Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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B

Bacteriology ( 43 )
(SEE ALSO Virology)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (microbiological digestion; 504-514.)
x 1969 Frye & Herald (TI; Proteus vulgaris, P. morganii, Streptococcus spp., Edwardsiella spp., Clostridium prefringens; 1073.)
x 1974 Bartmann, W. (TM; Pseudomonas morganii, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus; 14.)
x 1975 Forrester et al. (TM; Pseudomonas, Edwardsiella, Escherichia; 567.)
x 1976 Boever et al. (TI; Mycobacterium chelonei; 927-929.)
1978 Boever, W.J. (TI; Mycobacterium chelonei)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; Indonesia; Aeromonas, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Aerobacter; 28.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TM; Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.; 5.)
1980 Ohtomo et al.
x 1981a Beusse et al. (TM; Florida; Edwardsiella, Citrobacter, Proteus; 101.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TM; Florida; Citrobacter, Staphylococcus, Proteus; 118, 120.)
x 1981 Campbell & Ladds (DD; Queensland; Salmonella lohbruegge; 178.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (TM; Florida; Salmonella heidelberg; 144.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; Salmonella lohbruegge, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus; 203-208.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (TM; Florida; Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas hydrophila; 129.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (TM; Florida; Pseudomonas putrefaciens; 1333.)
x 1984 Cornide, R.I. (TM; Cuba; Leptospira antibodies; 1.)
x 1985 Morales et al. (TI; Mycobacterium marinum; 1230-1231.)
x 1986 Morales, P. (TI; in capt.; Mycobacterium marinum; 43-48.)
x 1987 Walsh et al. (TML; Florida; Streptococcus faecium, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Escherichia coli; 702-703.)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; Providencia, Proteus, Edwardsiella, Morganella, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; 171.)
1999 Yamamuro, M.
2001 Solis et al. (Escherichia coli)
2001 Solis et al. (E. coli heat shock gene rpoH)
2003a Vergara-Parente et al. (TMM; upper respiratory tract; 124-130.)
2003b Vergara-Parente et al. (TMM; salmonellosis; 131-136.)
2003 Sato et al. (TML; in capt.; mycobacteriosis)
2008 Tsukinowa et al. (DD; in capt., Toba, Japan; fecal microbiota)
2011 Harr et al. (TML; Pasteurella multocida)
* 2012 Stamper & Bonde (TM; health assessment techniques)
* 2012 Eigeland et al. (DD; hindgut microbial communities)
2012 Mathews, Da Silva et al. (TI; Brazil; Leptospira spp. antibodies)
2013 Nielsen et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia)
2013 Nelson et al. (DD; gut bacterial community)
2014 Merson et al. (TML; Crystal River, Florida; hindgut microbial communities)
* 2014 Merson et al. (TML, Crystal River, Florida; hindgut microbial communities)
2015 Mathews et al. (TI; Peru; Leptospira infection)
2018 Reisfeld et al. (TI, in capt.; cutaneous mycobacteriosis)
* 2019 Suzuki et al. (TMM, in capt., Okinawa; fecal microbiota; comp. w/ TML.)
2020 Satyaningtijas et al. (DD; Indonesis; Anaplasma)
2021 Correa Neto et al. (TI; salmonellosis)
2022 Landsberg et al. (TML; Florida; Indian River Lagoon mortality event; clostridial infection)
2022 Rodrigues, Santos et al. (TI; Leptospira, Brucella)
Baja California ( 14 )
x D 1941b VanderHoof, V.L. (Cornwallius; Olig.; 1985.)
x D * 1942a VanderHoof, V.L. (Cornwallius sookensis; Olig.; 298-301.)
x D 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (desmostylians; 11, 15-16.)
D 1964 Allison, E.C.
x * 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (Halianassa (?) allisoni, n.sp.; 57-58, 65, 70-71.)
x D 1970 Minch et al. (Desmostylus; 3149-3153.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (Dioplotherium, Dusisiren, Hydrodamalis; Mioc.-Plioc.; 101-104, 147-149, 160-161.)
1983 Morris, W.J.
x D 1986 Applegate, S.P. (Cornwallius sookensis; Late Olig.; 157-158.)
x D 1990 Aranda-Manteca, F.J. (Metaxytherium, Desmostylus; Mioc., La Misión; 100, 103-104, 108, 111, pl. 3.)
x D 1990 Ferrusquia-V., I. (Desmostylus hesperus; Mioc.; 15, 17, 22-26.)
* 1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (Metaxytherium arctodites, n.sp.; Middle Mioc., La Misión)
D 2002 Jiménez-Hidalgo et al. (Desmostylus hesperus; Middle Mioc.; 53.)
2008 Barnes, L.G. (aff. Hydrodamalis sp.; Dugongidae indet.; latest Mioc.; 103.)
Behavior (General and Miscellaneous) ( 85 )
(SEE ALSO: Birth and Breeding; Captivity, Sirenians in; Locomotion; Migration and Movements; Sound Production; Respiration and Diving; and under species)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TM; in capt.; 459-462.)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; in capt., 21-26; postures, 25-26, 45, pls. 5-7.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (Trichechus; in capt.; 456-460.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; gen. acc.; 464-465.)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TM; in capt.; feeding, swimming, & when tank drained; 91, 94, 97.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; play; 65.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TM; in capt.; 228-234.)
x 1916a Anon. (TI; in capt.; swimming, when tank drained, etc.; 1421.)
x 1920 Beebe, W. (TM; Guyana; 730-732.)
x * 1922 Golder, F.A. (HG; Bering Is.; eyewitness account by Khitrov; 238.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; ?play, 222; general activity levels, 226-227.)
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (TS; in capt.; resting on back at bottom; 25.)
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (HG; 60-61.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; intelligence & learning, 31-32; "kissing" & nuzzling, 32-33.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TM; Florida; pop. acc.; 402-404.)
x 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; gen. acc.; 17-19.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 1-23.)
x 1957 Burton, M. (TML; gen. acc.; 272.)
x * 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; in capt.; 1-7.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; India; in capt.; use of flippers; 264-265.)
x 1964 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; swimming; 7-8.)
x * 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; fishermen's accounts; 82-88.)
x * 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; in capt.; 218-219.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; in capt.; 220-221.)
1969 Evans & Bastian
x 1969 Frye & Herald (TI; in capt.; under medical treatment; 1075-1076.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; gen. acc.; 342-353.)
x 1969 Herald, E.S. (TI; in capt.; 29-30.)
1970 Barada, B. (TM; Florida)
x * 1972 Caldwell & Caldwell (TM; Florida; mating, 446-448; play, 450; diurnal activity, m452; feeding, 454.)
x 1972a Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 21-22.)
1972b Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; in capt.; sociality, "acrobatics", ?play; 39-40.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Australia; no diurnal periodicity; 580-581.)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; "body-surfing"; 211.)
x 1977 Harris & Bertram (DD; Abu Dhabi; caught in nets only at night; 5.)
x 1977 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; tidal cycles; 10-12, 14.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; scratching; 15.)
x * 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; review; 113-144.)
x 1979 Barrett, S.K. (TM; Florida; near flood-control dams; 26.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 17-61, 64-142; daily activity, 41-43; comfort activities, 86-92; social behavior, 95-114, 132-133; play, 43, 108-110, 113-114, 134-135.)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; 47-53; "body-surfing" & "follow-the-leader", 51; activity patterns, 52.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; behavior & conservation; 640-647.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; gen. acc., 91-111; resting, 98.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; idling & daily activity patterns; 31-34.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TM; Florida; research needs; 6.)
x 1981 Campbell & Irvine (TM; in capt.; decreased activity in cold weather; 89.)
x * 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; 233-242; activity patterns, 235, 237-239.)
x * 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; social behavior, 436-449; "body-surfing" & "follow-the-leader", 444-445.)
x 1981c Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; "body-surfing", "follow-the-leader", activity patterns; 28.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; encounters with dolphins, turtles, & cormorants; 94.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TM; Florida; daily activity patterns; role of behavioral tradition; 4668.)
x 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; northeastern Florida; temporal & spatial distr. of behaviors; 16-19, 34-37.)
1983 Krushinskaya & Lisitsyna
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (TM; Honduras; nocturnal due to hunting; 306.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; "follow-the-leader" & other play-like behavior; 6.)
x 1984b Best, R.C. (TI; activity budget; 374-375.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; nocturnal where hunted; 976.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Florida; social organization & learning; 192.)
x 1990 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; Queensland; activity cycles; 91-93.)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; effects of red tide neurotoxin; 170, 172, 174-175.)
x 1993 Loyer, B. (DD; Vanuatu; observations on lone individual; 54-55.)
x * 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (TML; in capt.; training, learning, memory, "games"; 10-21.)
x * 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; 33-50.)
x 1996 Koelsch, J.K. (TML; Sarasota Co., Florida; focal animal observations, habitat selection; gen. acc.; 9-10.)
x 1998 Axis-A. et al. (TMM; Mexico; habitat use; 791-803.)
1999 Wells et al.
2000 Rattenborg et al. (unihemispheric sleep)
2001 Colbert et al. (TML; husbandry & research training)
2005 Lima et al. (TMM; training in management behaviors)
2006 Fellner et al. (TML; ex-situ behavioral extinction)
2006 Horikoshi-Beckett & Schulte (TML; in capt.; activity patterns)
2007 Kiszka, J.J. (DD; Mayotte, Comoro Islands; associations with dolphins)
* 2008 Mercadillo-Elguero et al. (TMM; Quintana Roo, Mexico; in semi-captivity; ethogram, rehabilitation)
* 2009 Sheppard et al. (DD; Australia; habitat use; tidal & diel cycles)
2010 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; activities & social interactions)
2010 Sheppard et al. (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia; habitat use & food choice)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
2013 Kikuchi et al. (TI; in capt., Brazil; diving, feeding, locomotion; acceleration data loggers)
2014 Esenowo et al. (TS; Nigeria; behavior)
* 2016 Arévalo-Sandi & Castelblanco-Martínez (TI; Peru; interactions among calves in captivity)
2017 Landeo et al. (TI; Peru; captivity & release)
2020 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; learning capacities & welfare)
2021 Nowicki et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; tiger sharks; effects of apex predator removal and extreme climatic events)
* 2021 Brady et al. (TML; vocalizations related to behavior)
Behavior, Aggregative ( 87 )
(SEE ALSO: Aerial Surveys of Distribution)
x 1888 Jentink, F.A. (TS; Liberia; 34.)
x 1890 Büttikofer, J. (TS; Liberia; schools of manatees dangerous to canoes; 2: 392.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; India & Andaman Islands; m241.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; m77.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; groups of 4 or 5; 126.)
x 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; Andaman Islands; m987.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TM; Central America; 216-217.)
x 1936 Lopes, A.P. (DD; Mozambique; herd of >50; 36.)
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (TM; Florida; 272.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; groups of 10-30 in mating season; 54.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TM; Everglades, Florida; 23-25.)
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 120-121, 156.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 2, 4-23.)
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (TS; Senegal; group of 15; 1369.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; Sri Lanka; 7.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 117.)
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (TM; Florida; 166-168.)
x * 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 83.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; herds of up to 400-500; 80-81.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; in capt.; 218-219.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; herd "3 miles in length", 1: 105, 2: 234-235; "80 or more", 2: 234; "dozens", 2: 257.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TM; Belize; 294.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TM; Guyana; feeding in groups; 346, 348.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 346.)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; 299-301.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; 208.)
x 1973 Cantley, R. (DD; Torres Strait; herds; 34.)
x 1974 Heinsohn & Spain (DD; Queensland; shark net captures; 148.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TM; Venezuela; aggregations in lagoons; 14-15.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (DD; Red Sea; 94.)
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (DD; Australia; 17.)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Spain & Anderson (DD; Australia; 22-23.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Australia; 580-582.)
x 1976 Paz & Ilani (DD; Gulf of Aqaba; group of 10-12; 74.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (TM; Florida; feeding on uprooted seagrass; 250.)
x 1977 Harris & Bertram (DD; Abu Dhabi; herd of "100 or more"; 5-6.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; 239-240.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; 6, 13, 20-21.)
