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) occupies coastal and riverine habitats that may influence endogenous biological rhythms, including reproductive potential. Inhibin b provides a biomarker of gonadal function and reproductive potential in humans and other eutherian mammals. This study examined the influence of size, sex, and time of year on inhibin B levels in manatees sampled among three habitats with varying degrees of environmental stress in Florida. Inhibin B levels in 38 males averaged (±SE) 4.90 ±0.23 pg/mL; the average level in 31 females was 5.63 ± 0.46 pg/mL. Elevated patterns in inhibin B were exhibited between mid-March and mid-August corresponding to increased mating activity and testicular function, with significant differences in inhibin B levels between male and female manatees (P=0.03) throughout the year. No significant differences in inhibin B were detected between low impacted and higher impacted sampling locations during winter, suggesting the potential influence of environmental stress on manatee reproduction may be best examined between mid-March and mid-August, the midpoint of the reproductively active, non-winter time period. Establishing temporal baselines for inhibin B values may be useful in assessing manatee reproductive status and potential conservation threats, shedding light on fertility potential and enabling future assessment of the effects of stressors on reproduction in Florida manatees.
 
 
Wetzel, Dana L.; Reynolds, John E., III; Sprinkel, J. M.; Schwacke, L.; Mercurio, P.; Rommel, Sentiel A. (detail)
   
2010
Fatty acid profiles as a potential lipidomic biomarker of exposure to brevetoxin for endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) [OR] Fatty acid signature analysis as a potential forensic tool for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Science of the Total Environment 408(24): 6124-6133.
 
 
Weygandt, W. (detail)
   
1928
Über Tierhirngrösse.
Jour. Psychiatr. Neur. 37: 394-400.
–?Abstr.: Forsch. Fortschr. 4(34): 360.
 
 
Weyhe (detail)
   
1875
Übersicht der Säugethiere nach ihren Beckenformen.
Zs. gesammt. Natw. 45(= n.s. 11): 97-123.
 
 
Whetstone, Kenneth; Martin, Larry D. (detail)
   
1979
An Oligocene (Orellan) sirenian from the Bucatunna Formation of Alabama.
Tulane Stud. Geol. Pal. 14(4): 161-163. 1 pl.
Whishaw, Ian Q.: SEE Iwaniuk & Whishaw, 2000. (detail)
Whitaker, D. M.: SEE Reep et al., 1998. (detail)
x
 
Whitaker, Zahida (detail)
   
1976
Dugongs (Dugong dugong).
Madras Snake Park Trust Newsletter No. 1: 6. May 1976.
–Brief report on dugong hunting and market prices on the coast of Tamilnadu, India, based on a survey in Oct. 1975.
 
 
White, A. Quinton; Pinto, Gerard F.; Robison, Amy P. (detail)
   
2002
Seasonal distribution of manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, in Duval County and adjacent waters, northeast Florida.
Florida Scientist 65(3): 208-221. 2 tabs. 10 figs. Summer 2002.
White, Franklin H.: SEE Cardeilhac et al., 1981; Forrester et al., 1975; Irvine et al., 1980. (detail)
White, Jesse R.: SEE ALSO Cardeilhac et al., 1984; Francis-Floyd et al., 1991. (detail)
x
 
White, Jesse R. (detail)
   
1984a
Man can save the manatee.
Natl. Geogr. 166(3): 414-418. 8 figs. Sept. 1984.
–Pop. acc. with photos of captive births of T. manatus at the Miami Seaquarium. Proposes a large-scale captive breeding program to restock wild manatee populations.
x
 
White, Jesse R. (detail)
   
1984b
Born captive, released in the wild.
Sea Frontiers 30(6): 321, 369-375. 12 figs. Nov.-Dec. 1984.
–Pop. acc. of captive births of T. manatus at the Miami Seaquarium and the release of two animals into the wild in Aug. 1984. Includes color photos of a manatee birth.
 
 
White, Jesse R.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth (detail)
   
1990
Manatee biology and medicine. In: L. A. Dierauf (ed.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease, rehabilitation.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (735 pp.): 601-623. 4 tabs. 18 figs.
 
 
White, Jesse R.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Cardeilhac, Paul T. (detail)
   
1984
Reproductive potential of a captive-breeding colony of Florida manatees.
Ann. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zool. Parks & Aquars. 1984: 242-245.
x
 
White, Jesse R.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Waterstrat, P. (detail)
   
1984
Growth rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) raised in captivity.
Proc. Internatl. Assoc. Aquatic Animal Medicine 1(1): 30-34. 1 tab. 3 figs. Nov. 1984.
–Presents data on length and weight of 7 captive-born and 2 other captive-raised manatees at the Miami Seaquarium, and derives regression equations describing their growth.
x
 
White, Jesse R.; Harkness, D. R.; Isaacks, R. E.; Duffield, D. A. (detail)
   
1976
Some studies on blood of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.
Compar. Biochem. Physiol. A. 55(4): 413-417. 5 tabs. 4 figs.
–Presents blood cell counts and analyses of blood chemistry, hemoglobin, enzyme activities, oxyhemoglobin dissociation, and karyotype. The diploid chromosome number was found to be 48.
 
 
White, Jesse R.; Harkness, D. R.; Isaacks, R. E.; Duffield, D. A. (detail)
   
1977
Trichechus manatus latirostris (manatee). Order: Sirenia. Family: Trichechidae. In: T. C. Hsu & K. Benirschke (eds.), An atlas of mammalian chromosomes. Vol. 10.
New York, Heidelberg, & Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
White, M. E.: SEE Savage & White, 1964, 1965. (detail)
 
 
White, Mel (detail)
   
2013
When push comes to shove.
National Geographic 223(4): 82-97. 9 figs. Apr. 2013.
–Pop. acc. of manatees at Crystal River, Florida.
x
 
White, Theodore E. (detail)
   
1953
A method of calculating the dietary percentage of various food animals utilized by aboriginal peoples.
Amer. Antiquity 18(4): 396-398. Tab. 14. Apr. 1953.
–Estimates that a 1,000-pound manatee yields 70% of its weight as usable meat (398).
x
 
Whitehead, Peter J. P. (detail)
   
1977
The former southern distribution of New World manatees (Trichechus spp.).
Biol. Jour. Linn. Soc. 9: 165-189. 1 fig. 1 pl. June 1977.
–Reviews in detail the accounts of manatees in 16th- and 17th-century (and some later) works on Brazil and adjacent coastal regions, extending the documented former distribution of T. manatus to about 20° S. Concludes that a "monster" killed at São Vicente in 1564 was not a manatee but a pinniped. See also Whitehead (1978) and Faust et al. (2002).
x
 
Whitehead, Peter J. P. (detail)
   
1978
Registros antigos da presença do peixe-boi do Caribe (Trichechus manatus) no Brasil.
Acta Amazonica 8(3): 497-506. Sept. 1978.
–Recapitulates much of the information in Whitehead (1977), and adds further citations of early works that mention Brazilian manatees. Calls attention to a curious lack of manatee records from the coast between the Rios São Francisco and São Luis, and briefly summarizes the natural history data contained in these early reports.
Whitfield, Mark: SEE Chua et al., 2001. (detail)
x
D
Whitfield, William K., Jr.; Farrington, Sandra L. (detail)
   
1975
An annotated bibliography of Sirenia.
Florida Mar. Res. Publ. No. 7: 1-44. 1 tab. June 1975.
–Includes 488 titles on sirs. and desmostylians through 1971, partly annotated and indexed. Appendices (37-43) quote Florida and Guyana legislation relevant to manatees.
x
 
Whiting, Scott D. (detail)
   
1997
Opportunistic observations of marine mammals from the coastal waters of Fog Bay, Northern Territory.
Northern Territory Naturalist 15: 16-26. 2 tabs. 1 fig. Pl. 4.
–Lists & discusses 15 sightings of 18 dugongs made from a small boat in 1996-97. Notes group sizes, apparent sheltering behavior, association with remoras, and injury to one animal possibly caused by a fishing net or line.
x
 
Whiting, Scott D. (detail)
   
1999
Use of the remote Sahul Banks, northwestern Australia, by dugongs, including breeding females.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(2): 609-615. 2 figs. Apr. 5, 1999.
–Reports a total of 14 dugongs, including 3 cow-calf pairs, seen from the air in November 1996 on the Sahul Banks (mainly on Ashmore Reef). Three were seen in water 90 m deep, 30 km from the nearest shallow shoal. Biogeographic scenarios and conservation problems are discussed.
 
