Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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A

Abundance: SEE Aerial Surveys of Distribution; Conservation; Population Biology ( 0 )
Accidental Death or Injury ( 148 )
(SEE ALSO: Conservation; Hunting and Capture; Natural Death or Injury)
x 1932 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Japan; trap seine; 3.)
x 1943 Lowery, G.H., Jr. (TM; Louisiana; blasting for seismic survey; 253.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; blasting; 3-4.)
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (TS; Senegal; nets; 1368-1369.)
x 1958 Leakey, L.S.B. (DD; East Africa; fishing nets; m19.)
x 1965 Harrisson, T. (DD; Borneo, Sabah; nets; 103.)
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; Florida; propeller wounds; 166-167.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; nets; 85.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; Rameswaram, India; nets; 80-82.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TM; Guyana; barges, culverts; 347.)
x 1969 Bibby, G. (DD; Abu Dhabi; nets; 304.)
x 1970a Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; nets; 53-55.)
x 1970b Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; nets; 363.)
x 1970 Yin, T. (DD; Burma; nets; 326.)
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (DD; Australia; nets; 415-417.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; nets; 205-208.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Australia; nets; 884.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; boats, 213-214; other causes, 222.)
x * 1974 Heinsohn & Spain (DD; Australia; nets; 146-152.)
x 1975 Forrester et al. (TM; intussusception; 566-568.)
1976 Campbell & Powell
x 1976 Cole & Okera (TS; Sierra Leone; nets; 42.)
x 1976 Gallagher, M.D. (DD; Bahrain; blasting for seismic surveys; 211.)
x * 1976 Heinsohn, Marsh & Spain (DD; Australia, Kenya; nets; 117-121.)
x 1976 Neville et al. (TI; Peru; nets; m155.)
x 1977 Harris & Bertram (DD; Abu Dhabi; nets; 5-6.)
x 1978 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; boats; 92.)
x 1979 Barrett, S.K. (TM; Florida; flood-control dams; 26.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 124-125.)
x * 1979 Odell & Reynolds (TM; southern Florida; flood-control dams, etc.; 572-577.)
1979 Paterson, R.
x 1980a Anon. (TM; Florida; boats, dams; pop. acc.; 49.)
1980 Harper, H. (TM; Florida)
x 1980 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; India; fishing nets; 392-397.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; mode of entanglement in nets; boat collisions; 643.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; boat; m106.)
x 1981 Beck et al. (TM; Florida; 1978; 76-85.)
x 1981a Beusse et al. (TM; Florida; 1974-77; 98-101.)
x 1981 Brownell & Ralls (TM; Florida; carcasses salvaged, 1974-77; 147-154.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TM; Florida; review & research needs; 6-10.)
x 1981 Irvine, Odell, & Campbell (TM; Florida; 1974-77; 67-75.)
x 1981c Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Blue Lagoon, Miami, Florida; flood-control dams, boats, etc.; 29-30.)
x 1981 Schad et al. (TM; Panama Canal; boat, blasting; 2.)
x 1982a Anon. (TMM; Brazil; net; 3.)
x * 1982 Beck et al. (TM; Florida; analysis of propeller wounds; 531-535.)
x 1982 Bonde, R.K. (TM; Florida; pop. acc.; 3-5.)
x 1982 Fletemeyer, J. (TM; Florida; protection by sonar monitoring near dredges; 296-299.)
x 1982 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; nets; 3.)
x 1982 Montgomery et al. (TM; Panama Canal; blasting, ship propeller; 257.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (TM; South Carolina; nets; 154, 156-157.)
x 1982 Robineau & Rose (DD; Djibouti; shark nets; 235, 237.)
x 1983a Anon. (DD; Persian Gulf; oil spill; 180.)
x 1983 Begley et al. (DD; Persian Gulf; Nowruz oil spill; 79.)
x * 1983 Bonde et al. (TM; salvage & necropsy manual; i-v, 1-175.)
x 1983a Gluckman, D. (Florida; laws & educational programs for manatee protection; 233-252.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; northeastern Florida; boats; 47, 49.)
x * 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; strategies to reduce boat-related mortality, 1-19; propeller guard designs, 20-43.)
x * 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; causes of boat-related mortality; 1-41.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (TM; Florida; necropsy findings; boat kills, ingestion of monofilament line, drowning; 1331-1333.)
x 1984 Buergelt, C.D. (TM; Florida; 1980-83; 28-29.)
x 1984 Hall, A.J. (TM; Florida; photo of propeller injury; 400.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Australia; possible biases in shark-net data, 773, 778; survivorship & mortality, 778-780.)
1984 Northridge, S.P.
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TM; northwestern Florida; 1974-82; 18-19, 21.)
x 1984b Anon. (DD; Arabian Gulf; oil spills, fishing; 362.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (TM; Florida; 1976-81; 1-11.)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (TM; Haiti; beach seines; 234-236.)
x 1986c Anon. (DD; Persian Gulf; not exterminated by oil spill; 25.)
* 1986 Marsh, Freeland et al. (DD; Northern Terr., Australia; stranding by cyclone)
x 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (TM; Cuba; nets, boats, blasting for seismic surveys; 10.)
* 1988 Beeler & O'Shea (TM; southeastern U.S.)
x 1988 Bulman, P. (TM; Florida; boats; 23.)
x 1988 Dailey et al. (TM; Florida; boat; m159.)
x 1988 Ho, H.C. (DD; Singapore; ?boat; 25.)
x 1988e Marsh, H. (DD; Queensland; nets; 497-498.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TM; Venezuela; boats, nets; 284, 289, 292.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; southeastern U.S.; historical records; 186-187, 190-191, 199-200.)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (TM; Banana R., Florida; boats; 332.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; nets; 83.)
x 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; nets; 4, 80, 85-89.)
x 1989 Lewis, T.A. (TML; Florida; boats; pop. acc.; 42-49.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; oil spill, 6, 51, 53, 69, 83, 90, 119; ?red tide, 43, 55; gill nets, 47-53, 96-100, 127-130, 134; trawlers, 100, 128-129.)
1990 Oliveira et al. (TMM; northeastern Brazil; mortality)
x 1990 Paterson, R.A. (DD; Queensland; shark nets; 155-156.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TM; northwestern Florida, 1982-85; boats; 23, 30-32.)
x 1990 Sigurdsson & Yang (DD; Singapore; boats, ?nets; 28, 34.)
x 1991 Beck & Barros (TML; Florida; debris ingestion & entanglement; 508-510.)
x 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; nets; m107.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; India; nets; 371-372.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (TMM; Guyana; boat collisions in canals; 345, 347.)
x 1992 Ketten et al. (TML; boats; possible role of poor hearing; 88-89, 92.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (TMM; Colombia; boat; m308.)
x 1992 Shackley, M. (TML; Florida; effects of tourism; 257-261.)
x 1993 Turner & Buckingham (TML; Georgia; tugboat; 1, 10-11.)
1994 Vallee, J.D. (TML; Florida; boat collisions)
1994 Vallee, J.D. (TML; Florida; boats)
x * 1995 Ackerman et al. (TML; Florida; mortality, 1974-1992; 223-258.)
x 1995 De Iongh, Wenno et al. (DD; Lease Islands, Indonesia; nets; m761.)
x 1995 O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Florida; boats, 298-302, 305, 308-309; fishing, 302-303.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland; gillnets; 516.)
1995 Reid et al. (TML; Atlantic coast, Florida; reproduction & mortality)
1995 Wright et al. (TML; Florida; boat collisions, 1979-1991; 259-268.)
x 1996a Anon. (TML; Florida, 1995; pop. acc.; 11.)
x 1996 Krogh & Reid (DD; New South Wales; shark nets; 221-223.)
x 1996 Pain, S. (TML; Florida; flood-control gates & protective devices; 22.)
1996 Yang & Zhou (incidental catch)
x 1997 Marsh et al. (DD; Australia; fishing nets; 130.)
1998 Gribble et al. (DD; Queensland; shark nets)
x 1998 Preen, A.R. (DD; Arabian Gulf; at least 14 killed in 1991 Gulf War oil spill; m176.)
2000 Marsh, H. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; gill & mesh nets)
x * 2001 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; injury & suffering; population biology; 31-43.)
* 2001 Marsh et al. (DD; Queensland; mortality in shark nets)
x 2002 Ashley, G. (TML; Florida; boats; 8.)
2003 Aipanjiguly et al. (TML; Tampa Bay, Florida; attitudes of boaters)
x 2005 Anonymous (DD; Tanzania; nets; 492.)
* 2006 Laist & Shaw (TML; Florida; boat speed restrictions and mortality)
2006 Phillips et al. (TML; detection ranges for acoustic-based manatee avoidance technology)
2006a Yan, Clifton et al. (TML; rib bone; fracture mechanics)
2006 Maitland et al. (DD; Burrum Heads, Queensland, Australia; risk of boat strike)
2006 Lightsey et al. (TML; watercraft-related mortality; necropsy methods)
2007 Anderson, L.H. (TML; children's novel)
2007 Calleson & Frohlich
* 2007 Rommel et al. (TML; watercraft-induced wounds)
2007 Morris et al. (TML; boater outreach program)
2007c Borges et al. (TMM; Brazil; threats and injuries from motorboats)
2007 Hodgson et al. (DD; Australia; use of acoustic alarms to prevent accidental netting)
* 2008b Clifton et al. (TML; rib bone; quantitative fractography)
x 2008 Chiang, M. (TML; Lake Okeechobee, Florida; anti-crush system on canal lock gates; pop. acc.; 8-10.)
2008 Grech et al. (DD; bycatch assessment)
2008 Meirelles, A.C.O. (TMM; Ceará, Brazil; mortality)
2008a Clifton et al. (TML; mechanical properties of rib bone)
2009 Anonymous (Trichechus; collisions with boats)
2009 Joly et al. (TML; necropsies; cause-specific mortality rates)
2010 Work et al. (experiments on boat collisions)
2010 Jett & Thapa (TML; Florida; speed zone compliance by boaters)
2011 Harr et al. (TML; boat strike; infection)
2012 Jett et al. (TML; Florida; boater speed-zone compliance)
* 2012 Bonde, Mignucci-Giannoni, & Bossart (pathology & mortality assessment)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
x 2013 Friedman-Rudovsky, J. (TM; Cuba; fishing trawls; m447.)
2013 Bauduin et al. (TML; Florida; interaction with watercraft)
2014 González-Socoloske et al. (TMM; Honduras; entanglement in fishnets)
2015 Martin, Sabatier et al. (TML; encounter rate theory & boat collisions)
2016 Edwards et al. (TML; Florida; diving & risk of boat collisions)
2017 Reinert et al. (TML; marine debris)
2018 Rycyk et al. (TML, Florida; behavioral response to boats)
* 2019 Udell et al. (TML; evaluating risk of collision with boats)
2019 Mayaka et al. (TS; Cameroon; conflicts with humans)
Aerial Surveys of Distribution ( 152 )
x 1944 Barbour, T. (TML; Florida; manatees seen from blimp; 99.)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; 299-300.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida, Georgia; 2, 5, 33-36, 38, 203-209.)
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (DD; eastern Queensland; 16-18.)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Spain & Anderson (DD; Queensland; 21-23.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Queensland; 580-582.)
x 1976 Odell, D.K. (TM; southern Florida; 203-206, 212.)
x 1977 Ligon & Hudson (DD; Papua New Guinea; 1-5.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; 2, 5-6.)
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; results comp. w/ questionnaire surveys; 21.)
x 1978 Campbell & Gicca (TM; Mexico; 260, 263.)
x 1978 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Brisbane, Australia; 91-92.)
x 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TM; southeastern U.S.; 613-617.)
x 1979 Bengtson & Magor (TM; Belize; 230-232.)
1979 Eberhardt et al.
1979 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia)
x 1979 Leatherwood, S. (TM; Indian & Banana Rs., Florida; 47-59.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TM; Dominican Republic; 313-319.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; 25-33.)
x 1981 Elliott, M.A. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; 57-62.)
x 1981a Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Queensland; 55.)
x 1981c Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; survey techniques; 217-227.)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; outline of survey program; 134.)
x 1981 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; Queensland; workshop on survey techniques; 345-353.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Wellesley Islands, Australia; 261-264.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TM; upper St. Johns R., Florida; 42, 50.)
x 1981 Powell et al. (TM; Puerto Rico; 642-646.)
x 1981 Powell, J.A., Jr. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; 33-35.)
x 1981 Prince et al. (DD; Western Australia; 69-80.)
x 1981 Rose, P.M. (TM; Florida; at power plants, 1977-78; 22-24.)
