Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  

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Zaaijer, T. (detail)
Die Persistenz der Synchondrosis condylo-squamosa am Hinterhauptsbeine des Menschen und der Säugetiere.
Anat. Anz. 9(11): 337-342. 4 figs. Mar. 30, 1894.
–Notes the occurrence of unfused exoccipital-supraoccipital sutures in two dugong skulls, and regards them as anomalous (340).
Zahin, Maryam; Ghim, Shin-je; Khanal, Sujita; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Joh, Joongho (detail)
Molecular characterization of novel mucosotropic papillomaviruses from a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
The Journal of General Virology. DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000293. Published online September 21, 2015.
–ABSTRACT: We isolated two new manatee papillomavirus (PV) types, TmPV3 and TmPV4, from a Florida manatee. Two PV types were previously isolated from this species. TmPV1 is widely dispersed among manatees and a close to root PV; not much is known about TmPV2. The genomes of TmPV3 and TmPV4 were 7,622 and 7,771 bp in size, respectively. Both PVs had a genomic organization characteristic to all PVs, with one non-coding region (NCR) and seven open reading frames (ORFs), including the E7 ORF that is absent in other cetacean PVs. Although these PVs were isolated from separate genital lesions of the same manatee, an enlarged E2/E4 ORF was found only in the TmPV4 genome. The full genome and L1 sequence similarities between TmPV3 and TmPV4 were 63.2% and 70.3%, respectively. These genomes shared only 49.1% and 50.2% similarity with TmPV1. The pairwise alignment of L1 nucleotide sequences indicated that the two new PVs nested in a monophyletic group of the Rhopapillomavirus genus, together with the cutaneotropic TmPV1 and TmPV2.
Zahin, Maryam; Dean, William L.; Ghim, Shin-je; Joh, Joongho; Gray, Robert D.; Khanal, Sujita; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Trent, John O.; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Chariker, Julia H. (detail)
Identification of G-quadruplex forming sequences in three manatee papillomaviruses.
PLoS One 13(4): e0195625. 5 tabs. 6 figs. + online supplementary material. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195625 April 9, 2018.
–ABSTRACT: The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirotris) is a threatened aquatic mammal in United States coastal waters. Over the past decade, the appearance of papillomavirus-induced lesions and viral papillomatosis in manatees has been a concern for those involved in the management and rehabilitation of this species. To date, three manatee papillomaviruses (TmPVs) have been identified in Florida manatees, one forming cutaneous lesions (TmPV1) and two forming genital lesions (TmPV3 and TmPV4). We identified DNA sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplex structures (G4) across the three genomes. G4 were located on both DNA strands and across coding and non-coding regions on all TmPVs, offering multiple targets for viral control. Although G4 have been identified in several viral genomes, including human PVs, most research has focused on canonical structures comprised of three G-tetrads. In contrast, the vast majority of sequences we identified would allow the formation of non-canonical structures with only two G-tetrads. Our biophysical analysis confirmed the formation of G4 with parallel topology in three such sequences from the E2 region. Two of the structures appear comprised of multiple stacked two G-tetrad structures, perhaps serving to increase structural stability. Computational analysis demonstrated enrichment of G4 sequences on all TmPVs on the reverse strand in the E2/E4 region and on both strands in the L2 region. Several G4 sequences occurred at similar regional locations on all PVs, most notably on the reverse strand in the E2 region. In other cases, G4 were identified at similar regional locations only on PVs forming genital lesions. On all TmPVs, G4 sequences were located in the non-coding region near putative E2 binding sites. Together, these findings suggest that G4 are possible regulatory elements in TmPVs.
Zalmout, Iyad S.; Mustafa, Hakam A.; Smadi, Ahmad A.; Nazzal, Jamal; Gingerich, Philip, D. (detail)
Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the middle and late Eocene of Jordan.
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 298(2): 121-136. DOI:10.1127/njgpa/2020/0938 Nov. 2020.
–ABSTRACT: Marine mammals including archaeocete Cetacea and dugongid Sirenia are reported from two Eocene localities in Jordan. The first locality. Jebal eth Thuleithuwat, is Lutetian or Bartonian middle Eocene in age. Jebal eth Thuleithuwat has yielded the astragalus and other skeletal elements of a protocetid archaeocete, possible fragments of basilosaurid teeth, and the virtually complete rib of a dugongid (all gen. et sp. indet.). The second locality, Qa' Faydat ad Dahikiya is Priabonian late Eocene in age. Qa' Faydat ad Dahikiya has yielded teeth or postcranial re1nains of four basilosaurid archaeocetes (Stromerius nidensis, Dorudon atrox, Masracetus markgrafi, and Basilosaurus isis) and postcranial remains of a dugongid (Eotheroides sp.).
