Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


Home   —   Introduction   —   Appendices   —   Search   —   Browse Bibliography   —   [ Browse Index ]   —   Stats
A  -  B  -  [ C ]  -  D  -  E  -  F  -  G  -  H  -  I  -  J  -  K  -  L  -  M  -  N  -  O  -  P  -  Q  -  R  -  S  -  T  -  U  -  V  -  W  -  X  -  Y  -  Z
 

C

California ( 55 )
x D v 1877 Yates, L.G. (Desmostylus; Alameda Co.; first published description; 77-79.)
x D * 1888 Marsh, O.C. (Desmostylus hesperus, n.gen.n.sp.; Alameda Co.; 94-96.)
x D 1902a Osborn, H.F. (finds of Desmostylus; 713-714.)
x D 1906 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus; Mioc.; 151-152.)
D 1911 Anderson, F.M.
x D * 1911 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus; 404-406.)
x D 1922 Hannibal, H. (Desmostylus; Mioc.; 238-240, pl. 12.)
x D 1925 Hanna, G.D. (Desmostylus; Sharktooth Hill, Kern Co.; m72.)
x * 1925 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium jordani, n.sp.; Mioc., Santa Barbara Co.; 59-60.)
x D 1926 Anon. (Desmostylus; Sharktooth Hill, Kern Co.; 12.)
x D 1930 Hanna, G.D. (Desmostylus; Sharktooth Hill, Kern Co.; m70.)
x D 1933 Hanna, G.D. (Desmostylus; Monterey Bay; 291.)
D * 1937 VanderHoof, V.L. (Desmostylus)
x D 1940 Camp, C.L. (Marsh's acquisition of type tooth of Desmostylus; 645.)
D 1940 Woodring et al. (Desmostylus hesperus; Mioc., Kings Co.; 124.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (Metaxytherium cf. petersi; Mioc., Santa Cruz Co.; 1984-1985.)
x D 1949b Anon. (indeterminate desmostylian; near Coalinga; 313.)
x D 1953 Langston, W., Jr. (supposed Desmostylus [actually a cetacean]; San Pablo Reservoir; 8.)
x D 1963 Camp, C.L. (Desmostylus; discovery & type locality; 387-389.)
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (sirs. & desmostylians; chronologic & geographic range; 3-16.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (Paleoparadoxia; San Clemente Is.; 192-193, 198-199.)
x D 1964 Mitchell & Lipps (Paleoparadoxia; San Clemente Is.; 214-215.)
x D 1965a Anon. (Paleoparadoxia; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Santa Clara Co.; pop. acc.; 49, 53.)
x 1965 Long, A. (HG; Pleist., Monterey Bay; carbon-14 date; 254.)
x D 1965 Mitchell & Lipps (Paleoparadoxia; San Clemente Is.; 4-6.)
x D * 1965 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (Desmostylus; Sharktooth Hill, Kern Co.; iii, 3, 7, 21, 26-29, 36.)
D 1967 Addicott, W.O.
x * 1967 Jones, R.E. (HG; Pleist., Monterey Bay; 143.)
x 1969 Rensberger, J.M. (indeterminate sir.; Mioc., Alameda Co.; 1-2.)
x D 1970 Zuidema, H.P. (Paleoparadoxia; pop. acc.; 20-22.)
x D 1972 Barnes, L.G. (sirs. & desmostylians in Mioc. stratigraphy; 126, 140-142.)
x D 1972a Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians in Mioc. stratigraphy; 146-149.)
x 1974 Addicott & Greene (HG; Monterey Bay; zoogeographic significance; 251-252.)
x D 1976 Phillips et al. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; Point Arena, Mendocino Co.; 137, 152.)
x D * 1978b Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; Mioc.-Plioc.; 101-110, 140, 143, 147, 149-162.)
D 1978 Squires & Fritsche
x D 1978 Susuki & Stadum (?Paleoparadoxia tabatai; San Clemente Is.; 5, 21.)
1979 Clark et al.
x 1981 Barnes et al. (Hydrodamalis cuestae; Oceanside, San Diego Co.; 56-57, 62-63.)
1981 Deméré, T.A.
x 1984 Domning & Deméré (Hydrodamalis cuestae; San Diego Co.; 169-188.)
x D 1984 Raschke, R.E. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia, Dioplotherium allisoni; Middle Mioc.; 62, 64.)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard (Paleoparadoxia; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Santa Clara Co.; 199.)
x D * 1991 Clark, J.M. (Paleoparadoxia weltoni, n.sp.; Early Mioc., Point Arena, Mendocino Co.; 494-495.)
x 1992 Jefferson et al. (Hydrodamalis sp.; Late Pleist., San Luis Obispo Co.; 29.)
x 1993 Deméré, T.A. (indet. sir.; Late Mioc.-Early Plioc., Imperial Co.; 84.)
* 1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (Metaxytherium arctodites, n.sp.; Middle Mioc., Orange Co.)
1994 Pierson & Kendall
x D 2003 Clementz et al. (Desmostylus; Mioc.; 510-511.)
2008 Corbett et al. (HG; kelp diet & stable isotope composition of bone)
2008 Barnes, L.G. (Hydrodamalis cuestae; type locality; 142.)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (Neoparadoxia cecilialina, n.gen.n.sp.; Late Mioc., Orange Co.)
2014 Boessenecker et al. (Purisima Fm.; Santa Cruz County; Late Mioc.; taphonomy)
D 2016 Santos et al. (Desmostylus; Middle Mioc.; ontogeny & senescence)
x 2019 Powell et al. (Sonoma County; Late Mioc.; indeterminate rib fragments of a hydrodamaline sirenian; 3, 11, 44, Pl. 12.)
Callistosiren boriquensis Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2015 ( 1 )
* 2015 Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (n.gen.n.sp.; Late Olig., Puerto Rico)
Callistosiren Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2015 ( 1 )
* 2015 Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (n.gen.; Late Olig., Puerto Rico)
Canada ( 15 )
x 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (?Trichechus; St. Lawrence R.; 59.)
1790 Meares, J. (HG? on coast of western Canada?)
1807 Jewitt, J. R. (HG? Nootka Sound, Canada?)
x 1861 Strauss-Durckheim, H. (?HG; Hudson's Bay; 513-514.)
x D 1917 Kermode, F. ("Desmostylus hesperus" [= Cornwallius]; British Columbia; 42-43, pl. 9.)
x D * 1922 Cornwall, I.E. (Desmostylus sookensis, n.sp.; Late Olig., British Columbia; 121-123.)
x 1934 Anon. (supposed HG; carcass found in British Columbia; 1011.)
x D 1935 LaMotte, R.S. (Desmostylus sookensis; 51-52.)
x D 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (desmostylians; British Columbia; 10-11, 15.)
1973 Jeletzky, J.A.
x D 1993 McAnally, L.M. (Cornwallius sookensis; British Columbia; discovery & theft of type material; 8-9.)
x D 1996 McAnally, L.M. (Cornwallius sookensis; British Columbia; discovery & theft of type material; 205-207.)
D 19?? Cox, R.L.
2006a Beatty, B.L. (Cornwallius sookensis; Late Oligocene, Vancouver Is.; new material)
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (Behemotops cf. proteus, Olig., Vancouver Is., British Columbia)
Captivity, Sirenians in ( 359 )
(SEE ALSO: Hunting and Capture; Weed Control)
1792 SEE Aragon, F., 1951.
x 1847 Edwards, W.H. (TI; Par  & New York; 188.)
x 1848 Schomburgk, R. (?TI; Rio Branco, ?Brazil; 786.)
x 1851 Gosse, P.H. (TM; Hispaniola; 347-348.)
1864 Latimer, G.
1866 Sclater, P.L.
x 1869 Brinton, D.G. (TML; Jacksonville, Florida & Savannah, Georgia; m51.)
x 1871 Cunningham, R.C. (Trichechus; Rio de Janeiro; 798.)
x 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; Puerto Rico, 191-192; Suriname, 192-193.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; New York; 166.)
x 1874b Anon. (TML; Savannah, Georgia; 446.)
x * 1875 Anon. (TMM; England; 295.)
1875 Blanchere, H. de la (Trichechus; New York)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM from Guyana; Philadelphia; 459-462.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (Trichechus; London, 56, 58-59; Rio de Janeiro, 58.)
1877 Garrod, A.H.
x 1878 Brown & Lidstone (TI; Manaus; 395-396.)
x * 1878 Brown, A.E. (TMM from Orinoco R.; Philadelphia; 294-297.)
x 1878 Harting, J.E. (TM; England; 285-287.)
1879 Francis, F. (TMM; Brighton Aquarium)
1879 Murie, J. (TMM; Westminster Aquarium; cause of death)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; British Guiana & London; 21-26.)
x * 1881 Crane, A. (Trichechus; Brighton; 456-460.)
x 1881 Flower, W.H. (Trichechus; Brighton; 456.)
1887 Kappler, A. (TMM; Suriname)
x 1889 Anon. (TMM from Guyana; London; 527-528.)
x 1889 Scammon, C.M. (TML; Key West; 581-582.)
x 1889 Zipperlen, A. (TML; Cincinnati; morphology; 25-26.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (Trichechus; Brighton; m216, 218.)
x 1891 Leidy, J. (Trichechus; Philadelphia; parasite Amphistomum fabaceum; 413-414.)
x 1893 Anon. (Trichechus ; England; 799-800.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Trichechus from Brazil; died en route to London; 120-121.)
x 1895 Yerbury & Thomas (DD; Aden; m555.)
x 1896 Sclater, P.L. (TI, TM; London; 212.)
x * 1897 Anon. (Trichechus; England; 36.)
x 1897 Beddard, F.E. (TI; London; 47-48.)
x 1898 Kirke, H. (TMM from Guyana; London; 134-135.)
1899 Langkavel, B.
x 1904 Goeldi & Hagmann (TI; Brazil; m89.)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TM; New York; 91, 94, 97.)
x * 1907 Freund, L. (history of manatees in capt.; 65-72.)
x 1907 Townsend, C.H. (TML; New York; 86.)
x 1908b Anon. (TML; New York; 427.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TM; New York; 225-235.)
x * 1908 Hanitsch, R. (DD; Singapore, in 1895; 13.)
x 1909 Graham, S.C. (TML; Indian River, Florida; 413.)
x 1915 Anon. (TMM from Puerto Rico; New York; 1216-1217.)
x 1916a Anon. (TI; New York; 1419, 1421.)
* 1916 Board Agric. Br. Guiana (TMM; Guyana)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (Trichechus; 342, 344.)
x 1919 Anon. (TI; New York; 46.)
x 1919 Stiles, C.W. (TML; Wilmington, North Carolina; m658.)
x 1922 Parker, G.H. (TML; Miami; 128-135.)
x 1923 Anon. (TS; Niger R.; 75.)
x * 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (history of manatees in capt., 58-63; TI, capture & transport, 63-67; in Hamburg, 113-133, 167-180, 213-227; compatibility with other animal species, 227.)
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (TS; Antwerp, 23-25; Congo, by natives, 30.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; Red Sea; 84.)
x 1930 Vosseler, J. (TI; Hamburg; 362-364.)
x 1931 Brimley, H.H. (TML; North Carolina; 320-321.)
x 1931 Travassos & Vogelsang (TM; Hamburg; parasite Cochleotrema cochleotrema; 145.)