1981 Shane, S.H.
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; 69-84.)
x 1982 Eberhardt, L.L. (TM; Florida; applicability to censusing; 3-4, 6, 14.)
x 1982 Fairbairn & Haynes (TM; Jamaica; 289-293.)
x 1982 Irvine et al. (TM; western Florida; 621-630.)
x 1982 Irvine, A.B. (TM; Florida; recommended survey techniques; 241-242.)
x 1982 Ligon, S.L.H. (DD; Kenya; 1975; 511-513.)
x 1982 Robineau & Rose (DD; Djibouti; 235-236.)
1983 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; northeastern Florida; census of manatees and boats; 1-56.)
x 1983 Kochman et al. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; 1977-81; 80, 92-114, 117.)
x * 1983 Packard & Mulholland (TM; Florida; 1977-82; 1-119.)
x * 1983 Packard et al. (TM; Florida; correction factors derived from radiotagging; 1-10.)
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (TM; Honduras; 301-305.)
x 1983b Shane, S.H. (TM; Brevard Co., Florida; 3-5.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Australia; observations of calves; 771-772, 774-776.)
x * 1984 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TM; Ft. Myers, Florida; 1983-84; 1-63.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TM; northwestern Florida; 2-3, 10-18.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (TM; Brevard Co., Florida; power plants; 181-182.)
1985 Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida)
x 1985 Kochman et al. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; 921-924.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TM; Ft. Myers, Florida; 1984-85; 1-20.)
x * 1985a Packard, J.M. (TM; development of techniques; i-vi, 1-68.)
x 1985 Packard, Summers & Barnes (TM; Florida; correction factors derived from radiotagging; 347-351.)
1985 Rathbun, Carr et al. (TM; Puerto Rico)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (TM; Haiti; 234-235.)
x 1985 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; power plants, 1982-83; 413-422.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; 475, 477, 479-481.)
x 1986 Bayliss, P. (DD; Australia; experimental techniques; 27-37.)
1986 Hudson & Marsh (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; 55-65.)
x * 1986 Packard et al. (TM; Florida; use of replicate counts; 265-275.)
x 1986 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; northern Western Australia; 5-20, 35-37.)
x 1986 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; power plants, 1984-85; 103-113.)
1988b Anderson, P.K.
1988 Nabor & Patton (TML; west coast of Florida)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TM; Venezuela; 283-289, 297-298.)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (TM; Banana R., Florida; 323-338.)
x 1988 Rathbun et al. (DD; Palau; 265-270.)
x 1988 Rathbun, G.B. (TM; Florida; advantages of fixed- vs. rotary-wing aircraft; 71-75.)
1988a Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida)
1988b Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; power plants, 1977-1986)
x 1989 Bayliss & Freeland (DD; Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia; 141-149.)
x 1989 Chambers & Bani (DD; aerial survey "not the most appropriate technique" for status survey in Vanuatu; 13-14.)
x 1989a Marsh & Sinclair (DD; Australia; visibility bias correction; 1017-1024.)
1989b Marsh & Sinclair
1989 Nabor & Patton (TM; Florida)
x 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida; near power plant; 692-700.)
x 1989 Preen et al. (DD; Arabian region; techniques; 41-42.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; 18-24, 27-32, 36-47, 57-66, 75-81, 94-96, 100-112, 115-119, 156-162, 176-200.)
x 1990 Marsh & Saalfeld (Australia, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Queensland; 1986-87; 511-524.)
1990 Morgan & Patton (TML; west coast of Florida)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TM; northwestern Florida; 1-33.)
1991 Hersh, S.L. (TML; Florida; Feb. 1991; pop. acc.)
1991 Kadel, Dukeman & Patton (TML; western Florida; 1988)
1991 Kadel, Morgan & Patton (TML; western Florida; 1990)
x * 1991 Lefebvre & Kochman (TML; Florida; replicate count methodology; 298-309.)
x 1991 Marsh & Saalfeld (DD; Torres Strait; 1987-88; 187-191.)
x * 1991 O'Shea & Salisbury (TMM; Belize, 1989, 156-158; summary of data from Caribbean region, 159.)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida, 1982; 169, 173.)
* 1992 Kadel & Patton (TML; Florida; 1985-90)
x 1994 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; 381-386.)
x 1994 Garrott et al. (TML; Florida; power plants, 1977-1992; 642-654.)
1994 Livermore, B. (TMM; Honduras; aerial survey; pop. acc.)
x 1994 Marsh et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; 149-161.)
x 1994 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; power plants, 1982-1992; 163-177.)
x 1994 Tilmant et al. (TML; south Florida; before & after 1992 hurricane; 236.)
1995 Ackerman, B.B. (TML; Florida; progress report)
x 1995 De Iongh, Wenno et al. (DD; Lease Islands, Indonesia; 759-761.)
1995 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Florida)
x 1995 Marsh et al. (DD; Palau; 85-89.)
1995a Marsh, H. (DD; fixed-width transects)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland; 508-517.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; Costa Rica; 193, 195.)
* 1996 Miller et al. (TML; Florida; aerial survey & aerophotogrammetry)
1996 Wamukoya et al. (DD; Kenya)
1997 Adulyanukosal et al. (DD; Andaman coast, Thailand;)
x 1997 Craig et al. (TML; Atlantic coast, Florida; population trends, 1982-92; 524-541.)
x 1997 Marsh, Harris & Lawler (DD; Torres Strait, 1987 & 1991; 1377-1381.)
1997 Morales & Olivera (TMM; Quintana Roo, Mexico; 1992-96)
x 1997 Preen et al. (DD; Western Australia; 188-195, 198-205.)
1997 Wamukoya et al. (DD; Kenya)
x * 1999 Miller et al. (TML; Florida; strip-transect methods; 561-570.)
x 1999 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Sahul Banks, Australia; 1996; 609-612.)
x 2000 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Indian River Lagoon, Florida; 1988-89; 290-291.)
2000 Flamm et al. (TML; Florida; videogrammetry from tethered airship)
2001 Marsh & Lawler (DD; southern Great Barrier Reef & Hervey Bay, Australia)
2002 White et al. (TML; Duval Co., Florida; 1994-98)
* 2002 Wright et al. (TML; Tampa Bay, Florida; 1987-94; 259-274.)
2003 Lanyon, J.M. (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; 1995; 397-409.)
2004 Craig & Reynolds (TML; Atlantic coast of Florida; model of population trends)
2004 Marsh et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia)
2004 Gales et al. (DD; Western Australia)
2005a Hines et al. (DD; Thailand)
2006 Pollock et al. (DD; aerial survey methods)
2006 Holley et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia)
2007 Shirakihara et al. (DD; southern Japan)
2007 Kiszka et al. (DD; Mayotte)
2007 Edwards et al. (TML; Florida; detection probability)
2008 Garrigue et al. (DD; New Caledonia)
2008 Hines et al. (DD; Cambodia & Vietnam; conservation)
2010 Rajamani & Marsh (DD; Malaysia)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia)
2011 Semeyn et al. (TML; Lee County, Florida)
2011 Langtimm et al. (model to estimate manatee abundance)
2012 Martin et al. (experimental use of drones)
* 2012 Reynolds et al. (utility & design of aerial surveys for sirs.)
2013 Hodgson et al. (DD; Australia; use of drones in aerial surveys)
2013 Maire et al. (DD; detection from drones)
2013 Alves et al. (TMM; northeastern Brazil)
2014 González-Socoloske et al. (TMM; Honduras)
2014 Kleen & Breland (TML; Citrus County & Kings Bay, Florida; seasonal use of warm-water refuge)
2014 Hagihara et al. (DD; Australia; correction factors for surfacing times)
* 2016 Edwards & Ackerman, eds. (TML; Florida; 1984-2004)
2016 Alves et al. (TMM; Brazil; abundance estimate)
2018 Mignucci, Iglesias et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; helicopter surveys)
2019 Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TMM; Caribbean region; monitoring methods)
2019 Collazo et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; population estimates)
2020 Infantes et al. (DD; Thailand; reproductive behavior; use of drones)
2020 Landeo-Yauri et al. (TML; Belize; photo-identification by drones)
2021 Edwards et al. (TML; aggregations; monitoring by unmanned aerial systems)
* 2021 Keith-Diagne et al. (TS; Senegal River; movement patterns; satellite tracking)
Africa ( 248 )
(SEE ALSO: Indian Ocean; Egypt; Madagascar; Red Sea)
1582 SEE Luke, H.C., 1925.
1660 SEE Soza de Castro, F. de, 1907.
1682 SEE Merolla da Sorrento, J., 1814.
1684 SEE Santos, J. dos, 1814.
1735 Atkins, J.
1746 Barbot, J.
1747 Prévost, A.F.
1757 Adanson, M. (Senegal)
1777 Sparrman, A.
x 1812 Beeckman, D. (Cape of Good Hope; hippopotamus referred to as "manitee" or "sea-cow"; 150-151.)
1814 Merolla da Sorrento, J. (TS; Zaire R.)
x 1814 Santos, J. dos (DD; Mozambique; 700-701.)
x 1830 Davies, J. H. (DD; "Mombass" [=Mombasa?]: 188.)
x 1836b Robert, C. (TS; Senegal; skeleton; 363.)
x 1837 Herapath, A. N. (Manatus senegalensis; Gabon R.; gen. acc.; 110-111.)
1838-45 Smith, A. (DD)
1843 Clarke, R.
1845 Adanson, M. (TS; Senegal)
x * 1848 Perkins, G.A. (Manatus nasutus, n.sp.; West Africa; 198-199.)
x 1851 Wyman, J. (Manatus nasutus; West Africa; 192.)
1856 Owen, R.
x 1857 Baikie, B. (Manatus Vogelii, M. Senegalensis; 29-31, 33.)
1857-58 Barth, H.
x 1857 Shaw, N. (TS; Benué R.; 98-99.)
x 1860 McBain, J. (TS; skull; 150-152.)
x 1861a Du Chaillu, P.B. (TS; "Camma country", West Africa; 367.)
x 1861b Du Chaillu, P.B. ("Manatus Oweni"; West Africa; m471.)
x 1868 Heuglin, M.T.v. (supposed "Manatus" in Ethiopia; 247, 289.)
1872a Gervais, P. (cf. Halitherium; Isthmus of Suez; 341.)
x 1874 Schweinfurth, G. (TS; Keebaly R.; 160.)
1875 Monteiro, J.J.
1875a Zigno, A. de (Halitherium sp.; Mioc., Isthmus of Suez)
1877 Peters, W.
x 1881 Flower, W.H. (TS; West Africa; hunting; 454-455.)
1881 Nachtigal, G.
x 1883 Moloney, C.A. (TS; Gold Coast; 27-29.)
x 1883 Rochebrune, A.T. de (TS; Senegambia; 190-191.)
1884 Johnston, H.H.
1885 Büttikofer, J.
x 1888 Jentink, F.A. (TS; Liberia; 33-34.)
1889 Noack, T.
x 1890 Büttikofer, J. (TS; Liberia; 2: 392-393.)
1890 Du Bocage, J.V.B.
1893 Matschie, P.
1897 Sjöstedt, Y.
1900 Cligny, A.
1901 Gratiolet, L.
x 1903 Gruvel, A. (TS; Congo; barnacle Chelonibia manati; 116.)
x 1905b Osborn, H.F. (origin of sirs.; m242.)
1906 Johnston, H.H.
1907b Anon.
1908 Maclaud, C. (TS; hunting)
1912 Andrews, C.W.
1912 Stanley, W.B. (TS; Gambia)
1912 Wiese und Kaiserswaldau
x 1913 Frobenius, L. (TS in Yoruba mythology; 1: 199.)
1917 Calvert, A.F.
1920 Marquardsen, H.
1920 Schwarz, E.
x 1923 Anon. (TS; Niger R.; 75.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; traditional customs; Comoro Is., 75-77, 80; Red Sea, 77, 83; French Somaliland, 80.)
1923 Robert, M. (Congo)
1924 Migeod, F.W.H.
x 1924e Petit, G. (DD; Djibouti; m295.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (DD; German East Africa; feeding behavior; 225-226.)
1925 Luke, H.C. (TS; Sierra Leone in 1582)
x 1925 Pécaud, G. (Manatus Vogeli & M. senegalensis; Lake Chad & Benué R.; 48.)
1925 Pivert, E.C.V.
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (TS; Congo; 23, 28-31.)
1926 Migeod, F.W.H. (TS; Sierra Leone)
x 1927b Petit, G. (DD; Malindi, Kenya; hunting; m248.)