Zalmout, Iyad Saleh; Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
Late Eocene sea cows (Mammalia, Sirenia) from Wadi Al Hitan in the Western Desert of Fayum, Egypt.
Univ. Michigan Papers on Paleontology No. 37: xiii + 158. 44 tabs. Frontisp. 101 figs. Dec. 17, 2012.
Zalmout, Iyad Saleh; Haq, Munir Ul-; Gingerich, Philip D. (detail)
New species of Protosiren (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the early Middle Eocene of Balochistan (Pakistan).
Contr. Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan 31(3): 79-87. 1 tab. 4 figs. Aug. 15, 2003.
–Abstr.: Jour. Vert. Pal. 21(3), Suppl.: 117A, Aug. 22, 2001. Describes Protosiren eothene, n.sp., based on a partial thorax of early Lutetian age. It is the smallest and oldest in a series of species also comprising P. fraasi, P. sattaensis, and P. smithae and spanning some 8 million years.
Zammit-Maempel, G. (detail)
The folklore of Maltese fossils.
Papers in Mediterranean Social Studies 1: 1-29.
–Reviews indeterminate sir. fossils from Malta.
Zammit-Maempel, George (detail)
The folklore of Maltese fossils.
Papers in Mediterranean Social Studies 1: 1-29.
–Records fragmentary sir. remains from the Lower Coralline Limestone Formation (Rupelian, Early Olig.), Malta.
Zann, Leon: SEE Gray & Zann, 1988. (detail)
Zapata-Perez, O.: SEE Noreno-B. et al., 1998. (detail)
Zapfe, Helmuth (detail)
Zur Altersfrage der Braunkohle von Langau bei Geras in Niederösterreich.
Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte (Vienna) 98(1): 12-16. 2 figs.
–Reports rib fragments referred to Metaxytherium krahuletzi from the Langau lignite as supporting an Early Mioc. age for the deposit (14).
Zárate Becerra, Edith: SEE ALSO Colmenero-R. & Zárate, 1990. (detail)
Zárate Becerra, Edith (detail)
Distribución del manatí (Trichechus manatus) en la porción sur de Quintana Roo, México.
Revista de Investigación Científica (Univ. Autón. de Baja California Sur), Sér. Ciencias del Mar 1 (Número Especial SOMEMMA 1): 1-11. 5 tabs. 3 figs. May 1993.
–Engl. summ. This special number is devoted to papers from the Sociedad Mexicana para el Estudio de los Mamíferos Marinos (SOMEMMA).
Zastrow, Nathan; Jaquette, Leslee (detail)
Manatees and marinas: who's endangered now?
Marina Dock Age (Niles, Illinois) 14(3): 23-27. 5 figs. Apr./May 2001.
–Reports on the ongoing controversy among marina owners, government agencies, and the Save the Manatee Club over permitting of marina construction in Florida in the wake of settlement of lawsuits brought by the Save the Manatee Club.
Zavala, Ma. Elia Hoz: SEE Colmenero-Rolón & Hoz-Zavala, 1986. (detail)
Zbyszewski, Georges (detail)
Note sur la découverte d'un humerus de Metaxitherium Petersi Abel dans l'Helvétien Vb de Lisbonne.
Bol. Soc. Geol. Portugal 4(1/2): 69-72. 2 figs.
–Refers a Miocene humerus from Quinta da Farinheira (Chelas, Portugal) to M. petersi on the basis of its size, shape, and intertubercular angle.
Zbyszewski, Georges (detail)
Les vertébrés du Burdigalien supérieur de Lisbonne.
Mem. Serv. Geol. Portugal 1949: 1-77. Pl. A. & 22 pls.
Zbyszewski, Georges (detail)
L'Aquitanien supérieur de Lisbonne et du Ribatejo.
Comunicações Serv. Geol. Portugal 35: 99-153.
Zdansky, Otto (detail)
Eotherium majus sp. n., eine neue Sirene aus dem Mitteleozän von Ägypten.
Palaeobiologica 6(2): 429-434. 1 fig.
–Bases the new species on a single upper molar from Gebel Mokattam, Egypt.
Zecchini, A. (detail)
Les dugongs et les lamantins mal en point. Des sirènes qui disparaissent.
Courrier de la Nature 173: 19-23.
Zeh, Daniel R.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Limpus, Colin J.; Hamann, Mark; Fuentes, Mariana M.P.B.; Babcock, Russel C.; Pillans, Richard D.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Marsh, Helene D. (detail)
Is acoustic tracking appropriate for air-breathing marine animals? Dugongs as a case study.