1932 Khalil & Vogelsang (TM; Hamburg)
x 1937 Barbour, T. (TML; Miami; birth; 106-107.)
x 1938 Devillers, C. (TI; France; measurements, behavior; 84-88.)
x 1938 Oldham et al. (TI; Chicago; m27.)
x * 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; New York; 141-148.)
x 1940 Coates, C.W. (TI; Manaus & New York; 99-100.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (TM from Texas; Texas & New Orleans; 61-62.)
x 1941 Scholander & Irving (TML; diving experiments; 170-191.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Belém, Recife, & Manaus, Brazil; 58.)
x 1947 Harwood, K. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 50, 89.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Dakar, Senegal; 189.)
x 1951 Aragon, F. (DD; Philippines, in 1792; 265-266.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; Bradenton, Florida; 14.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; kept in pens for food, 23; births, 26-28; behavior, 29-32; food, 33-34.)
x 1952 Anon. (TML; Florida; 129-130.)
x 1952 Dekeyser, P.L. (TS; Senegal; 243.)
x 1953 Gijzen, A. (TS; Antwerp; 89.)
x 1954 Anon. (TS; Antwerp; 78.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (TI; Vincennes, France; m129.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (TM; Florida, 1880; 545.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; Florida; 403.)
x 1955a Anon. (DD from Palau; San Francisco; 79.)
x 1955b Anon. (DD from Palau; San Francisco; 73-74.)
x 1955 Severin, K. (TML; Florida; 147-149.)
x 1956a Anon. (DD from Palau; San Francisco; 49.)
x * 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD from Palau; San Francisco; 21-27.)
x 1956 Simpson, D.A. (DD; San Francisco; pop. acc.; 54, 57, 74.)
x 1957 Bayer & Harry-Rofen (DD; Palau & San Francisco; 502, pl. 20.)
x * 1957 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; birth; 137-138.)
x 1958 Anon. (DD; Kenya; 693, 792.)
x 1958 Gijzen, A. (TS; Antwerp; 26.)
x 1958 Savory, B. (TML; London; m257.)
1958 Steinbacher, G. (TML; Florida)
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; India; 198-202.)
1959 Ulmer, F.A., Jr. (Philadelphia)
x 1960 Jonklaas, R. (DD; Sri Lanka; 304.)
x 1960 Mani, S.B. (DD; India; m217.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; India & Sri Lanka; 1-8.)
x 1961 Moore, J.C. (DD; East Africa; photos; 54-55.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; India; 264-265.)
x 1962 Tranngocloi, N. (DD; Vietnam; 451.)
1963 Anon.
x 1963 Hofmeister, M. (?TMM from Guyana; Toledo, Ohio; 12.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 116, 119.)
1964 Crandall, L.S.
x 1964 Humes, A.G. (TML; Miami; parasite Harpacticus pulex; 517-518, 528.)
1964 Phillips, C. (TML; Miami; pop. acc.)
1965 Lukaszewicz, K.
x 1965 Schevill & Watkins (TML; Miami; m373.)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (TS; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; 47-52.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; 81.)
x 1967 Aung, S.H. (DD; Rangoon; 221.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (TML; Florida; weed-control experiments; 4.)
x 1967 Fiuza Lima, F. (TI; Brazil; captive breeding proposed; 17-18.)
1967 Gleiss, G.W.
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; New Caledonia, 216; India, 217-219.)
x 1967 Kenny, R. (DD; Australia; 372-373.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (TMM, TI; Panama; weed control; 388-393.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; Cairns, Australia; 220-221.)
x 1968b Anon. (TI; San Francisco; 2-3.)
x 1968 Betz, J.J. (TML; Florida, in 1892, 205, 207-209; Chicago, in 1893, 207.)
1968 Garibaldi, L. (TI; San Francisco)
x 1968 Gewalt, W. (TML; Germany; 123-125.)
x 1968 Van den Bergh, H. (TS; Antwerp; m449.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TS; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; 351.)
1969 Dempster & Shipman (use of copper sulfate in tanks)
x * 1969 Frye & Herald (TI, San Francisco, osteomyelitis, 1073-1076; DD, San Francisco, 1076.)
x * 1969 Herald, E.S. (DD, Trichechus; San Francisco, Pittsburgh, etc.; 29-30.)
x 1969 Jacobi, E.F. (plan of manatee facility at Amsterdam Zoo; 64-65.)
1970b Eichler & Albrecht
x 1970 Evans & Herald (TI; San Francisco; vocalizations; 820-823.)
x 1970 Loughman et al. (TI; San Francisco; chromosomes; m151.)
x 1970 Radhakrishnan & Bradley (TML; Tampa, Florida; parasites Chiorchis fabaceus & Plicatolabia hagenbecki; 59.)
x 1970 Schreider & Schreider (TI; Leticia, Colombia; 142.)
x 1970 Yin, T. (DD; Burma; 326.)
x 1971 Jones, M.L. (DD, TI, TM, TS; longevity; 85.)
1972 Bartmann, W.
x 1972 Blessing et al. ("Trichechus manatus inunguis"; Duisburg, Germany; 167-168.)
x 1972 Blessing, M.H. ("Trichechus manatus inunguis"; Duisburg, Germany; m475.)
x 1972 Boorer, M.K. (TM; London; swimming clockwise; m165.)
x 1972 Caldwell & Caldwell (TML; play, 450; food, 454.)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (Trichechus; Brazil; m86-87.)
x 1972 Phillips, C. (recommendations for captive facilities; 36-37.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD, Trichechus; 328-329.)
x 1973 Lewis & Wilson (TI; Pittsburgh; m421.)
x 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (TMM, TI, DD; Japan; 19-22.)
x 1974 Bartmann, W. (TM; Duisburg, Germany; skin disease; 13-16.)
x 1974a Dekker, D. (TMM; shipboard transport, Suriname-Amsterdam; 68-69.)
x 1974b Dekker, D. (TMM; Suriname; capture of 15; 3.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; m6-7, m11, m13.)
x 1974 Sanger, C. (TMM; Guyana; born in capt.; weed control; 23.)
x 1974 Sikes, S. (TS; Nigeria; 468-469.)
x 1974 Tabuchi et al. (TM; Japan; skin fungus; 127.)
x 1975b Anon. (TML; Miami; conception & birth in capt.; 6-7.)
x 1975 Lynd, W. (TML; Miami; rehabilitation; m29.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM, TI; Brazil; 223-226.)
x * 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; in "semidomestication" by villagers, 35; in oceanarium, 35-40.)
1976d Anon. (TML; Florida)
x 1976 Boever et al. (TI; St. Louis, Missouri; Mycobacterium infection; 927-929.)
x 1976 Paz & Ilani (DD; Egypt; 74.)
x 1976 Tas'an (DD; Jakarta; 1-12.)
x 1977 Boever et al. (TI; St. Louis, Missouri; parasite Chiorchis; 5-6.)
1977a Dekker, D.
1977b Dekker, D.
x 1977 Domning & Magor (TI; Manaus; tooth replacement; 435-438.)
x 1977c Domning, D.P. (TI; Manaus; INPA & private owners; 3.)
x 1977 Nair & Lal Mohan (DD; India; 277.)
1978 Asano et al. (DD; Toba, Japan)
x 1978 Campbell & Gicca (TMM from Mexico; sent to China; 261, 263.)
1978 Cornell & Asper (North America)
1978 Dekker, D. (TMM; Amsterdam)
x 1978 Harper, H. (TML; St. Augustine, Florida; release; pop. acc.; 12.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; Japan; 301-303.)
x 1978 Taylor, D. (DD; Sumatra; tears used as aphrodisiac; 205-213.)
1978 Uchida et al. (DD; Ocean Expo Aquarium)
1979 Byczkowska-Smyk, W.
x 1979 Bachman & Irvine (TML; Florida; milk composition; 873.)
x 1979 Best & Silva (TI; Manaus; milk feeding; 27, 29.)
1979 Glazebrook, R. (DD; Australia)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM, TI; food consumption; 54.)
1979 Irwandi & Jarman (DD; Indonesia)
x 1979 Kamiya et al. (DD; Japan & Okinawa; 129.)
1979 Lowry, B.H. (TML)
x 1979 Miyazaki et al. (DD; Okinawa; 125-126.)
x 1979 Mok & Best (TI; Manaus; skin fungus; 79-81.)
x * 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; Jakarta; capture, transport, & captive maintenance; 1-30.)
x 1980 Bullock et al. (TI; Manaus; evoked brain potentials; 131.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (TMM; Amsterdam; birth & behavior; 21-26.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI, San Francisco & Manaus; TML, Florida; food position preference; 544-547.)
x 1980 Gallivan & Best (TI; Manaus; metabolism & respiration; 245-253.)
x 1980 Gallivan, G.J. (TI; Manaus; respiratory control; 254-261.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; Florida; clinical parameters; 2-10.)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; Toba, Japan; 269-270.)
x 1980 Domning & Myrick (TI; Manaus; tetracycline marking of bone; 203-204.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TML; Florida; care of injured & orphaned animals; 121-127.)
x * 1981 Best, R.C. (review of diets of captive sirs.; 13, 15, 17-24.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TML; Orlando, Florida; treatment of injuries; 111-120.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TML; review & research needs; 10-13.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (TML; Florida; artificial rearing; 141.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (TI; Brazil; 89-90.)
x 1981b Domning, D.P. (TI; Manaus; pop. acc.; 18-23.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; Cairns, Australia; salmonellosis; 203-205.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (TML; St. Augustine, Florida; husbandry; 128-130.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; Toba, Japan, & Okinawa; 199-203.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (TI; Manaus; freeze-branding & radiotagging; 81-82.)
1981 Nishimura et al. (DD; Toba)
x 1981 Odell, D.K. (TML; Florida; growth; 131-140.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; Miami, Florida; husbandry; 103-110.)
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI; Manaus; artificial rearing; 263-267.)
1982 Cornell et al. (North America)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (TM; various locations; 412.)
1982b O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; Orlando, Florida; pop. acc.)
x 1982 Werzinger, J. (TM; Nuremberg; birth & artificial rearing; 34-37.)
x 1983 Bradley et al. (TMM; hypothetical use by Olmecs; 1-82.)
x 1983 Irvine, A.B. (TML; Florida; metabolic experiments; 316-331.)
x 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Florida; experiments on response to high-intensity sound; 3-4.)
x 1983 Lainson et al. (TI; Manaus; protozoan Eimeria trichechi; 287-289.)
x 1983 Piggins et al. (TI; Manaus; eyes & vision; 113-129.)
x 1984 DiPerna, P. (TML; Florida; captive breeding; pop. acc.; 16-17.)
x 1984 Domning & Hayek (TI; Manaus; tooth replacement; 106-127.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel (TML; Florida; digestive efficiencies; 176-179.)
1984 Qi, J. (TM; Beijing)
x 1984 White, Francis-Floyd & Waterstrat (TML; Miami; growth rates; 30-34.)
x 1984a White, J.R. (TML; Miami; birth in capt. & captive breeding; pop. acc.; 414-418.)
x 1984b White, J.R. (TML; Florida; captive breeding & release; pop. acc.; 369-375.)
x 1985 Beckjord, J.-E. (DD; Papua New Guinea; kept alive in a hut for a week before slaughter; 154-155.)
x 1985 Etheridge et al. (TML; Florida; feeding experiments; 21-23.)
1985 Klös & Lange (Trichechus; Berlin, 1884)
x 1985 Morales et al. (TI; San Francisco; Mycobacterium infection; 1230-1231.)
x 1985 Mühling, P. (Trichechus, Europe & elsewhere, 1875-1985; TMM, Nuremberg, 3 captive births; 8-16.)
x 1985 Qiu, Y.-X. (TM; Beijing; 35-36.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (TMM; Mexico; 600.)
x 1986 Gallivan & Best (TI; Manaus; feeding & metabolism; 552-557.)
x 1986 Gallivan et al. (TI; Manaus; heart rates & respiration; 415-423.)
1986 Geraci, J.R.
x 1986 Morales, P. (TI; San Francisco; food, pathology; 43-48.)
x 1987b Anon. (TML; Florida; artificial rearing; 225.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (TI; Manaus; intestinal polyp; 39.)
x 1987 Colares et al. (TI; Manaus; artificial milk formulas; 40-41.)
x 1987 Kraus, M. (TMM; Nuremberg; birth of twins; m33.)
x 1987 Mühling, P. (TMM; Nuremberg; birth of twins; 18-19.)
1987 Strehlow, H. (TMM; Berlin)
1988 Shearer, W. (DD; raising for meat proposed)
x 1988 Carowan, G. (TML; Florida; rehabilitation & release, & exhibit at Epcot Center, Orlando; 5.)
x 1988 Ho, H.C. (DD; Singapore; 24-25.)
1988a Qiu, Y.-X. (TM; Beijing)
1988b Qiu, Y.-X. (TM; Beijing)
x 1989 García M rquez, G. (TMM; San Nicol s de las Barrancas, Colombia; fictional account; 332.)
x 1989 Upton et al. (TML; Florida; protozoans Eimeria spp.; 87-88.)