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; questionnaire survey; 15-17, 20.)
x 1978 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; 91-92.)
x 1978 Marsh et al. (DD; review of herd sizes; 166.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; separation between individuals, 127; groups, 136, 141.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; group sizes; 94.)
x 1979 Leatherwood, S. (TM; Indian & Banana Rs., Florida; group sizes; 52.)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; herd structure; 47-52.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; social interactions; 644-645)
x 1981 Elliott, M.A. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; group sizes; 62.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Wellesley Islands, Queensland; 263-265.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; 58-59.)
x 1981 Prince et al. (DD; Western Australia; group sizes; 73, 75.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; herd size; 238-239.)
x * 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Blue Lagoon, Miami, Florida; herd structure & social behavior; 436-449.)
x 1981c Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; group size & structure; 27.)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; group sizes; 76, 78, 82-83.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; response to boats, 88-89; functions of aggregations, 97-98.)
x 1982 Irvine et al. (TM; western Florida; group sizes; 623, 625-627.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (TM; north of Florida; group sizes; 153-165.)
x 1982 Robineau & Rose (DD; Djibouti; 236.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; group sizes, 9, 12, 25, 28; in warm-water outfalls, 16, 25, 40.)
x 1983 Kochman et al. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; areas used for feeding, resting, social behavior, & travel; 108, 111-115, 117-120.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TM; Florida; at warm-water sources; pop. acc.; 40-44.)
x 1983b Shane, S.H. (TM; Brevard Co., Florida; warm-season group sizes; 4-5, 8.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; 3, 6.)
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; group sizes; 39.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Queensland; herd of 63; 775-776.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; responses to weather; 640.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (TM; Brevard Co., Florida; at power plants; 182-185.)
x 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (TM; Florida; keeping group together or greeting with vocalizations; 817.)
x 1985 Kochman et al. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; temporal & spatial distr.; 921-924.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; correlated with salinity; 1008.)
x 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; group sizes; 62-63.)
x 1986 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; Western Australia; group sizes; 9-11, 35.)
x 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (TM; western Cuba; group sizes; 3-4.)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (TM; Banana R., Florida; group sizes & causes of aggregations; 335-336.)
x 1988 Rathbun et al. (DD; Palau; group sizes; 268.)
x 1989 Bayliss & Freeland (DD; Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia; group sizes; 149.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; group sizes; 42-46, 50-51, 58-60, 63, 75-78, 81, 84-86, 94-97, 101-102, 110-112, 181-183, 193-194, 200.)
x 1989b Preen, A. (DD; Queensland; herd sizes; 383.)
x 1991 Lefebvre & Kochman (TML; Florida; use of Crystal & Homosassa Rs.; 299-304.)
x 1991 O'Shea & Salisbury (TMM; Belize; group sizes; 158.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (TS; Guinea-Bissau; groups of up to 15; m405.)
x 1997 Marsh, Harris & Lawler (DD; Torres Strait; group sizes; 1379.)
x 1997 Preen et al. (DD; Western Australia; group sizes; 190-191, 193.)
x 1997 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; group sizes; 19, 21, 25-26.)
x 1999 Miller et al. (TML; Florida; group sizes; 564-568.)
2018 Marshall et al. (DD; Qatar)
2021 Edwards et al. (TML; monitoring by unmanned aerial systems)
Behavior, Agonistic and Territorial ( 31 )
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; males fighting in February & March; 113.)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 151.)
x 1874b Anon. (TM; Florida; defense against hunters; 446.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 188-189.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; ?fighting for females; m243.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; fighting for females; m77.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; preferred locations in tank; 221.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; possible use of tusks; 332.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; cow believed to kill or drive off calf if mated again before weaning; 188.)
x 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; use of tusks doubtful; 142.)
x 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; fighting rare, 18; ?territory, m19.)
x 1955 Severin, K. (TML; in capt.; calf killed by adult; 149.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; ?agonistic behavior; 10-11.)
x 1958 Leakey, L.S.B. (DD; East Africa; in rivers; 19-20.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; territorial behavior; 6-7.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; supposed fighting with tusks; 2: 234.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; possible territoriality; 211.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; Suriname; overturning boats to get at bananas; 338.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; agonistic behavior, 127; ?home ranges, 140.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 97-98, 105, 114, 133-134.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TM; Florida; sex difference in size of home ranges; 4668.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; fighting with tusks; 780.)
x * 1989b Preen, A. (DD; Queensland; males fighting in mating herds; 384-386.)
x 1993 Harling, R. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; lekking; pop. acc.; 10-11.)
x 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (TML; in capt.; 12.)
x 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; 35.)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; vocalizations; 1235-1236.)
x * 1997 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; lekking; 433-462.)
1998 Belcher, A. A. (DD; Vanuatu; butting people)
2017 Harms-Tuohy & Tuohy (TMM; Puerto Rico; aggression toward divers by mating herd)
* 2021 Lanyon et al. (DD; Australia; body scarring by tusks)
Behavior, Epimeletic ( 45 )
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; protecting calves, 197; aiding wounded individuals, 199.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; not observed carrying young; 243.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (TM; Cuba; wounded animal helped by others; 95.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; carrying young; 78.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; aiding wounded individuals; 232-233.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; Red Sea; 84.)
x * 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; carrying young; 987.)
x * 1937 Barbour, T. (TM; Florida; teaching young to breathe; 107.)
x 1937 Promus, J. (DD; Australia; herds protecting calves from sharks; 41.)
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (TM; Florida; bull ?diverting pursuers' attention from cow & calf; 272.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; making underwater hiding places for young, 56; male assisting at birth, 60; nursing >1 year, 60.)
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (HG; 61.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; believed to nurse >1 year unless mated again; 188.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TM; teaching young to breathe, nursing; 27.)
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 121.)
x * 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; teaching young to breathe; 18.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; nursing; 19-20.)
x 1957 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; not teaching young to breathe; 137-138.)
x 1958 Leakey, L.S.B. (DD; East Africa; nursing upright in water; 20.)
x 1958 Loftin, H. (Trichechus; teaching young to breathe; 256.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (HG, TI)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; position of nursing young; 83.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; holding & nursing young; 80.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; mother protecting calf from shark & protecting netted calf; 2: 234-235.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TM; Belize; nursing; 294.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; attempting to interfere with netting of other individuals; 397.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; swimming positions of cow & calf, 129-130; protection of calves & ?communication of traditional knowledge, 137.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 97, 133; cow-calf behavior & nursing, 110-114, 121-122, 137.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TM; in capt.; nursing, 23-24; protecting calf, 24.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; cow-calf behavior; 644.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Australia; males on outside of herd; 265.)
x 1981 Odell, D.K. (TM; in capt.; nursing; 133.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; nursing, flight, protection of calves, 442-443; ?leaving calf alone while foraging, 443.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (DD; Sri Lanka; cows trying to free calves from nets; 4.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TM; in capt.; helping young to breathe; 109.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; cow-calf behavior & nursing; 93.)
x 1982 Milne & Milne (TML; care of young; pop. acc.; 154-158.)
x * 1984a Anderson, P.K. (DD; nursing; 510.)
x 1984 Hall, A.J. (TM; Florida; photos of nursing & "grooming"; 405, 410-411.)
x 1984b White, J.R. (TM; in capt.; mother failing to help calf after birth; 372.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; mother remaining near captured calf; 1010.)
x 1986 Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; bulls carrying calves with their flippers; 10.)
x 1994 Rosas, F.C.W. (TI, in capt.; helping another animal to breathe; 55.)
x 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; care of young; 46-48.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Hartley (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; lactation & weaning; 165-167.)
Behavior, Et-epimeletic ( 10 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Ingestive)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; attempted nursing by calf on unrelated calf; 176.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; "greeting" by young, 17; nursing, 19-20.)
x 1975b Anon. (TM; nursing; 7.)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; nursing; 213.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; alarm calls; 96, 99-100, 113-114.)
x 1979 Odell & Reynolds (TM; cow & calf, separated by dam, 575-576.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; nursing; 442.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; nursing; 93.)
x 1985 Mühling, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; nursing; 14-15.)
x 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; nursing; 35, 46-47.)
Behavior, Ingestive ( 157 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Epimeletic; Behavior, Et-epimeletic; Food; Mastication; Milk)
x 1861a Du Chaillu, P.B. (TS; eating leaves fallen into water, & aquatic grass; 367.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TM; in capt.; 459, 461.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (TMM; in capt.; plants, 295; mud, 296.)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; use of lips; 22, 26, 31-32, pls. 6-7.)
x * 1881 Crane, A. (Trichechus; in capt.; 458-460.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (Trichechus; use of forelimbs; m458.)
x 1895 Bangs, O. (TM; Florida; feeding on mangroves & on shore; 787.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 185-186, 189, 198.)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TM; in capt.; eating from hand above water; 91, 94, 97.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; India; 242-243.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, 55-57; manatee, 57.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; feeding trails; 574.)
1907 Heilprin, A.
1920 Beebe, W. (TM; Guyana)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; 75.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; coprophagy, 122-123; use of lips, 125-126; feeding not only nocturnal, 226; DD, German East Africa, ?use of tusks, 225-226.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; 230-232.)
x * 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; browsing, 89-90; chewing, 92.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TM; Central America; 217.)
x 1937 Turner, J.P. (TM; Guyana; photo of animal feeding partly out of water; 498.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; in capt.; food position preference; eating sand & mud; 143.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; possible use of tusks; 332, 336.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; feeding under floating meadows, 47, 56; bending down bushes with flippers, 57; feeding at bottom, 56-57.)
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (HG; 60-61.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; believed to swallow 1 pebble per year; 189.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD; Palau; use of tusks; 22.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; nursing; 19-20, 23.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; Red Sea; ?use of flippers, 9, 42; use of snout bristles, 13; making & eating heaps of seagrasses, 42.)
x * 1959 Jones, S. (DD; in capt.; feeding at surface, etc.; 200-201.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 4-5.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; 264.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TM, HG)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; 118.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; feeding trails; 86, 88.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; eating seagrass rhizomes; feeding with tail up; 80.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; in capt.; feeding only at bottom or from hand; 220.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; rooting & damage to oyster banks; 1: 103-104, 2: 239-240.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (DD, 388; Trichechus, 389.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TM; preferred growth habits of food plants; 345-346.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; Pacific; evolution; 218.)
1972b Anon. (TM; Florida; drinking fresh water)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; calves grazing; 210.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Australia; calves grazing; 886.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TM; Venezuela; pulling grasses into water with flippers; 14.)
x 1975b Anon. (TM; Florida; nursing; 7.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; in capt.; feeding only at bottom; 36.)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Spain & Anderson (DD; Australia; raising silt clouds; 22.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Australia; feeding with tail up, raising silt clouds; m580.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (TI; Peru; eating vegetation on riverbanks; 32.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (North Pacific sirs.; evolution; 353-361.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; feeding habits; 237-238.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (DD; feeding habits; 288-289.)
x 1977 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; seagrasses torn rather than cropped cleanly when tidal current strong; 10.)
x * 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; diving, silt clouds, feeding tracks; 8-13, 18-20.)
x * 1978a Domning, D.P. (TI; functional anatomy of lips, jaws, & neck; 57-69.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (N. Pacific sirs.; 116-124, 131, 140-144.)
x 1978 Powell, J.A., Jr. (TM; eating flesh of fish & leaving bones; 442.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; different feeding modes for large & small seagrasses, 124-125; flippers probably not used, 125.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 42, 44, 47, 51-58, 85-86, 95, 112, 122; drinking fresh water, 58-59; feeding partly out of water, 85; rooting, 90, 92; regurgitation, 93, 95.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta; eating floating seagrasses; 8-9.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TM; Dominican Republic; silt clouds; 318.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TM; in capt.; pregnant female & calf; 21, 23-24, 26.)
x * 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI, TML; food position preference; experiments; 544-547.)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; feeding at bottom & surface; 270.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; ?non-use of tusks; 199.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; persistent grazing of preferred sites, 640-641; uprooting seagrasses, 641.)
x * 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-24.)
x 1981 Bingham, B. (TM; Florida; drinking from hose; pop. acc.; 90-91.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; feeding at bottom & surface; 200.)
x 1981 Odell, D.K. (TM; Florida; in capt.; newborn calf; 131, 133.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TM; St. Johns R., Florida; eating Eichhornia & Vallisneria; 49-50.)
x * 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; 236-237, 240.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (DD; Sri Lanka; stones in intestines; 4.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TM; Florida; in capt.; conditioning to press trigger to obtain fresh water; 104.)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; ?grazing scars in seagrass beds; 81-82.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; eating Amphibolis leaves & not rhizomes; ?economization of energy; 90-91, 96-97.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; 522.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (DD; Australia; food choice, 61-65; ?non-use of tusks, 65.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (TM; Georgia; drinking fresh water from dock; 153.)
x 1982 Scott & Powell (TM; Florida; commensal feeding by herons; 215-216.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (TM; food consumption in wild; experiments; 1190-1191.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; drinking fresh water, 25; feeding half out of water, 34.)
x 1983 Lainson et al. (TI; coprophagy as ?route of coccidial infection; 289.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TM; Florida; photo of animal feeding on bank grasses; 41.)