Jour. Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 464: 1-10. 3 tabs. 5 figs. DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2014.11.013. Mar. 2015.
–ABSTRACT: Marine animals face increased pressure through expanded shipping and recreational activities. Effective conservation and management of large species like marine mammals or sea turtles depend on knowledge of movement and habitat use. Previous studies have used data collected from either satellite or acoustic telemetry but rarely both. In this study, data from satellite and acoustic technologies were used to: determine the efficacy of satellite and acoustic telemetry to define dugong movement patterns; compare the benefits and limitations of each approach; examine the costs of each approach in relation to the amount and type of data provided; and relate telemetry data to the boundaries of a Go Slow area designed to protect dugongs and turtles from vessel strike within an urbanised coastal embayment (Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia). Twenty-one dugongs were captured in seagrass habitats on the Eastern Banks of Moreton Bay in July–September 2012 and July 2013 and fitted with GPS and acoustic transmitters. Both satellite and acoustic telemetry produced reliable presence and movement data for individual dugongs. When the dugongs were within the range of the acoustic array, there was relatively good correspondence between the overall space use measures derived from GPS and acoustic transmitters, demonstrating that acoustic tracking is a potentially valuable and cost-effective tool for monitoring local dugong habitat use in environments equipped with acoustic receiver arrays. Acoustic technology may be particularly useful for species that establish home ranges with stable residency especially near large urban or port environs. However, the relative merits of the two technologies depend on the research question in the context of the species of interest, the location of the study and whether the study site has an established acoustic array.
Zeiller, Warren (detail)
The management of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) at the Miami Seaquarium. In: R. L. Brownell, Jr., & K. Ralls (eds.), The West Indian manatee in Florida. Proceedings of a workshop held in Orlando, Florida 27-29 March 1978 (q.v.).
Tallahassee, Florida Dept. Nat. Res. (iv + 154): 103-110. 1 tab. 1 fig.
–Describes the Seaquarium's past, present, and proposed manatee facilities, the care and feeding of an orphaned calf, its measurements and growth on an artificial milk formula, the treatment of ectoparasitic infestations, the control of algal growth on manatees and in tanks, mating in captivity, and the birth of a calf conceived in captivity.
Zeiller, Warren (detail)
Introducing the manatee.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida: 1-151. 1 tab. 110 figs.
–Pop. acc. of sirs., emphasizing the author's experiences with captive Florida manatees at the Miami Seaquarium.
Zemskij, V. A.: SEE Arseniev et al., 1973. (detail)
Zhang, Yongzu; et al. (detail)
Distribution of mammalian species in China.
China Forestry Publishing House: 1-279.
–Dugong, 111.
Zhang, Zhou-man (detail)
About dugong. The secret of mermaids.
Nat. Hist. (Shanghai Nat. Hist. Mus.) 1: 33-36.
–In Chinese. Pop. acc. of mermaid legends and of an expedition in 1975 that captured a group of supposed mermaids (dugongs) on the coast of Kwangsi, China, north of Hainan Island.
Zhou, Kaiya: SEE ALSO Yang & Zhou, 1996. (detail)
Zhou, Kaiya (detail)
An outline of marine mammalogical researches in China.
Acta Theriol. Sinica 6(3): 219-232. 2 tabs.
–In Chinese; Engl. summ. Includes extensive bibliography of Chinese marine-mammal literature.
Zhou, Kaiya; Xu, X.-R.; Tang, J.-S. (detail)
Survey of the status of the dugong in the Beibu Gulf, China, with remarks on the Indian Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa plumbea).
Acta Theriologica Sinica 23(1): 21-26. Feb. 2003.
–In Chinese.
Zhou, Xiaoyuan: SEE Gingerich et al., 1993. (detail)
Zieman, Joseph C.: SEE Thayer et al., 1984; Tilmant et al., 1994. (detail)
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Halitherium, dann Mastodon arvernensis in den Tertiärgebilden im Venetianischen.
Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1871: 15-16.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Resti di sirenoidi trovati nel Veneto.
Boll. Com. Geol. Ital. 4: 57-58.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Reste von Sirenoiden, gefunden in Venetien.
Verh. Geol. Reichsanst. Wien 1873: 25-26.
–Abstr.: Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 29(2): 5?
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Sirenii fossili trovati nel Veneto.
Mem. Ist. Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti 18: 427-456. Pls. 14-18.
–Abstr.: Atti Ist. Veneto Sci. (5)1: 302-303? De Zigno's most important work on sirs. Describes the new species Halitherium Bellunense (Early Miocene, Italy), H. angustifrons, H. curvidens, and H. Veronense (the latter three all = Prototherium veronense; Late Eocene, Italy).