1990 Bisselink, A.-M. (Trichechus; Arnhem, The Netherlands)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Manaus; care & feeding; 43-47.)
* 1990 Dierauf, L.A. (veterinary care; transport techniques)
x 1990 Sigurdsson & Yang (DD; Singapore; 27-28.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (TMM; Guyana; weed control; 339-349.)
x 1992 Borobia & Lodi (TMM; Recife, Brazil; m41.)
1992 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil)
1992 Grubel da Silva, Soavinski et al. (TMM; Brazil)
1992 Salisbury, C.A. (TML; Tampa, Florida)
x 1992 Simmons, N. (TML; Orlando, Florida; rehabilitation; pop. acc.; 9.)
x 1993 O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; Florida; pop. acc. with descriptions & histories of facilities; 96-113.)
1993 Wolf, M. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.)
1994a Kamiya, Toshiro (DD; Toba, Japan)
1994 Adulyanukosal & Chantrapornsyl (DD; Thailand)
x 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (TML; Florida; behavior & sense perception experiments; 10-21.)
1994 Luszczynski, J. (TML; Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa; costs of rehabilitation; 121-123.)
x 1994 Rosas, F.C.W. (TI; INPA, Manaus, Brazil; 54-55.)
1994 Takamura & Sakai (DD; Toba, Japan; pop. acc.; 10-13.)
x * 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; Nuremberg; behavior; 33-50.)
1995 Martínez, A. (TM)
1995a Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; Berlin)
1995b Blaszkiewitz, B. (Berlin)
1995b Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; Berlin)
x 1995 Kraus, J. (TML, Florida; rehabilitation & soft release; 8-9.)
x 1995 Lanyon & Marsh (DD; Jakarta; 120-121.)
x 1995 Odell et al. (TM; reproduction; 192-193.)
1996 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; food preferences)
x 1996 Blaszkiewitz & Reinhard (DD; Surabaya; 878-881.)
1996 Blaszkiewitz, B. (Berlin)
x * 1996 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; Berlin; chronology, 1884-1995; 22-23.)
1996 De Iongh et al. (DD; Surabaya; food preference; 19-34.)
x 1996 Griebel & Schmid (TMM; Nuremberg; color vision experiments; 2748, 2750-2751.)
x 1996 Reeves et al. (TI; Peru; 252.)
1996 Reinhard, R. (TMM, Singapore; DD, Jakarta, Surabaya; 22-24.)
x 1996 Russell, B.J. (TML; Sarasota; pop. acc.; 5.)
x 1996 Tan, B. (DD; Shanghai; m86.)
x 1997a Anon. (TML; rehabilitation facilities needed outside Florida; 498.)
1997 Griebel & Schmid (TMM; Nuremberg; brightness discrimination experiments; 1587-1592.)
1997 Wakai, Y. (DD; Toba; sexual behavior)
1997? Young, A. (TML; Tampa, Florida; rehabilitation from red tide; pop. acc.)
1998 Mignucci-G., A.A. (TMM; northeastern Caribbean region)
x 1998 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (TMM; Nuremberg; sensitivity of vibrissae; 44.)
x 1998 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; Berlin; stillbirth; 134.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; Florida; feeding experiments; 276-284.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML, TMM; Florida, Brazil, Colombia, Puerto Rico; osmoregulation; 450-451.)
x v 1999 Abdullah, M.K. (DD; Malaysia; recommendations regarding release; 8.)
x 1999 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (TMM; Nuremberg; experiments on sensitivity of vibrissae; 62-64.)
1999 Colbert & Bauer (TML; husbandry training)
x 1999 Gerstein et al. (TML; Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa; hearing experiments; 3575-3583.)
x 1999 Ortiz et al. (TM; Florida & Brazil; water-turnover experiments; 34-35.)
x 1999 Rosas et al. (TI; Manaus; blood parameters & nutrition; 37-42.)
x 1999 Uchida et al. (TMM; Okinawa; recommendations on care & transport; 131-133.)
2000 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; Berlin; premature birth)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; Florida; experiments on ingestive behavior; 649-658.)
2001 Chua et al. (DD; Singapore)
2001 Guimarães, M.A.B.V. (assisted reproduction)
2001 Colbert et al. (TML; husbandry & research training)
x 2001 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; Berlin; birth of twins; 427-429.)
2001 Colbert et al. (TML, in capt.; husbandry training)
2002 Wakai et al. (DD; urinary progesterone and estradiol 17β)
x 2003 Grimes & Becnel (TML; Bradenton, Florida; pop. acc.; 75-77.)
x 2003 Kendall, S. (TI; Colombia; rehabilitation of calf; pop. acc.; 1-24.)
x 2003 Mignucci et al. (TMM; Alligator Hole R., Jamaica; 7-12.)
2003 Manire et al. (TML; blood & urine parameters; rehabilitation & release)
2003 Sato et al. (TML; mycobacteriosis)
2003 Kuriandewa et al. (DD; Indonesia; 180.)
2004a Goto et al. (DD; effects of age, body size, & season on food consumption & digestion)
x 2004 Ortiz & Worthy (TM; Florida, Brazil; body composition; 176-183.)
2005 Vergara-Parente, J.E. (TI; Brazil; rescue, rehabilitation, release)
2005 Lima et al. (TMM; training in management behaviors)
2006 Lanyon, Newgrain & Alli (DD; Indonesia; water turnover rate)
2006 Horikoshi-Beckett & Schulte (TML; activity patterns)
2007b Borges et al. (TMM; Brazil; Cryptosporidium)
2007 Silva et al. (TMM; serum chemistry values)
2008 Tsukinowa et al. (DD; Toba, Japan; fecal microbiota)
* 2008 Mercadillo-Elguero et al. (TMM; Quintana Roo, Mexico; in semi-captivity; ethogram, rehabilitation)
2008 Sousa-Lima et al. (TMM; Brazil; vocalizations)
2009 Kasamatsu et al. (TM; serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol & lipoproteins)
2010 Sikes, S.K. (TS; Nigeria)
2010 Hénaut et al. (TMM; Mexico; activities & social interactions)
2011 Silva et al. (TI; Lago Amanã, Brazil; skin lesions)
2011 Kikuchi et al. (TMM; avoidance of nets)
2011 Amaral et al. (TI; salivary testosterone concentrations)
2011 Lieven et al. (TM, Okinawa; nematode Cutidiplogaster manati)
2011 Donà et al. (TML; Florida; seroepidemiology of papillomavirus)
2011 Drummond et al. (TI; serum biochemical analytes)
2012 Luna et al. (TMM; northeast Brazil; phylogeography; release)
2012 Alvarado-Esquivel et al. (TMM; Mexico; Toxoplasma gondii)
* 2012 Stamper & Bonde (TM; health assessment techniques)
2012 Perea-S. et al. (TI; Peru; management & rehabilitation)
2012 Wong et al. (TML, TMM; oral temperature, heart & respiration rate, blood chemistry)
* 2012 Domning, D.P. (TI; INPA, Manaus, Brazil; history of project)
2013 Burgess et al. (DD; reproductive hormone monitoring)
2013 Amaral et al. (TI; endocrine monitoring of ovarian cycle)
2013 Barbosa et al. (TI; passage time of digesta)
2013 Carmo et al. (TI; Brazil; changes in blood parameters after transport)
2013 Kikuchi et al. (TI; Manaus, Brazil; behavior; acceleration data loggers)
* 2016 Arévalo-Sandi & Castelblanco-Martínez (TI; Peru; interactions among calves in captivity)
* 2016 Adimey et al. (TML, Florida; post-release monitoring)
2017 Landeo et al. (TI; Peru; captivity & release; behavior)
2017 Walsh & Blyde
* 2017 Moore et al. (DD; Indonesia; by fishermen)
2019 Suzuki et al. (TMM, Okinawa; fecal microbiota; comp. w/ TML.)
* 2019 Hill et al. (TML; Florida; diet)
* 2019 Silva et al. (TI; manatee research project at INPA, Manaus, Brazil)
2019 Garcés-Cuartas et al. (TMM; vibrissae growth rate)
2020 Hénaut et al. (TMM; Mexico; feeding behavior; learning capacities & welfare)
2020 Ortega-Argueta & Castelblanco-Martínez (TMM; Mexico; captive breeding & conservation)
2020a Luna & Attademo (TMM, Brazil; children's book)
2021 Lucchini et al. (TMM; role of touch)
Capture: SEE Hunting and Capture ( 0 )
Caribbean Manatee: SEE Trichechus manatus; Trichechus manatus manatus; and synonyms ( 0 )
Caribbean Sea ( 19 )
(SEE ALSO: Central America; Cuba; Haiti; Jamaica; Mexico; Panama; Puerto Rico; South America; West Indies)
x 1880 LeBaron, J.F. (Trichechus bones dredged from bottom between Florida Cape & Cuba; m1005.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (TM; distr.; 543-544.)
1973 Varona, L.S.
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; biogeography; 589-591, 599.)
x 1993 Sutty, L. (TM; pop. acc.; 20-21.)
x 1994a Domning, D.P. (fossil sirs. & seagrasses; pop. acc.; 72-73.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (TMM; distr. & status; 155, 157.)
* 1995 U.N.E.P. (TM; regional management plan)
x 1995 Wille, C. (TM; pop. acc.; 16-23.)
1998 Mignucci-G., A.A. (TMM; in capt.; northeastern Caribbean region)
1999d Domning, D.P. (Olig. sirs.; review; 29.)
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; status & biogeography)
2009 Colon-Llavina et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands; parasites)
* 2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (TM; distribution, status, & conservation)
x 2014 Fuller, J. (TM; pop. acc.; 51.)
* 2015 Niño-Torres et al. (TMM; Mexican Caribbean region)
2019 Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TMM; Caribbean region; monitoring methods)
2019 Debrot et al. (TMM; Dutch Leeward Islands, Venezuela)
* 2021a Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TML; travel to Mexican Caribbean)
Caribosiren Reinhart, 1959 ( 7 )
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (n.gen.)
x 1965 Arata & Jackson (m176.)
x 1971 Reinhart, R.H. (m5-7.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (m8.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ Metaxytherium forestii; 43.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dusisiren; m73.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Crenatosiren olseni; m407, 409.)
Caribosiren turneri Reinhart, 1959 ( 7 )
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (n.gen.n.sp.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 66, 70.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review, 66; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense, 73.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (m346.)
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium riveroi; 7.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (review & possible new material; 21, 26-29, 35-36.)
Census Methods: SEE ALSO Aerial Surveys of Distribution; Population Biology; Tagging Methods and Recognition ( 1 )
2019 Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TMM; Caribbean region; monitoring methods)
Central America ( 21 )
(SEE ALSO: Belize; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama)
x 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (TMM; Gulf of Darien & Honduras; m59.)
1822 Hodgson, R.
1827 Roberts, O.W.
1862 Bell, C.N.
1869 Pim & Seeman
1872 Wickham, H.A.
1879-82 Alston, E.R.
1879 Peacock, G.
1899 Bell, C.N.
1932 Conzemius, E.
x 1946 Baughman, J.L. (TMM; early accounts; 234-237.)
1965 Squier, E.G.
1970 Wilbert, J.
x 1974 Savage, J.M. (Trichechus; zoogeography; 15, 20, 26, 29.)
1978 Stark & Voorhies
x 1983 Bradley et al. (TMM; hypothetical use by Olmecs; 1-82.)
x * 1985 McKillop, H.I. (TMM; use in prehistoric Maya area; 337-353.)
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 567-570, 580-584, 589-591, 599, 606-607.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (TMM; distr. & status; 157-158.)
x 1999 Fierstine, H.L. (use of Central American Seaway by Metaxytherium crataegense; 435.)
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; status & biogeography)
Cetaceae Herbivorae Gray, 1821 ( 3 )
(= Sirenia)
x 1821 Gray, J.E. (n.order; in classification; 309.)
x 1825 Latreille, P.A. (Order Cetacea, Family Herbivora; in classification; 64-65.)
x 1827 Berthold, A.A. (in classification; 62.)
Ceylon: SEE Sri Lanka ( 0 )
Cheirotherium brocchii de Blainville, 1844 ( 6 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (name introduced; lapsus for C. subapenninum)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m209-210.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; m142.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. ("Halitherium (Chirotherium) brocchii"; m470.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. ("C. brochii"; m103.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m68.)