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; control by tidal cycle; feeding trails & completeness of seagrass removal; 39-40.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel (TM; consumption rate; 177.)
x 1984a Packard, J.M. (TM; rooting & grazing seagrasses; 21-22.)
x 1985 Etheridge et al. (TM; chewing rate & time spent feeding; 21-23.)
x 1985 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; feeding partly out of water; 417, 421.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; eating only leaves of Amphibolis vs. entire plants of Halodule; 478, 483-485, 487-488.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (TMM; Mexico; 595-597; feeding partly out of water, 596.)
x 1986 O'Shea, T.J. (TM; Florida; bottom-feeding on acorns; 183-185.)
x 1986 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; Australia; feeding trails & silt clouds; 15-16, 19-21, 27, 34-36.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; use of flippers in feeding on emergent grasses; 151-152.)
x 1986 Williams, T.R. (DD; Papua New Guinea; making feeding trail; 65.)
x 1989 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; foraging on macroinvertebrates; 5-6.)
x 1989a Anon. (TM; Florida; drinking from hose; 187.)
x 1989 Baugh et al. (TML; feeding on Spartina; 89.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (rytiodontines & DD; use of tusks; 426.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (Xenosiren yucateca; use of jaws & tusks; 435-436.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; rhizivory ?limited to soft sediments; 120-121.)
x 1990a Domning, D.P. (rhizivory experiments; 34-36.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (TMM; Guyana; feeding partly out of water; 339, 342.)
x * 1991 Provancha & Hall (TML; Florida; impact on seagrass beds; 91-97.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (extinct dugongids; 135.)
* 1992 Colares & Colares (TI; in capt.; food preferences)
1993 Lee Long et al. (DD; Queensland; feeding trails to 23 m deep)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (DD; Philippines; timing of feeding, consumption weight, circular feeding scars; 713, 715.)
x * 1995 De Iongh, Wenno & Meelis (DD; Indonesia; feeding tracks & foraging strategy; 1-19.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; excavating ascidians; 166, 168-170.)
1996 Lee Long et al. (DD; northeastern Australia; feeding at depths of at least 23 m)
x 1996 Lockett, J. (DD; cultivation grazing; pop. acc.; 20-21.)
x 1996 Supanwanid, C. (recovery of Halophila after simulated dugong grazing; 315-318.)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; ?cultivation grazing; 71-77.)
x * 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; use of perioral bristles; 274-289.)
x * 1998 Marshall, Clark, & Reep (TML; use of facial muscles & bristles; 298-302.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML, TMM; drinking fresh water from hoses; 450-452.)
1999 Mukai et al. (DD; Thailand; effects of grazing; carrying capacity)
x 1999 Nakaoka & Aioi (DD; Thailand; feeding trails; 98.)
D 2000 Werth, A.
x * 2000 Lefebvre et al. (TM; Florida, Puerto Rico; use of seagrasses, % rhizome removal; 291-297.)
x * 2000 Aragones & Marsh (DD; Australia; simulated feeding trails & seagrass recovery; 277-288.)
x * 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; food-handling ability & feeding-cycle length; 649-658.)
x 2001 Masini et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; Halodule; 189, 191-192, 194-195.)
2002a Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; dive times)
2002b Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; foraging on intertidal algae)
2002 Nakaoka et al. (DD; Thailand; impact of foraging on benthic animal communities)
2003 Marshall et al. (DD, TI, TMM, TS; orofacial morphology & feeding)
* 2003 Marshall et al. (DD, TI, TS, TMM; orofacial functional anatomy; 245-260.)
2004 Smith & Mezich (TML; Manatee Springs, Florida; effects of grazing)
2005 Spiegelberger & Ganslosser (TMM; French Guiana; bank feeding)
2006 Aragones et al. (DD; grazing optimization)
2006 Tsutsumi et al. (DD; passive acoustical monitoring)
* 2007 Domning & Beatty (tusks)
2007 Miksis-Olds et al. (TML; noise levels & foraging)
2007a Wirsing et al. (DD; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2007c Wirsing et al. (DD; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2008 Wirsing et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (TML, TMM; Florida, Belize, Puerto Rico; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
2010 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; activities & social interactions)
* 2010 Sheppard et al. (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia; habitat use & food choice)
2011 Wirsing et al. (DD; feeding and diving mode in presence of tiger sharks)
2011 Diedrich, C. G. (placodont reptiles comp. w/ Halitherium & Dugong)
2011 Miksis-Olds & Wagner (TML; Florida; behavioral response to noise)
2013 Kikuchi et al. (TI; in capt., Brazil; acceleration data loggers)
D 2015 Chiba et al. (Ounalashkastylus tomidai, n.gen.n.sp., Olig.-Mioc., Alaska; cf. Vanderhoofius sp., Middle Mioc., Hokkaido; feeding adaptations)
2017 Mizuno et al. (DD; Philippines; feeding trails)
2019 Gonzalez-Socoloske & Olivera-Gómez (TMM; Tabasco, Mexico; food choice)
2019 Crema et al. (TI; Brazil; stable isotopes in bones, teeth, & milk; movements between habitats and water types)
2019 Marshall & Pyenson
* 2020 Yamato et al. (DD; automatic detection of feeding sounds)
2020 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; learning capacities & welfare)
2020 Fitt, W. (TML; Florida; eating sponge Chondrilla caribensis)
2020 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
2021 Budiarsa et al. (DD; foraging behavior; influence of climatic drivers and anthropogenic disturbance)
2021 Nowicki et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; tiger sharks; effects of apex predator removal and extreme climatic events)
2021 Bullen et al. (HG; structuring of North Pacific kelp forests)
Behavior, Investigative, and Sense Perception ( 83 )
(SEE ALSO: Sense Organs; Sound Production)
x 1867 Claudius, M. (HG & other sirs.; hearing; 1-12.)
1868 Claudius, M. (HG; hearing)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TM; in capt.; sensitivity of ?smell; 454.)
1878 Brown, A.E. (TM; sensitivity of ?smell; 295.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; hearing, 52, 64-66; touch, 53, 64-65; taste, 59; smell, 59-60; sight, 60-64.)
x 1912a Matthes, E. (hearing; 597-599.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; sight, hearing, smell; 77.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; taste & smell, 123-124, 126, 179-180, 217-220; taste/smell experiments, 217-219; hearing, 220-221.)
x 1929 Petit & Rochon-Duvigneaud (DD; hearing, smell, taste, vision, touch, 130-132; vision, 137-138.)
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (HG; hearing; 61.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; raising eyes above surface; 27-28.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; greeting; 11-12, 22.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; taste, 4-5; sight, hearing, 6.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TM; Guyana)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 118-119.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; in capt.; response to gong; 221.)
1967 Scott-Johnson, C. (hearing)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; communication, curiosity; 211.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; raising head above water, 7, 16, 18; ?investigating observers, 16.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; investigating observers; 137-138.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; exploration of habitat, 35-36; nibbling water hyacinth, 53; investigating disturbances, 59, 99, 128-131; investigating inanimate objects, 60-61, 127; chemoreception, 95-96, 118-120; hearing, 115-116, 128; vision, 116-118; touch, 118.)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; mechanoreception & body hairs; 52.)
x * 1980 Bullock et al. (TI; auditory evoked potentials; 130-133.)
x 1980 Lowell & Flanigan (chemoreception; 56-57.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; investigation & range of detection of boats & divers; 642-645.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; investigating observers; 105-106.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; hearing, 446-447; ?detecting water movement with body hairs, m447; vision, ?smell, touch, 448.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; investigating observers; 88-89.)
x 1982 Cohen et al. (TM; possible color vision; 197-202.)
x 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; in capt.; experiments on responses to high-intensity sound; 3-4.)
x * 1983 Piggins et al. (TI; vision; 121-127.)
x 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (TM; Florida; hearing sensitivity; 817-818.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; investigating observers; 484-485.)
x 1986c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; investigating boats & divers; pop. acc.; 163-166.)
1987 Piggins, D. (TI; eyesight; pop. acc.)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (TM; ear & hearing; 375-377.)
x 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; seeking warm water; 699.)
1990 Klishin et al. (TI; hearing)
1990 Popov & Supin (TI; hearing)
x * 1992 Patton et al. (annotated bibliography of sir. hearing; 1-61.)
x * 1992 Ketten et al. (TML; hearing, 77-95; taste, 84, 92.)
x 1993 Loyer, B. (DD; Vanuatu; investigating divers; "excited" by the color red; 54-55.)
x * 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (TML; in capt.; hearing experiments, vision, touch; 10-21.)
x 1995b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay; response to boat; 207.)
x * 1996 Griebel & Schmid (TMM; in capt.; color vision; 2747-2757.)
1997 Au, W.W.L. (TML; in capt.; hearing experiments)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; responses to boats & divers; 75.)
* 1997 Griebel & Schmid (TMM; in capt.; brightness discrimination; 1587-1592.)
x 1997 Mass et al. (TML; visual acuity; 392-394.)
x 1998 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (TMM; sensitivity of vibrissae; 44.)
x * 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; facial bristles & hairs; 281-287.)
x 1998 Reep et al. (TML; facial bristles & hairs; 271.)
x * 1999 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (TMM; sensitivity of vibrissae; 61-69.)
x 1999 Cohen, P. (TML; hearing; pop. acc.; 20.)
x * 1999 Gerstein et al. (TML; underwater audiogram; 3575-3583.)
x 2001 Reep et al. (TML; microanatomy of vibrissae; 1-14.)
2002 Gerstein, E.R. (TML)
x * 2002 Reep et al. (TML; postcranial tactile hairs; 141-154.)
2003 Marshall et al. (DD, TI, TMM, TS; orofacial morphology & feeding)
2003 Bauer et al. (TML; underwater visual acuity)
* 2005 Mann et al. (TML; temporal resolution of auditory system)
2006 Miksis-Olds & Miller (TML habitats; sound transmission loss)
2006 O'Shea & Poche (TML; underwater sound communication)
2006 Phillips et al. (TML; detection ranges for acoustic-based manatee avoidance technology)
2007 Miksis-Olds et al. (TML; noise levels & foraging)
2007 Hodgson et al. (DD; Australia; use of acoustic alarms to prevent accidental netting)
2009 Mooney et al. (auditory temporal resolution of white-beaked dolphin comp. w/ manatees)
2009 Colbert et al. (TML; sound localization)
2009 Miksis-Olds & Tyack (TM; noise levels & vocalizations)
2011 Kikuchi et al. (TMM; in capt.; avoidance of nets)
2011 Miksis-Olds & Wagner (TML; Florida; behavioral response to noise)
2012 Gaspard et al. (TML; audiogram & auditory critical ratios)
* 2012 Bauer et al. (TML, TMM; tactile discrimination of textures)
2012 Kikuchi et al. (TI; turning behavior; vision and tactile hairs)
2013 Marriott et al. (Sirs.; somatosensation, hearing, olfaction)
* 2013 Bills et al. (TML; anal glands; chemosensation)
2015 Rivera-C. et al. (TMM; Panama; hearing & vocalizations)
* 2018 Bauer et al. (review; 2-8.)
* 2018 Rycyk et al. (TML, Florida; behavioral response to boats)
2020 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; learning capacities & welfare)
2020 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; feeding behavior; learning capacities & welfare)
* 2020 Barboza & Larkin (TML; olfaction)
2021 Lucchini et al. (TMM; in capt.; role of touch)
Behavior, Sexual ( 55 )
(SEE ALSO: Birth and Breeding)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 150-151.)
1875 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 188-189.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 189, 198.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; 77-78.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; 131, 175-180, 217; supposedly longer flippers of male used to embrace female, 175.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; 231, 233.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TM; Central America; 217.)
x 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; mating; 102.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; mating herds; 58-60.)
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (HG; 61.)
x 1946 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; ?mating; 58.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 12-15, 22.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 7.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TM, HG)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; 119.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 83.)
x * 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; in capt.; 219.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; m390.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TM; Belize; 294.)
x * 1972 Caldwell & Caldwell (TM; Florida; mating herd; 446-448.)
1972 Dieckman, L.E.
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TI; mating herds; 225-226.)
1977 Balderamos, L.P. (TM; Belize; mating herd)
x * 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; 12-15, 20-21.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; categorization of behavioral elements; 128-129.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; 16, 37, 43, 83, 86, 89-90, 95, 99-109, 114, 136-137; homosexual behavior, 99, 101, 106-108, 137.)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; estrous herds; 47, 50.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TM; in capt.; 21.)
x 1980 Telander, R. (TM; Florida; photo of mating herd; 34-35.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (TM; Florida; in capt.; mating; 129-130.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; mating herds; 441.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TM; Florida; in capt.; mating; 109-110.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TM; Florida; males patrolling large ranges in search of estrous females; 4668.)