1928 Monod, T. (TS; Cameroon)
x 1929 Stunkard, H.W. (TS; Congo; trematodes; 255.)
1930 Glanville, R.R. (TS; Sierra Leone)
1930 Martin, E. (TS; Sierra Leone)
1930 Schouteden, H.
x 1931 Meek, C.K. (TS; Nigeria; folklore; 76-78, 304.)
1932 Anon. (TS; Sierra Leone)
1933 Anon.
1933a Dollman, G.
x 1933b Dollman, G. (DD; Mafia Is., Tanganyika; 16-17.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (TS; distr.; 533-534, 554-561, 566.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (DD; Portuguese East Africa; 219-220.)
x 1935 Dartevelle, E. (?Halitherium; Mioc., Congo; 717-719.)
x 1936 Baylis, H.A. (TS; Nigeria; trematodes; 257.)
1936 Jeannin, A. (TS; Cameroon)
x 1936 Lopes, A.P. (DD; Mozambique; 33-36.)
1936 Maclatchy, A.R.
x 1937 Johnson, E. (TS; Gambia; 63.)
x 1937 Sanderson, I.T. (TS; Mamfe; 266-268.)
x 1937 Woods, F.J. (TS; Nigeria; hunting, measurements, rituals; 23-28.)
1938 Monard, A.
1938 Roddan, G.M. (TS; Sierra Leone)
x 1939 Beal, W.P.B. (TS; gen. acc., econ. use; 125-126.)
1945 Budker, P.
1947 Irvine, F.R. (TS)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Senegal; 188-189.)
1948 Wilmet, F.
x 1949a Anon. (TS; Belgian Congo; m36.)
x 1949 Colmant, F. (TS; Belgian Congo; 11.)
1949 Malbrant & Maclatchy (TS; Sangha R., Congo)
1951 Jeannin, A. (DD)
x 1952 Dekeyser, P.L. (TS; Senegal; 243.)
1952 Hamidun, M.W. (Mauritania)
x 1952 Macfadyen, W.A. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Eoc., Somalia; 348.)
1953 Ellerman et al.
x 1954 Ennouchi, E. (Felsinotherium cf. serresi; Plioc., Morocco; 77.)
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (TS; Senegal; 1368-1369.)
x 1958 Anon. (DD; Kenya; photos; 693, 792.)
x 1958 Leakey, L.S.B. (DD; East Africa; in large rivers; 19-20.)
x 1958 Savory, B. (DD; East Africa; 255-258.)
x 1960 Blancou, L. (TS; West Africa; conservation; 244.)
x 1961 Moore, J.C. (DD; Kenya; photos; 54-55.)
1962 Magnier, P. (Libya)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TS, DD)
x 1964 Cansdale, G. (TS; Ghana; 170-171.)
1964 Savage & White
x 1965 Kuhn, H.-J. (TS; Liberia; 333.)
x 1965 Savage, R.J.G. (Middle Eoc. sirs., Libya; 90-91.)
x 1965 Stubbings, H.G. (TS; Senegal; barnacles; 876.)
x 1966a Anon. (DD; Kenya; netting; pop. acc.; 46-49.)
1966b Anon. (DD; Kenya)
x 1966 Funaioli & Simonetta (DD; Somali Republic; status; 317.)
x * 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 82-88.)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (TS; Ivory Coast; 47.)
1967 Travis, W. (DD; Somalia)
1968 Howell, J.H.
1968 Ray, G.C. (DD; Tanzania)
1968a Simons, E.L.
1968 Selley, R.C. (sir. [Rytiodus heali]; Mioc., Jebel Zelten, Libya)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TS; Sierra Leone; 351.)
x 1969 Curry-Lindahl, K. (DD & TS protected under African Conservation Convention; 122.)
1969 Hughes, G.R. (DD; Mozambique)
x 1969 Robinson & Black (Mioc. sirs., Tunisia; m69.)
x 1970 Howes & Bamber (DD; Kenya; 327.)
x 1970 Lowes, R.H.G. (TS; Sierra Leone; 310.)
1971 Best, P.B.
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; 299-301.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; natural history; 391-398.)
x 1971 Randall, J.E. (DD; Tanzania; proposed reserve; m12.)
1971 Robinson, P.T.
x 1971 Savage, R.J.G. (Eoc. & Mioc. sirs., Libya; 219-221.)
x 1972 Dupuy, A.R. (TS; Senegal; 780.)
1972 Norris, H.T.
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD, East Africa, 307-308; TS, West Africa, 317.)
1973 Dupuy, A.R.
1973 Happold, D.C.D. (TS)
x 1973 Poche, R. (TS ?extinct in Niger; 218.)
1973 Savage & Hamilton
x 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; Somalia; 17-19.)
x 1974 Itoh & Tsuyuki (TS; Gambia R.; 307.)
1974 Robinson & Black (indeterminate sir.; Mioc., Tunisia)
1974 Robinson, P. (Tunisia)
x 1974 Sikes, S. (TS; Nigeria; hunting, conservation; 465-470.)
1974? Simoneau, E.L. (DD; Afars & Issas)
x 1975 Bertram & Sale (dugong research in East Africa; report of meeting; 389-390.)
1975 Happold, D.C.D.
x 1975 Savage, R.J.G. (Eoc. & Mioc. sirs., Libya; m824.)
x 1976 Cole & Okera (TS; Sierra Leone; 42-43.)
1976 Dupuy & Maigret (TS; Senegal)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Marsh & Spain (DD; Kenya; accidental netting; 121.)
1976 Robinson, P. (Tunisia)
1976 Smithers & Lobão Tello (DD; Mozambique; 166.)
x 1976 Tinley et al. (DD; Mozambique; 346, 348.)
1977 Dupuy & Verschuren (TS; Senegal)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Eoc., Somali; 218.)
x * 1978c Domning, D.P. (review of sir. fossil record in Africa; 573-581.)
x 1979 Boaz et al. (Metaxytherium; Plioc., Libya; 137-139.)
x 1979 Cascudo, L. da C. (TS; West African folk beliefs; pop. acc.; 28.)
x 1980 Blair, D. (DD; Kenya, Djibouti; trematode Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus; 512-513.)
1981 Teleki & Baldwin (TS; Sierra Leone)
x 1982 Boaz & Cramer (Metaxytherium; Plioc., Sahabi, Libya; pop. acc.; 37, 40-41.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium serresii; Plioc., Sahabi, Libya; 29-32.)
x 1982 Ligon, S.L.H. (DD; Kenya; aerial survey; 511-513.)
1982 Maigret, J. (TS; Senegal)
x * 1982 Nishiwaki et al. (TS; distr.; 137-147.)
x 1982 Robineau & Rose (DD; Djibouti; 233-238.)
x 1982 Trotignon, J. (TS; Senegal; pop. acc.; 61-64.)
1984 Studenetskaya, I.S.
x 1985 Kendall, B. (DD; Kenya; pop. acc.; 32-33.)
x 1985 Said, R.J. (Kenya; traditional stories of dugong origins; 34.)
x 1986 Goldsmith, P. (DD; East Africa; hunting with remoras; 231.)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (TS; Cameroon; 296.)
1986 Yalden et al. (Ethiopia)
1987a Anon. (TS; Ivory Coast)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium serresii, Plioc., Sahabi, Libya, 209, 230; Metaxytherium sp., Mioc., Sahabi, 209.)
1987 Pickford, M. (Eoc. or Olig., Angola)
x 1988 Boekschoten & Best (dispersal of Trichechus from America in Pleist.; 110-111.)
1988 Fitzgerald, C. (TS; Ivory Coast)
x * 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; 75-84.)
1988 Howell, K.M. (DD; Tanzania; conservation)
x 1989 Geraads, D. (Metaxytherium sp.; Late Mioc., Djebel Krechem, Tunisia; 781, 791.)
1990 Wacher, T. (TS; Gambia)
1992 Depierre & Vivien (TS; Cameroon; 116-117.)
1994 Akoi, K. (TS; Reserve de la Conkouati, Congo)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (distr. & status; TS, 160; DD, 161, 164.)
1994 Nicole et al. (TS; Côte d'Ivoire)
x 1994 Stuart & Stuart (DD; distr. & status; 97.)
x 1995 Kalk, M. (DD; Mozambique; 329-330.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (TS; Guinea-Bissau; 402-409.)
* 1996 Powell, J. A. (TS; West Africa; distribution & biology)
x 1996 Grigione, M.M. (TS; Cameroon; 189-195.)
1996 Wamukoya et al. (DD; Kenya; aerial survey)
1997 Dutton, T.P. (DD; East Africa)
x 1997 Barnett & Prangley (TS; Guinea; 129-130.)
1997 Guissamulo, A. (DD)
1997 Wamukoya et al. (DD; Kenya; aerial survey)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (TS; Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia; 138-139.)
1998 Stensland et al. (DD; Tanzania)
1999b Dodman, T. (TS; status)
1999a Dodman, T. (TS; conservation)
1999 Angelici et al. (TS; Niger Delta)
1999 Reiner & Simões (TS; Guinea-Bissau; 119-120, 317, 416.)
1999 Silva et al. (TS; Guinea-Bissau)
x 2000 Happold, D.C.D. (TS; Nigeria; m195, m201.)
2001? Di Natale, A. (TS; Mali; gen. acc.)
2002 Jousse & Chenal-Velarde (TS; Mali; Neolithic site)
2003 Ochieng & Erftemeijer (DD; Kenya & Tanzania; 83.)
x 2005 Anonymous (DD; Mafia Island, Tanzania; 492.)
2007 Dodman et al. (TS; conservation strategy)
2007 Kiszka & Muir (DD; eastern Africa; gen. acc.)
x 2008 Pickford, M. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Mioc., Pemba & Zanzibar Is., Tanzania; 231-232.)
2009 UNEP/CMS (TS; conservation action plan)
* 2010 Sikes, S.K. (TS; Nigeria)
* 2010 Domning et al. (sir. fossil record)
2011 Findlay et al. (DD; Mozambique)
2011 Domning & Sorbi (Rytiodus heali, n.sp.; Early Mioc., Jabal Zaltan, Libya)
* 2012 Hautier et al. (Prorastomidae indet.; Middle Eoc., Senegal)
* 2012 Kouadio, A. (TS; West Africa; distribution, status, & conservation.)
* 2012 Muir & Kiszka (DD; East Africa; distribution, status, & conservation)
2012 Keith Diagne, L. (TS; Gabon)
2012 Luiselli et al. (TS; Nigeria; habitat overlap with crocodiles)
2012 UNEP/CMS (TS; West Africa; conservation)
2013 Prista et al. (Euro-North African sirs.; extinction)
2013 Ogogo et al. (TS; South Nigeria; ecology & status)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (new primitive sir.; Eoc., Tunisia; ear region, comp. w/ Prorastomus sirenoides)
2013 Mayaka et al. (TS; Cameroon; conservation & ethnobiology)
2013 Domning, D.P. (gen. acc.)
2014 Zouhri et al. (Eosiren sp.; Late Eoc., Morocco)
2014 Esenowo et al. (TS; Nigeria; measurements, behavior, food preferences)
2014 Gingerich & Cappetta (Protosirenidae, Dugongidae; lower Middle Eoc., Togo)
x 2015 Coster et al. (indet. sir.; Early Olig., Sirt Basin, Libya; 50-52.)
2016 Cosentino & Fisher (TS; as bushmeat)
* 2017 Domning et al. (Libysiren sickenbergi, n.gen. n.sp.; middle Eoc., Libya)
2019 Odewumi et al. (TS; Nigeria; water parameters & flora of habitat)
2019 Mayaka et al. (TS; Cameroon; conflicts with humans)
2021 Keith-Diagne et al. (TS; Senegal River; movement patterns; satellite tracking)
2021 Takoukam et al. (TS; Cameroon; habitat suitability)
African Manatee: SEE Trichechus senegalensis and synonyms ( 0 )
Age Determination ( 30 )
(SEE ALSO: Birth and Breeding; Embryology & Ontogeny; Growth Rates; Population Biology)
x 1866 Lartet, E. (Rytiodus; tusks; 676-677.)