Cheirotherium Bruno, 1839 (non Kaup, 1835) ( 10 )
(= Metaxytherium)
* 1839 Bruno, G.D. (n.gen.)
x * 1840 Kaup, J.J. (renamed "Pontotherium Bruno"; 676.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (syn. of Halitherium; comp. w/ H. serresii; 207, 212-213, 220.)
x 1865 Capellini, G. (priority over Felsinotherium; 282.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (renamed Halysiren; 153.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of name; 103-104.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m68.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m577.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium; 208-209.)
Cheirotherium subapenninum Bruno, 1839 ( 13 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1839 Bruno, G.D. (n.gen.n.sp.)
x 1840b Meyer, H.v. (referred to Halianassa; 587.)
x v 1865 Capellini, G. (syn. of Felsinotherium forestii; 282.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 67.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. ("Chirotherium"; m470.)
x 1886 Portis, A. (history of name; 356.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m479, 481.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of name; 103.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m44-46.)
x 1987 Canocchi, D. (considered nomen dubium; 499.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium subapenninum; m208.)
* 1988a Pilleri, G.
Children's Literature ( 71 )
(SEE ALSO: Fiction)
1892 Munroe, K. (TML; Florida)
D 1971 Takashi, Y. (discovery of Desmostylus)
1975 Dick, H. (TM)
1976d Anon.
x 1978 Isham, C.H. (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; [1-16].)
1979 Alliger, M.E.
1980 Fritz, D. (TML; educator's guide)
1982 Young, O.D. (TML; Florida)
1986 Delaney et al. (educator's guide)
1986 Wright, C.W.
x 1988 Smith, D. (DD; Australia; 44-47.)
1989 Horn, G. (HG)
x 1989 Walsh, K. (TML; Florida; 2-9.)
1990 Clark, M.G. (TML; Florida)
1990 Corey, D. (TML)
1990 Sibbald, J.H. (TML)
1990 Tate, S. (TML)
D 1990 Oliver & Long
1991 Darling, K. (TML)
1991 Jacobs, F. (TML; Florida)
1991 Lepthien, E.U. (TML; Florida)
1992 Lee, C. (TML; adventure novel)
1993 Donati, A. (Trichechus; 8-9.)
1994 Zoehfeld, K.W. (TML)
1995 Silverstein et al. (TM)
x 1995 Jagan, J. (TMM; Guyana; 59-62.)
1996 Corrigan, P.
1997 Harman, A. (Trichechus & DD)
1997 Houk, R. (TML)
x 1997 Jenkins, P.B. (TML; 1-32.)
x 1998 Palazzo-Craig, J. (TML; 1-47.)
1999 Price-Groff, C. (TM, DD)
1999 Maden, M. (TML)
1999 Perry, P.J.
1999 Walker, S.M.
2000 Espinoza M. & Jiménez P. (TMM; Costa Rica)
2001 Feeney, K. (Trichechus)
2001 Theodorou, R. (TML)
2001 Thomas, T.D. (TML)
2002 Schleichert, E. (TML; Florida)
2003 Lithgow, J. (TM)
2003 Lithgow, J. (TML)
2004 Torres, John Albert (TM)
2005 De Felice, C.C. (TML)
2006 Pingry, P.A. (Trichechus)
2006 Kalman & Dyer (Trichechus)
2006 Leyden, B. (TML; children's book)
2007 Marston, H.I. (young children's book)
2007 Anderson, L.H. (TML)
x 2007 Frankel, J. (HG; [1-44].)
2008 Arnosky, J. (Trichechus)
2008 Wood, J.R. (TML; Florida)
2008 Voisin, M.E. (TS)
2010 Arnosky, J. (TML)
2010 Coleman, M. (Trichechus)
2010 Swinburne, S.R. (Trichechus)
2010 Swinburne, S.R. (Trichechus; children's book)
2010 Wicker, J.L. (Trichechus)
2010 Williams, G.T. (Trichechus)
x 2010 Mignucci-G., A.A. (TM; Puerto Rico; children's book; iv + 56.)
x 2011 Kowalski, K.M. (HG, TML, DD; 18-19.)
x 2011 Jackson & Thorpe (TML; Memphis, Tennessee; 1-26.)
x v 2011 de Foy, K. (HG, TML; 14-18.)
2011 Spivey, H.D. (TML; children's eBook)
2012 King, Z. (Trichechus)
2012 Slezak, R.E. (TML; Florida)
x 2014 Green, L. (story using a toy manatee to inform children in Mongolia about environmental issues; viii + 35.)
2014 Spivey, H.D. (TML; children's eBook)
2016 Davies, N. (Amazonia; children's book on manatee hunting & protection)
2020a Luna & Attademo (TMM, in capt., Brazil)
2020b Oliveira Luna, Fábia de; Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Fernanda (TMM; Brazil)
China ( 21 )
(SEE ALSO: Taiwan)
x 1923 Watson, E. (DD; use of oil; 103.)
x 1931 Read, B.E. (HG; ?econ. use; 16.)
x 1935 Allen, G.M. (DD; 79-81.)
x 1935 Sowerby, A. de C. (DD, 81-82; HG, 82.)
x 1936 Sowerby, A. de C. (DD; 41-42.)
x 1951 Herklots, G.A.C. (DD; Hong Kong; 93.)
1958 Shou, Z. (DD; Beibu Gulf; 146-152.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; Hong Kong; 309.)
x 1979 Zhang, Z.-m. (DD; pop. acc.; 33-36.)
* 1986 Wang & Sun (DD)
1986 Zhou, K. (DD)
1992 Dong et al. (DD; larynx, trachea, lungs)
x 1993 Wang, P. (DD; distr.; 275-278.)
x 1996 Tan, B. (DD; gen. acc.; 82, 85-86.)
1997 Zhang et al. (DD; distribution)
x 1998 Liu, Z. (DD; distr. & status; 208-210.)
2001 Morton, B. (DD)
2001 Morton, B. (DD)
2003 Zhou et al. (DD; Beibu Gulf)
2007 Wang et al. (DD; Hainan Province; status)
* 2012a Hines, E. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
Chronozoon australe De Vis, 1884 ( 5 )
(diprotodontid marsupial?)
x * 1884 De Vis, C.W. (n.gen.n.sp.; 392-395, pl. 17.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
* 1975 Mahoney & Ride (?syn. of Phascolomys gigas; 152.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (review; 267-269.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (regarded as of dubious provenance; 297, 302-303.)
Chronozoon De Vis, 1884 ( 2 )
(diprotodontid marsupial?)
x * 1884 De Vis, C.W. (n.gen.; 392-395, pl. 17.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m377.)
Circulatory System ( 95 )
(including lymphatic system)
1806 Meckel, J.F. (Trichechus; thymus)
x * 1820b Home, E. (DD; spleen, 319; heart, 319-320, pl. 28.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; 178.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; heart; 106.)
1837 Rapp, W.v. (DD; fetal heart & vessels)
1838a Baer, K.E.v. (Trichechus; 199.)
x * 1838a Owen, R. (DD; 34-36.)
x 1857 Rapp, W.v. (TM; pulmonary vessels, lymph glands, heart, arteries, spleen; 91-93, 96, pl. 3.)
x 1862 Goebel, A. (HG; remnants of capillaries in bone; 189-190.)
x 1862 Phillippo (Trichechus; heart; 684-685.)
1866 Huxley, J.
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; 175-178.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; 457-458.)
1877 Garrod, A.H.
1878 Gulliver, G.
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; cranial arteries; 42, pl. 9.)
x * 1897 Beddard, F.E. (TI, TM; 51-52.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 192-194, 199.)
x 1905 Mitchell, P.C. (TI; portal [posterior mesenteric] vein; 465.)
1905 Wilder, B.G. (Trichechus; heart)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; 58.)
x 1907 Pick, F.K. (DD; pulmonary vessels, 245-251, 261, 265-270; blood cells, 266-267.)
x 1912b Dexler, H. (DD; cerebral retia; 100-102.)
x 1923 Kostanecki, K. (TI; omphalo-mesenteric arteries; 273-276.)
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (circulation, bone marrow, hemopoiesis, & pachyostosis; 355-358.)
x 1935a Wislocki, G.B. (TML; pulmonary vessels, 387, 390, 392; lymph vessels & lymphoid tissue in lung, 389, 392.)
x * 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (TML; placenta & umbilical cord; 160-162, 164-171, pls. 1-7.)
1936 Slijper, E.J.
x * 1941 Scholander & Irving (TML; heart rate, 171-172, 189; peripheral vasoconstriction, 185.)
x * 1942a Fawcett, D.W. (TML; blood-vascular bundles; 105-133.)
1948 Franklin, K.J. (Trichechus; heart)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TM; heart, 194, 202; retia & other vessels, 200-201.)
D 1954a Ijiri, S.
x 1958 Knoll, W. (Trichechus; blood cells; 332-333.)
1958 Scholander, P.F.
x * 1958 Tenney, S.M. (TM; heart & electrocardiogram; 933-938.)
1959a Anon.
x 1961 Slijper, E.J. (foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus; 536-537, 544, 548-549.)
1965 Grauwiler, J.
1965 Robb, J.S. (heart)
1969 Elsner, R.
x 1969 Robineau, D. (internal carotid & stapedial arteries; 13.)
x * 1972 Blessing et al. (TI; spleen; 166-171, 173-178, 182-188, 190, 193, 195-203.)
x 1972 Blessing, M.H. (Trichechus; heart myoglobin; 475-479.)
x 1973 Lewis & Wilson (Trichechus; blood plasma fibrinogen; 421-422.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; heart, retia in flukes; 42, 46.)
x 1976 White et al. (TML; blood chemistry; 413-416.)
x 1977 Murray et al. (DD; blood analyses; 7-8.)
x 1978 McCabe et al. (DD; oxygen affinity of hemoglobin; 19-22.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; rapid blood clotting an ?anti-shark adaptation; 127.)
x 1979a Farmer et al. (TI; properties of hemoglobin & whole blood; 231-238.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta; heart rates; 10, 23.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TM; blood values; 3-5.)
x 1981 Marsh & Glover (DD; testicular artery, 264, 273; blood sampling techniques, 266-267.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TML; heart & spleen weights; 54-57, 60, 63.)
x 1981 Rainey, W.E. (DD; blood sampling techniques; 241-244.)
x 1982 Medway, Black & Rathbun (TML; hematology & blood sampling; 11-15.)
x 1982 Medway, Bruss et al. (TML; blood chemistry; 229-234.)
x 1982 Medway, Dodds et al. (TML; blood coagulation; 120-127.)
x 1983 Marsh & Anderson (DD; blood chemistry & capture myopathy; 1-3.)
x 1984 Bazzini et al. (TM; hemopoiesis in vertebral bodies; 19.)
x 1984 Galantsev & Mukhametov (TM; cardiac rhythms, venous sinuses & plexuses; 201-205.)
x 1984 Snipes, R.L. (TM; arteries to cecum; 69-70.)
x 1985 Morales et al. (TI; white blood cell counts; 1231.)
x * 1985 Rowlatt & Marsh (DD, TM; heart & great vessels; 95-106.)
x * 1986 Bazzini et al. (TM; hemopoiesis; 150-152.)
1986 Galantsev, V.P. (TM; venous system)
x 1986 Gallivan et al. (TI; cardiac rhythms & gas exchange during diving; 415-423.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (TI; normal & pathological blood values; 39.)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (TM; vessels of ear region; 369-375.)
x 1988 Kleinschmidt et al. (TI; hemoglobin; 507-512.)
1989 Galantsev & Kuz'min (venous & arterial systems)
1990 Bossart & Dierauf (TML; blood sampling & hematology)
x 1990 Buergelt et al. (TML; thickened heart valves; 220-227.)
1993 Qiu, Y. (TM; heart)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (TML; celiac & mesenteric arteries; 544, 549, 551.)
2000 Colares et al. (TI; seasonal variations in blood parameters)
2000 Colares et al. (TI; blood parameters)
x 2001 Reep et al. (TML; blood sinuses of vibrissae; 1-14.)