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; possible mating; 40-41.)
x 1984 Hall, A.J. (TM; Florida; photo of mating herd; 406-407.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; review; 780-781.)
x 1985 Morales et al. (TI; in capt.; masturbation; 1231.)
x * 1989b Preen, A. (DD; Queensland; mating; 382-387.)
1991 Preen, A.R. (DD; Queensland; mating; pop. acc.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (TM, TI; 305-306.)
x 1993 Harling, R. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; lekking; pop. acc.; 10-11.)
x 1994a Frey, R. (copulation position; 152-153.)
x 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (TML; in capt.; 13.)
x 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; 36.)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; vocalizations; 1235-1236.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Hartley (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; mating herds; 160, 162, 168.)
x * 1997 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; lekking; 433-462.)
1997 Wakai, Y. (DD; in capt.)
* 2002 Anderson, P.K. (evolution of sir. mating systems; 55-98.)
2007 Adulyanukosol et al. (DD; Thailand; variation in reproductive behavior)
2017 Carvalho et al. (TI; mating herd)
2017 Harms-Tuohy & Tuohy (TMM; Puerto Rico; aggression toward divers by mating herd)
2020 Infantes et al. (DD; Thailand; reproductive behavior; use of drones)
2021 Emin-Lima, Costa et al. (TI; near Belém, Brazil; historical records; mating activity)
* 2021 Lanyon et al. (DD; Australia; body scarring by tusks)
Behavior, Shelter-seeking or Escape ( 117 )
(SEE ALSO: Hunting and Capture; Migration and Movements; Natural Death or Injury; Temperature, Effects of)
x 1874b Anon. (TM; Florida; escape; 446.)
1879-82 Alston, E.R.
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 189, 198-199.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; escape; 52.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; Red Sea; 84.)
x 1934 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Australia; coming inshore to escape sharks; 242.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TM; Central America; escape, 217; habits changed by hunting, 216.)
x 1941 Scholander & Irving (TM; Florida; jumping out of water; 170.)
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (TM; Florida; 272.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; making hiding places in summer under floating meadows, 46-47, 56; cow fleeing if calf harpooned, 61.)
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 121.)
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (TS; escaping when surprised out of water; 1369.)
x 1957 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; calves; 138.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; submergence; 117-119.)
x 1964 Johnson, D.H. (DD; Arnhem Land, Australia; seeking protected waters; 507.)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; Mexico; ?helping to deepen pools in lakes for refuge in dry season; 414.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; seeking protected waters; 84.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; young ?staying farther from shore; 80.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; favoring protected waters & lee coasts; 216.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; fleeing from boats; 1: 105, 2: 234.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; avoiding rough water; 394-397.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; favoring protected waters; 207, 211.)
x 1974b Dekker, D. (TM; Suriname; swimming away from boats with "head and shoulders above water"; 2.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM, avoiding shark attack; TI, deserting young when attacked; 226.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (DD; Red Sea; feeding & resting areas; 88-90, 94.)
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (DD; Australia; favoring protected waters; 16-18.)
x 1976 Heinsohn, Marsh & Spain (DD; Australia; behavior when netted; 119-120.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; sheltered feeding areas, 10, 17-18; response to observers, 15-16.)
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; seeking protected waters; 19.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; flattening against or hugging bottom, 128, 139; resting & calving sites, 132-133, 139-140; avoidance of SCUBA & boats, 138; effects of hunting pressure, 139.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; use of warm-water refugia, 17-27; estrous females escaping bulls, 37, 101-106; reactions to storms, 40; reactions to disturbances, fish, etc., 59-60, 96, 99-100, 113-117, 119, 126-128, 130-131, 135; at parturition, 110.)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (TM; Florida; cows protecting calves; 50-51.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TM; Dominican Republic; ?avoiding exposed coasts; 317.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TM; in capt.; fright reactions of newborn; 24.)
x 1980 Sander, H.E. (DD; Papua New Guinea; changing feeding areas & feeding at night to avoid hunters; 15-16.)
1980 Wilcox, J.R. (TM; Florida; use of power plants)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; movements in response to weather & disturbance, & for parturition, 641; avoiding boats & divers, 643-644.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; India; sheltering behind islands; 50.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; seeking protected & turbid waters; 58.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TM; use of Blue Spring, Florida; 41-46.)
x 1981 Powell et al. (TM; Puerto Rico; favoring calm waters; 644.)
x * 1981 Powell, J.A., Jr. (TM; use of Crystal R., Florida; 34-37.)
x 1981 Rose, P.M. (TM; Florida; use of power plants, 1977-78; 22-24.)
1981 Shane, S.H. (TM; Florida; use of power plants)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; desirability of access to both shoal & deep water; 82.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; avoiding boats & divers, 88-89, 93, 95-96; ?for parturition, 97-98.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; response to boats & divers; 521, 523.)
x 1982 Eberhardt, L.L. (TM; Florida; censusing at refugia; 3-4, 6-9, 15.)
x 1982 Watterlond, M. (TM; Florida; use of power plants; pop. acc.; 94, 96.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (TM; Florida; use of power plants; 1-24.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; avoiding boats, 16, 34, 46, 49; use of warm-water outfalls, 16, 25, 40, 48.)
x 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; Florida; avoiding boats; 7, 28, 34-35.)
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (TM; Honduras; moving out to sea during storms; 306.)
x 1983b Shane, S.H. (TM; Florida; use of power plants, 4-8; possible sheltering from boats & wind, 8.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; calving in shallow water; 780.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TM; northwestern Florida; use of warm-water refugia; 10-13, 22.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (TM; Florida; use of power plants; 180-187.)
x 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (TM; Florida; ?alarm vocalizations; 817.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Rathbun et al. (TM; Florida; escaping from nets; 337.)
x * 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TM; Ft. Myers, Florida; use of power plant; 1-20.)
x 1985 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power plants, 1982-83; 413-422.)
x 1986c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; experiments to evaluate response to speeding boats & other disturbances; pop. acc.; 165-166.)
x 1986 Bayliss, P. (DD; Australia; higher densities in sheltered waters; 33.)
x 1986 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power plants, 1984-85; 103-113.)
x 1987 Reynolds & Wilcox (TM; Florida; use of power plants; pop. acc.; 263-269.)
1988 Curran & Morris (TML; Florida; response to boats)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (TM; Banana R., Florida; avoiding boat traffic; 333.)
1988b Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power plants, 1977-1986)
1988 Weigle et al. (TML; Florida; use of power plants)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; spinning & rolling when stranded; 79.)
x * 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; use of power plant, 1984-85; response to interruption of thermal effluent; 692-700.)
* 1990 Buckingham, C.A. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; response to disturbance)
x 1990 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; Queensland; learned wariness of power boats; 91, 95, 98.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TML; northwestern Florida; use of springs; 4-33.)
x 1991 Reid et al. (TML; Florida; movements among warm-water refugia; 180-190.)
1993 Steele & Kuhl (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; warm-water refugia)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (DD; Philippines; sheltering from monsoons; 712.)
x 1994 Garrott et al. (TML; Florida; use of power plants, 1977-1992; 642-654.)
x 1994 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power plants, 1982-1992; 163-177.)
x 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; use of space; 38, 40-41, 43-45.)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (DD; ?alarm calls; 1231-1232.)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; foraging in rough seas; 74-75.)
x 1997 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; sheltering from winds & ?sharks; 21.)
x 1998 Axis-A. et al. (TMM; Mexico; preference for sheltered waters; 800.)
1999 Buckingham et al. (TML; Florida; response to boats)
2002 Nowacek et al. (TMM; Belize; behavioral responses to vessel approaches)
* 2004 King & Heinen (TML; Crystal & Homosassa Rivers, Florida; harassment by swimmers)
* 2004 Nowacek et al. (TML; boat avoidance)
2005a Laist & Reynolds (TML; Florida; effects of warm-water refuges)
2005b Laist & Reynolds (TML; Florida; future of warm-water refuges)
2006 Langtimm et al. (TML; Florida; effects of hurricanes)
2006 Phillips et al. (TML; detection ranges for acoustic-based manatee avoidance technology)
2007 Miksis-Olds et al. (TML; boat avoidance)
2007 Hodgson & Marsh (DD; response to boat traffic)
2007a Wirsing et al. (DD; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2007c Wirsing et al. (DD; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2008 Wirsing et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
x * 2008 Turner, L.M. (HG; Attu; killed by women; 106-107.)
2010 Gibbs et al. (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; disturbance by invasive catfish)
2010 Alvarez-A. et al. (TML; Cuba; use of power plant)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; pursuit for skin sampling)
2011 Wirsing & Ripple (DD; responses to tiger sharks)
2011 Wirsing et al. (DD; feeding and diving mode in presence of tiger sharks)
* 2011 Slone, D. (TML; Florida; inverted haloclines as warm-water refugia)
2011 Miksis-Olds & Wagner (TML; Florida; behavioral response to noise)
2011 Stith et al. (TML; southwest Florida; warm-water refugia; temperature-inverted haloclines)
2012 Stith et al. (TML; Florida; passive thermal refugia)
* 2013 Laist et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuges)
2014 Kleen & Breland (TML; Citrus County & Kings Bay, Florida; seasonal use of warm-water refuge)
2014 Lima et al. (sir. reactions to oncoming vehicles)
x 2015 Malakar et al. (DD; Andaman Islands, India; 7177.)
2017 Slone et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuge use; GPS telemetry)
* 2018 Ramos et al. (TMM; Belize; response to drones)
2018 Carr& Milstein (TML; Florida; power plants as thermal refuges)
* 2018 Rycyk et al. (TML, Florida; behavioral response to boats)
2019 Littles et al. (TML; Florida; movements in and out of winter refuge)
* 2020 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
Behemotops Domning, Ray, and McKenna, 1986 ( 13 )
D v 1984c Inuzuka, N.
x D * 1986 Domning et al. (n.gen.; 6.)
x D 1988 Saito et al. (Late Olig., Hokkaido, Japan; 269-273.)
D 1989a Inuzuka, N. (Hokkaido)
x D 1991 Kumar, K. (comp. w/ anthracobunids; m236.)
D 1996 Inuzuka, N. (body size & mass estimates)
x D 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure; 354, 356-357.)
x D 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m179.)
D 2013 Hayashi et al. (bone histology & aquatic adaptation)
D 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D 2013 Inuzuka, N. (comp. w/ Desmostylus & Paleoparadoxia; osteology, paleoecological restoration)
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (Behemotops cf. proteus, Olig., Vancouver Is., British Columbia; Seuku, n.gen., Seuku emlongi, n.comb., Olig., Oregon)
D 2021 Avilla & Mothé (in phylogenetic analysis of Afrotheria)
Behemotops emlongi Domning, Ray, and McKenna, 1986 ( 7 )
(= Behemotops proteus)
x D * 1986 Domning et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; comp. w/ B. proteus, 6, 16-19, 23-33, 36, 45; paleoecology, 48.)
x D 1988 Saito et al. (m269-270, 272.)
x D 1991 Clark, J.M. (comp. w/ Paleoparadoxia weltoni; 490-493, 498, 502-504.)
x D 1992 Thewissen & Domning (m495.)
D * 1994 Ray et al. (syn. of B. proteus)
D 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (referred to Seuku, n.gen., Seuku emlongi, n.comb.)
Behemotops katsuiei Inuzuka, 2000 ( 7 )
D * 2000b Inuzuka, N. (n.sp.)
x D 2001d Domning, D.P. (tibia; 25.)
D * 2006 Inuzuka, N.
D 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D 2014 Cooper et al.
D 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (comp. w/ Behemotops cf. proteus, Olig., Vancouver Is., British Columbia; Seuku, n.gen., Seuku emlongi, n.comb., Olig., Oregon)
D 2015 Houssaye et al. (osteosclerosis)
Behemotops proteus Domning, Ray, and McKenna, 1986 ( 9 )
x D * 1986 Domning et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; comp. w/ B. emlongi; 6-23, 27, 29, 31, 33, 36, 45-46.)
x D 1988 Saito et al. (m269-270, 272.)
x D 1989a Domning, D.P. (distr. & feeding on kelp; 53.)
x D 1991 Clark, J.M. (comp. w/ Paleoparadoxia weltoni; 490-493, 500, 502-504.)
x D 1992 Thewissen & Domning (m495.)
* 1994 Ray et al. (new specimen; Olig., Washington)
x D 1996 Barnes & Goedert (Olig., Washington; pop. acc.; 17, 19, 21.)