 
Whiting, Scott D. (detail)
   
2002a
Dive times for foraging dugongs in the Northern Territory.
Australian Mammalogy 23: 167-168.
–Records a maximum dive time of 658 seconds, for a dugong foraging on algae.
 
 
Whiting, Scott D. (detail)
   
2002b
Rocky reefs provide foraging habitat for dugongs in the Darwin region of northern Australia.
Australian Mammalogy 24: 147-150. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Describes dugongs regularly feeding on algal-covered intertidal rocky reefs.
 
 
Whiting, Scott D. (detail)
   
2008
Movements and distribution of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in a macro-tidal environment in northern Australia.
Australian Jour. Zool. 56: 215-222.
 
 
Whitley, Gilbert P. (detail)
   
1970
Early history of Australian zoology.
Sydney, Roy. Zool. Soc. New South Wales: 1-75. 38 figs. Apr. 28, 1970.
–Dugong, 25-27.
Whitmore, Frank Clifford, Jr.: SEE ALSO Gard et al., 1972; Gernant et al., 1971; Kellogg & Whitmore, 1957. (detail)
x
 
Whitmore, Frank Clifford, Jr. (detail)
   
1987
A delphinoid ear bone from the Dam Formation (Miocene) of Saudi Arabia.
Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Geol. 41(4): 447-450. Fig. 53.
–Mentions "fragmented ribs of sirenians" found at the type locality of the Burdigalian Dam Formation at Jabal Lidam, eastern Saudi Arabia (447).
x
 
Whitmore, Frank Clifford, Jr.; Gard, Leonard Meade, Jr. (detail)
   
1977
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) of Late Pleistocene age from Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1036: iii + 19. 5 tabs. Cover illus. + 10 figs. 8 pls.
–Describes a partial skeleton of an immature animal and other Hydrodamalis remains from a deposit at South Bight, Amchitka. Also includes many measurements and illustrations of Bering Island H. gigas specimens in the U.S. National Museum; a description of a supposed Hydrodamalis rib fragment from Kangiguksuk, northwestern Alaska (3, 15-16); and illustrations of the mounted Hydrodamalis skeleton at Stockholm (pl. 1). The cover illustration of a sea cow was first publ. in V.B. Scheffer (1973).
x
 
Whitten, Anthony J.; Whitten, Jane (detail)
   
1992
Wild Indonesia: the wildlife and scenery of the Indonesian archipelago.
Cambridge (Mass.), MIT Press: 1-208. Illus.
–Brief pop. acc. of dugongs (60-61, 1 fig.).
x
 
Whitten, Anthony J.; Mustafa, Muslimin; Henderson, Gregory S. (detail)
   
1987
The ecology of Sulawesi.
Yogyakarta (Indonesia), Gadjah Mada Univ. Press: xxi + 777 + [i]. Numerous tabs. & figs. 64 pls.
–Gen. acc. of dugong biology, with a map of their distribution in Sulawesi (204-205, 207-210, pl. 13). Suggests that dugongs may help disperse seeds of seagrasses (204).
Whitten, Jane: SEE Whitten, Anthony J. (detail)
x
 
Whittow, G. Causey (detail)
   
1987
Thermoregulatory adaptations in marine mammals: interacting effects of exercise and body mass. A review.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 3(3): 220-241. 4 tabs. 3 figs. July 1987.
–Notes that the Sirenia, represented by T. inunguis, are "the only truly hypometabolic marine mammals"; comments on the data of Gallivan et al. (222, 224, 226-228, 230, 237).
x
 
Whybrow, Peter (detail)
   
1992
Palaeontological & geological studies in the western & eastern regions of Abu Dhabi.
Tribulus: Bull. Emirates Nat. Hist. Group 2(1): 20. Apr. 1992.
–Mentions discovery of a sir. skull, possibly Pleistocene in age, at Sir Bani Yas, Abu Dhabi.
Whybrow, Peter J.: SEE ALSO As-Saruri et al., 1998, 1999. (detail)
x
 
Whybrow, Peter J.; Clements, Diana (detail)
   
1999
Arabian Tertiary fauna, flora, and localities. Chap. 33 in: P. J. Whybrow & A. P. Hill (eds.). Fossil vertebrates of Arabia ....
New Haven & London, Yale Univ. Press (xxv + 523 + 40 pp.): 460-473. 1 tab.
–Mentions the probable Middle Eocene sir. record from Yemen (see As-Saruri et al., 1999)(462), and includes "Sirenia indet." in a faunal list for the Burdigalian (early Middle Miocene) locality of As Sarrar, Saudi Arabia (465).
Wicke, Charles R.: SEE Bradley et al., 1983. (detail)
 
 
Wicker, Jan Lee (detail)
   
2010
Those magical manatees.
Sarasota, Pineapple Press: 1-56. Illus. Apr. 2010.
–Book for young children.
 
 
Wickham, Henry Alexander (detail)
   
1872
Rough notes of a journey through the wilderness, from Trinidad to Pará, Brazil, by way of the great cataracts of the Orinoco, Atabapo and Rio Negro. With, A journey among the Woolwa or Soumoo and Moskito Indians of Central America.
London, W. H. J. Carter: xiv + 301. 15 pls.
 
 
Widdowson, Thomas William (detail)
   
1946
Special or dental anatomy and physiology and dental histology, human and comparative. Ed. 7.
London, Staples Press (2 vols.). Illus.
–Ed. 8, 1952. Sirs., vol. 2.
 
 
Wied-Neuwied, Maximilian Alexander Philipp, Prinz Zu (detail)
   
1820
Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815-1817.
Frankfurt am Main, H. L. Brönner: Vol. 1: 1-380.
–Portuguese transl. (ed. 2): São Paulo, Comp. Editora Nacional (Biblioteca Pedagógica Brasileira), Brasiliana, Ser. 5, Vol. 1: 1-536, 1958. Reports manatees on the coast of Brazil, in the Rios Doce (195; possibly pinnipeds), São Mateus, and Itanhém (226).
x
 
Wied-Neuwied, Maximilian Alexander Philipp, Prinz Zu (detail)
   
1826
Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Vol. 2.
Weimar, Verlage des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs (entire work: 4 vols. in 6, 1825-33): Vol. 2: 1-620.
–Reports "Manatus americanus" from the Rios São Matthaeus and Alcobaça in Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil; also gives notes on harpooning manatees and the use of manatee oil and bone (2: 601-604).
x
 
Wiedemann, C. R. W. (detail)
   
1804
Beschreibung des Schädels vom Lamantin oder Manati (Trichecus manatus L.).
Wiedemann's Arch. Zool. Zoot. 4(1): 67-76.
–Allen 474. Unillustrated but detailed description of the skull, mandible, and teeth.
x
 
Wiegmann, Ar. Fr. Aug. (detail)
   
1838
Zusatz vom Herausgeber.
Wiegmann's Arch. Naturgesch. 4(1): 10-18.
–Allen 950. Supplement to A. v. Humboldt (1838). Discusses the systematic position of the Orinoco manatee described by von Humboldt, concluding that it is distinct from the West Indian species and should be termed Manatus australis. Also concludes that the word "manati" derives from the Carib word for "breast", and lists other vernacular names (Manattoui, Apcia, Avia) cited by other authors (17-18).
 
 
Wierzbicki, A. (detail)
   
1981
[Whales and their extermination.]
Wszechswiat 1981(7-8): 162-165.
–In Polish.
 