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Sui mammiferi fossili del Veneto.
Riv. Period. Lav., Accad. Sci. Lett. Arti Padova 24: 101-112. Read July 26, 1874?
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Sopra un primo cranio di Halitherium rinvenuto nei terreni eocenici d'Italia, e sopra quattro plagiostomi del Monte Bolca.
Atti Ist. Veneto Sci. (5)3: 496-497.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Sur les siréniens fossiles d'Italie.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)6: 66-70. 1 tab. Read Oct. 25, 1877.
–Summarizes researches on Italian sirs. and the names applied to them to date, including Felsinotherium subapenninum, n.comb., and "Felsinotherium n. sp." (= F. gastaldi). Recognizes 3 Eocene and 1 Miocene species of Halitherium and 4 Pliocene species of Felsinotherium.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Sopra un nuovo sirenio fossile scoperto nelle colline di Brà in Piemonte.
Atti Accad. Lincei, Mem. Classe Sci. Fis. Matem. Nat. (Rome) (3)2: 939-949. 6 pls.
–Abstr.: Trans. Accad. Lincei 2: 185-186? Describes Felsinotherium Gastaldi, n.sp., and coins the new combination F. Serresii.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Sui sirenoidi fossili dell'Italia.
Bol. Com. Geol. Ital. 9: 105-109.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Nuove osservazioni sull'Halitherium veronense Z.
Mem. Ist. Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti 21: 291-298. Pl. 4.
–Supplements his earlier (1875a) description of the species with a description of a mandible and scapula.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Lettura e sunto delle nuove osservazioni sull'Halitherium veronense.
Atti Ist. Veneto Sci. (5)6: 393-394.
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Nuove aggiunte alla fauna eocena del Veneto.
Mem. Ist. Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti 21: 775-790. Pl. 15.
–Abstr.: Atti Ist. Veneto Sci. (5)7: 508, 1881?
Zigno, Achille de (detail)
Quelques observations sur les siréniens fossiles.
Bull. Soc. Géol. France (3)15: 728-732. Pl. 27.
Zimmermann, Eberhard August Wilhelm von (detail)
Specimen zoologiae geographicae, quadrupedum domicilia et migrationes sistens. Dedit, tabulamque mundi zoographicam adjunxit.
Lugduni Batavorum [= Leiden], Theodor Haak et Socios: xxiv + 685. 1 map.
–Sirs., 263-266.
Zimmermann, Eberhard August Wilhelm von (detail)
Geographische Geschichte des Menschen, und der allgemein verbreiteten vierfüssigen Thiere, nebst einer hieher gehörigen zoologischen Weltcharte.... Erster Band.
Leipzig, Weygandschen Buchhandlung: 1-308. 1 map.
–Allen 350. The entire work comprises 3 vols. (1778-83); for vol. 2 see Zimmermann (1780). Describes the distribution of "Trichechus Manatus" (which includes the dugong and both American and African manatees, but is distinguished from Steller's sea cow) (253-254).
Zimmermann, Eberhard August Wilhelm von (detail)
Geographische Geschichte des Menschen, und der vierfüssigen Thiere. Zweiter Band. Enthält ein vollständiges Verzeichniss aller bekannten Quadrupeden.
Leipzig, Weygandschen Buchhandlung: 1-432.
–Allen 350 (cont.). Distinguishes "Trichecus (Rosmarus)" (= the walrus) and "Trichechus (Dugung)" (425), "Manati gigas" (new name, = Hydrodamalis gigas; 426) and "Thrichechus (Manatus)" (426-427). Does not consistently use binomial nomenclature. The matter pertaining to M. gigas is reprinted in full in E. Mohr (1950: 184). See also J. A. Allen (1902).
Zipperlen, A. (detail)
Ein Lamantin, Manatus americanus.
Zool. Garten 30: 25-26.
–Briefly describes the external and internal morphology of a manatee from Indian River, Florida, that lived for 10 days at the Cincinnati Zoo.
Zittel, Karl Alfred von (detail)
Handbuch der Palaeontologie. I. Abt. Palaeozoologie. IV. Band. Vertebrata (Mammalia).
Munich & Leipzig, R. Oldenbourg: xi + 799. 590 figs.
–French transl., Paris, O. Doin, 1894. Sirs., 6-30, 62, 187-202.
Zittel, Karl Alfred von; Schlosser, Max (detail)
Grundzüge der Paläontologie (Paläozoologie).
308-598. Figs. 457-749.
–Sirs., 540.