D 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (Behemotops cf. proteus, Olig., Vancouver Is., British Columbia)
Behemotopsidae Inuzuka, 1987 ( 0 )
(family)
Behemotopsinae (Inuzuka, 1987) Barnes, 2013 ( 1 )
(subfamily)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (new rank)
Belgium ( 8 )
1868 Du Bus, B.-A.-L. (Halitherium)
1871 Van Beneden, P.J.
x * 1886b Hartlaub, C. (Manatherium delheidi, n.gen.n.sp.; Olig.; 369-370.)
x * 1889b Dollo, L. (Miosiren kocki, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc.; 415-416.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (Olig. sir. fauna; 197-200.)
x 1925 Abel, O. (Halitherium Uytterhoeveni, n.sp. [nomen nudum]; Olig.; 39.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (Miosiren; Mioc.; ecology; 1021.)
Belize ( 51 )
(formerly British Honduras) (SEE ALSO: Central America)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (TMM; 278.)
x 1861 Möbius, K. (TMM; rostral pads; 148.)
x 1863 McBain, J. (TMM; skull; 261.)
x 1911 Gann, T.W.F. (TMM; at archaeological site; 78, 82.)
1918 Gann, T.W.F.
1931 Mitchell-Hedges, F.W. (TM)
x 1935 Murie, A. (TMM; 30.)
1951 Taylor, D.M.
1966 Craig, A.K.
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TMM; 293-294, pls. 13-14.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TMM; natural clearance of weeds; 348.)
x 1970 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TMM; 236.)
1972 Dieckman, L.E.
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (TM; status; 319.)
1974 Charnock-Wilson et al. (TMM)
x 1975 Kirkpatrick & Cartwright (TMM; m139.)
1976? Anon.
1977 Balderamos, L.P.
1977 Frost, M.D. (TMM)
x 1979 Bengtson & Magor (TMM; aerial survey; 230-232.)
1980 Scott, K.W.
1984 McKillop, H.I.
1986 McCarthy, T.J.
1987 Bertram, G.C.L. (TMM)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 580-581, 606.)
x * 1991 O'Shea & Salisbury (TMM; status & distr.; 156-164.)
1992? Boardman, B. (TMM; Gales Point)
x 1995 Wille, C. (TMM; pop. acc.; 16-23.)
x 1999 Maynard, T. (TM; pop. acc.; 36-37.)
x 2000 Beveridge, J. (TMM; photos; 45.)
2000 Morales & Olivera (TMM)
2000 Platt et al. (TMM; Turneffe Atoll)
2002 Nowacek et al. (TMM; behavioral responses to vessel approaches)
2004 Self-Sullivan et al. (TMM; seasonal occurrence of males on Belize Barrier Reef)
2008 LaCommare et al. (TMM; habitat use)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (TMM; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
* 2010 Hunter, Auil et al. (TMM; genetic diversity)
2011 Auil Gomez, N. E. (TMM; anthropogenic threats)
2011 LaCommare, K. S. (TMM; conservation & habitat ecology)
2011 Donà et al. (TMM; seroepidemiology of papillomavirus)
2012 LaCommare et al. (TMM; population monitoring)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Padilla-S., et al. (TMM; movement patterns, use of habitat)
2012 Sulzner et al. (TMM; hematology, immunology)
2012 Wong et al. (TMM; oral temperature, heart & respiration rate)
2016 Takeuchi et al. (TM; trace metals)
* 2016 Ramos et al. (TMM)
* 2017 Allen et al. (TMM; diet)
2018 Ramos et al. (TMM; response to drones)
2020 Landeo-Yauri et al. (TML; photo-identification by drones)
2020 Ramos et al. (TMM; ultrasonic vocalizations)
2020 Corona-Figueroa et al. (TMM; Hondo River, Belize & Mexico; habitat use)
Bering Sea ( 44 )
(SEE ALSO: Alaska; Asia; Hydrodamalis and synonyms; Pacific Ocean)
* 1751 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; anatomy & natural history)
x 1774 Steller, G.W. (occurrence of "Manati" [= HG]; 97.)
x * 1802 Sauer, M. (HG; once common in Kamchatka and Aleutians; exterminated in 1768; 181.)
x 1863a Brandt, J.F. (HG; distr. & extermination; 558-564.)
x 1866a Brandt, J.F. (HG; extermination; 279-282.)
x 1867a Brandt, J.F. (HG; extermination; 445-452.)
1881 Elliott, H.W.
x * 1881a Nordenskiöld, A.E. (HG; Bering Is.; post-1768 reports, etc.; 272-280, 292.)
x * 1883 Stejneger, L. (HG; Bering Is.; collection of specimens, 59, 61-62; extermination, 83-84; distr., 84.)
x * 1884a Stejneger, L. (HG; Bering Is.; date of extermination; 181-189.)
x * 1885b Nordenskiöld, A.E. (HG; Bering Is.; post-1768 reports defended; 280-284.)
x 1885 Stejneger, L. (HG; Bering Is.; skeleton; 256-257.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; Commander Islands & ?Alaska; skeletons found in peat; 457-458.)
x * 1886 Stejneger, L. (HG; Bering Is.; date of extermination; 317-328.)
x * 1887 Stejneger, L. (HG; Bering Is.; statistics on extermination; 1047-1054.)
x 1891 Lucas, F.A. (HG; extermination, collection of bones; 623-627.)
x 1894 Dawson, G.M. (HG; history of discovery; 154-160.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is., anatomy & natural history, 181-201; dead animals found on Kamchatka coast, 200.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is., hunting, anatomy, & natural history, 139-140, 161, 180, 182, 226-237, 245; dead animals found on Kamchatka coast, 236-237.)
x 1926 Sverdrup, H.U. (HG; Cape Chaplin, ca. 1911-1913; 205.)
x 1930 Sverdrup, H.U. (HG; Cape Chaplin, ca. 1910; 248.)
x 1937 Murie, O.J. (HG; Eskimo tradition of presence at St. Lawrence Is.; 345.)
1944 Andreyev, A.I.
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (HG; Bering Is.; 56-61.)
1948 Masterson & Brower
x 1952 Andreyev, A.I. (HG; Commander Islands; hunted, 1758-59; 19.)
x * 1958 Grekov, V.I. (HG; distr.; 95-100.)
x 1964b Bertram & Bertram (HG; possible survival; 313.)
x 1965 Heptner, V.G. (HG; distr.; 91-93.)
1967 Hopkins, D.M.
1967 Laughlin, D.M.
1967 Scheffer, V.B.
x 1969 Chelnokov, F.G. (HG; Bering Is.; bones collected; 71-73.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; Aleutian & Commander Islands; 1-8, 18.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; age of Bering Is. material, 105-106; review of reports from Bering Sea area, 135-139; hunting, 132-135, 163-165.)
x 1983 Rich, V. (HG; Bering Is.; skeleton discovered; 415.)
x 1985 Laughlin, W.S. (HG; significance for Beringian anthropology; 781.)
x * 1993 Savinetsky, A.B. (HG; Bering Is.; radiocarbon dates; 403-405.)
1995 Furusawa, H. (HG; Bering Is.; new specimens)
2004 Savinetsky et al. (HG; in archaeological sites)
* 2006 Mattioli & Domning (HG; Commander Islands; skeletal material in museums; history of collecting)
* 2008 Corbett et al. (HG; kelp diet & stable isotope composition of bone)
2014 Jones, R.T. (HG; extermination)
* 2014 Crerar et al. (HG; St. Lawrence Is., Alaska; DNA, stable isotopes)
Bessarabia ( 4 )
x 1860 Nordmann, A.v. (Manatus maeoticus; Mioc.; 328-330.)
x 1861 Nordmann, A.v. (Manatus maeoticus; Mioc.; 581-582, pl. 11.)
x * 1942 Macarovici & Oescu (Manatus maeoticus; Mioc.; 351, 353, 378-379.)
x * 2011 Lungu & Rzebik-Kowalska ("?Halitherium maeoticus" (n.comb.); Late Mioc., Moldova; 30.)
Bharatisiren Bajpai and Domning, 1997 ( 1 )
x * 1997 Bajpai & Domning (n.gen.; Early Mioc., India; 219-228.)
Bharatisiren indica Bajpai, Thewissen, Kapur, Tiwari, & Sahni ( 1 )
* 2006 Bajpai et al. (n.sp.; Late Olig., Kutch, India)
Bharatisiren kachchhensis (Bajpai, Singh, and Singh, 1987) Bajpai and Domning, 1997 ( 3 )
x * 1997 Bajpai & Domning (n.comb.; Early Mioc., India; 219-228.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Crenatosiren olseni; 398, 409, 411.)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al.
Bibliographies of the Sirenia ( 10 )
x * 1882 Allen, J.A. (1,014 items on Cetacea & Sirenia, 1495-1840, including about 230 on Sirenia; 399-562.)
x D 1950 Freund, L. (409 items; 161-181.)
x 1973 Crusafont-Pairó, M. (fossil sirs., Spain & Mallorca, 96-98; existence of bibliography by L. Via, ii.)
x D 1975 Edinger, T. (bibliography of paleoneurology; 1-258.)
x D 1975 Whitfield & Farrington (488 items; 1-44.)
1978 Ronald et al. (865 items; 65-111.)
x D 1979 Marsh et al. (1,746 items; 1-163.)
x D 1982 Leutenegger, M. (785 items; 81-105.)
x 1992 Patton et al. (annotated bibliography of sir. hearing; 1-61.)
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (about 4,590 items, 1494-1994; iii + 611.)
Biochemistry ( 114 )
(SEE ALSO: Digestive System; Endocrinology; Milk; Phylogeny and Affinities)
1903a Mann, E.W.
1903b Mann, E.W.
x 1904 Liverseege, J.F. (DD; analysis of oil; 211-214.)
x 1941 Scholander & Irving (TML; respiratory gas exchange; 175, 179-183, 185-191.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; chemical & physical characteristics of fat; 12.)
x 1967 Tsuyuki & Itoh (DD; fatty acids; 1035-1037.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (Trichechus; digestion; 500-504.)
x 1969 Caldwell et al. (DD; bladder bile; 437-441.)
x 1969 Strauss, M.B. (Trichechus; lactic acid; m10.)
x 1972 Blessing, M.H. (Trichechus; myoglobin; 475-479.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; pH of foregut contents; 887.)
x 1973 Lewis & Wilson (Trichechus; clumping of staphylococci by fibrinogen; 421-422.)
x 1974 Itoh & Tsuyuki (TS; fatty acids; 307-311.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; hematology & blood chemistry; 47.)
x 1976 White et al. (TML; blood chemistry; 413-416.)
x 1977 Farmer & Bonaventura (TI; hemoglobin; 916.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (DD; stomach mucosa & secretions; 278-281, 284-292.)
x * 1977 Murray et al. (DD; blood & digestive fatty acids; 7-9.)
x 1978 Marsh et al. (DD; fat composition; 163.)
x 1978 McCabe et al. (DD; hemoglobin; 19-22.)
x 1979a Farmer et al. (TI; hemoglobin & whole blood; 231-238.)
x 1979 Hilmy et al. (DD; hematology; 197-203.)
x 1980 De Jong & Zweers (TI; eye-lens proteins & phylogeny; 897-902.)
x 1980 Denton et al. (DD; metals & pigments in tissues; 201-219.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TM; blood & urine values; 3-6.)
x 1980 Ohtomo et al. (TM; clotting & clumping-factor reactions of plasma; 261-266.)
x D 1980 Parker & Toots (Desmostylus; sodium content of tooth enamel; 205.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TM; hematology & blood chemistry; 113-114, 116-117, 119.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (TM; hematology; 143.)
x 1981b Denton, G.R.W. (DD; sample collection for pollutant analysis; 239.)
x 1981 Murray, R.M. (DD; volatile fatty acids; 166-168.)
x 1981 Rainey, W.E. (DD; sample collection for electrophoresis; 240-247.)
1981 Shoshani et al.
x 1982 De Jong & Goodman (TI; eye-lens protein sequence & phylogeny; 262.)
x 1982 Medway, Bruss et al. (TM; blood chemistry; 229-234.)
x 1982 Medway, Dodds et al. (TM; blood coagulation; 120-127.)
x 1982 Reynolds & Krause (TM; duodenal secretions; 35-39.)
x 1983 Marsh & Anderson (DD; capture myopathy; 1-3.)
x 1983 Piggins et al. (TI; visual pigment; 116, 118-119, 123.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Rathbun et al. (TML; blood chemistry; no evidence of capture myopathy; 339-345.)
x 1986 Burn, D.M. (TM; digestion & digestive efficiency; 139-142.)
1986 Kleinschmidt et al. (hemoglobin sequences)
x 1986 Lew et al. (TML; soluble class I molecule absent; 279-280.)
x 1986 Miyamoto & Goodman (protein sequences & phylogeny; 230-240.)
1986 Rodionov, V.A. (TM; lipids in muscles)
x 1986 Shoshani et al. (TM & proboscideans; immunology; 431-436.)
x 1987 Elias et al. (TM; lipids in epidermis; 161-177.)
x 1988 Kleinschmidt et al. (TI; hemoglobin; 507-512.)
x 1988 Kuroki et al. (TML; bile salts & absence of bile acids; 509-522.)