 
Wiese und Kaiserswaldau, Hauptmann von (detail)
   
1912
Zum Nil hinaus. In: Adolf Friedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Vom Kongo zum Niger und Nil. Berichte der deutschen Zentralafrikaexpedition 1910/1911.
Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus (2 vols.): Vol. 1: 237-324.
–Engl. transl.: London, Duckworth & Co., 1913. Various later eds. Sirs., 1: 274.
Wiesner, H.: SEE Schweigert et al., 1991. (detail)
 
 
Wight, George (detail)
   
1862
Queensland, the field for British labour and enterprise, and the source of England's cotton supply. Ed. 2.
London, G. Street: vi + 170. 1 map.
–Ed. 3, 1863. Dugong oil, 139-143; largely quoted from Hobbs.
 
 
Wilbert, Johannes (detail)
   
1970
Folk literature of the Warao Indians: narrative material and motif content.
Univ. California Los Angeles, Latin American Studies Ser. 15.
 
 
Wilckens, Otto (detail)
   
1911
Über das Aussterben grosser Tiergruppen im Laufe der Erdgeschichte.
Natw. Wochenschr. 26(= n.s. 10): 705-712.
–Sirs., 768?
Wilcox, J. Ross: SEE ALSO Craig et al., 1997; Garrott et al., 1994, 1995; Packard, Frohlich et al., 1984, 1985; Packard et al., 1989; Reid et al., 1991; Reynolds & Wilcox; Weigle et al., 1988. (detail)
 
 
Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1979?
Florida Power and Light Company and endangered species: examples of coexistence.
Proc. Mitigation Symposium (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, July 16-20, 1979): 451-454.
 
 
Wilcox, J. Ross (detail)
   
1980
Endangered species: compatibility with a utility.
Proceedings of the Conference Coastal Zone '80 (Hollywood, Florida): 179-185.
–Manatee, 180-182.
x
 
Wilcox, W. A. (detail)
   
1904
The fisheries and fish trade of Porto Rico in 1902.
U.S. Comm. Fish & Fisheries, Rept. of the Commissioner for the Year Ending June 30, 1902: 367-395.
–P. 387: {"The manatee is occasionally taken off the beach near Ceiba. A few are taken each year, usually by means of haul seines. The weight is said to run from 500 to 1,200 pounds. The flesh is highly prized and resembles beef in flavor."}
x
 
Wilder, Burt Green (detail)
   
1875
On a foetal manatee and cetacean, with remarks on the affinities and ancestry of the Sirenia.
Amer. Jour. Sci. (3)10: 105-114. Pl. 8.
–Describes the "smallest foetal sirenian on record", a T. inunguis from Peru 55 mm long (105-106, 108-109, 112-114), and reviews ideas on sir. affinities (107-113); concludes they are ungulates. See also Wilder (1908).
 
 
Wilder, Burt Green (detail)
   
1905
Notes and queries as to: (a) the cerebral commissures of the elephant shrew Macroscelides; (b) brain and heart of a manatee, and what is believed to be the smallest known sirenian fetus; (c) the brains of various fishes, including the rare Japanese shark, Mitsukurina; (d) the swallowing of a young alligator by a frog.
Science (n.s.) 21: 268-269.
–Refers to the same fetus described by Wilder (1875).
x
 
Wilder, Burt Green (detail)
   
1907
[Manatee embryo.]
Amer. Naturalist 41(490): 663. Oct. 1907.
–P. 663 (in "Scientific Exhibits at the Seventh International Zoological Congress"): {{"Professor Wilder showed the 'smallest known embryo of the manatee,' - a specimen approximately an inch and a half long."}} See also Wilder (1908).
x
 
Wilder, Burt Green (detail)
   
1908
The length of the smallest known sirenian fetus; gyre preferred to "convolution".
Science (n.s.) 27(699): 825. May 22, 1908.
–Corrects the statement in Wilder (1907); the fetus was actually 53 mm or about 2-1/8 inches long, having shrunk about 2 mm since the report in Wilder (1875).
 
 
Wiley, A. (detail)
   
1905
Colombo Museum guide to the antiquities, minerals and natural history collections in the Colombo Museum.
Colombo, Colombo Museum: 1-66. 15 appendices. Numerous unnumbered pls.
–Dugongs, 38-40.
 
 
Wilhelm, R.; Smith, S.; Reynolds, John E., III (detail)
   
1988
Use of scar patterns to identify manatees, Trichechus manatus, in Tampa Bay. [Abstr.]
Florida Scientist 51 (Suppl. 1): 26.
x
 
Wilhelm, Wolfgang (detail)
   
1962
Eine versteinerte Seekuh aus dem Alzeyer Meeressand.
Natur und Museum 92(2): 51-53. 2 figs. Feb. 1962.
–Describes the discovery of a skeleton of Halitherium schinzii in Oligocene deposits in Rheinhessen, Germany.
x
 
Wilkins, Kenneth T. (detail)
   
1983
Pleistocene mammals from the Rock Springs Local Fauna, central Florida.
Brimleyana No. 9: 69-82. 1 tab. June 1983.
–Reports remains of T. manatus, possibly of late Sangamonian age, from a site in Orange County (70, 76-77, 79).
x
 
Wille, Chris (detail)
   
1995
Saving the sea cow, Caribbean style.
Nature Conservancy 45(5): 16-23. 7 figs. + cover photo. Sept./Oct. 1995.
–Pop. acc. of West Indian manatees and manatee tourism as a conservation strategy in Belize.
 
 
Willey, Gordon R. (detail)
   
1978
Excavations at Seibal: artifacts.
Mem. Peabody Mus. Archaeol. Ethnol. 14(1).
–Manatee-bone rasps, 169-170.
Williams, A. Lesley: SEE Williams et al., 1990. (detail)
Williams, Ernest H., Jr.: SEE Jiménez-Marrero et al., 1998; Mignucci et al., 1997, 1999, 2000. (detail)
 
 
Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Bonde, Robert K.; Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Preen, Anthony R.; Cockcroft, Vic G. (detail)
   
2003
Echeneid-sirenian interactions, with information on sharksucker diet.
Jour. Fish Biology 63(5): 1176-1183. 1 fig.
 
 
Williams, Geoffrey T. (detail)
   
2010
Pirates, manatees & mermaids.
Save Our Seas Foundation: 1-63. Illus.
–Juvenile fiction, with a chapter mentioning manatees.
x
 
Williams, J. H. (detail)
   
1960
In quest of a mermaid.
London, Rupert Hart-Davis: 1-199. Illus.
–Recalls meeting, in 1916, a policeman who was detailed to prevent Arab fishermen in the Persian Gulf from taking dugongs to sea for use as indicators of approaching storms (their method is not explained). Also recounts a dugong sighting in the North Andaman Islands in 1929 (9-12).
 
 
Williams, John Lee (detail)
   
1837
The Territory of Florida: or sketches of the topography, civil and natural history, of the country, the climate, and the Indian tribes, from the first discovery to the present time, with a map, views, &c.
New York, A. T. Goodrich: vi + [7]-304. Illus.
–Facsimile ed.: Gainesville, Univ. Florida Press: 1-304, 1962. P. 100:
 {"Manatee. Beluga. This is a shy fish and is mostly confined to the grassy bays and particularly to the deep springs on the coast. They feed on grass and are considered excellent food. Their ribs are used for ivory. They are usually shot while feeding near the shore."}
x
 
Williams, Michael E.; Domning, Daryl Paul (detail)
   
2004
Pleistocene or post-Pleistocene manatees in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(1): 167-176. 1 tab. 3 figs. Jan. 13, 2004.
–Reports a rib and a radius-ulna of Trichechus manatus, of uncertain age, from southwestern Ohio and from the Mississippi River on the Arkansas-Mississippi border, respectively. Discusses records of other fossil or subfossil marine mammals from the Great Lakes region, and concludes that the manatees travelled upriver from the Gulf of Mexico, probably when the climate was warmer than today's.
Williams, R.: SEE Marsh et al., 1997. (detail)
Williams, Susan L.: SEE Thayer et al., 1984. (detail)
 