1908a Freund, L.
x 1938 Todd & Todd (Trichechus spp., DD; epiphyseal union sequence; 4-5, 31-35.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; cranial sutures, 331; cheek teeth, 339-340.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; lifespan ?100 years, 188; "swallow one pebble per year", 189.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (DD; tusks, teeth; m390.)
x 1970 Scheffer, V.B. (DD; tusks; 187-190.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; body length; 208-211.)
x * 1973 Mitchell, J. (DD; skulls, teeth; 1-23.)
x 1974 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; skulls, teeth; 174-176, 180-182.)
x 1976 Mitchell, J. (DD; tusks; 25-28.)
x 1977 Domning & Magor (TI; tooth replacement not useful; 437.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; tusks; 301-310, 4 pls.)
x * 1978 Mitchell, J. (DD; tusks; 317-348.)
x * 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; dentition; 181-201.)
x 1980 Domning & Myrick (TI; tetracycline marking of rib; 203-207.)
x 1981 Marsh & Kasuya (DD; tusks; workshop on growth-layer reading; 354-368.)
x * 1981e Marsh, H. (DD; techniques; 311-343.)
x 1981 Mitchell, J. (DD; Queensland; growth layers in tusks; 99-109.)
1984 Myrick, A.C., Jr.
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; growth layers in tusks; 54, 86.)
1990 Marmontel et al. (TML; growth layers in bone)
x 1991a Domning, D.P. (DD; pelvic bones; ontogenetic variation; 311-316.)
x * 1996 Marmontel et al. (TML, TMM; growth layers in bone; 54-88.)
* 2009 Schwarz & Runge (TM; age estimation; body length; Bayesian analysis)
x 2009 Bragg, Micháel (Thïs is å såmple ãnnötatiön för testing önlý.)
2012 Parr et al. (DD; molecular aging)
2017 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; Andaman Sea & Gulf of Thailand)
* 2019 Lonati et al. (TML; periotic bones)
* 2020 Cherdsukjai et al. (DD; Thailand; age determination by telomere length, body length & weight)
Alabama ( 10 )
x 1884b True, F.W. (TM; m114.)
x 1964 Siler, W.L. (indeterminate sir.; Middle Eoc.; 1108.)
x 1965 Arata & Jackson (indeterminate sir.; Middle Eoc.; 175-176.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (indeterminate sirs.; Eoc.; 4, 6, 8-9, 17.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TM; 187, 199.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TM; 30.)
* 2005 Fertl et al. (TM)
* 2009 Pabody et al. (TM)
x 2015 Baker, J.R. (TML; pop. acc.; m46.)
2017 Hieb et al. (TM)
Alaska ( 28 )
x * 1883 Stejneger, L. (HG; Aleutians; 84.)
x * 1884b True, F.W. (HG; supposedly seen alive at Attu; 136.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; bones supposedly found in peat; 458.)
x 1891 Lucas, F.A. (HG; Attu; m627.)
x D 1924 Hay, O.P. (Desmostylus; ?Alaska; 1.)
x 1958 Grekov, V.I. (HG; Aleutians; 96-98.)
x D 1959 Byers, F.M. (Cornwallius; Unalaska; 289.)
x D 1961 Drewes et al. (Cornwallius; Unalaska; 606-607, 667.)
x D 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (desmostylians; 11, 15-16.)
x 1971 Gard & Szabo (HG; Pleist., Amchitka; 577.)
x * 1971 Hall, E.S., Jr. (HG; archeological site, Kangiguksuk; 23, 34, 52.)
x 1972 Gard et al. (HG; Pleist., Amchitka; 867-868.)
1975 Pewe, T.L.
x 1975 Szabo & Gard (HG; Pleist., Amchitka; 457-459.)
D 1976 Reinhart, R.H. (Cornwallius; Unalaska; 283-284.)
x * 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; Pleist., Amchitka, 1-19; archeological site, Kangiguksuk, 3, 15.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; 105, 135-139, 161-162.)
x 1978 Simenstad et al. (HG; former ecological role in Aleutians; m409.)
* 1979 Liapunova, R. G. (HG; Near Islands)
2004 Savinetsky et al. (HG; in archaeological sites)
D 2006b Beatty, B.L. (Cornwallius sookensis; Unalaska)
D * 2007 Jacobs et al. (unnamed desmostylians; Unalaska; earliest Mioc.?)
* 2007 Domning et al. (HG; Aleutian Islands)
* 2008 Corbett et al. (HG; Aleutian Islands; kelp diet & stable isotope composition of bone)
x * 2008 Turner, L.M. (HG; Attu; behavior, hunting; 106-107.)
D 2009 Jacobs et al. (desmostylians; Olig.-Mioc.)
* 2014 Crerar et al. (HG; St. Lawrence Is.; DNA, stable isotopes)
D * 2015 Chiba et al. (Ounalashkastylus tomidai, n.gen.n.sp.; Olig.-Mioc., Unalaska)
Amazonian Manatee: SEE Trichechus inunguis and synonyms ( 0 )
Amblychilus Fischer von Waldheim, 1814 ( 2 )
(= Dugong)
* 1813-14 Fischer v. Waldheim, G.
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Dugong; m578.)
Anatomy ( 110 )
(SEE ALSO: Brain and Nervous System; Circulatory System; Digestive System; Embryology; Endocrinology; Growth Rates; Histology; Myology; Pathology; Respiratory System; Skeleton; Urogenital System; and under species)
x 1820 Diard & Duvaucel (DD; 159-160.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; 175-179, 181-182.)
x * 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; external morphology & measurements, 101-103, 113; viscera, 103-106; skeleton, 107-112; pl. 6.)
x 1838 Humboldt, A.v. (TM; Orinoco R.; 3-8, pls. 1-2.)
x * 1838a Owen, R. (DD, etc.; skeleton & viscera; 28-45.)
* 1852 Vrolik, W.T. (TM)
x 1853 Wallace, A.R. (TI; Brazil; general anatomy & measurements; 185-186, 458-460.)
x 1855a Gervais, P. (TI; intestines, skeleton; 114-115.)
x * 1857 Rapp, W.v. (TM; Suriname; 87-98, pl. 3.)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; external morphology & measurements, 127-134; internal anatomy, 135-189; pls. 17-26.)
x * 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TM; 452-462, pl. 26.)
x 1878 Reichenau, W.v. (brief gen. acc.; external morphology; 137-138.)
x 1880 Hartmann, R. (DD; external morphology & measurements; 156-159.)
x * 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; external morphology & measurements, 27-32, 44; internal anatomy, 32-44; pls. 5-9.)
1882 Gill (flukes)
x 1883 Moloney, C.A. (TS; measurements; 28.)
x * 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (TI; gen. acc.; 91-94.)
x 1885 Ryder, J.A. (development of flukes; 515-519.)
x 1889a Leboucq, H. (DD; fingernail rudiments; 190-192.)
x 1889 Zipperlen, A. (TML; external & internal morphology; 25-26.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (gen. acc.; 212-214.)
x 1896 Neish, W.D. (TMM; Jamaica; external measurements; 288.)
x 1897b Kükenthal, W. (manatee spp. diagnosed on external characters; 39-40.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; external & internal morphology; 182-196.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; external morphology & measurements; 238-241, pls. 7-9.)
x * 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; external morphology; 567-581.)
x 1908c Abel, O. (sir. locomotor organs; m403.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TM; external morphology; 226-231, pl. 9.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; measurements, 171-173; ?sexual dimorphism, 173-175.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; external and internal morphology; 229-236.)
1927a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; external morphology)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; 218-219.)
x 1937 Woods, F.J. (TS; Nigeria; external measurements & morphology; 24-25.)
1938 Aoki et al. (DD)
x 1938 Devillers, C. (TI; external morphology & measurements; 84-88.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; gen. acc., 37-45, 83-84; size & color variants, 44-45.)
1945 Hill, W.C.O. (DD)
x * 1946 Slijper, E.J. (spinal column, muscles, tendons; 28, 42-43, 46-47, 50-53, 71-78, 111-112, 114, 120; tabs. 1, 3, 5-6.)
x 1951 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; pituitary & adrenal, 57-62, pls. 1-2; thymus, 57; thyroid, kidney, & brain weights, 60.)
x * 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. (HG; skeleton and body reconstruction; 292-314.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TM; measurements; 31-32.)
x * 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TM; external morphology, 193-195; skeleton, 194-200; viscera, 194, 200-202.)
x * 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; Red Sea; external morphology, 6-15, pls. 1-2; peritoneal fat, 11; mouth & tongue, 16-29; external genitalia, 30-35, pls. 2-3; measurements, 41.)
x 1965b Kaiser, H.E. (body cavity nomenclature; 426-428.)
x * 1966a Kaiser, H.E. (body cavity adaptations & hydrostasis; 59, 61-69.)
x 1966b Kaiser, H.E. (hydrostatic adaptations; 426.)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (TS; measurements; 48-49.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (DD; digestive system, 388-389, 393; fat distribution, 393-394.)
x 1973 Kaiser, H.E. (gen. acc.; 1-6.)
1973 Pinto da Silveira, E.K.
x * 1975 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; size & weight allometry; body & intestinal tract; 159-168.)
x * 1976 Allen et al. (DD; measurements, organ weights, etc.; 41-46.)
x * 1977a Domning, D.P. (DD; measurements, 2; skin thickness, 3; myology, 3-57.)
x D 1977 Hasegawa, Y. (artists' reconstructions of desmostylians; pop. acc.; 90-91.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; Suriname; body & skull measurements; 337-338.)
x 1978 Marsh et al. (DD; external & internal morphology; review; 159-166.)
1979 Kamiya, Uchida, et al.
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; external morphology; 114-120.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; measurements of cow & newborn calves; 120-121, 123-124.)
x 1979 Kamiya et al. (DD; organ weights; 129-132, pls. 1-4.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; Indonesia; external measurements, change of tail shape with growth, organ weights & measurements; 10-13, 20-22, 24, 29-30.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TM; in capt.; perinatal changes in female, 21-22; growth of young, 26.)
x 1980 Haley, D. (HG; reconstruction of body form; 10-11.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TM; body lengths & weights; 7-8.)
x * 1981d Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; standard methods of taking external measurements, other data, & specimen material; 229-235.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TM; organ weights & sexual maturity; 52-65.)
1982 Mellett, J.S.
x * 1983 Bonde et al. (TM; salvage & necropsy manual; i-v, 1-175.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; external measurements; 634.)
x 1985 Rowlatt & Marsh (DD, TM; heart & related thoracic structures; 95-106.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; sites for injections & blood sampling; 47.)
x * 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (distr. of skeletal mass, lung position & structure, & hydrostasis; 331-368.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; India; external measurements, integument, number of phalanges, organ weights & measurements; 371-375.)
1995 Silva & Downing (body masses)
D 1996 Inuzuka, N. (desmostylians; body size & mass estimates)
D 1997 Inuzuka, N. (Desmostylus; inferred footprint & trackway)
x * 1998 Marshall, Clark, & Reep (TML; facial anatomy & behavior; 290-303.)
x * 1998 Reep et al. (TML; facial anatomy & bristles; 258-272.)
x 1999 Das & Dey (DD; Andaman Is.; external measurements; 198.)
1999 Richard-Hansen et al. (TMM; French Guiana; external measurements)
D 2000 Suzuki et al. (Desmostylus; crestal pit of molar cusps)
2000 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM;)
x 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (TML; diaphragm & associated structures; 41-51.)
x 2001 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; measurements of newborn twins; 428.)
* 2001 Rommel & Lowenstine (TML; gross & microscopic anatomy)
2002 Levin & Pfeiffer (TML; tongue)
2003 Marshall et al. (DD, TI, TMM, TS; orofacial morphology & feeding)
2003 Rommel & Caplan (TML; tail; vascular adaptations for heat conservation)
2003 Rommel et al.
* 2007 Chapla et al. (TML; head & ear bones; CT scans)
2009 Schwarz & Runge (TM; estimation of age; body length; Bayesian analysis)
2009 Lanyon et al. (DD, TML; visual & molecular sex recognition)
D 2009 Fujiwara et al. (Paleoparadoxia media; scapular position & strength of rib cage)
D 2009 Fujiwara, S. (Ashoroa, Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi, P. tabatai; olecranon orientation, elbow joint angle, & forelimb posture)
x * 2010b Vergara-P. et al. (TI; Brazil; length of "palmo", unit used by Amazonian hunters to measure manatee body lengths; 37-43.)
2010 Amaral, Silva, & Rosas (TI; morphometrics & body size estimation)
* 2010 Sarko et al. (DD, TML, fossil sirs.; body size estimation)
2011 Adulyanukosol et al. (DD; Thailand; morphology and organ weight)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
D 2012 Fujiwara & Hutchinson (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi; elbow adductor moment arm & forelimb posture)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Morales-V., & Padilla-S. (TMM; Mexico; craniometrical predictors of body size)
* 2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil; ethnocategories)
* 2013 Bills et al. (TML; anal glands; chemosensation)
2014 Esenowo et al. (TS; Nigeria; measurements)
2015 Puttick & Thomas (Body mass evolution in Afrotheria)
D 2016 Pyenson & Vermeij (Sirs. & desmostylians; maximum body size as indicator for productivity; 1-4.)