1989 Ackman & Lamothe
1989 Jacquet et al. (hemoglobin)
x 1989 Yoshii et al. (TM; bile alcohol; 1852-1854.)
1990 Bossart & Dierauf (TML; hematology; blood, urine, & fecal sampling)
1990 Stoskopf, M.K. (recommended drug treatments)
1990 Williams et al. (recommended anesthetic)
1991 Francis-Floyd et al. (TM; serum progesterone & estradiol)
x 1991 Schweigert et al. (TM; vitamin A, à-tocopherol, & lipid levels in plasma; 35-37, 41.)
1992 Colares et al. (TI; blood chemistry)
x 1992 McKenna, M.C. (Trichechus; eye-lens proteins; 350, 354-355, 357.)
1994 Converse et al. (TMM; blood chemistry)
x 1997 Edmonds et al. (DD; Western Australia; elemental composition of tusk; 203-214.)
1998 Jiménez-M. et al. (TML, TMM; immunoglobulin G)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML, TMM; osmoregulation; 449-457.)
x 1999 Rosas et al. (TI; blood chemistry & nutrition, wild & captive; 37-42.)
x 1999 Walker & Macko (TML; carbon & nitrogen isotopes in teeth; 319, 322-329, 331.)
1999 Rahman et al. (DD; liver ferritin)
2000 Colares et al. (TI; seasonal variations in blood parameters)
2002 Wakai et al. (DD; in capt.; urinary progesterone and estradiol 17β)
x 2002 Ames et al. (TML; lipids & sound conduction; 625-634.)
2002 Wakai et al. (DD, in capt.; progesterone, estradiol; 679-682.)
2002 Cerecedo et al.
2003 Manire et al. (TML; blood & urine parameters; rehabilitation & release)
2004 Yamamuro et al. (DD; Kyushu, Japan; stable isotopes of tissues and gut contents)
2004 MacFadden et al. (stable isotopes)
2004b Goto et al. (DD; fermentation & digestibility of fiber)
2005 Lanyon, Smith & Carrick (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; reproductive steroids in feces)
2005 Larkin et al. (TML; fecal testosterone concentrations)
2007 Silva et al. (TMM; in capt.; serum chemistry values)
2007 Walsh et al. (TML; nitric oxide production by blood mononuclear cells)
2007 Clementz et al. (diet & carbon isotope fractionation)
2007 Harvey et al. (TML; normal biochemistry)
2008 Stavros et al. (TML; trace elements in blood & skin)
2009 Kasamatsu et al. (TM, in capt.; serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol & lipoproteins)
2009 Roudebush et al. (TM; anti-Mullerian hormone ELISA)
2009 Harvey et al. (TML; hematology)
2009 Silva et al. (TMM; hematology; age variations)
2009 Tripp et al. (TML; plasma progesterone metabolites)
2009 Amaral et al. (TI; androgens)
D * 2010 Newsome et al. (sirs. & desmostylians; use of stable isotope biogeochemistry to study ecology; review)
2010 Tripp et al. (TML; adrenocortical function)
2010 Hage et al. (bile salts)
2010 Wetzel et al. (TML; fatty acid biomarkers for brevetoxin exposure)
2010 Pantoja et al. (TI; urinary reference values)
2011 Gaul et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; organobromine compounds)
2011 Alsina-Guerrero, M. (TMM; blood values)
2011 Drummond de Mello, Daniela Magalhães; Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira da; Rosas, Fernando César Weber
2011 Amaral et al. (TI, in capt.; salivary testosterone concentrations)
2011 Wilson et al. (TML; anti-Müllerian hormone; effects of stress)
2011 Drummond et al. (TI; in capt.; serum biochemical analytes)
2012 Burgess et al. (DD; fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations)
* 2012 Lanyon et al. (DD; blood chemistry; no evidence of capture myopathy)
2012 Sulzner et al. (TMM; Belize; hematology, immunology)
2012 Wong et al. (TML, TMM; blood chemistry)
2013 Burgess et al. (DD; in capt.; reproductive hormone monitoring)
2013 Carmo et al. (TI; changes in blood parameters after transport)
2014 Amaral, Rosas, Graham et al. (TI; luteinizing hormones & reproductive steroids in urine)
2014 Kim et al. (biochemical & mineral composition of bone)
2016 Sousa, I. K. F., et al. (TI; hematological & biochemical variables)
2017 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; Thailand; identification of tusks by X-ray fluorescence)
* 2017 Gaudry et al. (HG & other sirs.; lack of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis)
2019 Wetzel et al. (TML; inhibin B levels)
* 2019 Crema et al. (TI; Brazil; stable isotopes in bones, teeth, & milk; movements between habitats and water types)
2020 Harvey et al. (TML; serum iron analytes)
2022 Le Duc et al. (HG; genetics, thermoregulation)
Birth and Breeding ( 135 )
(SEE ALSO: Age Determination; Behavior, Sexual; Population Biology; Urogenital System)
1745 Gumilla, J. (TM; Guianas; 2 calves said to be born at a time, of opposite sexes & each about 30 lbs. in weight)
x 1763 Bellin, S. (TM; Guianas; 2 calves said to be born at a time, of opposite sexes & each about 30 lbs. in weight; 66.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; calves born in November & December; 113.)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 152.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 190.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (Trichechus; Americas; 118.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 198.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; India; with young; 243.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (Trichechus; 341.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; 77-78.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; ?menstruation, 177; ?lack of seasonality, locating of mates, 179-180.)
1927 Jennison, G.
x 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; Andaman Islands; ?breeding season; 987.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TM; Central America; 217.)
x * 1937 Barbour, T. (TM; Florida; conceived & born in capt.; 106-107.)
x 1939 Beal, W.P.B. (TS; 125.)
x 1940 Machado, F. de P. (TI; breeding season December-February; 246.)
x 1941 Hamilton, W.J., Jr. (TM; Florida; ?seasonal breeding; 691.)
x 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; calving season December-February; 102, 218.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; breeding more in winter but with no clear season; behavior; pregnancy; 58-61.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; gestation "12 months"; 188.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TM; births in capt., 26-27; in wild, 27-28.)
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; calves not reported in December; 121-122.)
x * 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; 18.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; 15-16, 23.)
x * 1957 Moore, J.C. (TM; Florida; in capt.; 137-138.)
x * 1960 Norris, C.E. (DD; Sri Lanka; 296-297, 299.)
1963 Anon.
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TM; Guyana)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TM; Guyana; 119.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 83.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; many 8-ft.-long females pregnant; 80.)
x 1967 Fiuza Lima, F. (TI; detailed misinformation; 17-18.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (TM; Panama; in capt.; m389, m392.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus, DD; m390.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TM; Belize; 294.)
1969a Harrison, R.J.
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; 301.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Queensland; seasonality of birth; size at maturity; 208-211.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; some evidence of a breeding season; 333-335.)
x 1973 Valentry, D. (Trichechus, DD; reluctance to breed in capt.; 291.)
1974 Perry, J.S.
x 1974 Sanger, C. (TM; Guyana; 2 births in capt.; 23.)
x 1974a Vietmeyer, N.D. (TM; Guyana; in canal; m63.)
x 1975b Anon. (TM; Miami, Florida; conceived & born in capt.; 6-7.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM, TI; 225-226.)
x * 1976 Allen et al. (DD; stillbirths; 39.)
1976c Anon. (TM; Miami, Florida; in capt.)
1976 Bourliere et al. (TS)
1976 Clark, B.
x 1976 Ilani, G. (pregnant DD; Gulf of Aqaba; 161.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Australia; no mating season, 580; birth ?primarily in low latitudes, 582.)
1977a Dekker, D.
1977b Dekker, D.
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; breeding ?non-seasonal; 16, 20.)
x 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TM; Florida; ?spring calving season; 616.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; female thought to be mature at about 10 years; 303, 306-308.)
x 1978 Marsh et al. (DD; review of reproductive biology; 163-164.)
x 1978 Mitchell, J. (DD; size, age, & dentition at sexual maturity; 331-333, 340-343, 348.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; calving in shallow, hypersaline areas; stranding & "sunburn" scars; 133.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; size at sexual maturity, 16; birth, 110-111; birth rate & ages at weaning & maturity, 120-122, 137.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TM; Dominican Republic; small calves seen in spring, summer, & autumn; 314, 318.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TM; in capt; 21-26.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; age & sexual maturity; 190-191, 198-199.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TM; ?retained placenta & metritis; 120.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TM; organ weights & sexual maturity; 54-56, 61-63.)
x 1981 Odell, D.K. (TM; Miami, Florida; in capt.; 131.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TM; Blue Spring, Florida; calving intervals; 48-49.)
x 1981 Powell, J.A., Jr. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; calving intervals; 38-39.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; aseasonality; 441-442.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (DD; Sri Lanka; mating during southwest monsoon; twinning; 4.)
1981 Scheffer, V.B. (DD, Trichechus; size at birth)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TM; Miami, Florida; in capt.; 109-110.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (TM; Amap , Brazil; mating observed in February, May, & June; 45.)
x * 1982a Best, R.C. (TI; seasonal breeding; 76-78.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (TM; in capt., Nuremberg, Germany; artificial insemination; 412.)
1982 McNerney, B.B.
x 1982 Milne & Milne (TML; pop. acc.; 154-158.)
x 1982 Werzinger, J. (TM; in capt., Nuremberg, Germany; 34-35.)
1983 Hennemann, W.W.
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TM; northeastern Florida; areas ?used for birthing; 48.)
x 1983 Marsh, H. (DD; Vanuatu; calving in lagoons; 2.)
1984 Cardeilhac et al. (TM)
x 1984 DiPerna, P. (TM; Florida; captive breeding; pop. acc.; 16-17.)
x * 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (DD; female fertility; 743-766.)
x * 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Glover (DD; male fertility; 721-742.)
x * 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; life history & population dynamics, 767-788; parturition, 773, 788.)
* 1984 Qi, J. (TM; in capt.)
x 1984 Schmitz & Lavigne (TM; intrinsic rate of increase vs. body size & metabolic rate; 307-308.)
1984 White et al.
x 1984a White, J.R. (TM; birth in capt. & captive breeding; pop. acc.; 414-418.)
x * 1984b White, J.R. (TM; Florida; birth in capt. & captive breeding; pop. acc.; 369-375.)
x 1985 Mühling, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; 3 births; 10-16.)
x 1985 Qiu, Y.-X. (TM; Beijing; births in capt.; m35.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; seasonal breeding; 1008.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (TMM; Mexico; seasonal breeding; 597-599.)
x 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; reproductive parameters; 64-69.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; ?calving season; 154.)
x 1987 Kraus, M. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; birth of twins; m33.)
x 1987 Mühling, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; birth of twins; 18-19.)
x 1987 Wootton, J.T. (body mass & age at first reproduction; m748.)
x 1988a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; seasonality of reproduction; 15.)
1988b Qiu Y.-X. (TM; in capt., Beijing)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; seasonality & calving areas; 53-54, 119.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TML; Weekiwachee R., Florida, 21; Cross Florida Barge Canal, 30.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (effect of pregnancy on hydrostasis; 359.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (TMM; Guyana; in capt.; m342.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (TM, TI; 300-309.)
x 1994 Marsh et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; ?high calving rate in 1988; 149, 154, 159.)
1995 Hernandez et al. (TML; age & seasonality in spermatogenesis; 84-97.)
1995 Marmontel, M. (TML; age & reproduction in females; 98-119.)
1995b Marsh, H. (DD; life history & population dynamics; 75-83.)
x * 1995 O'Shea & Hartley (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; reproduction & early-age survival; 157-170.)
x 1995 Odell et al. (TM; in capt.; 192-193.)
1995 Rathbun et al. (TML; Florida; reproduction; 135-156.)
1995 Reid et al. (TML; Atlantic coast, Florida; reproduction & mortality; 171-191.)
x 1998 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; in capt., Berlin; stillbirth; 134.)
1999 Boyd et al.
2000 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; in capt., Berlin; premature birth)
x 2001 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; in capt., Berlin; twins; 427-429.)