 
Williams, T. M.; Davis, Randall W.; Fuiman, L. A.; Francis, J.; Le Boeuf, Burney J.; Horning, M.; Calambokidis, J.; Croll, D. A. (detail)
   
2000
Sink or swim: strategies for cost-efficient diving by marine mammals.
Science 288(5463): 133-136. Apr. 7, 2000.
 
 
Williams, Thomas D.; Williams, A. Lesley; Stoskopf, Michael K. (detail)
   
1990
Marine mammal anesthesia. In: L. A. Dierauf (ed.), CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine: health, disease, rehabilitation.
Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press, Inc. (735 pp.): 175-191. 1 tab.
x
 
Williams, Thomas R. (detail)
   
1986
Identification of the ri through further fieldwork in New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.
Cryptozoology 4: 61-68. 3 figs. Mar. 1986.
–Reports new observations of an animal identified by natives as an "ilkai" (= "ri"). It, its feeding trails, and its food plants were photographed underwater, and the animal was subsequently shot by someone and landed, proving conclusively that it was a dugong. The seagrass removed from its stomach and mouth, illustrated but not identified, is apparently Halophila ovalis. The observations of strong body flexure during diving and of submergence times averaging 10 min. are explained by the depth of the water (40-50 feet) at the site.
x
 
Williams, Thomas R. (detail)
   
1988
Is the ri the Irrawaddy dolphin? (Response to Sehm [1988])
Cryptozoology 6: 149-151. Feb. 1988.
–Defends his previous conclusion that the "ri" is the dugong.
 
 
Willis, Cliff (detail)
   
1979
Public awareness is paying dividends ... for an endangered species: law enforcement: the state's role.
Florida Conserv. News (Florida Dept. Nat. Resources) 15(2): 10-12. 2 figs. + fig. on p. 3. Nov. 1979.
–See also Appendix 1.
 
 
Williston, Samuel Wendell (detail)
   
1902
On certain homoplastic characters in aquatic air-breathing vertebrates.
Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 1: 259-266.
–Sirs., 263.
 
 
Williston, Samuel Wendell (detail)
   
1912
Symposium on ten years' progress in vertebrate paleontology. Evolutionary evidences.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 23: 257-262.
–Sirs., 261.
 
 
Williston, Samuel Wendell (detail)
   
1914
Water reptiles of the past and present.
Chicago, Univ. Chicago Press: vii + 251. 131 figs.
–Abstr.: Geol. Mag. (6)2: 37-38? Revs.: Science (n.s.) 41: 391-392?; Nature (London) 95: 3?; Sci. Prog. 9: 715?; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8)18: 502?; Jour. Geol. 33: 94, 1915? Sirs., 62.
 
 
Wilmet, F. (detail)
   
1948
L'appel de la brousse: vingt-trois ans d'aventures congolaises.
Brussels, Éditions "Discerner" (Collection "L'empire colonial belge", 1): 1-309. Illus.
 
 
Wilson, Don E. (detail)
   
1993
Order Sirenia. In: D. E. Wilson & D. M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Ed. 2.
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. Press (xviii + 1206): 365-366.
–Ed. 1: see Domning, Rice et al. (1982).
Wilson, John H.: SEE Lewis & Wilson, 1973. (detail)
 
 
Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E., III; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E. (detail)
   
2011
Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status.
Endangered Species Research 14: 107-112. 2 tabs. 2 figs. DOI: 10.3354/esr00346. Publ. online June 22, 2011.
 
 
Wilson, Steve (detail)
   
1985
The dugong (Dugong dugon).
Thylacinus (Australasian Society of Zoo Keepers) 10(3): 6-8. 1 fig. Spring 1985.
 
 
Wilson, Thomas (detail)
   
1895
On the presence of fluorine as a test for the fossilization of animal bones.
Amer. Naturalist 29: 301-317, 439-456, 719-725.
–Tests on bone samples of manatees, dugongs, Rytina, and Halitherium schinzii, 313-314, 440-442, 449-451.
 
D
Wiman, Carl (detail)
   
1923
[Discussion on Desmostylus.]
Pal. Zs. 5: 225.
–In German.
 
 
Wing, Elizabeth S. (detail)
   
1967
Aboriginal fishing in the Windward Islands. In: Proc. Second Internatl. Congress on Pre-Columbian Cultures of the Lesser Antilles:
103-107.
 
 
Wing, Elizabeth S. (detail)
   
1973
Notes on the faunal remains excavated from St. Kitts, West Indies.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 13(3-4): 253-255.
 
 
Wing, Elizabeth S. (detail)
   
1975
Vertebrate faunal remains. In: E. W. Andrews IV, M. P. Simmons, & E. S. Wing (eds.), Excavation of an early shell midden on Isla Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico.
Middle Amer. Res. Inst. Publ. 31: 186-188.
–Reports a manatee vertebra from a midden of the Late Preclassic Period (186).
 
 
Wing, Elizabeth S. (detail)
   
1977
Vertebrates. In: B. L. Stark (ed.), Prehistoric ecology at Patarata 52, Veracruz, Mexico: adaptation to the mangrove swamp.
Vanderbilt Univ. Publ. Anthrop. 18: 204-212.
–Manatee, 206.
 
 
Wing, Elizabeth S. (detail)
   
1980
Aquatic fauna and reptiles from the Atlantic and Pacific sites. In: O. F. Linares & A. J. Ranere (eds.), Adaptive radiations in prehistoric Panama.
Monogr. Peabody Mus. Archaeol. Ethnol. 5: 194-215.
x
 
Wing, Elizabeth S.; Reitz, Elizabeth J. (detail)
   
1982
Prehistoric fishing economies of the Caribbean.
Jour. New World Archaeol. 5(2): 13-32. 4 tabs. 4 figs.
–Lists archeological occurrences of T. manatus in Grenada, Mexico, St. Kitts, Trinidad, Nicaragua, and Jamaica (16), and discusses materials used to make spears for manatee hunting (24).
 
 
Wing, Elizabeth S.; Scudder, S. (detail)
   
1980
Use of animals by the prehistoric inhabitants on St. Kitts, West Indies.
Arizona St. Univ. Anthrop. Res. Papers No. 22: 237-245.
–Presented at the 8th Internatl. Congress on Pre-Columbian Cultures of the Lesser Antilles.
x
 
Wing, Elizabeth S.; Hoffman, C. A., Jr.; Ray, Clayton Edward (detail)
   
1968
Vertebrate remains from Indian sites on Antigua, West Indies.
Carib. Jour. Sci. 8(3-4): 123-140. 4 tabs. 4 figs. Sept.-Dec. 1968.
–Reports a radius of T. manatus (the first record of a manatee at Antigua) found on the surface at the Hawkes Bill Bay midden site (129).
 
 
Wing; Wing (detail)
   
1995
Jour. Ethnobiol. 15: 119-148.
 
 
Winge, Herluf (detail)
   
1906
Jordfunde og nulevende Hovdyr (Ungulata) fra Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, Brasilien, met Udsigt over Hovdyrenes indbyrdes Slaegtskab.
E Museo Lundii (Copenhagen) 3(1): 1-239. 9 pls.
–Sirs., 173-177, 180-181, 209, 233-234.
 
D
Winge, Herluf (detail)
   
1924
Pattedyr-slaegter.... III. Ungulata, Cetacea.
Copenhagen, H. Hagerups Forlag: 1-270. Frontisp.
–Engl. transl.: The interrelationships of the mammalian genera. Vol. III. Ungulata, Cetacea. Copenhagen, C. A. Reitzels Forlag: 1-308, frontisp., 1942. Sirenia, 134-138, 186-187; Desmostylus, 187-188 (148-153, 211-214 in 1942 ed.).
x
 
Winger, Jennifer (detail)
   
2010
Flora & fauna: West Indian manatee.
Nature Conservancy Mag. 60(4): 24-29. 5 figs. Winter 2010.
–Brief pop. acc. of TM, with color photos of Florida manatees by Brian Skerry.
 