2001 Rommel et al. (TML; veins of reproductive system; 339-347.)
* 2001 Rommel et al. (TML; veins of reproductive system)
2002 Cerecedo et al.
2003 Rommel & Caplan (TML; tail; vascular adaptations for heat conservation)
2003 Rommel et al.
2005 Harper et al. (TML; vascularization of cornea)
2005 Natiello & Samuelson (TM; angioarchitecture of ciliary body)
* 2006 Siegal-Willott et al. (TML, TMM; electrocardiography)
2008 Moore et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; cardiac failure)
2009 Harvey et al. (TML; hematology)
2009 Silva et al. (TMM; hematology; age variations)
2012 Gerlach et al. (TML; heart enlargement)
2012 Wong et al. (TML, TMM; heart rate, blood chemistry)
2013 Carmo et al. (TI; changes in blood parameters after transport)
2019 Carvalho et al. (TM; Brazil; cardiac congenital malformations in neonates)
2020 Harvey et al. (TML; serum iron analytes)
Coins, Sirenians on ( 0 )
(SEE ALSO Appendix 3)
Colombia ( 35 )
x 1855a Gervais, P. (TI; Pebas; anatomy & econ. use; 114-116.)
x 1857 Holton, I.F. (TMM; Laguna de Tesca, Cartagena; 46.)
x 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (TMM; Cienega R.; 93-94.)
x 1904 Allen, J.A. (TMM; coastal region; 423.)
x 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TMM; Atrato & Cacarica Rs.; 71.)
x 1939 Wavrin, M. de (Trichechus; various localities; 194.)
x * 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (Potamosiren magdalenensis, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc.; 203-204, 211.)
x * 1953 Stirton, R.A. (La Venta fauna & localities [Mioc.]; 614.)
x 1956 McKenna, M.C. (Lophiodolodus; Olig.; supposed sir.; m739.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium ortegense, n.sp.; Mioc.; 92-93.)
1968 Medem, F.
x 1969 Frye & Herald (TI; near Leticia; 1073.)
x 1970 Schreider & Schreider (TI; in capt., Leticia; 142.)
1971 Camacho, J.I.H.
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Potamosiren sp.; Mioc.; 601-602.)
x 1989 García M rquez, G. (TMM; Rio Magdalena; hunting & in capt.; fictional account; 142, 324, 331-332, 336-337, 344.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 584-585, 607.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (TMM; boat-related fatalities; m308.)
x * 1997a Domning, D.P. (Potamosiren magdalenensis; Middle Mioc., La Venta; 383-391.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TMM; in capt.; osmoregulation experiments; 450.)
1999 Kendall, S. (TI; environmental education)
* 2001 Montoya et al. (TMM)
* 2003 Kendall & Orozco (TI)
x 2003 Kendall, S. (TI; rehabilitation of calf; pop. acc.; 1-24.)
2004 Kendall et al. (TI; gen. acc.)
2005 Castelblanco-M., Holguín, & Zapata (TMM; Ciénaga de Paredes; conservation)
2005 Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Orinoquía)
2009a Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Orinoco R.)
2013 Kendall, S. (TI; natural history, conservation)
2014 Mojica-F. et al. (TM; Santander; water quality of preferred sites)
2015 Moreno et al. (undescribed sir. remains, Guajira Peninsula; Early to Middle Mioc.)
2015 Castelblanco et al. (TI, TM; conservation)
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; parasites)
* 2020 Kendall, S.
2020 Caicedo-Herrera et al. (TMM; opportunistic fish consumption)
Commander Islands: SEE Bering Sea ( 0 )
Commensalism: SEE Community Ecology; Parasitology ( 0 )
Communication: SEE Behavior (General and Miscellaneous); Sound Production ( 0 )
Community Ecology ( 51 )
(SEE ALSO: Food; Food Plants; Natural Enemies; Paleoecology; Parasites; Parasitology)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; removal of ectoparasites by gulls; 198, 201.)
1945 Hill, W.C.O. (DD; ?commensal fish in prepuce)
x 1975 Dayton, P.K. (HG; N. Pacific; ?dependence on sea otters for protection of kelp supply; 236-237.)
x 1975 Morse, D.H. (manatees & turtles considered "ecological replacement" of temperate-zone aquatic birds; 173.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TI; feces eaten by fish; 226.)
x 1977 Boever et al. (TI; trematode Chiorchis a ?commensal; 6.)
x D * 1977b Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; N. Pacific; 352-362.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; nutrient recycling; possible competition with turtles; 240-241.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; no interspecific interactions; 15.)
x D * 1978b Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; N. Pacific; 113-116, 139-146.)
1978 Simenstad et al. (HG; Aleutians)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; possible competition with turtles & man; 136.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TM; Florida; interspecific interactions, 59-60; commensals, 62-64.)
1981 Ray, G.C.
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; ?commensal feeding by cormorants; 94.)
x * 1982 Scott & Powell (TML; Florida; commensal feeding by little blue herons; 215-216.)
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; no interspecific interactions; 40.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; competition with turtles; 632-637.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; 985, 988-1007.)
x D 1993 Aranda-M., F.J. (possible competition between sirs. and desmostylians; 17-18.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Queensland; ?competition for seagrasses between resident & immigrant dugongs; 518.)
1999 Perry & Dennison (DD; microbial nutrient cycling in seagrass sediments)
x * 2000 Aragones & Marsh (DD; Australia; impact of simulated grazing on seagrass communities; 277-288.)
x * 2001 Masini et al. (Shark Bay, Australia; impact of dugong grazing on seagrass communities; 179-197.)
2002 Nakaoka et al. (DD; Thailand; impact of foraging on benthic animal communities)
* 2003 Williams et al. (TM, DD; echeneids [sharksuckers]; 1176-1183.)
x 2004 Aguilera & De Aguilera (indet. dugongids; early Mioc., Venezuela; shark predation; 376-378.)
2004 Smith & Mezich (TML; Manatee Springs, Florida; effects of grazing)
2004 Bonde et al. (sirs. as indicators of ecosystem health)
2005 Andre et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; diet comp. w/ green turtles)
2006 Aragones et al. (DD; grazing optimization)
2007 Fertl & Fulling (DD, TM; interactions with turtles)
2007 Kiszka, J.J. (DD; Mayotte, Comoro Islands; associations with dolphins)
2008 Harr et al. (TML; Kings Bay, Florida; toxin in algal mats)
2009 Nico et al. (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; interactions with armored catfish)
2010 Gibbs et al. (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; disturbance by invasive catfish)
2010 Lacas et al. (Guadeloupe; ?effect of manatee grazing on primary production dynamics of Thalassia testudinum)
2010 Nico, L.G. (TML; Florida; association with armored catfish)
* 2010 Sarko et al. (fossil sirs.; body size estimation; niche partitioning)
2011 Ardisson et al. (Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System)
2011 Cramer, K. L. (Caribbean coral reef communities, Panama)
2011 LaCommare, K. S. (TMM; Belize; conservation & habitat ecology)
* 2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al. (multispecies fossil sir. communities)
2012 Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico; feeding ecology)
2014 Jimenez-D. & Olivera-G. (TMM; Usumacinta River, Mexico/Guatemala; habitat characteristics)
* 2015 Reich et al. (Sirs. as indirect paleo-seagrass indicators)
D 2016 Pyenson & Vermeij (Sirs. & desmostylians; maximum body size as indicator for productivity; 1-4.)
2017 Tol et al. (DD; dispersing seagrass seeds)
* 2021 Takoukam et al. (TS; Cameroon; habitat suitability)
* 2021 Nowicki, Robert J.; Thomson, Jordan A.; Fourqurean, James W.; Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; tiger sharks; effects of apex predator removal and extreme climatic events)
* 2021 Bullen et al. (HG; structuring of North Pacific kelp forests)
Competition: SEE Community Ecology ( 0 )
Conservation ( 473 )
(SEE ALSO: Accidental Death or Injury; Economic Uses; Hunting and Capture; Weed Control)
1820 Daniel, J. (TI; Brazil)
1892 Hartwig, G.L.
x 1903 Rodriguez Ferreira, A. (Trichechus; Brazil, 18th century; administration of hunting; 172-173.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; Florida; fines for killing; 233.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (TMM; Cuba; legislation, 1901; 93.)
1921 Gruvel, A.
1922 Gruvel, A.
1925c Petit, G.
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (TS; Congo; legislation; 30-31.)
1928 Herre, A.W. (DD; western Pacific)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Taiwan; 4222.)
x 1940 Machado, F. de P. (TI; Brazil; proposed hunting regulations; 246.)
x 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; recommendations; 102, 153-154, 218, 65.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil, 92-94; Peru, m93.)
x 1948 Cahalane, V.H. (TML; Everglades, Florida; 258.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; Florida; 404.)
x 1954 Pereira, M.N. (TI; m269, m271.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; 7.)
x 1958 Savory, B. (DD; Tanganyika; 257-258.)
1959c Anon.
x 1959 De Silva, J.A. (DD; Sri Lanka; 173-174.)
x 1959 Spittel, R.L. (DD; Sri Lanka; 174-175.)
x 1960 Blancou, L. (TS; West Africa; 244.)
x 1960 Crusz, H. (DD; Sri Lanka; 302.)
x 1960 Jonklaas, R. (DD; Sri Lanka; 302-304.)
x 1960 Norris, C.E. (DD; Sri Lanka; 298-300.)
x 1960 Spittel, R.L. (DD; Sri Lanka; sanctuary; 304-305.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; Sri Lanka; 7-8.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; India; m266.)
x 1962 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana, etc.; 1329.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; recommendations; 90-93.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TMM; Guyana)
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; Indonesia; 150-151.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 119-120.)
x 1964 Cansdale, G. (TS; Ghana; status; 170-171.)
1965 Crowe, P.K.
1965a Deraniyagala, P.E.P.
x 1965 Harrisson, T. (DD; Borneo, Sabah; status; 103.)
x 1966a Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; 938-939.)
x 1966b Bertram & Bertram (sirs.; gen. acc.; 213-217.)
x 1966c Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; 221-222.)
x 1966 Funaioli & Simonetta (DD; Somali Republic; 317.)
1966 Jones, S. (DD; Indopacific)
1967 Anon.
x 1967 Browder, J. (TML; Florida; 3-5, 34.)
x 1967 Carvalho, J.C. de M. (TI; Brazil; exploitation; 25-27, 31, 33.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; 220.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Trichechus; Panama Canal Zone; legislation; 393.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; fishing season, 1: 102, 107-108, 2: 241; prohibition of harpooning, 1: 107, 2: 240-241.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus, 388-389, 393; DD, 390, 393.)
x 1968b Bertram & Bertram (sirs.; gen. acc.; 423-426.)
x 1968 Grimwood, I.R. (TI; Peru; exploitation; 418.)
x 1969 Anon. (DD; Australia; hunting banned; 90.)
x 1969 Curry-Lindahl, K. (DD, TS; protected under African Conservation Convention; 122.)
1969 De Silva, G.S.
x 1969 Grimwood, I.R. (TI; Peru; exploitation; 61.)
x 1970a Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; 53-55.)
x 1970b Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; 362-364.)
x 1970 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TMM; Belize; 236.)
1971 Bertram & Bertram
x 1971 Hoffmann, T.W. (DD; Sri Lanka; legislation; 182.)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; 300-301.)
x 1971 Randall, J.E. (DD; Tanzania; m12.)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (Trichechus; Brazil; 82-87.)
x 1972 Dupuy, A.R. (TS; Senegal; in national park; 780.)
x 1972a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 21-22.)
1972b Hartman, D.S.
x * 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Queensland; 205, 212.)
1972 Mittermeier, R.A.
x * 1973 Bertram & Bertram (sir. distr., status, & threats, 297-328; legislation & prospects, 330-333, 336.)
x 1973 Cantley, R. (DD; Australia; 34-35, 52.)
x 1973 Kaiser, H.E. (sirs.; gen. acc.; 4-6.)
1973 O'Keefe, M.T. (Blue Spring, Florida; refuge)
x 1973 Poche, R. (TS; Niger; ?extinct; 218.)
x 1974a Anon. (Florida; manatee refuge established; 10.)
x * 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (current status of sirs.; recommendations; 1-19.)