* 2016 Harshaw et al. (morphometric body condition indices)
2020 Cherdsukjai et al. (DD; Thailand; age determination by telomere length, body length & weight)
* 2021 Valdevino et al. (TI; estimating body length from bone measurements)
* 2021b Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TMM; marine & riverine ecotypes)
Anisosiren Kordos, 1979 ( 2 )
* 1979 Kordos, L.
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (m8.)
Anisosiren pannonica Kordos, 1979 ( 3 )
* 1979 Kordos, L.
x 1980 Kordos, L. (m385; nature of type material, 387.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 35-36, 55.)
Anomotherium langewieschei Siegfried, 1965 ( 7 )
* 1965 Siegfried, P.
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (body proportions, 375; m378-380; bone density, 388-389.)
x 1986 Rothausen, K. (Olig., Germany, 528, 539, 545; comp. w/ ?Halitherium, 529.)
1988 Krüger, F.J. (Olig., Germany)
* 2008 Diedrich, C.G. (Olig., Germany)
2012 Beatty et al. (osteology and tooth development)
2013a Diedrich, C.G. (paleobiogeography)
Anomotherium Siegfried, 1965 ( 4 )
* 1965 Siegfried, P.
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dusisiren; 14, 73-74.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (probably related to Miosiren, not Metaxytherium; 207.)
x 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m178.)
Anoplonassa Cope, 1869 ( 2 )
(Cetacea)
* 1869 Cope, E.D.
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
Anoplonassa forcipata Cope, 1869 ( 3 )
(Cetacea)
* 1869 Cope, E.D.
1890 Cope, E.D.
x 1907 True, F.W. (Cope's referral to Sirenia; 97.)
Antaodon Ameghino, 1886 ( 1 )
(Tayassuidae)
x * 1886 Ameghino, F. (A. cinctus, n.gen.n.sp., described as a tapiroid; 151ff.)
Anthropocephala Billberg, 1827 ( 2 )
(tribe; = Sirenia)
* 1827 Billberg, G.J.
1828 Billberg, G.J.
Antillean Manatee: SEE Trichechus manatus; Trichechus manatus manatus; and synonyms ( 0 )
Arabia: SEE Asia; Red Sea ( 0 )
Archaeoparadoxia Barnes, 2013 ( 3 )
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (new genus)
D 2015 Matsui & Kawabe (Paleoparadoxia sp.; early Mioc., Chikubetsu, Hokkaido, Japan)
D 2015 Matsui & Kawabe
Archaeoparadoxia weltoni Barnes, 2013 ( 1 )
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (n.comb.)
Archaeosiren Abel, 1913 ( 8 )
(nomen nudum; = Eosiren)
* 1913a Abel, O.
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (m27.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 471, 473, 481, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 152-154, pl. 6.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Eotheroides; 135.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m209.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Eotheroides; m575.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Eotheroides; 378-379.)
Archaeosiren stromeri Abel, 1913 ( 4 )
(nomen nudum; = Eosiren stromeri)
* 1913 Abel, O.
x 1938 Zdansky, O. (m429, m432.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; ?syn. of Eosiren libyca; 75-76.)
Archaeosireninae Abel, 1914 ( 1 )
(nomen nudum; = Halitheriinae)
* 1914 Abel, O.
Archeological Sites, Sirenia at ( 99 )
1848 Squier & Davis (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
1875 Wyman, J.
1882 Barber, E.A. (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
* 1883 Henshaw, H.W. (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
1885 Hartt, C.
x * 1897 Etheridge et al. (DD; Sydney, Australia; ?Pleist. ?kill; 174, 178-180, pls. 8-11.)
x 1905 Etheridge, R., Jr. (DD; New South Wales; 18-19.)
x 1911 Gann, T.W.F. (TM; Belize; 78, 82.)
x 1916 Miller, G.S., Jr. (TM; Santo Domingo; 9.)
1918 Gann, T.W.F. (TM; Belize)
x 1918 Miller, G.S., Jr. (TM; St. Croix, Virgin Is.; 509.)
1925 Gann, T.W.F. (TM; Honduras)
1925 Patte, E.
1928 Gann, T.W.F. (TM; Belize)
x 1929 Miller, G.S., Jr. (TM; Dominican Republic; 11-12.)
1935 Loven, S. (TM; West Indies)
1935 Strong, W.D. (TM; Honduras)
1937 Lothrop, S.K. (TM; Panama)
x 1942 Gunter, G. (Texas; no records of sirs.; 89.)
x 1957 Pollock & Ray (TM; Mayapan, Mexico; carved rib; 644, 653.)
1959 Murie, O.J. (HG; no records in Aleutians)
x 1960 Ray, C.E. (TMM; St. Lucia; 412.)
1962 Proskouriakoff, T. (TM; Yucatan)
1964 Bullen, R.P. (TM; Grenada)
1964 Ladd, J. (TM; Panama)
1964 Rouse, I.
x * 1967 Feriz, H. (Brazil; clay figurine of manatee; 373-374.)
1967 Wing, E.S.
x 1968 Wing et al. (TM; Antigua; 129.)
x 1969 Bibby, G. (DD; Abu Dhabi; 303-304, 306.)
1970 Fox, R.B. (DD; Philippines)
1970 Waller, B.I. (TM; Florida)
x 1971 Hall, E.S., Jr. (HG; Kangiguksuk, Alaska; 16th Century Eskimo site; 23, 34, 52.)
x 1972b Domning, D.P. (possibility of finding HG; 188-189.)
x 1972 Gard et al. (HG; no records in Aleutians; 868.)
1973 Wing, E.S.
1975 Bulliet, R.W. (DD; South Arabia)
1975 Wing, E.S. (TM; Mexico)
1976 Hojo, T. (DD; Okinawa)
x 1976 Loveland, F.O. (TM; Panama; 80.)
x 1976 Roaf, M. (DD; Bahrain; 144, 149-151.)
x 1977 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; Umm an-Nar, Abu Dhabi; m3.)
D 1977 Sato & Ijiri (Paleoparadoxia tabatai)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; Alaska; 3, 15, 18.)
1977 Wing, E.S. (TM; Mexico)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; lack of records; 134.)
1978 Eaton, J.D. (TM; Mexico)
1978 Magnus, R.W. (TM; Nicaragua)
1978 Willey, G.R.
1979 Hasegawa & Nokariya (DD)
x 1979 Hoch, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates; Umm an-Nar; 591, 597-601, 604, 606, 634.)
x * 1980 Cumbaa, S.L. (TML; Florida; 6, 8-9.)
1980 Linares, O.F. (TM)
1980 Scott, K.W. (TM; Belize)
1980 Wing & Scudder
1980 Wing, E.S. (TM; Panama)
x 1981 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; Abu Dhabi; m3.)
x 1982 Olsen, S.J. (TM; identification of bones from Mayan sites; 8, 41-42, 54, 56-57, 62, 66, 70, 75, 90.)
x 1982 Wing & Reitz (TMM; Caribbean; 16, 24.)
x 1983 Bradley et al. (TM; hypothetical use by Olmecs; 1-82.)
1983 Neumayer, E. (DD; India; depicted in rock paintings)
1984 McKillop, H.I. (TM; Belize)
x * 1984b Minnegal, M. (DD; Queensland; butchering; 15-20.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TM; northwestern Florida; 20.)
x 1984 Watters et al. (TM; Barbuda; 404, 406-407, 409.)
x * 1985 McKillop, H.I. (TMM; Mayan area, Central America; 340-348.)
1985 Al-Tikriti, W.Y. (DD; United Arab Emirates)
x 1986 Steininger, F.F. (TM; St. Lucia; 42, 74.)
x 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; 86.)
1989 Uerpmann, H.P. (DD; Oman)
1990 Bautista, A.P. (DD; Philippines)
1990 Bowdler, S. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia)
1990 Desse & Desse-Berset (DD; Failaka, Kuwait)
1990 Bowdler, S. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia)
x * 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Australia; modern use of sites; 104-109.)
x * 1991 Prieur & Guérin (DD; Umm al-Qaiwain, United Arab Emirates; 72-83.)
x 1993 Healy, P. (Honduras; supposed manatee effigies on pottery; 202-203, 213.)
1993 Van Neer & Gautier (DD; United Arab Emirates)
1993 Uerpmann, M. (DD; Bahrain)
1994 Nishinakagawa et al. (dugongid; Japan)
1994 Uerpmann & Uerpmann (DD; Bahrain)
1994 Van den Driesch, A. (DD; United Arab Emirates)
x 1995 Hoch, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates; Umm an-Nar; 249-251, 254-255.)
1995 Wing & Wing (TM; Grenada)
1995 Stephan, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates)
x 2000 Mayor, A. ("Halitherium"; France; as ?inspiration of folklore & use for Paleolithic tools; 145, 166, 259, 325.)
* 2002 Penders, T. (TML; Windover site, Florida)
2002 Jousse & Chenal-Velarde (TS; Mali; Neolithic site)
* 2002 Jousse et al. (DD; Akab Island, United Arab Emirates)
2003 McNiven & Feldman (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; dugong bone mounds)
* 2003 Jousse & Guérin (DD; United Arab Emirates; 337-347.)
2004 Haworth et al. (DD; Botany Bay, Australia; subfossil)
2004 Savinetsky et al. (HG; Bering Sea region)
2006 David et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; dugong bone mounds & rituals)
2007 Crouch et al. (DD; Torres Strait; dugong bone mounds)
2008 Corbett et al. (HG; Alaska; kelp diet & stable isotope composition of bone)
* 2008 McNiven & Bedingfield (DD; Torres Strait; hunting rates)
* 2009 Méry et al. (DD; Akab, United Arab Emirates; Neolithic ritual site)
2013 McNiven, I. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; middens)
Arctic Region ( 8 )
x 1861 Strauss-Durckheim, H. (?HG; Hudson's Bay; 513-514.)
x 1863a Brandt, J.F. (HG; Siberia & ?Hudson's Bay; 563.)
x D * 1927 Pfizenmayer, E.W. ("Desmostylus" Wollosowitschi, n.sp.; Pleist., New Siberian Islands; 492-496.)
x 1958 Grekov, V.I. (HG; Siberia; 98, 100.)
D 1970 Strelkov, S.A.
x 1971 Hall, E.S., Jr. (HG; Kangiguksuk, Alaska; 23, 34, 52.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; Kangiguksuk, Alaska; 3, 15, 18.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; possible records; 136-139.)
Argentina ( 16 )
x * 1883 Ameghino, F. (Ribodon limbato, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc.-Plioc., Paran  R.; 112-113.)
x 1885 Ameghino, F. (Ribodon limbatus; 100-105.)
x 1886 Ameghino, F. (Ribodon limbatus; 147-151.)
1889 Ameghino, F.
1891 Ameghino, F.
1893 Ameghino, F.
1904 Ameghino, F.
1906 Ameghino, F.
1907 Branca, W.
x * 1953 Pascual, R. (Ribodon; Mioc.-Plioc.; 163-167.)
x 1966 Pascual, R. (cf. Felsinotherium; Late Mioc., Paran  R.; 242.)
* 1976 Reinhart, R.H. (Metaxytherium; Mioc., Paran  R.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Ribodon limbatus; Mioc.-Plioc., Paran  R.; 602-603.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (Florentinoameghinia; Early Eoc., Patagonia; 1-10.)
* 2000 Cione et al. (Dioplotherium, Ribodon limbatus; Middle-Late Mioc.)
* 2012 Veléz-J. et al. (Metaxytherium sp., Dioplotherium sp.; Late Mioc., Entre Ríos)
Ashokia antiqua Bajpai, Domning, Das, & Mishra, 2009 ( 2 )
* 2009 Bajpai et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Kutch, India)
x 2017 Chatterjee et al. (brief summ. of Eoc. record; m92.)
Ashokia Bajpai, Domning, Das, & Mishra, 2009 ( 1 )
* 2009 Bajpai et al. (n.gen.; Middle Eoc., Kutch, India)
Ashoroa Inuzuka, 2000 ( 3 )
D * 2000b Inuzuka, N. (n.gen.)
D 2013 Hayashi et al. (bone histology & aquatic adaptation)
D 2013 Inuzuka, N. (comp. w/ Desmostylus & Paleoparadoxia; osteology, paleoecological restoration)
Ashoroa laticosta Inuzuka, 2000 ( 1 )
D 2000b Inuzuka, N. (n.gen.n.sp.)