Zittel, Karl Alfred von; Schlosser, Max (detail)
Grundzüge der Paläontologie (Paläozoologie).... II. Abteilung. Vertebrata. Ed. 4.
Munich & Berlin, R. Oldenbourg: v + 162, figs. 1-259; 209-689, figs. 317-800.
–Sirs., 632, 636, 670 (section revised by Schlosser).
Zittel, Karl Alfred von; Schlosser, Max (detail)
Text-book of Palaeontology ... Vol. III. Mammalia.
London, Macmillan.
Zoehfeld, Kathleen Weidner (detail)
Manatee winter.
Norwalk (Connecticut), Trudy Management Corp., & Smithsonian Inst. (Soundprints series; Smithsonian Oceanic Collection): 1-30. Illus.
–Book for young children, describing the journey of a Florida manatee mother and calf to a warm-water spring as winter approaches. Available with companion read-along audiocassette tape and stuffed toy.
Zoodsma, Barbara Jo: SEE ALSO Baugh et al., 1989. (detail)
Zoodsma, Barbara Jo (detail)
Distribution and behavioral ecology of manatees in southeastern Georgia.
U.S. National Park Service, Research/Resources Management Report SER-91/03: xiii + 150. 29 figs. Appendices. Dec. 1991.
Zoodsma, Barbara Jo; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Cofer-Shabica, Stephen V. (detail)
Manatee ecology and conservation in coastal Georgia. In: S. V. Cofer-Shabica (ed.), Biological and physical aspects of dredging, Kings Bay, Georgia.
New York, Amer. Soc. Civil Engineers (vii + 159): 15-17.
Zorzin, R.; Castellani, S.; Frisone, V.; Quaggiotto, E. (detail)
Le campagne di scavo del Museo Paleontologico di Roncà in località Monte Duello (Comune di Montecchia di Crosara) e Valle della Chiesa (Comune di Roncà), nei Monti Lessini veronesi (Italia settentrionale): primi risultati.
Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Verona 36: 53–62.
Zouhri, Samir; Gingerich, Philip D.; Elboudali, Najia; Sebti, Samira; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Rahali, Meriem; Meslouh, Said (detail)
New marine mammal faunas (Cetacea and Sirenia) and sea level change in the Samlat Formation, Upper Eocene, near Ad-Dakhla in southwestern Morocco.
Comptes Rendus Palevol 13(7): 599-610. 4 tabs. 8 figs. DOI: 10.1016/j.crpv.2014.04.002. Oct. 2014 (publ. online July 22, 2014).
–ABSTRACT: The Samlat Formation is well exposed in coastal sections bordering the Atlantic Ocean south of Ad-Dakhla in southwestern Morocco. Here some 22 m of rhythmically-bedded, chert-rich, marine siltstones and marls are overlain by 1-1.5 m of vertebrate-bearing microconglomeratic sandstone, another 4-8 m of rhythmically-bedded siltstone and marl, and finally a second 3-6 m unit of vertebrate-bearing muddy sandstone. The microconglomeratic and muddy sandstones represent low sea stands in what is otherwise a deeper water sequence. Cetacean skeletons are rare but cetacean vertebrae are common in the lower sandstone (bed B1), where many show the effects of reworking. The cetaceans in bed B1represent a minimum of five species, from smallest to largest: cf. Saghacetus sp., cf. Stromerius sp., Dorudon atrox, cf. Dorudon sp., and Basilosaurus isis. Bed B1 yields rib fragments that may represent sirenians, but sirenians, if present, are rare. The only identifiable cetacean found in the upper sandstone (bed B2) is Basilosaurus sp. Dugongid sirenians identified as cf. Eosiren sp. are the most common mammal in bed B2. We interpret co-occurrence of the typically Early Priabonian species Dorudon atrox and Basilosaurus isis with smaller species more like Middle Priabonian genera Saghacetus osiris and Stromerius nidensis to indicate that bed B1 was deposited during low sea stand Pr-2 between the Early and Middle Priabonian (between the early and middle Late Eocene). Bed B2 is separated from B1 by an interval of deeper water sediment accumulation. Bed B2 could represent a later phase of Pr-2 or a subsequent Priabonian low sea stand (possibly Pr-3).
Zuidema, Henry P. (detail)
Fossil sea mammal.
Sea Frontiers 16(1): 20-24. 5 figs. Jan.-Feb. 1970.
–Repr.: Bull. So. Calif. Pal. Soc. 2(4): 2-4. Pop. acc. of the Stanford (California) specimen of Paleoparadoxia and related forms. The figs. include reconstructions by C. A. Repenning.
Zweers, A.: SEE De Jong et al. (detail)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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