1974 Caldwell, D.K.
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; legislation, 210-212; threats, 213-222; recommendations, 223-237.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; 13, 16-18.)
x 1974 Sanger, C. (Guyana; manatee research center; 23.)
x 1974 Sikes, S. (TS; Nigeria; 466-470.)
1974a Spurgeon, D.
x 1975a Anon. (Florida; manatee survey established; 12-13.)
x 1975 Bertram & Sale (DD; East Africa; report of meeting; 389-390.)
1975 Bertram, G.C.L.
1975 Edelbrock, J.
x 1975a Husar, S.L. (DD; pop. acc.; 15-18.)
1975c Husar, S.L.
x 1975 Whitfield & Farrington (TM; Florida & Guyana; legislation; 37-43.)
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (conservation & research on sirs.; 3-9.)
1976 Carr, A.
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (DD; Fraser Is., Australia; 15-18.)
1976 Langham, N.P.E. (DD; Malaysia)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; 214.)
1976 Stivens & Cerny
x 1976 Tinley et al. (DD; Mozambique; in reserves; 346, 348.)
x 1976 Wray, P. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 13-15.)
1976? Jones, M.P. (TM)
x 1977 Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; need for captive breeding program; Guyana project; 106-108.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; 242, 245-246.)
x 1977 Lovisek, J. (TI; pop. acc.; 62-64.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; 19, 21.)
1978-82 F.A.O.
1978 Grainger, D. (TM)
x 1978a Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; pop. acc.; 26-30.)
x 1978 Stewart, D. (TM; pop. acc.; 113-118.)
x 1979 Caton, A. (DD; Australia; pop. acc.; 1-4.)
1979b Finnley, D.
x 1979 Harper, H. (TML; Florida; news reporting; 16.)
1979 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea)
x 1979 Klein, E.H. (TMM; Honduras; legislation & status; 21-28.)
1979 Leahy, T.M. (TML; Florida)
1979 Leccese, M. (TML; Florida; refuges established)
1979 Mackey, D.J. (TML; Florida; 14-17.)
1979 Parker, F. (DD; Papua New Guinea)
x 1979 Twiss, J.R., Jr. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 10-17.)
1979 Vaz-Ferreira, R. (Trichechus; Latin America)
x 1980a Anon. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 49.)
x 1980b Anon. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 97-98, 100.)
1980d Anon. (DD)
x 1980 Ayres & Best (TI; Brazil; 83-85, 90-92.)
1980 Barile, D.D. (TML; Florida)
x 1980 Bertram, G.C.L. (sirs.; gen. acc.; 219-221.)
1980 Finnley, D.
x * 1980a Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; report on conservation & education program; 1-102.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; implications of life history; 199.)
1980 Norkin, M.
1980 Raloff, J. (TML; Florida)
1980 Reddick, J.
x 1980 Telander, R. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 30-35.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; conservation & behavior; 640-647.)
x 1981 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD; past abundance & prospects; 1-7.)
x 1981 Bingham, B. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 91.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; 24, 35-39.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TML; Florida; recommendations; 15-16.)
x 1981 Chase, A. (DD; Australia; in Aboriginal cultural context; 112-122.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (TI, TM; Brazil; 94-96.)
x 1981a Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Queensland; 55-56.)
x 1981 Hendrokusumo et al. (DD; Indonesia; legislation; 10.)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; conservation & public education program; 123-141.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; India & Sri Lanka; 50-52.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Wellesley Islands, Australia; 261, 264-266.)
x 1981a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia & Papua New Guinea; 205-216.)
x 1981 Prince et al. (DD; Western Australia; 84-85.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (DD; Sri Lanka; 6.)
x 1981a Smith, N.J.H. (TI, TM; Brazil; 184-186.)
x 1982b Anon. (Florida; school workshops; m9.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; 518-520.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (TMM; Amap , Brazil; status & protected areas; 43, 45.)
x 1982 Bonde, R.K. (TML; Florida; accidental mortality; pop. acc.; 3-5.)
x 1982 Bradford, D. (TML; Florida; public opinion survey; 9.)
x 1982 Dick, T.M. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 19-22.)
x 1982 Fletemeyer, J. (TML; Florida; sonar monitoring; 296-299.)
x 1982 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; Australia & Papua New Guinea; 4-5.)
x 1982 Nishiwaki et al. (TS; West Africa; 146.)
1982 Reilly, P. (TML; Florida)
x 1983 Gluckman & Hamann (list of relevant U.S. & Florida laws & regulations; 174-184.)
x 1983a Gluckman, D. (U.S. & Florida laws & education programs re: manatees; 233-252.)
x 1983b Gluckman, D. (U.S. & Florida laws re: water quality & weed control; 253-273.)
x 1983c Gluckman, D. (U.S. & Florida acquisition programs for manatee habitat; 274-301.)
x 1983d Gluckman, D. (U.S. National Environmental Policy Act & manatee protection; 317-320.)
x 1983a Hamann, R. (laws re: marina & dock construction & dredging in Florida; 185-232.)
x 1983b Hamann, R. (Florida laws re: spring flow at winter manatee refuges; 302-309.)
x 1983c Hamann, R. (U.S. Endangered Species Act & Marine Mammal Protection Act in relation to manatees; 310-316.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (TML; Jacksonville, Florida; recommendations; 15.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; northeastern Florida; recommendations; 51-52.)
x 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Florida; strategies to reduce boat-related mortality, 1-19; propeller guard designs, 20-43.)
x 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Florida; reduction of boat-related mortality; 36-37.)
x 1983 Marsh, H. (DD; Vanuatu; 1-5.)
1983a Packard, J.M. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; research & management plan)
* 1983b Packard, J.M. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; research & management plan)
x 1983 Puckett, C. (Citrus Co., Florida; public attitudes re: manatees; 321-346.)
x 1983 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; Papua New Guinea; hunting & economy; 14-15.)
x 1984 Colmenero-R., L.C. (TMM; Mexico; legislation; 244-245, 249.)
x 1984 DiPerna, P. (TML; Florida; captive breeding; pop. acc.; 16-17.)
x 1984 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; decline of traditional conservation practices; pop. acc.; 298-301.)
1984 Johnson & Yablokov
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Australia; implications of population dynamics; 785.)
1985a Anon. (DD; Australia)
x 1985 Baldwin, C.L. (DD; Australia; management needs; 1-20.)
x 1985b Domning, D.P. (TML; Florida; habitat protection; [2].)
x 1985 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; 89-90.)
x 1985 MacKenzie, D. (UNEP marine mammal conservation plan; 4.)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (TM; Haiti; 235-236.)
1986a Anon. (TM, TI; Brazil)
x 1986 Baldwin, C.L. (DD; Queensland; 206-212.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; 1009-1013.)
1986c Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; traditional hunting)
x * 1986 Packard & Wetterqvist (TML; northwestern Florida; habitat evaluation; 279-310.)
x 1986 Ray & Domning (TML; Florida; 77-78.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; 154-156.)
x 1986 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; Australia & Papua New Guinea; 102-104.)
1987 Baldwin & Hunnam (DD; Australia)
x 1987 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 263-269.)
1988 Anderson, G.R.V. (DD; Australia)
x 1988 Bulman, P. (TML; Florida; enforcement of boat speed laws; 23.)
1988 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; India)
x 1988a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; 18.)
1988d Marsh, H. (DD; Australia)
x * 1988e Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; importance of marine parks; 495-502.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; 282, 291-293, 298-299.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Florida; needs & justifications; 191-192.)
1988 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; Western Australia)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; 82-84.)
* 1988 Reynolds & Gluckman (TML; Florida)
x 1988 Tucker & Puddicombe (DD; Australia; 82-83.)
1988 Howell, K.M. (DD; Tanzania; conservation)
x 1989 Chambers & Bani (DD; Vanuatu; 13-14.)
x 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; 7, 82, 90-91.)
x 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida; implications of power-plant shutdowns; installation of warm-water wells for manatees; 699-700.)
x 1989 Palmer, D. (TML; Georgia; construction of artificial warm-water refugium; 7.)
x * 1989 Preen et al. (DD; Arabian region; 1-43.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; 1-200.)
x 1989 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; conservation practices of Siona Indians; 5-6.)
1990 Bernardes et al. (TI; Brazil; considered endangered)
1990 Gilbrook, M.J. (TML; Florida; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Houhoulis, P. (TML; Florida; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Kautz, R.S. (TML; Florida; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Osborn, R.G. (TML; Florida; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
* 1990 Reynolds & Haddad (TML; Florida; Geogr. Information Systems Workshop)
x 1990 Smith & Marsh (DD; Queensland; management of traditional hunting; 47-55.)
x 1990a Turner, R.O. (TML; Florida; new sanctuary established; 10.)
x 1990b Turner, R.O. (TML; Florida; legislation; 7.)
1990 Weigle & Haddad (TML; Florida; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
x 1991b Anon. (TMM, TI; Brazil; 221.)
1991 Colmenero-R., L.C. (TMM; Mexico; recovery plan)
x 1991c Domning, D.P. (Trichechus; justifications; 167-173.)
x 1991 O'Shea & Salisbury (TMM; Belize; 160-163.)
1991 Vallee, J.D. (TML; Florida)
1991 Zoodsma et al. (TML; Georgia)
x 1992a Anon. (Save the Manatee Club-Florida Audubon controversy; 89.)
x 1992 Borobia & Lodi (TMM; northeastern Brazil; 40-42.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (TM, TI; implications of reproductive biology; 308-309.)
1992b Pinto de Lima et al. (TMM; Brazil)
x 1992 Shackley, M. (TML; Florida; effects of tourism; 257-265.)
x 1993a Anon. (DD; India; m42.)
x 1993 Marsh et al. (DD; Australia & Oceania; 232-234.)
1993 Smith, K.N. (TML; Florida; threats to seagrass habitats)
x 1993 Turner & Buckingham (TML; Georgia; manatee protection plan for Naval Submarine Base; 1, 10-11.)
x 1993 Vermeij, G.J. (HG; implications of biogeography and extinction; 392-394.)
1993 Vidal, O. (Trichechus; Latin America)
1993 Ward & Weigle (TML; Florida; GIS applications)
x 1993 Yokel, B.J. (Florida; settlement of Florida Audubon Soc.-Save the Manatee Committee lawsuit; 2, 19.)
1994 Vallee, J.D. (TML; Florida; boat collisions)
x 1994 Anderson, I. (DD; Oyster Point, Queensland; resort construction threat to habitat; 7.)
x 1994 Brooks, L.S. (TML; Florida; Manatee Information Radio established in Crystal River; 33.)
1994 Cook, C. (DD; Australia; traditional hunting rights)
* 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (review)
x 1994 Ponte et al. (DD; Queensland; traditional hunting rights; 260-261.)
x 1994 Rosas, F.C.W. (TI, TM; Brazil; legislation; 57.)
x 1994 Ross, A. (DD; Queensland; traditional hunting rights; 22-26.)
1994 Wallace, R.L. (TML; Florida)
1995 Mondolfi, E. (TM; Venezuela; conservation action plan)
x 1995 Ackerman et al. (TML; Florida; mortality reduction measures; 246, 252, 256.)
x 1995 Kettembeil, S. (DD; threats to survival; pop. acc.; 29.)
x 1995 Marsh et al. (DD; Palau; extinction foreseen; 88.)
x * 1995 O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Florida; conflicts with waterborne recreation; 297-311.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Queensland; mortality from floods exacerbated by poor land use practices; 518.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; Costa Rica; 193-196.)
1995 Ridgway, S.H.
* 1995 U.N.E.P. (TM; regional management plan)
1996 Slater & Stokes (DD; Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia; management plan)
x 1996b Anon. (Sarasota Co., Florida; study of compliance with speed zone regulations; 5.)
x 1996 Arnold, D.W. (TML; efforts by State of Florida; 6-7.)
x 1996 Behler, D.A. (TML; Florida; adoption program; 1996 die-off; 16.)
x 1996 Boice, L.P. (TM; Georgia, Puerto Rico; efforts by U.S. Navy; 3-4.)
1996a Seifert, D.D. (TML; Florida)
1996 Kirk, G. (early attempts, 1755 & later; 8-9.)
x 1996 Pain, S. (TML; Florida; protectyive devices on flood-control gates; 22.)