 
Winn, Howard E.; Schneider, Jack (detail)
   
1977
Communication in sireniens [sic], sea otters, and pinnipeds. Chap. 32 in: T.A. Sebeok (ed.), How animals communicate.
Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press (1128 pp.): 809-840. 2 tabs. 5 figs.
Winner, Reinhard: SEE Blessing et al., 1972. (detail)
Winsor, M.: SEE Mate et al., 1987. (detail)
x
 
Winsor, Mary P. (detail)
   
2014-15
Considering affinity: an ethereal conversation [parts 1-3 of three].
Endeavour 39(1): 69-79, 5 figs.; 39(2): 116-126, 5 figs.; 39(3-4): 179-187, 7 figs.
–An imaginary conversation between Hugh E. Strickland and Charles Darwin on the subject of taxonomic affinity. Alludes to dugongs on pp. 75-76, 125, 181, and 183, with reproductions of illustrations of the dugong from Home (1820b) and Owen (1849).
 
 
Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dill, Lawrence M. (detail)
   
2007a
Living on the edge: dugongs prefer to forage in microhabitats that allow escape from rather than avoidance of predators.
Anim. Behav. 74(1): 93-101.
 
 
Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dill, Lawrence M. (detail)
   
2007b
Fear factor: do dugongs (Dugong dugon) trade food for safety from tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)?
Oecologia 153(4): 1031-1040. Publ. online July 17, 2007.
 
 
Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dill, Lawrence M. (detail)
   
2007c
Can you dig it? Use of excavation, a risky foraging tactic, by dugongs is sensitive to predation danger.
Anim. Behav. 74: 1085-1091.
 
 
Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dill, Lawrence M. (detail)
   
2011
Predator-induced modifications to diving behavior vary with foraging mode.
Oikos 120(7): 1005-1012. 4 tables. 1 fig. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18844.x. July 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Breath-hold divers are strongly interacting species whose top–down influence on aquatic communities is shaped by factors governing their diving decisions. Although some of these factors (e.g. physiological constraints, energetic needs) have been scrutinized, the possibility that predation risk influences diving behavior has been largely overlooked, and no study to date has asked if anti-predator responses by divers depend on foraging mode. We contrasted dive cycle changes by herbivorous dugongs Dugong dugon using two foraging tactics – cropping, which always permits anti-predator vigilance, and excavation, which limits surveillance at depth – in response to temporal variation in tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier abundance. Dugongs responded to increasing shark abundance (one component of predation risk) by diving more frequently without changing their surface times and thereby spending a greater proportion of time at the surface, but only while excavating. When threatened, in other words, excavating dugongs sacrificed foraging time at depth to facilitate shark detection. In contrast, cropping dugongs at risk from sharks were able to continue diving and foraging normally. By implication, future studies should consider the influence of predation risk on diving decisions, even by large-bodied species, and the possibility that behavioral responses by divers to predators may vary with foraging mode.
 
 
Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Frid, Alejandro; Dill, Lawrence M. (detail)
   
2008
Seascapes of fear: evaluating sublethal predator effects experienced and generated by marine mammals.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 24(1): 1-15. 3 figs. Jan. 2008.
 
 
Wirsing, Aaron J.; Ripple, William J. (detail)
   
2011
A comparison of shark and wolf research reveals similar behavioral responses by prey.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(6): 335-341. 3 figs. DOI: 10.1890/090226. Aug. 2011.
–ABSTRACT: Marine and terrestrial ecologists rarely exchange information, yet comparing research from both sides of the land–sea boundary holds great potential for improving our understanding of ecological processes. For example, by comparing the interaction between tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) and dugongs (Dugong dugon) to that between gray wolves (Canis lupus) and elk (Cervus elaphus), we show that top predators in marine and terrestrial ecosystems trigger three similar types of anti-predator behavior: (1) encounter avoidance, (2) escape facilitation, and (3) increased vigilance. By implication, the ecological roles of top predators in both ecosystems may be more similar than previously thought, and studies that fail to account for multiple modes of anti-predator behavior are likely to underestimate these roles and the consequences of eliminating predators from ecosystems. We encourage more communication between marine and terrestrial ecologists, in the interest of generating further insights into ecosystem dynamics and conservation.
x
 
Wislocki, George B. (detail)
   
1935a
The lungs of the manatee (Trichechus latirostris) compared with those of other aquatic mammals.
Biol. Bull. 68(3): 385-396. 1 tab. 2 pls. June 1935.
–Describes in detail the histology of the lungs and discusses their adaptive features.
x
 
Wislocki, George B. (detail)
   
1935b
The placentation of the manatee (Trichechus latirostris).
Mem. Mus. Compar. Zool. 54(3): 159-178. 2 figs. 7 pls. Dec. 1935.
–Abstr.: Anat. Rec. 55(4, Suppl.): 84, 1933. Describes in detail the placenta, umbilical cord, and uterus, comparing them with those of the dugong and other mammals. Concludes that the Sirenia have a zonary, hemochorial placenta and are most closely related to the Hyracoidea and Proboscidea. The fig. of the manatee fetus is reproduced by Durand (1983: 186-187).
 
 
Wislocki, George B. (detail)
   
1940
The topography of the hypophysis in the elephant, manatee, and hyrax.
Anat. Rec. 77(4): 427-442. 1 fig. 3 pls.
x
 
Witsen (detail)
   
1699
Part of a letter from Mr. Witsen, Burgermaster of Amsterdam, and F.R.S. to Dr. Martin Lister, fellow of the Colledge of Physicians, and R.S. concerning some late observations in Nova Hollandia.
Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20: 361-362.
–The letter, dated 3 Oct. 1698, states that "Black Swans, Parrots, and many Sea-Cows were found there" (in Hollandia Nova or Australia) by an unnamed ship of the Dutch East India Company (361).
 
 
Wlodarski, Loran (detail)
   
1998
Siren's song: the story of manatees.
Orlando (Florida), Sea World, Inc.: 1-64. Illus.
–Includes introduction by D. K. Odell (pp. 4-5). Pop. acc. of sirs., emphasizing Florida manatees and rehabilitation efforts at Sea World of Florida.
Wolanski, Eric: SEE Heinsohn et al., 1985. (detail)
 
 
Wolf, Michele (detail)
   
1993
Meet the manatee.
USAir Magazine 15(3): 80, 82-84, 86. 2 figs. Mar. 1993.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees at Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, and other facilities.
Wolfe, J. A.: SEE MacNeil et al., 1961. (detail)
 
 
Wolfe, Pete (detail)
   
1980
Florida's mellow monsters.
American Way, July 1980: 18-20, 22. 4 figs.
Wollrab, T. I.: SEE Monti & Wollrab, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Wolsan, Mieczys?aw (detail)
   
1992
Pochodzenie i ewolucja ssaków morskich Polski. The origin and evolution of Polish marine mammals.
Przeglad Zoologiczny 35(3-4): 261-268. 2 tabs. June 1992.
–In Polish; Engl. summ. Lists Thalattosiren sp. from the Middle Miocene of Pi?czów, Poland (262, 265-266).
 
 
Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James Arthur, Jr.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E. (detail)
   
2012
Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field.
Aquatic Mammals 38(1): 1-16. 12 tabs. 5 figs. DOI: 10.1578/AM.38.1.2012.1
–ABSTRACT: West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p < 0.001). As monitoring time progressed, mean differences between the subspecies were no longer significant. High RR over monitoring time was associated with high lactate concentration. Antillean manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001). We recommend monitoring manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.
 