2001 Guimarães, M.A.B.V. (assisted reproduction)
* 2004 Kendall et al. (TML; Florida; estimating reproductive rates)
2004 Reynolds et al. (TML; testicular weight & sperm competition)
2005 Lanyon, Smith & Carrick (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; reproductive steroids in feces)
2005 Larkin et al. (TML; fecal testosterone concentrations)
2008 Marsh & Kwan (DD; Torres Strait; female reproductive biology & seagrass dieback)
2008 Tripp et al. (TM; serum immunoassay)
2009 Amaral et al. (TI; androgens)
2012 Lueders et al. (comp. w/elephants; luteal development & pregnancy)
2012 Burgess et al. (DD; diagnosing pregnancy; fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations)
2012 Burgess et al. (DD; male maturation & seasonal reproductive patterns)
2013 Burgess et al. (DD; in capt.; reproductive hormone monitoring)
2019 Wetzel et al. (TML; inhibin B levels)
2020 Cowart et al. (TM; semen)
2021 Souza, D. A., et al. (TI; pregnancy of released manatee)
Boats (as threats to sirenians): SEE Accidental Death or Injury ( 0 )
Brain and Nervous System ( 97 )
(SEE ALSO: Sense Organs)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; olfactory nerve; 321.)
x * 1851 Barkow, H.C.L. (DD; nerves & muscle innervations; 119-122.)
1864 Brandt, J.F.
1867 Brandt, A.
x 1867c Brandt, J.F. (brains of 3 Recent genera compared; 269-270.)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; nerves, 137, 141, 182-186; brain, 180-183.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (Eotherium, Trichechus, & other sirs.; cranial endocasts; 100-105, pl. 3.)
x * 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TM; 453-456, pl. 26.)
x * 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; nerves, 35-39, 41-44, pl. 8; brain, 39-42, pl. 9.)
x 1884 De Vis, C.W. (Chronozoon & sirs.; cranial endocasts; 392-395.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; cranial endocast; 460-461.)
1886 Flot, L.
x 1886 Miklouho-Maclay, N. de (DD; brain; 193-196, pl. 24.)
1887 Studer, T. (Halianassa; cranial endocast)
x * 1897 Beddard, F.E. (TI, TM; 52-53.)
1902 Smith, G.E.
x 1903a Smith, G.E. (brain lobes; 326, 328.)
1905 Wilder, B.G.
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (Trichechus, DD; olfactory nerve, 59-60; reflexes, 60-61, 63; touch, 64-65; central nervous system, 66.)
* 1911 Dexler & Eger
x * 1912b Dexler, H. (DD; brain; 97-190, pls. 5-6.)
1917 Larger, R.
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium jordani; cranial endocast; 64-65, pl. 9.)
1928 Weygandt, W. (HG)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (DD; neoteny; 430-431.)
1933b Edinger, T.
x 1934 Addison, W.H.F. (Trichechus; brain cells; 587, 590.)
1934 Genschow, J.
1934 Jelgersma, G. (TM; brain)
1939 Edinger, T.
1942 Edinger, T.
1947 Davidenkov, S.
1950 Edinger, T.
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (Halianassa jordani, Trichechus, & other sirs.; cranial endocasts; 210.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TM; brain; 194, 200.)
x 1954a Friant, M. (sir. brain characteristics; 1005-1006.)
x * 1954b Friant, M. (TI & other sirs.; brains; 129-135.)
D 1955 Edinger, T.
1957-58 Friant, M.
1958 Exner & Routil
1960 Edinger, T.
x 1960 Kappers et al. (Trichechus, DD; epiphysis & spinal cord; 1: 286, 2: 1064.)
1961 Krabbe, K.H. (Trichechus; pineal body)
D 1963 Edinger, T.
1965 Hanström, B. (Trichechus; hypophysis)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (vestibular & auditory nerves, 8; facial nerve, 13-14.)
x 1972 Blessing et al. (Trichechus; nerves in spleen; m187.)
x 1972 Verhaart, W.J.C. (TM; brain; 271-292.)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. (Halitherium pergense; cranial endocast; 198-199, pl. 39.)
1974 Schober & Brauer
x D * 1975 Edinger, T. (bibliography of paleoneurology, 1-258; Desmostylus, cranial endocast, 50.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; brain weights; 42, 46.)
x 1980 Bullock et al. (TI; auditory evoked potentials; 130-133.)
x 1980 Lowell & Flanigan (olfactory system; m56.)
1982 Armstrong, E.
x 1982 Bullock et al. (TM; auditory evoked potentials; 547-554.)
1982 Sokolov & Mukhametov (TM; sleep)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (TM; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; 1294-1296.)
D 1985 Kamiya et al. (DD, Paleoparadoxia; brain)
x 1985 Mackay-Sim et al. (TM; rudimentary olfactory bulb present; m187-190.)
x 1985 Pirlot & Kamiya (DD; brain; 147-155.)
x 1985 Ralph et al. (TM; pineal body absent; 55-60.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (sirs. & other ungulates; brain; 265.)
1986 Worthy & Hickie
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (TM; nerves of ear region; 368-376.)
* 1988d Pilleri, G.
* 1989 Reep et al. (TML; cerebral cortex)
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (encephalization quotients & life history; 534-543.)
* 1990 Reep & O'Shea (TM)
x 1991c Anon. (TML; pop. acc.; 8.)
x 1991 Loerzel & Reep (TML; Rindenkerne in cerebral cortex; 166-171.)
x 1992 Ketten et al. (TML; chorda tympani & facial nerve; 84.)
1992 Mukhametov et al. (TI; sleep)
x 1994 Johnson et al. (brain traits & phylogeny; 319-347.)
1994 Mukhametov et al. (TI; sleep)
1995 Marshall & Reep (TML; caudal cerebral cortex)
x 1996 Giffin & Gillett (TM; homologies of cervical nerves & vertebrae; 214-218.)
x 1998 Reep et al. (TML; innervation of facial bristles; 261-262, 267-271.)
1999 Buchholtz & Seyfarth (paleoneurology)
2000 Rattenborg et al. (unihemispheric sleep)
x 2001 Reep et al. (TML; innervation of facial bristles; 1-14.)
2004 Furusawa, H. (Hydrodamalinae; endocranial casts)
2006 Sarko & Reep (TML; cerebral cortex)
2007 Marshall et al. (TML; facial motor nucleus)
2007 Sarko, Johnson et al. (TML; somatosensory nuclei of brainstem & thalamus)
2007 Sarko, Reep et al. (TML; follicle-sinus complexes)
2010 Butti & Hof (TML; insular cortex)
2011 Butti et al. (neocortex; comp. w/cetaceans)
2012 Manger et al. (neocortical gyrencephaly; manatee comp. w/elephants & cetaceans)
2012 Nieuwenhuys, R. (TML; insular cortex)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (evolution of brain morphology)
2015 Reyes et al. (TML; neuron types in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex)
* 2016 Reyes et al. (TML; Golgi analysis of neuron morphology)
2019 Carvalho et al. (TM; Brazil; cerebral congenital malformations in neonates)
2019 Orihuela et al. (Dugongidae incertae sedis; Early Mioc., Cuba; brain endocasts)
2021 Kerber & Moraes-Santos (Dioplotherium cf. allisoni; endocranial morphology; encephalization)
Brazil ( 244 )
1526 SEE Castro, E. de, 1929.
1541 SEE Carvajal, G. de, 1934.
1560 SEE Anchieta, J. de, 1799.
1576 Gândavo, P. de M. de
1578 Léry, J. de
1580 SEE Soares, F., 1904.
1587 SEE Sousa, G.S. de, 1879.
1614 Abbeville, C. d'
1624 SEE C. de Lisboa in Walter, J., 1967.
1625 Cardim, F.
1627 SEE Salvador, V. do, 1931?.
1658 SEE Vieira, A., 1735.
1662 SEE Heriarte, M. de, 1874.
x * 1735 Vieira, A. (Trichechus; >20 shiploads of meat per year exported from Amazonia, ca. 1658; 26.)
1762 Queirós, J. de S.J. (TI)
1768 SEE Noronha, J.M. de, 1856.
x 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (Trichechus; Amazon R.; hunting & export; 57-59.)
1786 SEE Rodriguez Ferreira, A., 1903.
x 1790 Andrada e Silva, J.B. de (Trichechus; exports from Amazonia, 17th century; 389.)
1799 Anchieta, J. de
1820 Daniel, J.
1820 Wied-Neuwied, M. zu
x 1826 Wied-Neuwied, M. zu (TMM; southern Brazil; 601-604.)
x 1829 Maw, H.L. (TI; Tabitinga, on Brazil/Peru border; 237-239.)
x 1831 Spix & Martius (Trichechus; 1122-1123.)
x 1839 Diesing, C.M. (TI; nematode Heterocheilus; 230.)
x 1847 Edwards, W.H. (TI; Amazon R.; 187-188.)
x 1848 Schomburgk, R. (?TI; Rio Branco; distr. & in capt.; 786.)
x 1850 Cornalia, E. (TI; Manacapuru; 303, 311.)
x 1850 Sampaio, F.X.R. de (TI; Rio Branco; m259.)
x 1851 Warren, J.E. (?TI; Amazonia; 149.)
x 1853 Herndon, W.L. (TI; econ. use; 300, 319, 365.)
x 1853 Wallace, A.R. (TI; Amazon R.; 185-187, 458-461.)
1854 Burmeister, H. (TMM)
x 1854 Gibbon, L. (TI; Madeira R.; "few" taken; m309.)
1856 Noronha, J.M. de (TI; Nhamund  R.)
1861 Belmar, A. de
x 1863 Bates, H.W. (TI; Amazon R.; 2: 165.)
1868 Agassiz, L.
x 1871 Cunningham, R.C. (?TI; in capt., Rio de Janeiro; 798.)
x 1872 Kingston, W.H.G. (TI; predation by jaguar; 184-190.)
1873 Souza, F.B. de
x 1874 Estacio da Silveira, S. (TMM; Maranhão; econ. use; 26-27.)
x 1874 Heriarte, M. de (?TI; Gurup , 29-30; Trombetas R., 39.)
x 1874 Keller-Leuzinger, F. (TI; Amazonia; 81, 83.)
1875 Barbosa Rodriguez, J.
x 1878 Brown & Lidstone (TI; Jamaraqua, 175-176; in capt., Manaus, 395-396.)
1879 Sousa, G.S. de
x * 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (Manatus inunguis, n.sp.; Madeira R.; distr. comp. w/ TM; 88-95.)
1885 Hartt, C.
x 1885 Santa-Anna Nery, F.J. de (TI; econ. use; 67-68, 71, 168.)
x 1891 Costa e Silva, B. da (TI; 93-95.)
x 1892 Barbosa Rodriguez, J. (?Manatus Guetardi; rib fragments; 53-54.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (TMM, TI; 119-120.)
x * 1895 Veríssimo, J. (TI, TMM; Brazil; hunting & econ. use; 35-40, 92-93, 96, 99-102, 117, 119.)
x 1900 Anchieta, J. de (TI; gen. acc.; 11-12.)
x * 1903 Rodriguez Ferreira, A. (Trichechus; Par ; 169-174.)
x 1904 Goeldi & Hagmann (TI; 89.)
1904 Ihering, H.v. (TI; Juru  R.)
1904 Soares, F.
x 1907a Anon. (TI; Juru  R.; 98.)
x 1914 Woodroffe, J.F. (TI; 243-244.)
1922 Le Cointe, P.
x 1925 Bittencourt, A. (TI; Amazonas; exploitation; 134-136.)
1925 Cardim, F.
x 1925 Fernandes, A. de A. (TI; hunting; 263-267.)
x 1926 MacCreagh, G. (TI; Uaupés R.; 277, 311, 323-324.)
x 1926 Schurz, W.L. (TI; Rio Purús; 2 photos of carcasses; 449-450.)
x 1929 Castro, E. de (?TMM; Pernambuco, ca. 1526; 160.)
x 1931 Moraes, R. (mixira; 67.)
1931? Salvador, V. do
1933 Anchieta, J. de
x 1933 Jobim, A. (TI; hunting; 136, 140-144.)
x 1933 Rusby, H.H. (TI; Madeira R.; 324-325.)
x 1934 Bittencourt, A. (TI; hunting; 24-25.)
* 1934 Carvajal, G. de (TI [earliest account; 1541-42]; Amazon R.)
x 1937 Orico, O. (TI; Amazonia; legends; 190-191.)
x 1937 Pinheiro, A. (TI; hunting; 215-218.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; Tapajós R.; 142.)
1939 Couto de Magalhães, A.
x 1939a Moraes, R. (TI; Gurup , Marajó, Tocantins R.; 91-92.)
1940 Ihering, R.v.
x 1940 Machado, F. de P. (TI; econ. use, conservation; 246.)
x 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; econ. use; 100-102, 153-154, 218, 65.)
x 1943 Jobim, J. (TI; use for tinted hides; 178.)
x 1944 Morais Rêgo, A.R. de (TI; natural history, econ. use; 10-12.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; natural history; 21-94.)
x 1945 Paiva, M. (Trichechus; pop. acc.; 35-36.)
x 1945 Santos, E. (TI; hunting, econ. use; 155-159.)
1947 Mello-Leitão, C.F. de
x 1948 Mendes, A. (TI; econ. use; 325-327.)