1996 Persoon & De Iongh (DD; Indonesia)
x 1996 Reeves et al. (TI; Peru; 247, 252-253.)
1996 Roberts et al. (DD; North Queensland; monitoring Aboriginal hunting)
1996 Marsh, H. (DD; Queensland; sustainable use)
1997 Dutton, T.P. (DD; Africa)
x 1997b Anon. (TML; Florida; boat speed zone enforcement; 756.)
x * 1997 Marmontel et al. (TML; Florida; population viability projections; 475-478.)
x 1997 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; gen. acc.; 50-57.)
x 1997 Marsh, Harris & Lawler (DD; Torres Strait; 1384-1385.)
1997 Ojeda-C., M.M. (TMM; Venezuela)
x 1997 Preen et al. (DD; Australia; expansion of Shark Bay Marine Park recommended; 205-207.)
* 1998 Auil, N.E. (TMM; Belize manatee recovery plan)
x 1998 Gerber, Leah R. (Recent sirs.; m90-92.)
1998 Paludo, D. (TMM; northeast Brazil; ecology & conservation)
x 1998 Liu, Z. (DD; China; legislation, dugong reserve; 209-210.)
x 1998 Preen, A.R. (DD; Indian Ocean coast, Australia; marine protected areas; 173-181.)
1998 Haynes et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; protection areas)
1999 Marsh et al. (DD; Australia; conservation strategy)
1999b Dodman, T. (TS; status)
1999a Dodman, T. (TS)
1999 Kendall, S. (TI; Colombia; environmental education)
x 1999 Ambrose, P. (DD; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia; new sanctuary area; m235-236.)
x 1999 Bossart, G.D. (TML; Florida; gen. acc.; 1178-1183.)
1999 Brown, S.R.
1999 De Iongh, H.H. (DD; design of marine reserves)
1999 Driscoll, C.P.
1999 Monti & Wollrab
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (TMM; Costa Rica; 271-273.)
1999 Wallace & Clark
1999 Hope Vale Aboriginal Community (DD; Hope Vale, Australia; hunting management plan)
1999 De Iongh, H.H. (DD; Indonesia; marine reserves)
x 2000 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Florida, Puerto Rico; use of seagrasses; 296-297.)
x 2000 Adams, J.L., Jr. (TML; doubts about the need for increased protection; 60.)
x 2000 Anon. (DD; Australia; protection strengthened; 467.)
2000 Marsh, H. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; mortality in nets)
x 2000 Rathbun & Wallace (TML; conservation issues; 108-111.)
2001 Jackson et al. (DD, HG; overfishing)
2001 Schulman, M. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia)
2001 Ota, H.
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (TML, TMM; status & biogeography)
2001 Ackerman & Powell (TML; Florida)
x * 2001 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; injury & suffering; population biology; 31-43.)
2001 Ota, H.
2001 Schulman, M. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia)
x 2001 Zastrow & Jaquette (Florida; marina permitting; 23-27.)
* 2001 IBAMA (TI, TMM; Brazil; conservation action plan)
2001 Preen, A.R. (DD; Queensland; boat-traffic management)
2001b Anon. (TMM; Mexico)
2002 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; Australia)
2002 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; Nicaragua; poaching)
x 2002 Ashley, G. (TML; Florida; boat collisions & regulations; 8.)
2002 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; Australia)
x 2002 Verdon, M. (TML; Florida; conflicts with boaters; 89-94.)
2002 Wright et al. (TML; Tampa Bay, Florida)
2002 Cox et al. (Florida; proposed re-evaluation of rare species)
* 2002 Marsh et al. (DD; status reports & action plans)
2003 Thoisy et al. (TM; French Guiana)
2003 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; Nicaragua & Costa Rica)
2003 Kendall & Orozco (TI; Colombia)
2003 Aipanjiguly et al. (TML; Tampa Bay, Florida; attitudes of boaters)
2003 Marsh et al. (strategies)
2003 Marsh, Penrose & Eros (DD)
2003 Sorice et al. (TML; Florida; defining harassment; 319-338.)
2003 Vallee, J.D. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 60-62.)
2004 Allen et al. (DD; New South Wales)
2004 McGill, T. (Florida; anti-manatee tract)
2004 King & Heinen (TML; Crystal & Homosassa Rivers, Florida; harassment by swimmers)
2004 Pittman, C. (TML; Florida; controversies)
2004 Marsh et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; fishery unsustainable)
* 2004 Heinsohn, R., et al. (DD; Torres Strait & Cape York, Australia; population viability analyses)
* 2004 Gorzelany, J.F. (Gulf Coast of Florida; boater compliance with manatee speed zones)
2004 Pittman, C. (TML; Florida)
2005 Perrin et al. (eds.) (DD; Southeast Asia; conservation)
2005 Castelblanco-M., Holguín, & Zapata (TMM; Colombia)
x 2005 Anonymous (DD; Tanzania; 492.)
* 2005b Laist & Reynolds (TML; Florida; future of warm-water refuges)
2005 Kwan, D. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; management of traditional fishery)
2005 Chilvers et al. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland)
2005 Fernandes et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef)
2005 Havemann et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; traditional hunting agreements)
2005b Hines et al. (DD; Thailand)
2006 Sorice et al. (TML; management as tourism attraction)
2006 Laist & Shaw (TML; Florida; boat speed restrictions and mortality)
2006 Maitland et al. (DD; Burrum Heads, Queensland, Australia; risk of boat strike)
2006 Vianna et al. (Trichechus spp.; phylogeography & hybridization)
2007 Wang et al. (DD; Hainan Province, China; status)
* 2007 Lowry et al. (TML, TMM; Florida, Puerto Rico; conservation status & history of U.S. listing)
2007 Grech & Marsh (DD; Australia; population model)
2007 Dodman et al. (TS; conservation strategy)
2007 Shirakihara et al. (DD; southern Japan)
2007 Ilangakoon & Tun (DD; Myanmar)
2007 Bearzi, G.
2007 De Iongh & Bal (IUCN Red List criteria)
2007 Morris et al. (TML; boater outreach program)
2007c Borges et al. (TMM; Brazil; threats and injuries from motorboats)
* 2007 Quintana-R. & Reynolds (TM; regional management plan)
2007 Hodgson et al. (DD; Australia; use of acoustic alarms to prevent accidental netting)
2008 Rodas-Trejo et al. (TMM; Chiapas, Mexico)
2008 Daley et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; history of commercial fishery)
2008 Hines et al. (DD; Cambodia & Vietnam)
2008 Grech & Marsh (DD; risk assessment)
2008 Dobbs et al. (DD; protected area, Great Barrier Reef, Australia)
2008 Grech et al. (DD; bycatch assessment)
2008 Luna et al. (TMM; Brazil; conservation status)
2008 Schipper et al. (status of world's marine mammals)
2009 Evans et al. (participatory adaptive management; Kings Bay, Florida)
2009 Simberloff, D. (participative adaptive management)
2009 Calvimontes, J. (TI; Brazil)
2009 UNEP/CMS (TS; conservation action plan)
2009a Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Orinoco R., Colombia)
2009 Choi et al. (TMM; Brazil; design of refuge area)
2010 Calvimontes & Marmontel (TI; Brazil; ethnobiology)
* 2010 Pittman, C. (TML; Florida; historical account)
2010 Luna & Passavante (Trichechus, Brazil; history of conservation by Instituto Chico Mendes)
2010 Rajamani & Marsh (DD; Malaysia)
2010 McCook et al. (Australia, Great Barrier Reef; adaptive management)
2010 McCook et al. (Australia, Great Barrier Reef; adaptive management)
2010 Jett & Thapa (TML; Florida; speed zone compliance by boaters)
2010 Garbin & Mann (potential impacts of bridge construction on manatee mating area in Florida)
2011 D'Souza & Patankar (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India)
2011 Ardisson et al. (Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System)
2011 Martin et al. (TML; Florida; sea level rise)
* 2011 Campagna et al. (TM; Gulf of Mexico; oil spill)
2011 Auil Gomez, N. E. (TMM; Belize)
2011 LaCommare, K. S. (TMM; Belize; conservation & habitat ecology)
2011 Ferreira et al. (Dugong, Trichechus; forensic genetics)
2011 Kuntner et al. (Afrotheria; phylogeny & conservation)
2011 Wilson et al. (TML; anti-Müllerian hormone; effects of stress)
2011 Grech et al.
2011 Nourisson et al. (TMM; Mexico; genetic diversity)
2012 Bonde et al. (TM; genetics)
2012 Luna et al. (TMM; northeast Brazil; phylogeography; release)
* 2012 Deutsch & Reynolds (TML; status & conservation issues)
2012 Jett et al. (TML; Florida; boater speed-zone compliance)
2012 Aquino et al. (DD; Philippines; Red List status; 144-150.)
2012 Rosa de Oliveira et al. (South America; genetics, population biology, phylogeography)
2012 Oppenheimer & BenDor (TML; management of biofouling)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Padilla-S., et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico & Belize; movement patterns, habitat use)
2012 Seidman, D. (diatribe against the Save the Manatee Club)
* 2012 Hines et al. (eds.)
2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (TM; Caribbean Sea; distribution & status)
* 2012 Marmontel et al. (TI; South America; distribution & status)
* 2012 Kouadio, A. (TS; West Africa; distribution & status.)
* 2012 Ikeda & Mukai (DD; Japan; distribution & status)
x 2012 Appeltans et al. (sirenian species diversity; 2195, 2197, Table S2.)
* 2012 Muir & Kiszka (DD; East Africa; distribution & status)
* 2012 Preen et al. (DD; Arabia; distribution & status)
* 2012 Dobbs et al. (DD; Australia; distribution & status)
* 2012 Ortega-Argueta et al. (use of interviews in sir. research)
* 2012 Marmontel, Reid, et al. (tagging techniques & movement of sirs.)
* 2012 Beck & Clementz (Techniques for determining food habits of sirenians.)
* 2012 Stamper & Bonde (TM; health assessment techniques)
* 2012 Bonde, Mignucci-Giannoni, & Bossart (pathology & mortality assessment)
* 2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
* 2012 Moraes-Arraut et al. (Habitat assessment)
* 2012 Parr et al. (Sir. genetics & demography)
* 2012 Reynolds et al. (utility & design of aerial surveys for sirs.)
* 2012 Wetzel et al. (Organic contaminants)
* 2012 Marsh & Morales-Vela (guidelines for developing protected areas for sirs.)
* 2012 Von Zharen, W. M. (role of law in protecting sirs. & their habitats)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Nourisson, et al. (TMM; population viability)
x 2012 Dewar, H. (TML; Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida; gen. acc.; 4.)
2012 Tucker et al. (TML; Florida; low genetic diversity; population structure)
2012 UNEP/CMS (TS; West Africa)
* 2012a Hines, E. (DD; Asia; distribution & status)
* 2012b Aragones et al. (boat- & land-based surveys of distribution)
* 2012b Hines, E. (framework for sir. conservation in developing countries)
* 2012c Aragones et al. (working with communities for sir. conservation)
2013 Sivakumar, K. (DD; India)
2013 Ogogo et al. (TS; South Nigeria; ecology & status)
2013 Kendall, S. (TI; Colombia)
2013 Flamm et al. (TML; southwestern Florida; managing warm-water habitat)
2013 Sousa et al. (TI, TMM; Marajó Island, Brazil; ecological knowledge of fishermen)
2013 Laist et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuges)
2013 Rajamani, L. (DD; Sulu Sea, Malaysia; community knowledge & conservation)
2013 Mayaka et al. (TS; Cameroon; conservation & ethnobiology)
2015 Castelblanco et al. (TI, TM; Colombia)
2017 Hashim, M. et al. (DD; Johor Straits, Malaysia)
* 2017 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; Thailand; identification of tusks by X-ray fluorescence)
2017 Pilcher et al. (DD; survey questionnaire)
2017 Ferrer et al. (TM, Venezuela; plan of action for 2017-2027: 36-41.)
* 2017 Runge et al. (TML; status & threats analysis)
2017 Bonde & Flint
2017 Carr & Milstein
2017 Moore et al. (DD; Indonesia; economic use, folklore)
* 2018 Carr& Milstein (TML; Florida; critique of preserving power plants as thermal refuges)
* 2018a Alvarez-Alemán et al. (TMM; Cuba)
2019 Nasr et al. (DD; Red Sea; status)
2019 Machuca-C. & Corona-F. (TMM; Guatemala)
2019 Guevara Porras et al. (TMM; Campeche, Mexico; community participation)
2019 Domínguez-Tejo (TMM; Hispaniola; history & conservation status)
* 2020 Petcharat & Lee (DD; Thailand; nonuse value)
2020 Robles-Herrejón et al. (TMM; Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; management effectiveness)
* 2020 Kendall, S.