 
Wong, Arthur; Lanyon, Janet M.; O'Handley, Ryan; Linedale, Richard; Woolford, Lucy; Long, Trevor; Leggatt, Graham R. (detail)
   
2019
Serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in southeast Queensland dugongs.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12629. Jan. 2020; publ. online June 24, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong (Dugong dugon) is an herbivorous marine mammal that inhabits tropical inshore waters and thus may be vulnerable to pollutants and terrestrial pathogens as a result of coastal runoff. In this study, serum samples collected from live, wild dugongs (n = 114) in an embayment located on the urbanized southeast Queensland coast of Australia during 2008–2014, were measured for IgG antibody levels specific to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. An ELISA used to measure T. gondii tachyzoite antibodies indicated a non-Gaussian distribution of antibody level, with five dugongs identified as high outliers. Mean levels of antibodies specific for T. gondii in dugongs sampled in 2014 were significantly higher than in 2010 (p=.006) and 2011 (p=.009) with an elevation in mean antibody levels after a major 2011 flood event relative to antibody levels prior to the flood (p<.0001). A competitive ELISA to detect N. caninum antibody indicated a normal distribution of antibody with no high outliers. Mean antibody level for N. caninum was highest in 2012 and declined significantly in 2014 (p=.004). This is the first survey of antibodies directed against T. gondii and N. caninum in dugongs and suggests future health monitoring of this species.
 
 
Wong, Arthur; Lanyon, Janet M.; McKee, Sara J.; Linedale, Richard; Woolford, Lucy; Long, Trevor; Leggatt, Graham R. (detail)
   
2018
Development of a polyclonal anti-dugong immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody with evaluation of total plasma IgG in a living dugong (Dugong dugon) population.
Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 200: 16-25. 2 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2018.04.003 Apr. 8, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: Species-specific antibodies (Ab) for the measurement of immunoglobulins (Ig) are valuable tools for determining the humoral immune status of threatened and endangered wildlife species such as dugongs. However, no studies have reported antibody reagents against dugong immunoglobulin. The object of this study was to develop an Ab with specificity for dugong IgG and apply this tool to survey total IgG levels in plasma samples from a live wild population of dugongs in southern Queensland, Australia. Dugong IgG was isolated from plasma by protein A/G column chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was successfully raised against the dugong IgG through immunization of mice. The anti-dugong antiserum was reactive with dugong serum but not immunoglobulin from other species such as rats and humans. When tested against a panel of dugong plasma samples, relative IgG levels from dugongs (n?=?116) showed biologically relevant relationships with pregnancy status and a principal component of Body Mass Index (BMI)/globulin/fecal glucocorticosteroid (chronic stress) levels combined, which together accounted for 9.2% of the variation in total Ig levels. Together these data suggest that dugongs show variation in total IgG and that this correlates with some physiological parameters of dugong health.
Wood, C. J.: SEE Leatherwood et al., 1992. (detail)
 
 
Wood, Don A.; Millsap, Brian A.; Rose, Patrick M. (detail)
   
1992
Florida's nongame and endangered species programs.
Endangered Species Update (Univ. Michigan School of Natural Resources) 9(9-10): 8, 10-12. Cover photo. July/Aug. 1992.
 
 
Wood, Jane R. (detail)
   
2008
Trouble on the St. Johns River.
Jacksonville (Florida), Florida Kids Press, Inc.: 1-156. Illus.
–Book for children ages 9-14. Illustrations by Elizabeth A. Blacker.
 
 
Wood, John George (detail)
   
date?
Illustrated natural history. [Vol. 1. Mammals.]
–Many eds., 1853-1923.
x
 
Wood, Thomas (detail)
   
1938
Cobbers; a personal record of a journey from Essex, in England, to Australia, Tasmania and some of the reefs and islands in the Coral Sea, made in the years 1930, 1931, and 1932. Ed. 2.
London, Oxford Univ. Press, Humphrey Milford: xv + 288. Frontisp.
–First ed., 1934. Mentions the occurrence of dugongs in the Buccaneer Archipelago, northwestern Australia (46, 53).
Woodall, P. F.: SEE Cummins & Woodall, 1985. (detail)
Woodard, J. C.: SEE Forrester et al., 1975. (detail)
 
 
Woodley, J. D. (detail)
   
1968
A history of the Jamaican fauna.
Jamaica Journal 2(3): 14-20.
 
D
Woodring, Wendell Phillips; Stewart, Ralph; Richards, R. W. (detail)
   
1940
Geology of the Kettleman Hills oil field, California.
U. S. Geol. Surv. Professional Paper 195: v + 170. 15 figs. 57 pls.
–Mentions tooth fragments of Desmostylus, probably D. hesperus (determined by Remington Kellogg), found in Miocene Temblor sandstone, Reef Ridge, Kings County, California (124).
x
 
Woodroffe, Joseph F. (detail)
   
1914
The upper reaches of the Amazon.
London, Methuen & Co.: xvi + 304.
–Brief account of "Manatus Americanus" and of an interesting type of cylindrical trap used by Amazonian Indians to catch it (243-244).
 
 
Woodruff, R. A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Bonilla, J. A.; Romero, C. H. (detail)
   
2005
Molecular identification of a papilloma virus from cutaneous lesions of captive and free-ranging Florida manatees.
Jour. Wildl. Diseases 41(2): 437-441.
Woods, C. A.: SEE Rathbun, Carr et al., 1985; Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder, 1985. (detail)
x
 
Woods, F. J. (detail)
   
1937
Manatee.
Nigerian Field 6(1): 23-28. 3 figs.
–Describes various Nigerian methods of catching manatees with traps and bait, manatee distribution and catch levels, native superstitions regarding manatees, and rituals observed in butchering them. Also gives measurements and notes on the external morphology of a specimen killed in the Izichi River.
 
 
Woodward, Arthur Smith (detail)
   
1898
The imperfection of the geological record.
Nat. Sci. (London) 13: 327-332.
–Sirs., 330.
 
 
Woodward, Arthur Smith (detail)
   
1909
The British Association for the Advancement of Science Address of the President to the Geological Section.
Science (n.s.) 30: 321-331.
–Sirs., 330.
x
 
Woodward, Arthur Smith (detail)
   
1910
Presidential address at meeting of British Association for the Advancement of Science, at Winnipeg, Canada.
Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79: 462-471.
–Discusses sir. evolution in the light of discoveries in Egypt and Jamaica (470).
 
D
Woodward, Arthur Smith (detail)
   
1922
Remarks on Desmostylus sookensis.
Proc. Geol. Soc. London 78: lxix-lxxx.
 
 
Woodward, Arthur Smith (detail)
   
1923
A guide to the fossil mammals and birds in the Department of Geology and Palaeontology in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). Ed. 10.
London, Trustees of the Brit. Mus.: 1-96. 86 figs. 6 pls.
–First ed., 1881 (eds. 1-4 include all exhibits of the department). Sirs., 68.
x
 
Woodward, Henry (detail)
   
1885a
On an almost perfect skeleton of Rhytina gigas (Rhytina stelleri, "Steller's sea-cow"), obtained by Mr. Robert Damon, F.G.S., from the Pleistocene peat-deposits on Behring's Island.
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 41: 457-472. 5 figs. Aug. 1885 (read Mar. 25, 1885).
–Abstr.: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)15: 420-421. Describes in detail the Hydrodamalis skeleton in the British Museum, and compares it with other sirs. Also lists and comments on the known fossil and Recent species of sirs. (465-471).
 
 
Woodward, Henry (detail)
   
1885b
On the fossil Sirenia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W.
Geol. Mag. (3)2: 412-425. 2 figs.
 
 
Woodward, Henry (detail)
   
1904
The evolution of vertebrate animals in time.
Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc. 1904: 137-164.
–Sirs., 155.
 