1948 Piso, W.
x 1949 Vieira, C.O.C. (TI; Juru  R.; 241, 268-269.)
x 1952 Nimuendajú, C. (TI; Amazon R.; "rarely caught" by Tukuna Indians; m26.)
1954 Barroso, A. E. V. (Manatus inunguis, Ilha de Marajó)
x 1954 Aragão, A. de (TI; hunting; 54-56.)
1955 Vieira, C.O. da C. (TI, TMM)
x 1956 Paula Couto, C. de (Trichechus; ?Pleist., Acre; 5, 79, 95, 107.)
x 1956 Pereira, M.N. (Trichechus; Marajó; 68.)
1958 Cruls, G.
1965 Gândavo, P. de M. de
x 1965 Ruschi, A. (TMM; Espirito Santo; 30.)
x 1966 Bittencourt, A. (TI; pop. acc.; 35-36.)
1967 Ihering, R. von (TI; hunting, vernacular names.)
x 1967 Carvalho, J.C. de M. (TI; exploitation; 25-27, 31, 33.)
x 1967 Feriz, H. (clay model of manatee head; western Brazil; 373-374.)
x 1967 Fiuza Lima, F. (TI; captive breeding proposed; 17-18.)
x 1967a Paula Couto, C. de (?Mioc. & ?Pleist. sirs.; 16, 22, 26.)
x * 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (Sirenotherium pirabensis, n.sp.; Early Mioc., Par ; 345-347, 354-356.)
x 1967 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Rio Branco, 23; Tucuna Indian legend, 467.)
x 1967 Salles, W.B. de (TI; pop. acc.; 124-127.)
* 1967 Walter, J. (TMM; Maranhão; 17th century record by C. de Lisboa)
x 1969 Carvalho & Toccheton (TI; Par ; 224.)
1970 Pinto, C.G.C.
1971 Anon.
x 1971a Banks da Rocha, N. (TMM; Pernambuco; 101-103.)
x 1971b Banks da Rocha, N. (TMM, TML [!]; 133.)
x 1971 Lima, D.C. (TI; Itacoatiara, Amazonas; meat exported, 1968; 7.)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (Trichechus; status; 82-87.)
x 1973 Pine, R.H. (TI; Belém, Par ; 74.)
x 1974 Hawrylyshyn, G. (TI; Tefé, Amazonas; 20.)
1974 Paula Couto, C. de (?Pleist., Acre)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM, TI; in capt.; 223-226.)
1976 Miranda Neto, M. J. (TI; Ilha do Marajó.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (Trichechus sp.; ?Pleist., Juru  R.; 280-281.)
x 1977c Domning, D.P. (TI; Manaus; in capt.; sold as pets to private owners; 3.)
x 1977 Meggers, B.J. (TI; raising for meat proposed; 49.)
x * 1977 Whitehead, P.J.P. (early accounts & former southern distr. of manatees; 165-189.)
x * 1978 Whitehead, P.J.P. (early accounts & former southern distr. of TM; 497-506.)
x 1979 Best & Silva (TI; pop. acc.; 26-27, 29.)
x 1979 Cascudo, L. da C. (folk beliefs; pop. acc.; 28.)
x 1979a Farmer et al. (TI; lower Madeira R.; 231.)
x 1979 Mok & Best (TI; in capt. & at Tefé, Amazonas; skin fungus; 79-82.)
x 1980 Ayres & Best (TI; conservation; 83-85, 90-92.)
x 1980 Banks da Rocha, N. (key to manatee species in Brazil; 147-148.)
x * 1981a Domning, D.P. (TMM, TI; distr. near mouth of Amazon R.; 85-97.)
x 1981b Domning, D.P. (TI; research; pop. acc.; 18-23.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (TI; radiotracking & habitat use; 81-85.)
x 1981 Simpson & Paula Couto (Trichechus; Pleist., Acre; 48-49, 69.)
x 1981a Smith, N.J.H. (TI, TMM; econ. use; 184-186.)
x 1981b Smith, N.J.H. (TI; Itacoatiara, Amazonas; 95-96.)
x 1982a Anon. (TMM; Paraíba; 3.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (TMM; Amap ; 41-47.)
x 1982a Best, R.C. (TI; seasonal breeding; 76-78.)
x * 1982a Domning, D.P. (TI, TMM; commercial exploitation, ca. 1785-1973; 101-126.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Trichechus; Pleist., Acre; 603-604.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; dry-season fasting; 61-64.)
x 1983 Lainson et al. (TI; protozoan Eimeria trichechi; 287-289.)
x 1984a Best, R.C. (TI; pop. acc.; 66-73.)
1986a Anon. (TI, TMM; protective legislation)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (?Ribodon; ?Late Mioc., Acre R.; 34.)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (TI; 2 specimens in Carnegie Museum; 293.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Amazonia; seasonal variation in food-plant abundance; 42-44.)
1989c Anon. (TMM; research project)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 588-589, 609.)
x 1989 Toledo, P.M. de (Sirenotherium pirabense; Mioc., Par ; 5-10.)
1990 Oliveira et al. (TMM; northeastern Brazil; mortality)
1990 Bernardes et al. (TI considered endangered)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; in capt., Manaus; 43-47.)
x 1991b Anon. (TMM, TI; conservation; 221.)
x * 1991 Toledo & Domning (Dioplotherium cf. allisoni, cf. Rytiodus, cf. Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., Par ; 119-146.)
1992 Rodrigues, R. M. (TI)
x * 1992 Borobia & Lodi (TMM; northeastern coast; distribution & conservation; 37-43.)
1992 Grubel da Silva, Paludo et al. (TMM; Paraíba)
1992 Grubel da Silva, Soavinski et al. (TMM; in capt.)
1992a Pinto de Lima et al. (TMM; Northeast; distr. & status)
1992b Pinto de Lima et al. (TMM; Northeast; conservation)
1997 Friaes, P. (TI; hunting)
* 1998 Paludo, D. (TMM; northeast Brazil; ecology & conservation)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TMM; in capt., Itamarac ; osmoregulation experiments; 450-451.)
* 2001 Pinto de Lima & Caldas (TMM, TI)
* 2001 IBAMA (TI, TMM; conservation action plan)
2002 Paludo & Langguth (TMM; Rio Grande do Norte)
2002 Paludo & Langguth (TMM; Rio Grande do Norte; 205-215.)
2002 Faust et al. (Sao Vicente Is., 1564)
x 2003 Caldas, S.T. (TMM, TI; pop. acc.; 56-58.)
2004 Parente et al. (TMM; strandings)
2005 Vergara-Parente, J.E. (TI; rescue, rehabilitation, release)
x 2005 Siciliano & Franco (TI, TM; specimens in Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; 35-36.)
2006 Teixeira & Papavero (TMM; Bahia; Cabral expedition, 1500-1501)
2007 Siciliano et al. (TM; Ilja de Marajó, northern Brazilian coast)
2007b Borges et al. (TMM; in capt.; Cryptosporidium)
2007 Castelblanco-M. et al. (TI; Rio Madeira)
2007c Borges et al. (TMM; threats and injuries from motorboats)
2008 Luna, Araújo et al. (TMM; northern coast)
2008 Borges et al. (TM; northeastern Brazil; food items consumed)
2008 Meirelles, A.C.O. (TMM; Ceará; mortality)
2008 Luna et al. (TMM; conservation status)
2009 Calvimontes, J. (TI; econ. use & conservation)
2009 Carvalho et al. (TMM; Ceará; Pulmonicola cochleotrema)
2009 Feijó et al. (Mioc. sirs., Pará; catalog of Museu Goeldi holdings; 148-155.)
x 2009 Grandin, G. (TI; Rio Tapajós; 283.)
2009 Choi et al. (TMM; design of refuge area)
2010 Calvimontes & Marmontel (TI; ethnobiology)
x 2010b Vergara-P. et al. (TI; length of "palmo", unit used by Amazonian hunters to measure manatee body lengths; 37-43.)
2010 Luna & Passavante (Trichechus; history of conservation by Instituto Chico Mendes)
2010a Vergara-P. et al. (TI; growth rates)
2010 Luna et al. (TMM; distribution on northern coast)
* 2010 Arraut et al. (TI; western Amazon; seasonal migrations)
2011 Emin-Lima et al. (distribution on northern coast: TM, 46, 52-53; TI, 52-53.)
2011 Silva et al. (TI; in capt.; skin lesions)
2011 Amarante et al. (Montrichardia linifera; nutritional characterization)
2011 Borges et al. (TI, TMM; Cryptosporidium)
2012 Luna et al. (TMM; northeast Brazil; phylogeography; release)
2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (TM; status & conservation)
2012 Moraes-Arraut et al. (Habitat assessment)
2012 Mathews, Da Silva et al. (TI; Toxoplasma gondii & Leptospira spp. antibodies)
2012 Ciotti & Secchi (TMM; Brazil; diet)
* 2012 Domning, D.P. (TI; in capt., INPA, Manaus; history of project)
* 2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil; traditional knowledge)
2013 Carmo et al. (TI; changes in blood parameters after transport)
2013 Kikuchi et al. (TI; in capt., Manaus; behavior; acceleration data loggers)
2013 Sousa et al. (TI, TMM; Marajó Island; ecological knowledge of fishermen)
2013 Alves et al. (TMM; northeastern Brazil; aerial survey)
x 2013 Senter & Snow (forelimb skeleton of Bartholin's (1654) "merman" identified as Trichechus sp.; 257-262.)
2014 Ciotti et al. (TMM; Brazil; C & N isotopes)
2014 Guterres-P. et al. (TI; Mamirauá & Amanã Sustainable Development Reserves; feeding ecology)
2015 Van Roosmalen, M.G.M. (Trichechus pygmaeus, n.sp.; Rio Aripuanã Basin, Amazonas)
2015 Sidrim et al. (TI, TMM; in capt.; yeast microbiota)
* 2016 Antunes et al. (TI; commercial exploitation, 1904-1969)
2016 Alves et al. (TMM; abundance estimate by aerial survey)
2017 Arraut et al. (TI; migration routes & hydroelectric dams)
2017 Borges, Lima, et al. (TI; Cryptosporidium, Giardia)
2017 Balensiefer et al. (TMM; strandings)
2018 Souza, D. A., et al. (TI; captive-raised; reintroduction)
* 2019 Silva et al. (TI; manatee research project at INPA, Manaus)
2019 El Bizri et al. (TI; central Amazonia; meat consumption & trade)
2019 Carvalho et al. (TM; cerebral & cardiac congenital malformations in neonates)
2019 Crema et al. (TI; Rios Negro & Tapajós; stable isotopes in bones, teeth, & milk; movements between habitats and water types)
2020 Conceição et al. (TMM; Panaquatira, Maranhão; stranding)
2020 Attademo, Nascimento et al. (TMM; Pernambuco)
* 2020 Perini et al. (Trichechus hesperamazonicus, n.sp.; Pleist., Rondônia)
2020a Luna & Attademo (TMM, in capt.; children's book)
2020b Oliveira Luna, Fábia de; Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Fernanda (TMM; children's book)
2021 Brum et al. (TI; conservation; Amazonia)
* 2021 Souza et al. (TI; Central Amazon; estimating occupancy and detection probability)
2021 Attademo, Luna et al. (TMM; Rio Grande do Norte; conservation)
2021 Siciliano et al. (Trichechus spp.; hunting; historical records)
2021 Emin-Lima, Costa et al. (TI; near Belém; historical records; mating activity)
* 2021 Luna et al. (TMM, TI; genetics, population biology)
2022 Meirelles et al. (TMM; conservation status)
2022 Noronha, Almeida et al. (TI, TMM; hybridization in Amazon estuary)
2022 Izidoro & Schiavetti (TM; Costa dos Corais; economic importance, manatee watching, tourism)
n.d. Brandão, A.F.
Britain ( 11 )
1784-85 Pennant, T. (manatee)
x * 1801 Stewart, C. ("Trichechus manatus borealis"; stranded near Leith; 85.)
x * 1817 Stewart, C. ("Trichechus manatus borealis"; stranded near Leith, 1785; 125.)
x 1828 Fleming, J. ("Manatus borealis"; Leith; 29.)
x 1829 Anon. (manatee-like animal; Shetland Islands; 57-60.)
x 1837 Bell, T. ("Manatus borealis"; strandings; 525.)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (?manatees; Orkney; 29.)
1864 Gray, J.E. (manatees)
x * 1874 Flower, W.H. (Halitherium canhami, n.sp.; Suffolk; 1-7, pl. 1.)
1973b Anon.
x 1973b Anon. ("Felsinotherium" [= Miosiren canhami]; m[3].)
British Guiana: SEE Guyana ( 0 )
British Honduras: SEE Belize ( 0 )

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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