Asia ( 121 )
(SEE ALSO: Arctic Region; Bering Sea; China; East Indies; Indian Ocean; India; Japan; Red Sea; Russia; Sakhalin; Sri Lanka; Taiwan)
1851 Horsfield, T. (DD; Siam; 139.)
1908 O'Malley, L.S.S. (DD; Bangladesh)
1925 Patte, E.
x D * 1927 Pfizenmayer, E.W. ("Desmostylus" Wollosowitschi, n.sp.; Pleist., New Siberian Islands; 492-496.)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Korea; 4221.)
1934 Landsberger, B.
x 1958 Grekov, V.I. (HG; northern coast of Siberia; 98, 100.)
1959 Thesiger, W. (DD; Arabia)
x 1960b Anon. (Trichechus; Thailand; weed control; m5.)
x 1960c Anon. (Trichechus; Thailand; weed control; m70.)
1961 Thiemmedh, J. (DD; Gulf of Thailand)
x 1962 Tranngocloi, N. (DD; Vietnam; 451.)
x 1967 Aung, S.H. (DD; Burma; 221.)
1968 Thiemmedh, J. (DD; Thailand)
x 1969 Bibby, G. (DD; Abu Dhabi; 224, 303-304, 306.)
x 1970 Yin, T. (DD; Burma; 326-327.)
x D 1971 Dubrovo & Sinel'nikova (Desmostylus hesperus; Kamchatka; 670-673.)
1971 McCue, J.
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr. & status; 307-309.)
x 1973 Tekkaya, I. ("Halitherium (Metaxytherium) sp."; Upper Mioc. or Lower Plioc., Bayraktepe, Turkey; m118.)
1976 Carp, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates)
x 1976 Gallagher, M.D. (DD; Bahrain; 211.)
x 1976 Roaf, M. (DD; Bahrain; archeol. site; 144, 149-151.)
1977e Anon. (DD)
x 1977 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; Abu Dhabi; 3-4.)
x 1977 Harris & Bertram (DD; Abu Dhabi; 5-6.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (indeterminate sirs.; Mioc., Iran; 218.)
1978 Herdson, D.M. (DD; Bahrain)
x 1979 Hoch, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates; archeological site; 591, 597-601, 604, 606, 634.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; Burma, India, Sri Lanka, & neighboring areas; distr. & status; 43-54.)
x 1982 Thomas et al. (indeterminate sirs.; late Early Mioc., Al-Sarrar, Saudi Arabia; 120.)
1982 Thomas et al. (Mioc., Saudi Arabia)
x 1983a Anon. (DD; Persian Gulf; deaths from oil spill; 180.)
x 1983 Begley et al. (DD; Persian Gulf; Nowruz oil spill; 79.)
x 1984b Anon. (DD; Arabian Gulf; deaths from oil spills and fishing; leather used for sandals; 362.)
1985 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Arabia; pop. acc.)
1985 Taylor, D.C. (DD; Arabia; pop. acc.)
1985 Al-Tikriti, W.Y. (DD; United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
1986b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Arabia; pop. acc.)
x 1986c Anon. (DD; Persian Gulf; not exterminated by oil spill; 25.)
1987 Preen, A.R. (DD; Persian Gulf)
x 1987 Whitmore, F.C., Jr. (indeterminate sir.; Saudi Arabia; m447.)
1988 Preen, A.R. (DD; Arabia)
x * 1989 Preen et al. (DD; Arabian region; conservation; 1-43.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; status & conservation; 1-200.)
1989 Uerpmann, H.P. (DD; Oman; archeol. site)
1990 Al-Khalili, A.D. (DD; Bahrain)
1990 Desse & Desse-Berset (DD; Failaka, Kuwait; archaeological site)
x 1991a Brown, J.N.B. (DD; United Arab Emirates; status; 20-21.)
x 1991b Brown, J.N.B. (DD; Abu Dhabi; meat sold; 33.)
1991a Kamiya, T. (DD; Persian Gulf; effects of Gulf war)
x 1991 Kingdon, J. (DD; Arabia; pop. acc.; 112-114.)
1991 Krupp, F. (DD; Persian Gulf)
x 1991 Prieur & Guérin (DD; United Arab Emirates; archeological site; 72-83.)
x 1992 Hellyer, P. (DD; Abu Dhabi; 44.)
1992 Sheppard et al. (DD; Arabia)
x 1992 Whybrow, P. (?Pleist., Abu Dhabi; 20.)
x 1993 Hellyer, P. (DD; Abu Dhabi; 24.)
1993 Van Neer & Gautier (DD; United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
1993 Uerpmann, M. (DD; Bahrain; archaeological site)
1994 Adulyanukosal & Chantrapornsyl (DD; Thailand)
1994 Graham & Round (DD; Thailand; 25, 196, 214, 216, 218.)
1994 Nateekanjanalarp & Sudara (DD; Thailand; conservation)
1994 Uerpmann & Uerpmann (DD; Bahrain; archaeological site)
1994 Van den Driesch, A. (DD; United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
1995 Baldwin, R. (DD; Abu Dhabi)
x 1995 Hellyer, P. (DD; United Arab Emirates; 32.)
x 1995 Hoch, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates; archaeological site; 249-251, 254-255.)
x 1995 Smith et al. (DD; Vietnam; 147-148, 161, 163-164, 166, 170.)
1995 Stephan, E. (DD; United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
1996 Baldwin, R. (DD; United Arab Emirates)
x 1996 Supanwanid, C. (DD; Thailand; 315.)
1997 Smith et al. (DD; Vietnam)
1997 Adulyanukosal et al. (DD; Andaman coast, Thailand; aerial survey)
1997 Baldwin & Cockcroft (DD; Arabian Gulf; status)
x 1998 Lucas et al. (Kazakstan; Early Olig.; 320, 325-326, 346.)
1998 Bryden et al. (DD)
1998 As-Saruri et al. (Middle Eoc., Yemen)
x 1998 Goodwin et al. (?prorastomid; Middle Eoc., Israel; 813-815.)
x 1998 Preen, A.R. (DD; Arabian Gulf; at least 14 killed in 1991 Gulf War oil spill; m176.)
1999 Mukai et al. (DD; Thailand; effects of grazing; carrying capacity)
x 1999 As-Saruri et al. (indet. ?sir.; Middle Eoc., Yemen; 448.)
x 1999 Nakaoka & Aioi (DD; Thailand; Halophila growth in feeding trails; 97-103.)
x 1999 Whybrow & Clements (indet. sirs.; Middle Eoc., Yemen, m462; Middle Mioc., Saudi Arabia, m465.)
x 2000 Cappetta et al. (indeterminate sir. ["Halitherium sp."]; Late Eoc., Jordan; 91.)
2001 Francis, C.M. (DD; Southeast Asia)
2001 Yamamuro et al. (Halophila ovalis; Thailand)
2001 Adulyanukosal et al. (DD; Thailand; stomach contents)
2002 Keijl & Van der Have (DD; Iran)
2002 Jousse et al. (DD; Akab Island, United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
2002 Hines, E. (DD; Thailand; conservation; 155-180.)
2002 Keijl & Van der Have (DD; Iran)
2002 Nakaoka et al. (DD; Thailand; impact of foraging on benthic animal communities)
2002 Senthil-Kumar et al. (DD; Thailand; dioxins/furans & PCBs)
2003 Kumar et al. (DD; Thailand; dioxins/furans & PCBs)
2005 Perrin et al. (eds.) (DD; Southeast Asia; conservation)
2005 Yamamuro & Chirapart (DD; Thailand; Halophila ovalis)
2005a Hines et al. (DD; Thailand)
2005b Hines et al. (DD; Andaman Coast, Thailand; conservation)
2007 Ilangakoon & Tun (DD; Myanmar; conservation)
2007 Harino et al. (DD; Thailand; organotin compounds)
2007 Adulyanukosol et al. (DD; Thailand; variation in reproductive behavior)
2008 Hines et al. (DD; Cambodia & Vietnam; conservation)
x 2008 Inan et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Turkey; 1-7.)
2009 Méry et al. (DD; Akab, United Arab Emirates; Neolithic ritual site)
2011 Hodgson, A.J. (DD; Saudi Arabia)
* 2012 Preen et al. (DD; Arabia; distribution, status, & conservation)
* 2012a Hines, E. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
2012c Aragones et al. (Thailand; working with communities for dugong conservation)
2014 Mirzaie Ataabadi et al. (indet. sirs.; Oligo/Mioc., Iran)
2017 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; Thailand; identification of tusks by X-ray fluorescence)
2017 Tanaka et al. (DD; Thailand; vocalisation patterns)
2017 Al-Abdulrazzak & Pauly (DD; Persian/Arabian Gulf; historical baselines)
2018 Marshall et al. (DD; Qatar; aggregations)
2019 Tubbs et al. (DD; Cambodia)
2020 Infantes et al. (DD; Thailand; reproductive behavior; use of drones)
2020 Petcharat & Lee (DD; Thailand; nonuse value)
2020 Satyaningtijas et al. (DD; Indonesia; blood cell counts & parasites)
2020 Zalmout et al. (Eotheroides; Late Eoc., Jordan)
2021 Poommouang et al. (DD; Thailand; genetic diversity)
* 2022 Pyenson et al. (cf. DD; Pleistocene, Qatar)
Australia ( 374 )
x 1699 Witsen ("sea-cows"; Nova Hollandia; m361.)
x 1798 Collins, D. (DD; south of Botany Bay, New South Wales; 1:409.)
1814 Flinders, M. (DD; Moreton Bay)
x 1827 King, Phillip P. (DD; Shark Bay; m183.)
1837 SEE Petrie, C.C., 1932.
1838 Tytler, R.
x 1843 Backhouse, J. (DD; near Brisbane; 368-369.)
1852 MacGillivray, J. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; fishery)
1852 Sidney, S.
x 1857 Fairholme, J.K.E. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; 352-353.)
1860 Bennett, G. (DD; Queensland)
1862 Wight, G. (DD; Queensland; oil)
1863 Gould, J.
1876 Thorne, E. (DD; Queensland; oil)
x 1881 Anon. (DD; Queensland; econ. use; 738-747.)
x 1882 Faithful, P. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; 3-7, 9, 11, 13, 15.)
1883 Ramsay, E.P.
x 1883 Wallace, A.R. (DD; Queensland; 54.)
x * 1884 De Vis, C.W. (Chronozoon australe, n.gen.n.sp.; ?Plio-Pleist., Queensland; 392-395, pl. 17.)
x 1886 Miklouho-Maclay, N. de (DD; Mabiak, Torres Strait; m193.)
1887 Collett, R. (DD; Queensland)
1888 Senior, W. (DD; Moreton Bay)
1890 Haddon, A.C. (DD; Torres Strait; scarification with dugong totems)
1892 Ogilby, J.D.
x 1893 Howes & Harrison (DD; skeleton & teeth; 790.)
1893 Kent, W.S.
1893 Stretton, W.G. (Gulf of Carpentaria; making of harpoon rope)
x * 1897 Etheridge et al. (DD; ?Pleist. skeleton, Sydney, 170-174, 178-180, pls. 8-11; modern distr., 172.)
x 1897 Loyau, G.E. (DD; Queensland; origins of fishery; 365.)
x 1899 Hunt, A.E. (DD; Torres Strait; used as food; m13.)
1901a Finsch, O. (DD; Queensland; hunting)
* 1901-35 Haddon, A.
x 1901 Roth, W.E. (DD; Queensland; hunting; 30.)
1903 Semon, R.
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (DD captured by Dexler; m1.)
1905 Dexler, H.
x 1905 Etheridge, R., Jr. (DD; New South Wales; 17-19, pl. 4.)
1905 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; netting; 242.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; 49-50.)
1907 Le Souëf, W.H.D. (DD)
x 1909 Anon. (DD; econ. use & hunting; 93.)
1909 Lucas & Le Souëf (DD)
1910 Anon.
x 1912 Harris, W.K. (DD; hunting, econ. & medicinal uses; 226-228.)
1917 Marius (DD; pop. acc.)
x 1919 Jay, D. (DD; harpooning; 40-41.)
x 1923 Jackson, E.S. (DD; medicinal use of oil by Dr. Wm. Hobbs; m282.)
1924 Adams, M.P.G.
x 1925 Lee, I. (DD; early accounts; 19-21, 482, 520, 523.)
1925 Tindale, N.B.
x 1926 Dahl, K. (DD; Roebuck Bay, Western Australia; m266.)