2020 Ortega-Argueta & Castelblanco-Martínez (TMM; Mexico; captive breeding & conservation)
2021 Alvarez-Aleman, A. (TMM; Cuba; causes of mortality)
2021 Grace et al. (global standard for measuring species recovery)
2021 Brum et al. (TI; Amazonia)
* 2021 Lazensky et al. (TML; Florida; mortality increase; proteomic approach)
2021 Lima et al. (TM; discordant taxonomic and evolutionary units)
2021 Attademo, Luna et al. (TMM; Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil)
* 2021 Hieb et al. (TM; threats from bridge construction)
2022 Meirelles et al. (TMM; Brazil; conservation status)
???? Contreras Fleury et al. (TM; Mexico; conservation status)
Cornwalliidae Shikama, 1957 ( 3 )
(family)
D 1957a Shikama, T.
D 1957b Shikama, T.
x D 1986 Domning et al. (history of name; 5.)
Cornwalliinae Kalandadze and Rautian, 1992 ( 1 )
(subfamily)
D * 1992 Kalandadze & Rautian
Cornwallius Hay, 1923 ( 25 )
x D * 1923a Hay, O.P. (n.gen.; 106-107.)
x D 1931 Kellogg, R. (review; 221-223.)
x D 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153, 155, pl. 6.)
x D 1941b VanderHoof, V.L. (Baja California; Olig.; 1985.)
x D 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 136.)
D 1953 Arai, J.
D 1957 Pronina, I.G.
x D 1959 Byers, F.M. (Unalaska Is., Alaska; 289.)
x D * 1961 Drewes et al. (Unalaska Is., Alaska; Olig. or Mioc.; 606-607, 667.)
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (chronologic & geographic range; 3-4, 10-12, 15-16.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (comp. w/ Paleoparadoxia; 192, 194, 197-199.)
D 1964 Allison, E.C.
x D 1964 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (pachyostosis; 214.)
x D 1964 Nolan, T.B. (distr.; A137.)
x D 1965 Mitchell & Lipps (photo of femur; 5.)
D 1966c Shikama, T.
x D 1968 Romer, A.S. (m200.)
x D 1970a Reinhart, R.H. (m243.)
x D 1972a Domning, D.P. (distr.; 146, 149.)
x D 1972 Gard et al. (Aleutian Islands; m867-868.)
x D 1975 Reinhart, R.H. (validity reasserted; 826.)
x D 1978b Domning, D.P. (m107, 113, 139.)
x D 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x D 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m179.)
D 2009 Jacobs et al. (comp. w/ desmostylians from Olig.-Mioc., Alaska)
Cornwallius sookensis (Cornwall, 1922) Hay, 1923 ( 21 )
x D 1917 Kermode, F. ("Desmostylus hesperus"; Vancouver Is., Canada; 42-43, pl. 9.)
x D * 1923a Hay, O.P. (n.comb.; 106.)
x D * 1924 Hay, O.P. (teeth; 3-8, pls. 1-2.)
x D 1931 Kellogg, R. (synonymy; 223.)
x D * 1942a VanderHoof, V.L. (Baja California; Olig.; 298-301.)
D 1957 Pronina, I.G.
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (chronologic & geographic range; 10-11.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (teeth; 194, 199.)
x D 1966 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (m50.)
D 1966c Shikama, T.
x D 1982 Reinhart, R.H. (diagnosis & illustration of skull; 550-554.)
x D 1986 Applegate, S.P. (Late Olig., Baja California; 157-158.)
x D 1986 Domning et al. (classification & affinities; 5, 23, 26, 36, 45.)
x D 1991 Clark, J.M. (comp. w/ Paleoparadoxia weltoni; 490-496, 502-505.)
x D 1993 McAnally, L.M. (British Columbia; discovery & theft of type material; 8-9.)
x D 1993 Perrilliat, M. (in catalog of type specimens, Mexico; 40.)
x D 1996 McAnally, L.M. (British Columbia; discovery & theft of type material; 205-207.)
* 2006a Beatty, B.L. (Vancouver Is.; new topotypic material)
D 2006b Beatty, B.L. (Unalaska)
D 2007 Jacobs et al. (unnamed desmostylians; Unalaska; earliest Mioc.?)
D * 2009 Beatty, B.L. (Late Olig., Oregon)
Cornwallius tabatai Tokunaga, 1939 ( 6 )
(= Paleoparadoxia tabatai)
D * 1939a Tokunaga, S.
D 1966c Shikama, T.
x D 1986 Domning et al. (m5.)
x D 1991 Clark, J.M. (syn. of Paleoparadoxia tabatai; m490, 494.)
D 2007 Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Kohno, Naoki (neotype designation)
x D * 2009 ICZN (proposed designation of a neotype not accepted; 295-296.)
Corystosiren Domning, 1990 ( 3 )
x * 1990b Domning, D.P. (n.gen.; Plioc., Mexico & Florida; 361.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 361, 363.)
2018 Domning, D.P. (Aff. Corystosiren sp.; Mioc.; Maryland, North Carolina; 255-257.)
Corystosiren varguezi Domning, 1990 ( 6 )
x * 1990b Domning, D.P. (n.gen.n.sp.; Plioc., Mexico & Florida; 361-371.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (comp. w/ Dioplotherium cf. allisoni, 124; comp. w/ cf. Rytiodus, 133, 135.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Florida; in checklist; 29.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ other dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224, 226.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ other dugongines in cladistic analysis; 398, 409.)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al.
Costa Rica ( 14 )
(SEE ALSO: Central America)
1869 Frantzius, A.v. (TMM; 304.)
1881 Frantzius, A.v. (TMM; 423.)
1897 Alfaro G., A.
x 1946b Goodwin, G.G. (TMM; m445.)
1983 Ligon, S.H. (TMM)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 583, 607.)
x * 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; status & conservation; 193-196.)
x * 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (TMM; distr. & status, Tortuguero area; 267-274.)
* 2000 Jiménez P., I. (TMM)
2001 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; status; 18-30.)
* 2003 Jiménez P., I. (TMM)
2005 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; Costa Rica & Nicaragua; habitat use)
2011 Gómez Lépiz, A. (TM; food preferences)
2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (TM; status & conservation)
Crassitherium robustum Van Beneden, 1871 ( 7 )
(= Halitherium schinzii, in part; ?Reptilia, in part)
* 1871 Van Beneden, P.J. (n.gen.n.sp.)
1872a Gervais, P.
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (m6.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (age considered Lower Mioc.; 104.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (in review; 136.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
Crassitherium Van Beneden, 1871 ( 11 )
(= Halitherium, in part; ?Reptilia, in part)
* 1871 Van Beneden, P.J. (n.gen.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1875 Van Beneden, P.J. (mention of juvenile specimen; 339.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m369-370, 376.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (considered ancestor of Rhytina; 136, 138.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (in Belgian sir. fauna; 198, 200.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m223.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m481.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m150; in classification, 154-155.)
2014 Voss, M.
Crenatosiren Domning, 1991 ( 3 )
x v 1974 Domning, D.P. ("new species of Halitherium"; m8.)
x * 1991b Domning, D.P. (n.gen.; 398.)
x 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m179.)
Crenatosiren olseni (Reinhart, 1976) Domning, 1991 ( 7 )
x * 1991b Domning, D.P. (n.comb.; 398.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Florida; in checklist; 29, 33.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ other dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224-226.)
x * 1997b Domning, D.P. (redescr.; new material, Florida, South & North Carolina; 397-412.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 296, 298-299, 302-303.)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al.
x 2015 Amson et al. (rib histology comp. w/ DD and Thalassocnus; 3.)
Cryptomastodon martini von Koenigswald, 1933 ( 3 )
(Proboscidea)
D * 1933 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (n.gen.n.sp.; Java)
D 1966c Shikama, T.
x D * 1984 Hooijer, D.A. (shown to be chimerical; 228-231.)
Cryptomastodon von Koenigswald, 1933 ( 5 )
(Proboscidea)
D * 1933 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (n.gen.; Java)
x D 1952 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (sir. affinities denied; 612.)
D 1976 Reinhart, R.H. (not desmostylian; 282-283.)
x D 1982 Reinhart, R.H. (not desmostylian; m553.)
x D * 1984 Hooijer, D.A. (shown to be chimerical; 228-231.)
Cuba ( 37 )
1671 Ogilby, J.
1826 Humboldt, A.v. (TMM; Bahia de Jagua; use of freshwater springs at sea)
1866 Gundlach, J.
1877 Gundlach, J.
x 1895 Gundlach, J. (Manatus; m20.)
x 1898 Hill, R.T. (TM; m56.)
1910 Cuní y Valera, L.A.
x 1917 Holland, W.J. (TM; Isle of Pines; 356.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (TM; gen. acc.; 93-95.)
x 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TM; 69.)
x 1936 Trelles-Duelo, L. (indeterminate sir.; Olig.; 269-270.)
x 1942 Morison, S.E. (TMM; caught with remoras in 1494, 457; using freshwater springs in Gulf of Cochinos, 459.)
x * 1972 Varona, L.S. (Metaxytherium riveroi, n.sp.; M. Mioc.; 5-19.)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (TM; 292.)
1980 Varona, L.S. (TMM; gen. acc.)
x 1984 Cornide, R.I. (TM; blood antibodies; 1.)
* 1986 Sokolov, V.E. (TM; anatomy)
x * 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (TM; western Cuba; distr. & status; 1-12.)
1988 Ferrer & Estrada (TM; mortality)
1989 Coy Otero, A. (TM; trematode Chiorchis groschafti)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 575-576, 602.)
x 1992 Ortiz et al. (TMM; copepod Harpactichechus manatorum & peritrichid protozoan; 117-119.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (TMM; distr. & status; 155, 157.)
2003 MacPhee et al. (Mioc.; Domo de Zaza)
2007 Iturralde-V., M.A. ("Metaxitherium" rib)
* 2010 Alvarez-A. et al. (TML; use of power plant)
* 2011 Álvarez A., A. (TMM, TML)
x 2013 Friedman-Rudovsky, J. (TM; Cuba-Florida collaborative research; 447.)
2014 Navarro-M. et al. (TM; diet & digestive tract)
2016 Alvarez-Alemán et al. (TMM; Isla de la Juventud.)
2018a Alvarez-Alemán et al. (TMM; conservation.)
2018b Alvarez-Alemán et al. (TML; traveling between Florida and Cuba)
2019 McLarty et al. (TMM; Cuba; habitat characterization with side-scan sonar)
2019 McLarty et al. (TMM; habitat characterization using side-scan sonar)
2019 Orihuela et al. (Dugongidae incertae sedis; Early Mioc.; brain endocasts)
2021 Alvarez-Aleman, A. (TMM; causes of mortality)
x v n.d. Berovides, V. (Trichechus; economic uses; pop. acc.; 13.)
Culebratherium alemani Vélez-Juarbe & Wood, 2019 ( 1 )
* 2019 Vélez-Juarbe & Wood (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Panama)
Culebratherium Vélez-Juarbe & Wood, 2019 ( 1 )
* 2019 Vélez-Juarbe & Wood (n.gen.; Mioc., Panama)
Cymatotherium antiquum Kaup, 1841 ( 1 )
(Proboscidea)
* 1841 Kaup, J.J. (n.gen.n.sp.; Germany; 11-14, pl. 4.)
Cymatotherium Kaup, 1841 ( 2 )
(Proboscidea)
* 1841 Kaup, J.J. (n.gen.; Germany; 11-14, pl. 4.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. ("Cyotherium"; m481.)
Cyotherium Simpson, 1932: SEE Cymatotherium ( 0 )
Cytology: SEE Genetics; Histology ( 0 )

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
Compendium Software Systems, LLC