 
Woodworth, Karen A.; Frankovich, Thomas A.; Freshwater, David W. (detail)
   
2019
Melanothamnus maniticola sp. nov. (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta): an epizoic species evolved for living on the West Indian Manatee.
Jour. Phycology 55(6): 1239-1245. doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12912 Dec. 2019; published online Aug. 10, 2019.
–ABSTRACT: Over 35 macroalgae have been documented growing epizoically on sea turtles, and macroalgae are also known to grow on the West Indian Manatee, but the number and identity of these latter species have not been determined. Analysis of DNA sequences of 12 samples collected from different manatees captured in three areas of Florida indicated that they represented a single undescribed species within the Rhodomelaceae genus Melanothamnus. Morphological analysis revealed Melanothamnus characteristics but also a previously undescribed combination of character states. These include eight to nine, but as many as 11, pericentral cells; heavy cortication restricted to the base of thalli, and a sharp transition between the corticated and ecorticate sections of the thallus; cells surrounding the ostiole being similar in size to the outer pericarp cells immediately below, and robust rhizoids that have no terminal lobes and develop from central axial cell filaments instead of pericentral cells. The unique characteristics of the rhizoids may be evolutionary adaptations for anchoring the thalli to manatee epidermis. This species is described as M. maniticola sp. nov.
 
 
Woolford, Lucy; Franklin, C.; Whap, T.; Loban, F.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2015
Pathological findings in wild harvested dugongs Dugong dugon of central Torres Strait, Australia.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 113(2): 89-102. 2 tabs. 9 figs. DOI: 10.3354/dao02825. Mar. 9, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: The dugong Dugong dugon is classified as Vulnerable to extinction but may be endangered in some regions. Cause of death in stranded dugongs has not been determined in a large proportion of animals examined, with investigations hindered by limited information on dugong health and diseases, and paucity of knowledge of common or endemic pathological findings. Here we describe pathological findings in harvested dugongs from the relatively pristine area of central Torres Strait, and we characterise lesions attributable to drowning. Other recorded lesions were mild and predominated by host reaction to the presence of trematodes within the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and pancreas. Ascarid worm burdens were low in comparison to dugongs from developed coastlines. Hepatocellular lipofuscin and ferritin pigmentation were commonly observed, more pronounced in livers of older animals and concurrent with periportal and bridging fibrosis. Lesions attributable to drowning included incomplete collapse of lungs, dorsal or diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild intra-alveolar haemorrhage and oedema, mild interstitial oedema and rupture of peripheral alveolar septae with acute myofibre fragmentation and degeneration. No accumulation of foam or aspiration of water or particulate matter was observed, suggesting that dugongs 'dry drown'. Morphometric features of normal spleen are also presented. Characterisation of common pathological findings and those attributable to drowning in this species will aid in the interpretation of post mortem findings for the significant number of dugongs found deceased along urbanised coastlines.
 
 
Woolford, Lucy; Wong, Arthur; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Boyd, Susan P.; Lanyon, Janet M. (detail)
   
2015
Hematology of dugongs (Dugong dugon) in southern Queensland.
Veterinary Clinical Pathology 44(4): 530–541. 6 tabs. 4 figs. DOI: 10.1111/vcp.12305. Dec. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Background- Little is known of the hematology of the dugong (Dugong dugon), a secretive and endangered coastal marine mammal.
 Objectives- This paper reports hematologic reference intervals (RI) for dugongs and characterizes morphologic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural features of dugong leukocytes.
 Methods- Blood was collected from live, apparently healthy dugongs and analyzed using Cell-Dyn 3700 or Sysmex XT-2000iV hematology analyzers. Blood films were subjected to a series of cytochemical stains, and leukocyte structure was examined using transmission electron microscopy.
 Results- Reference intervals were established for 14 hematologic variables, total solids, and fibrinogen for 92 dugongs. Significant differences in some variables were found for animal size class, sex, and pregnancy status, and between analyzers. Subadults had higher leukocyte and lymphocyte counts than adults. Males had higher total solids and fibrinogen than females. Pregnant females had higher HCT, MCV, and circulating nucleated RBC, and lower platelet counts than nonpregnant females. Lymphocytes were usually the predominant circulating leukocyte. Heterophil cytoplasmic granules were abundant, fine, round to ovoid, and intensely eosinophilic, and round to ovoid or rod-shaped, and variably electron dense in electron microscopy. Eosinophils contained larger round eosinophilic to orange cytoplasmic granules, which ultrastructurally were bicompartmental with a round eccentric electron-dense core. Cytochemical staining of dugong heterophils suggests biochemical similarity to those of manatees and elephants, and for eosinophils, similarity to those of elephants, ruminants, and equids.
 Conclusions- Generation of hematologic RI and characterization of leukocyte morphology improves evaluation of dugong health across this population and serves as a reference for other populations outside southern Queensland.
Woolston, F. P.: SEE Colliver & Woolston, 1975. (detail)
x
 
Wootton, J. Timothy (detail)
   
1987
The effects of body mass, phylogeny, habitat, and trophic level on mammalian age at first reproduction.
Evolution 41(4): 732-749. 4 tabs. 1 fig. July 1987.
–Presents data on 547 mammalian species, including Dugong dugon and Trichechus manatus (748); makes no specific comments regarding sirs.
 
 
Work, Paul A.; Sapp, Adam L.; Scott, David W.; Dodd, Mark G. (detail)
   
2010
Influence of small vessel operation and propulsion system on loggerhead sea turtle injuries.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 393 (1-2): 168-175. 4 Tables. 7 Figures. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2010.07.019. September 30, 2010.
–ABSTRACT: Collisions with marine vessels represent a significant threat to many marine vertebrates, including whales, dolphin, manatees, and sea turtles. Many recovered turtles display injuries that appear to result from interactions with marine vessels and their associated propulsion systems, yet the details of these interactions and the potential for reducing their lethality have not been previously investigated. This paper describes a series of experiments designed to investigate the type and severity of damage inflicted on full-scale model loggerhead sea turtles struck by small vessels, and the potential for reducing the likelihood of fatal interactions by modifying either the vessel propulsion system or operational characteristics. Artificial carapaces were developed to mimic selected material properties of a natural loggerhead carapace. These were secured to frames to yield models with size, mass, and density representative of real animals. The model turtles were subjected to impact by small (3–6 m) vessels with traditional outboard, jet outboard, and inboard jet propulsion systems under controlled conditions in the field. Dependence of catastrophic injury on vessel speed, model depth below the water surface, and propulsion system was investigated via repeated tests. The effectiveness of two commercial propeller guards was also investigated. Results indicate that vessel speed does significantly influence the likelihood of catastrophic damage, whereas depth in the water column does not. Propeller guards were ineffective at planing speed and only slightly helpful at idle speed. Both tested jet propulsion systems yielded dramatic improvements in animal safety compared to a traditional outboard and propeller arrangement. Results thus suggest that appropriate changes in both vessel operation and configuration can reduce threats to sea turtles, and likely other marine organisms.
Worthy, Graham A. J.: SEE ALSO Courbis & Worthy, 2003; Dierauf, L. A., 1990; Ortiz & Worthy, 2004; Ortiz et al., 1998, 1999. (detail)
 
 
Worthy, Graham A. J.; Hickie, John P. (detail)
   
1986
Relative brain size in marine mammals.
Amer. Naturalist 128(4): 445-459.
 
 
Worthy, Graham A. J.; Worthy, Tamara A. M. (detail)
   
2014
Digestive efficiencies of ex situ and in situ West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Physiological & Biochemical Zoology 87(1): 77-91. May 1, 2014.
–ABSTRACT: Digestive efficiencies (Dm) of ex situ and in situ manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were, for the first time, assessed using manganese (Mn(2+)) as a naturally occurring marker. The Dm of ex situ manatees determined using [Mn(2+)] did not differ significantly from the Dm assessed using lignin, supporting the efficacy of the manganese approach. Gastrointestinal tract samples, obtained from recently dead animals, showed [Mn(2+)] concentrations were lowest in the stomach and remained low in the duodenum and small intestine but increased in the cecum, colon, and rectum, consistent with colonic digestion and absorption. In situ manatees consuming marine vegetation had significantly lower Dm (mean ± SE, 46.9% ± 1.8%; n=8) than did in situ manatees consuming freshwater vegetation (77.8% ± 2.6%; n=7), which in turn had significantly lower values than did ex situ manatees consuming lettuce (84.0% ± 0.7%; n=37). In situ manatees eating seagrasses had significantly higher Dm than did long-term ex situ animals consuming seagrass for short periods of time (46.9% ± 1.8% vs. 36.2% ± 1.2%, respectively), suggesting potential modification of gut flora over time. One significant ramification of our results is that manatees consuming seagrasses would require a greater standing biomass to support their needs than would be required if they were eating freshwater vegetation. This reinforces the critical need to implement habitat conservation and protection before considering downlisting or delisting manatees as an endangered species.
 