1926 Le Soueff & Burrell
1932 Haddon, A.C. (DD; Torres Strait; hunting & rituals)
1932 Petrie, C.C.
1934 Hale & Tindale (DD; Princess Charlotte Bay, Queensland)
x * 1934 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Cape York Peninsula; Aboriginal hunting lore; 237-263, pls. 29-31.)
x 1936 Moore, W.R. (DD; econ. use; m746.)
x 1936 Sunter, G.H. (DD; Northern Territory; harpooning; 47-48.)
x 1937 Promus, J. (DD; Queensland; commercial netting; 40-41.)
x 1937 Sunter, G.H. (DD; Northern Territory; harpooning; dugong killing crocodile; 53-61.)
x 1938 Wood, T. (DD; Buccaneer Archipelago; m46, m53.)
1939 Patterson, E.K. (DD; hunting)
x 1941 Johnston & Mawson (DD; nematode Dujardinia; 432.)
1945 Church, A.E. (DD; hunting)
1946 Harney, W.E. (DD; Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Northern Territory; hunting)
x 1949 Jervis, J. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; oil industry; 340.)
x 1949 Loveless, J.R. (DD; Queensland; netted for oil; 8.)
1950? MacInnes, I.G.
x * 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; distr. & habits; 17-19.)
1956 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Princess Charlotte Bay, Queensland)
1959b Anon. (DD; New South Wales)
1959 Cilento & Lack
1961 Roughley, T.C.
x 1962 Marlow, B.J. (DD; New South Wales; 433.)
1964 Johns, H. (DD; pop. acc.)
x * 1964 Johnson, D.H. (DD; specimens from Arnhem Land, Northern Territory; 506-508.)
x 1966a Bertram & Bertram (DD; status; 938-939.)
x 1966b Bertram & Bertram (DD; 213-217.)
x 1966c Bertram & Bertram (DD; 221-222.)
x 1966 Little, E.C.S. (DD; proposed use in weed control; 86.)
1966 Troughton, E.
x 1967 Kenny, R. (DD; respiration; 372-373.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; northern Queensland; in capt.; 220-221.)
x * 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; 1: 102-110, 2: 233-257.)
1968 Bannister, J.L.
x 1968 Keith, K. (DD; Gulf of Carpentaria; 20.)
x * 1968 Lack, C. (DD; Queensland; history of oil industry; 4-6.)
x 1969 Anon. (DD; hunting banned; 90.)
x 1969 Caldwell et al. (DD; 437.)
1970 Butler, W.H. (DD; Barrow Is., Western Australia)
1970 Whitley, G.P.
x 1971 Bertram & Bertram (DD; Queensland; medicinal use of oil; 146-147.)
1971 Roughsey, D.
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (DD; food; 414-422.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; natural history; 205-212.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; drowned in shark nets; m884.)
x 1972 Lawrie, M.E. (DD; Torres Strait; folktales; 3-6, 22-28.)
x 1972 Walker, K. (DD; Stradbroke Is., Queensland; netting & eating; 71, 73-74.)
x * 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr. & status, 310-315; econ. use, 322-324; hunting & capture, 325-328; conservation, 331-332; captures at Numbulwar Mission, Northern Territory, 333-335.)
x 1973 Cantley, R. (DD; status & conservation; 34-35, 52.)
x 1973 Mitchell, J. (DD; age determination; 2.)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; cyclone & feeding changes; 678-680.)
1974 Baudin, N. (DD; Western Australia)
x 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; conservation; 15-16, 19.)
x 1974 Heinsohn & Spain (DD; Queensland; effects of cyclone; 143-152.)
x 1974 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; skull allometry; 249.)
1975 Colliver & Woolston (DD; Stradbroke Is., Queensland)
x 1975 Kirkman, H. (DD; Tin Can Bay, Queensland; m131.)
x 1975 Martin, J.H.D. (DD; Moreton Bay & Stradbroke Is., Queensland; 74.)
x 1975 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; size & weight allometry; 159.)
x 1976b Anon. (DD; pop. acc.; 62-63.)
1976e Anon. (DD)
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (Fraser Is., Queensland, as dugong habitat; 15-18.)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Marsh & Spain (DD; netting technique; 117-121.)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Spain & Anderson (DD; Queensland; aerial surveys; 21-23.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Queensland; aerial survey; 580-582.)
x 1976 Spain et al. (DD; Queensland; skull variation; 491.)
x 1977 Blair, D. (DD; parasitic flukes; 64.)
x 1977 Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; pop. acc.; 106-111.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; role in seagrass system; 235-248.)
x 1977b Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; pop. acc.; 1-5.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (DD; digestive system & parasites; 271-295.)
x 1977 Murray et al. (DD; Queensland; hindgut & digestion; 7-8.)
x 1977 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; feeding, tides; 10-12, 14.)
x * 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; behavior & ecology; 1-23.)
x * 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; distr. survey; 13-26.)
1978 Burbridge & George (DD; Dirk Hartog Is., Western Australia)
x 1978 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Brisbane; 91-92.)
x 1978a Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; conservation; pop. acc.; 29-30.)
x 1978 Marshall, A.J. (DD; Arnhem Land, Northern Territory; Aboriginal story; 80-84.)
x 1978 Stanbury, P.J. (DD; accounts by Dampier & Portlock; 18.)
x 1979 Blair, D. (DD; trematode Labicola elongata; 519-520, 525.)
x 1979 Caton, A. (DD; research & conservation; pop. acc.; 1-4.)
1979a Cropp, B. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; pop. acc.)
1979 Glazebrook, R. (DD; in capt.)
1979 Heinsohn et al. (DD)
1979 Ling, J.K. (DD)
1979 Moore, D.R. (DD; Cape York; hunting)
1979 Paterson, R. (DD; mortality from shark nets)
x 1979 Pedley, I. (DD; Tin Can Bay, Queensland; oil industry; 231.)
1979c Cropp, B. (DD; hunting by Bardi Aborigines)
x 1980 Blair, D. (DD; trematode Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus; 511-525.)
1980 Caton, A. (DD; pop. acc.)
x 1980 Denton et al. (DD; metal content of tissues; 201-219.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; age determination; 181-201.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; behavior; 91-111.)
x 1981 Bertram, G.C.L. (importance of Australia as past & present center of dugong abundance and its responsibility in dugong conservation; 1-7.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (DD; parasitic flukes; 2.)
x 1981b Blair, D. (DD; parasites; gen. acc.; S21-S22.)
x 1981 Campbell & Ladds (DD; Queensland; diseases; 176-181.)
x 1981 Chase, A. (DD; Aboriginal use & beliefs; 112-122.)
x 1981 Denton & Breck (DD; Queensland; mercury in tissues; 117, 119-120.)
x 1981a Denton, G.R.W. (DD; Queensland; heavy metal content of tissues; 169-174.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; in capt.; salmonellosis; 203.)
x 1981 Elliott, M.A. (DD; Northern Territory; distr. & status; 57-66.)
x 1981a Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Queensland; distr. & status; 55-56.)
x 1981 Marsh & Glover (DD; male reproductive tracts; 262, 266.)
x 1981 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; Queensland; workshop on aerial survey techniques; 345-353.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Wellesley Islands, Queensland; hunting & conservation; 255-267.)
x * 1981a Marsh, H. (proceedings of dugong seminar/workshop; 1-400.)
x 1981d Marsh, H. (DD; Queensland; female reproductive tracts; 248.)
x 1981 Mitchell, J. (DD; Queensland; age determination; 99-109.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; hunting; 54-63.)
x 1981 Prince et al. (DD; Western Australia; distr. & status; 67-87.)
x 1981 Purse, B. (DD; Queensland; hunting; review of film; 199-200.)
x 1981a Spain & Marsh (DD; Queensland; skull variation; 143-161.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (DD; Queensland; nematode Paradujardinia; 310.)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; population size & habitat use; 69-84.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; behavior; 85-99.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; hunting, conservation, underwater observations; 515-524.)
x 1982 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; conservation; 1-5.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (DD; Queensland; stomach contents; 55-67.)
1983 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Torres Strait)
1983 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD)
1983 Powell, J.A., Jr. (DD; pop. acc.)
x 1983 Preen & Heinsohn (DD; 4 photos; 20-21.)
x 1984a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; suckling; 510.)
1984b Anderson, P.K.
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; behavior & ecology; 37-42.)
1984 Cropp, B. (DD; pop. acc.)
x 1984c Marsh, H. (DD; Northern Territory; rescue of animals stranded by cyclone; 106-107.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (DD; female reproductive tract; 744.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Glover (DD; male reproductive tract; 722.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; breeding & population dynamics; 767-788.)
1984a Minnegal, M. (DD; Princess Charlotte Bay, Queensland)
x 1984b Minnegal, M. (DD; Princess Charlotte Bay, Queensland; evidence of butchering at archeological site; 15-20.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; hunting & ecology; 625-651.)
x 1984 Robinson, N.H. (DD; New South Wales; 157.)
1984 Taylor, J.M. (DD)
x 1985 Anderson & Prince (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; attacks by killer whales; 554-556.)
1985a Anon. (DD)
x 1985 Baldwin, C.L. (DD; northeastern Queensland; conservation & management; 1-20.)
x 1985 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Queensland; conservation; 89-90.)
1985 Thomson, D.F. (DD)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; temperature, nutrition, & seasonal movements; 473-490.)
x 1986c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; pop. acc.; 162-167.)
x 1986 Baldwin, C.L. (DD; Queensland; conservation; 206-212.)
x 1986 Bayliss, P. (DD; Northern Territory; aerial survey; 27-37.)
x 1986 Blair, D. (DD; parasites; gen. acc.; 46.)
1986 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD)
1986 Hudson & Marsh (DD; Torres Strait; aerial surveys)
1986 Hudson, B.E.T.
1986 Marsh, Freeland et al. (DD; Northern Territory; stranding by cyclone)
x 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; status; 53-76.)
x 1986 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; northern Western Australia; 1-38.)
x 1986 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; conservation; 102-103.)
1987 Beckett, J. (DD; Torres Strait; hunting)
1987 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD)
x 1987 Finger, J. (DD; Queensland; history of oil industry; 3-5.)
1987 Marsh, H. (DD)
1988 Anderson, G.R.V. (DD)
1988a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia)
1988a Anon. (DD)
1988 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Northern Territory)
1988 Davis, S. (DD; northern Arnhem Land, Northern Territory)
x 1988 Doig & Dyson (DD; Queensland; satellite tracking; pop. acc.; 438-439.)
1988 Gray & Zann (DD; northern Australia; traditional knowledge)
x 1988a Marsh, H. (DD; ecology & conservation; 9-21.)
x 1988b Marsh, H. (DD; status of research; 128-130.)
x 1988c Marsh, H. (DD; gen. acc.; 8-10.)
1988d Marsh, H. (DD)
x 1988e Marsh, H. (DD; conservation; 495-502.)
1988 Myroniuk, P. (DD; Hinchinbrook Is., Queensland)
1988 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; Western Australia)
x 1988 Reddacliff, G. (DD; Sydney; killed by cookie-cutter sharks; 133-134.)
1988 Smith, A.J. (DD; Queensland)
x 1988 Tucker & Puddicombe (DD; conservation; 82-83.)
x 1989 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; foraging on macroinvertebrates; 4-6.)
x 1989 Bayliss & Freeland (DD; western Gulf of Carpentaria; distr. & abundance; 141-149.)
1989 Marsh & Saalfeld (DD)
x 1989a Marsh & Sinclair (DD; aerial surveys; visibility bias correction; 1018-1022.)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (DD; Northern Territory; stranding by cyclone; 78-84.)
x 1989b Preen, A. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; mating behavior; 382-387.)
* 1989 Smith, A.J. (DD; eastern Cape York Peninsula; exploitation by Aborigines)
x 1990 Eiser, P. (DD; m28; gen. acc., 73.)
x 1990 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; Queensland; radio & satellite tracking; 83-100.)
x 1990 Marsh & Saalfeld (DD; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Queensland; distr. & abundance; 511-524.)
1990 Parer-Cook & Parer (DD)
x 1990 Paterson, R.A. (DD; Queensland; mortality from shark nets; 155-156.)
x 1990 Smith & Marsh (DD; northern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland; management of traditional hunting; 47-55.)
1990 Bowdler, S. (DD; Shark Bay; archaeological sites)
x 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Northern Territory; traditional hunting; 91-110.)
x 1991 Fitzpatrick, J. (DD; Torres Strait; sharing of meat; m19-20.)
1991 Fox, R. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; pop. acc.)
1991 Johannes & MacFarlane (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1991 Johnson, R.L. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Queensland; pop. acc.; 36-46.)
x 1991 Marsh & Saalfeld (DD; Torres Strait; status; 187-194.)
x * 1992 Pledge, N. (?Dugong; Early Plioc., South Australia; 6.)
x 1993 Brown, J. (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland; seagrass dieoff; pop. acc.; 11.)
x 1993 Harling, R. (DD; Shark Bay; lekking; pop. acc.; 10-11.)
1993 Lee Long et al. (DD; Queensland; feeding trails)
x 1993 Marsh et al. (DD; conservation; 232-234.)
1993 Steele & Kuhl (DD; Moreton Bay; warm-water refugia)
x 1994 Anderson, I. (DD; Oyster Point, Queensland; resort construction threat to habitat; 7.)
x 1994 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; distr. & food in winter; 381-388.)
1994 Cook, C. (DD; traditional hunting rights)
x 1994 Kemper et al. (DD; heavy metals, organochlorines; 129-135, 137.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (DD; distr., status, conservation; 161-165.)
x 1994 Marsh et al. (DD; Shark Bay; distr. & abundance; 149-161.)
x 1994 Ponte et al. (DD; Queensland; traditional hunting rights; 260-261.)
x 1994 Ross, A. (DD; traditional hunting rights; 22-26.)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (DD; Shark Bay, Western Australia; acoustic signals; 1226-1237.)
x 1995b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay; scarring & photoidentification; 205-211.)
x 1995 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; gen. acc.; 666-670.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland; response to seagrass die-off; 507-519.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; feeding on invertebrates; 163-171.)
1996 Slater & Stokes (DD; Shoalwater Bay, Queensland; management plan)
1996 Lee Long et al. (DD; northeastern Australia; feeding at depths of at least 23 m)
x 1996 Anderson, I. (DD; Queensland; voluntary hunting moratorium by Aborigines; 5.)
x 1996 Krogh & Reid (DD; New South Wales; mortality from shark nets; 221-223.)
* 1996 Marsh et al. (southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park; status; 1-80.)
x 1996 Tikel et al. (DD; Borroloola & Torres Strait; mtDNA sequences; 456-457.)
1996 Roberts et al. (DD; North Queensland; monitoring Aboriginal hunting)
1996 Marsh, H. (DD; Queensland; sustainable use)
x 1997 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay; lekking; 433-462.)
1997 Corkeron et al.
x 1997 Edmonds et al. (DD; Western Australia; elemental composition of tusk; 203-214.)
x 1997 Marsh et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; ecology, status, values, human impacts, management; 124-138.)
x 1997 Marsh, H. (DD; population biology & conservation; gen. acc.; 50-57.)
x 1997 Marsh, Harris & Lawler (DD; Torres Strait; sustainability of fishery; 1375-1386.)
x 1997 Peterken & Conacher (DD; Moreton Bay; effects of grazing on Zostera capricorni; 333-340.)
x 1997 Preen et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef, Exmouth Gulf; 185-208.)
1997 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Fog Bay, Northern Territory)
x 1997 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Fog Bay, Northern Territory; 16-26.)
1998 Bryden et al. (DD)
1998 Anderson, P.K.
1998 Dinesen, Z. (DD; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park)
1998 Gribble et al. (DD; Queensland; effect of shark control)
x 1998 Preen, A.R. (DD; Indian Ocean coast; conservation; 173-181.)
1998 Haynes et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; protection areas)
1999 Marsh et al. (DD; conservation strategy)
1999 Tager, J. (DD)
x 1999 Ambrose, P. (DD; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park; new sanctuary area; m235-236.)
1999 Haynes et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef)
1999 Oliver & Berkelmans (DD; Great Barrier Reef & Hervey Bay; research strategy)
x 1999 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Sahul Banks; 609-615.)
1999 Hope Vale Aboriginal Community (DD; Hope Vale; hunting management plan)
1999 Oliver & Berkelmans (DD; Great Barrier Reef & Hervey Bay; research strategy)
x 2000 Aragones & Marsh (DD; Great Barrier Reef; simulated grazing & seagrass recovery; 277-288.)
2000 Lee Long et al.
2000 Morgan et al. (DD; Queensland; Cryptosporidium parvum)
2001 McLachlan et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; PCDDs)
2001 Schulman, M. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; conservation)
2001 Simpfendorfer et al. (DD; Western Australia; remains found in tiger shark stomachs)
2001a Anon. (DD; sanctuaries; 336-337.)
x 2001 Masini et al. (DD; Shark Bay; grazing on Halodule; 179-197.)
x 2001 Taylor, G. (DD; Shark Bay; shark attack; 34-41.)
2001 Vetter et al. (DD; northeastern Australia; organohalogens)
2001 Preen, A.R. (DD; Queensland; boat-traffic management)
2001 Marsh & Lawler (DD; southern Great Barrier Reef & Hervey Bay)
2001 Marsh et al. (DD; Queensland; mortality in shark nets)
2002 Lawler et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; state of knowledge)
2002 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; conservation)
2002a Whiting, S.D. (DD; Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory; dive times)
2002b Whiting, S.D. (DD; Darwin region, Northern Territory)
2002 Lanyon et al. (DD; Moreton Bay; mark-recapture program)
2002 Schaffelke et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; water quality)
2002 Carruthers et al. (DD; NE Australia; seagrass habitats)
2002 Marsh & Lawler (DD; northern Great Barrier Reef)
2003 McNiven & Feldman (DD; Torres Strait; hunting magic)
2003 Lanyon, J.M. (DD; Moreton Bay; aerial surveys, 1995; 397-409.)
2003 Rouja et al. (DD; NW Australia; indigenous hunting & use of fat)
2004 Allen et al. (DD; New South Wales)
2004 Haworth et al. (DD; Botany Bay; subfossil)
2004 Marsh et al. (DD; Torres Strait; fishery unsustainable)
2004 Heinsohn, R., et al. (DD; Torres Strait & Cape York; population viability analyses)
2004 Gales et al. (DD; Western Australia; migration)
2005 Andre et al. (DD; Torres Strait; diet comp. w/ green turtles)
2005 Kwan, D. (DD; Torres Strait; management of traditional fishery)
2005 Lanyon, Smith & Carrick (DD; Moreton Bay; reproductive steroids in feces)
2005 Lanyon, Johns & Sneath (DD; Queensland; effects of temperature)
2005 Fitzgerald, E.M.G. (DD; Victoria; subfossil)
2005 Chilvers et al. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland)
2005 Fernandes et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef)
2005 Havemann et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; traditional hunting agreements)
2005 Mellors et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; seagrass meadows; biogeochemical parameters)
2006 David et al. (DD; Torres Strait; dugong bone mounds & rituals)
2006 Kwan et al. (DD; hunting)
x * 2006 Pledge, N.S. ("Dugonginae incertae sedis"; Early Plioc., South Australia; 295-305.)
2006 Maitland et al. (DD; Burrum Heads, Queensland; risk of boat strike)
2006 Holley et al. (DD; Shark Bay)
2007 Grech & Marsh (DD; conservation; population model)
2007 Hodgson et al. (DD; use of acoustic alarms to prevent accidental netting)
2008 Wirsing et al. (DD; Shark Bay; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
* 2008 Daley et al. (DD; Queensland; history of commercial fishery)
2008 Hermanussen et al. (DD; Queensland; PBDEs)
2008 Marsh, H. (DD; Great Barrier Reef)
2008 Marsh & Kwan (DD; Torres Strait; female reproductive biology & seagrass dieback)
2008 Sheppard et al. (DD; Torres Strait; seagrass nutrients)
2008 Takahashi et al. (DD; Moreton Bay; okadaic acid)
2008 Dobbs et al. (DD; protected area, Great Barrier Reef)
2008 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory)
2008 McNiven & Bedingfield (DD; Torres Strait; archaeological sites; hunting rates)
2009 Sheppard et al. (DD; habitat use)
2010 McCook et al. (Great Barrier Reef; adaptive management)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; Queensland; molecular characterization of populations; skin sampling)
2010 Sheppard et al. (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland; habitat use & food choice)
2011 Gaul et al. (DD; Queensland; organobromine compounds)
2012 Owen et al. (DD; Queensland; postmortem findings)
* 2012 Dobbs et al. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
2012 Butler et al. (DD; Torres Strait; traditional ecological knowledge and fisheries management; role with turtles as keystone species)
* 2013 Fitzgerald et al. (Sirenia indet.; Mioc.)
2013 Nielsen et al. (DD; Queensland; bacteria)
2013 Hodgson et al. (DD; use of drones in aerial surveys)
2013 McNiven, I. (DD; Torres Strait; middens)
2013 Parsons et al. (DD; Shark Bay; vocalizations)
2013 Fuentes et al. (DD; Torres Strait; capture for tagging by harpoon and dermal holdfast)
2014 Blair et al. (DD; Pleist. sea level & phylogeography)
2014 Hagihara et al. (DD; aerial surveys; correction factors for surfacing times)
2018 Wong et al. (DD; southern Queensland, Australia; polyclonal anti-dugong immunoglobulin G antibody)
2019 Wong et al. (DD; Queensland; Toxoplasma gondii & Neospora caninum)
2021 Nowicki et al. (DD; Shark Bay; tiger sharks; effects of apex predator removal and extreme climatic events)
2021 Lanyon et al. (DD; body scarring by tusks)
Austria ( 45 )
x 1847 Meyer, H.v. (Halianassa Collinii; Linz; 189-190.)
x 1861 Van Beneden, P.J. (Halitherium; Linz; 481.)
1866 Suess, E.
x 1867 Hauer, F.v. (Halianassa Collini; Mioc., Hainburg; 140-141.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (Halitherium Cordieri; Mioc., Hainburg; 309-314, pl. 7.)
x 1867 Stache, G. ("Halitherium" or "Halianassa"; Mioc., Hainburg; 141-144.)
x 1868 Fuchs, T. ("Halitherium" [= Metaxytherium krahuletzi]; Eggenburg; 591.)
x 1886 Hauer, F.v. ("Halitherium" [=Metaxytherium medium]; Middle Mioc., Ottakring, Austria; 27-28.)
x * 1895 Depéret, C. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi, n.sp.; Mioc., Eggenburg; 408, 415.)
1896 Toula, F. (incorrect report of a sir. [actually a rhinoceros] at Kalksburg; 919.)
1899 Toula, F.
x 1902c Abel, O. (Metaxytherium sp.; Mioc.; Vienna Basin; m1176.)
1903 Abel, O.
* 1904a Abel, O.
1927 Ehrenberg, K. (Friedberg)
1927a Sickenberg, O. (Mioc., Burgenland)
1927b Sickenberg, O. (Metaxytherium petersi; Mioc., Burgenland)
* 1928 Sickenberg, O. (Thalattosiren, n.gen.; Mioc., Burgenland)
1929b Sickenberg, O. (Mioc., Burgenland)
1931 Glaessner, M.F. (Metaxytherium; Mioc.)
x 1936 Resch, R. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; Waschbach; m26.)
x 1953 Zapfe, H. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; Langau; 14.)
x 1955 Bernhauser, A. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; Ober-Nalb; 168-169, 172, 185.)
* 1959 Spillmann, F.
1969 Spillmann, F. (Halitherium spp.; Late Olig.)
1969 Steininger, F.F. (Linz)
x 1971 Daxner-Höck, G. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Eggenburg region; 764-765.)
1972 Schultz, O. (Mioc.)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. (Halitherium spp.; Olig.; 197-209.)
1975 Rabeder, G. (Late Olig.)
1977 Ebner & Graef (Weitendorf)
1977 Fuchs, W.
x 1988 Roetzel, R. (Metaxytherium; Early Mioc.; Weitersfeld; 402.)
1990 Stojaspal, F. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi)
x 1991a Pervesler & Roetzel (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Eggenburg region; 97.)
x 1991 Piller & Vávra ("Thalatosiren [sic] petersi"; Middle Mioc.; m189.)
x 1996 Pervesler, P. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; construction of museum display; 75-80.)
x 1996 Piller et al. ("Thalatosiren [sic] petersi"; Middle Mioc., Austria; m16.)
x 1998 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Mioc., Eggenburg region; paleoecology & taphonomy; 87-103.)
x 2000 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; Eggenburg region; 213-215.)
* 2001 Domning & Pervesler (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Eggenburg region)
2013 Reiter & Mittermayr (Halitherium cristolii; Late Olig., Linz)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
2016 Voss et al. (Late Olig.; Lentiarenium cristolii)
2021 Feichtinger et al. (Metaxytherium cf. medium; middle Mioc., Styria; predation by tiger shark (Galeocerdo))

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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