 
Wortman, Jacob Lawson (detail)
   
1920
On some hitherto unrecognized reptilian characters in the skull of the Insectivora and other mammals.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 57: 1-52. 16 figs.
–Sirs., 16.
 
 
Wortman, Jacob Lawson (detail)
   
1921
Evolution of molar cusps in mammals.
Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthrop. 4: 177-188.
–Sirs., 186.
x
 
Wray, Phoebe (detail)
   
1975
The sirens of South Carolina.
Carolina Sportsman 14(5): 21-22. Sept.-Oct. 1975.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and their occurrence in South Carolina.
x
 
Wray, Phoebe (detail)
   
1976
Manatees: living with a myth.
Underwater Naturalist 10(1): 13-15. 3 figs. Dec. 1976.
–Pop. acc. of Florida manatees and problems of their conservation.
 
 
Wray, Phoebe (detail)
   
1978
The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida: a summary and analysis of biological, ecological, and administrative problems affecting preservation and restoration of the population.
NTIS Document No. PB 285410: 1-89. Sept. 1978.
 
 
Wright, C. W. (detail)
   
1986
Hello, I am a manatee.
San Francisco, Primate Publs.: 1-14.
 
 
Wright, George Frederick (detail)
   
1902
The Ice Age in North America and its bearings upon the antiquity of man. Ed. 4.
New York, D. Appleton & Co.: xl + 648. 148 figs. Frontisp. 4 maps.
–Ed. 1, 1889. Ed. 5, Oberlin (Ohio), Bibliotheca Sacra Co. (xxi + 763), 1911. Mentions the extinction of "two species of the sea-cow, found in Florida and South Carolina" at the close of the Tertiary period (386; 436 in 1911 ed.).
Wright, Irene Elizabeth: SEE ALSO Weigle et al., 2001. (detail)
 
 
Wright, Irene Elizabeth; Reynolds, John E., III; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Ward, Leslie I.; Weigle, Bradley L.; Szelistowski, William A. (detail)
   
2002
Trends in manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) counts and habitat use in Tampa Bay, 1987-1994: implications for conservation.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 18(1): 259-274. 7 figs. Jan. 9, 2002.
x
 
Wright, Irene Elizabeth; Wright, Scott D.; Sweat, James M. (detail)
   
1998
Use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to identify manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(3): 641-645. "July 1998" (mailed June 16, 1998).
–Describes the development of methods and early results of use of PIT tags, concluding that they effectively complement other methods of identifying animals that are in hand (captive or dead).
Wright, J. C.: SEE Collard et al., 1976. (detail)
x
 
Wright, Julia McNair (detail)
   
1892
Lesson XLII. A real live mermaid. In: Nature readers. Sea-side and way-side. No. 4.
Boston, D. C. Heath & Co.: 291-296.
–Fairly detailed pop. acc. of sirs., emphasizing manatees and noting their occurrence in the Santa Lucia River, Florida.
Wright, Scott D.: SEE ALSO Ackerman et al., 1995; Bossart et al., 1998; Bradley et al., 1993; Duignan et al., 1995; Sweat et al., 2001; Wright, Irene E., et al., 1998. (detail)
 
 
Wright, Scott D.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Beck, Cathy A.; Banowetz, Donna J. (detail)
   
1995
Analysis of watercraft-related mortality of manatees in Florida, 1979-1991. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, & H. F. Percival (eds.), Population biology of the Florida manatee (q.v.).
Information & Technology Rept. (U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Biological Service) (vi + 289) 1: 259-268. 2 tabs. 8 figs. Aug. 1995.
–Abstr. in O'Shea et al. (1992: 23).
 
 
Wycherly, P. R. (detail)
   
1969
Conservation in Malaysia.
IUCN Publ. (n.s.), Suppl. Paper 22.
–Dugongs, 113-114.
x
 
Wyman, Jeffries (detail)
   
1848
[On the Manatus of Dr. Perkins.]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2: 199.
–In a footnote to G. A. Perkins (1848), comments on Perkins' foregoing description of a manatee from Liberia, and names it Manatus nasutus, n.sp.
x
 
Wyman, Jeffries (detail)
   
1850
Notice of the cranium of the Ne-hoo-le, a new species of manatee (Manatus nasutus) from W. Africa.
Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts (2)9(25): 45-47. Jan. 1850 (read Nov. 7, 1849).
–Abstr.: Wyman (1851). Compares the skull of "Manatus nasutus" with those of the other species recognized, M. Americanus, M. Senegalensis, and M. latirostris.
x
 
Wyman, Jeffries (detail)
   
1851
[On the cranium of Manatus nasutus.]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 3: 192. Read Nov. 7, 1849.
–Abstr. of Wyman (1850).
 
 
Wyman, Jeffries (detail)
   
1875
Fresh-water shell mounds of the St. Johns' River, Florida.
Mem. Peabody Acad. Sci. (Salem) 4: 1-94.
–Manatee, 81.
 
 
Wynne, A. B. (detail)
   
1872
Memoir on the geology of Kutch, to accompany a map compiled by A. B. Wynne and F. Fedden, during the seasons of 1867-68 and 1868-69.
Mem. Geol. Surv. India 9(1): 1-293.
–Reports ?sir. ribs and vertebrae from Miocene deposits.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Chapman, Alycia; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Pérez, Carla I.; Bonde, Robert K. (detail)
   
2018
Internal parasites of the two subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 130(2): 145-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03270. Publ. online Sept. 10, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is divided into 2 subspecies: the Antillean (T. m. manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. This study reports sample prevalence of manatee parasites from populations of these 2 subspecies in different geographical locations. Although necropsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for parasite infections, the need for antemortem diagnostic techniques is important. Fecal samples collected during necropsies of Antillean manatees (n = 3) in Puerto Rico and Florida manatees (n = 10) in Crystal River, Florida, as well as from live-captured Florida manatees (n = 11) were evaluated using centrifugal flotation with sucrose and ethyl acetate sedimentation to compare parasites from each of the populations. Although both fecal examination methods provided similar results, the centrifugal flotation method required less time for diagnosis. The most common parasite eggs found in both populations included the trematodes Pulmonicola cochleotrema and Nudacotyle undicola, oocysts of the coccidian Eimeria spp., and eggs of the ascarid Heterocheilus tunicatus. Eggs of the trematode Chiorchis groschafti were found in both populations of manatees; however, eggs of a related species, Chiorchis fabaceus, were abundant in the Florida samples, but not found in Puerto Rico populations. Trematode eggs of Moniligerum blairi were found in both populations, but were more common in the Florida manatee (42%) than the Antillean manatee (33%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of both Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa oocysts in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Rivera-Pérez, Carla I.; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L. (detail)
   
2017
Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 127(1): 65-69. 2 figs. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03181. Dec. 19, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.
 
 
Wyrosdick, Heidi M.; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Rivera-Perez, Carla I.; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L. (detail)
   
2017
Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees.
Diseases of Marine Organisms 127: 65-69. 2 figs. doi:10.335/dao03181. Dec. 19, 2017.
–ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.
Wyss, André R.: SEE ALSO Novacek & Wyss; Novacek et al. (detail)
x
 
Wyss, André R.; Novacek, Michael J.; McKenna, Malcolm Carnegie (detail)
   
1987
Amino acid sequence versus morphological data and the interordinal relationships of mammals.
Molec. Biol. Evol. 4(2): 99-116. 3 figs.
–Morphology and alpha crystallin A sequences both support the close alliance of Hyracoidea, Sirenia, and Proboscidea, but within this grouping they suggest the associations of Sirenia + Proboscidea and Sirenia + Hyracoidea, respectively (104-107, 113).

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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