Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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F

Felsinotherium alleni (Simpson, 1932) Kellogg, 1966 ( 2 )
(= Halitherium alleni)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (n.comb.; 91-92.)
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium riveroi; 7.)
Felsinotherium Capellini, 1872 ( 35 )
(= Metaxytherium)
x 1865 Capellini, G. (nomen nudum; 281-282.)
* 1872 Capellini, G. (n.gen.; Plioc., Italy)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (m5.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (Italy, 67-70; comp. w/ Halitherium, 69.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m376.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (considered intermediate between Prohalicore & Dugong; 137-138.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 416, 418-419, 421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (syn. of Halitherium; 223.)
* 1904a Abel, O.
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 51, 60.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (vertebrae; 236-237.)
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (pachyostosis; m358.)
x 1924 Andrews, C.W. (dentition; m306.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (m21.)
1929b Kellogg, R. (m1.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 415.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 152-155, pl. 6.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of study; 103-105.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 19-20.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 438-441.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (comp. w/ Thalattosiren; 112.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (history of name, 68, 70; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense, 72-73.)
x 1966 Pascual, R. (comp. w/ Mioc. tooth from Argentina; m242.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (m217.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (comp. w/ Metaxytherium medium; 184, 186.)
x 1973b Anon. ([actually Miosiren canhami]; Britain; m[3].)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (m8.)
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (syn. of Metaxytherium; 37, 45-47.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (syn. of Metaxytherium)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m577.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m30.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium; 207.)
x 1991 Basu et al. (comp. w/ ?halitheriine from India; 10.)
Felsinotherium floridanum (Hay, 1922) Simpson, 1932 ( 3 )
(= Metaxytherium floridanum)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (n.comb.; 447-451, 453.)
x 1941 Gregory, J.T. (comp. w/ F. ossivallense; 33-34, 40.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium floridanum; 396, 399.)
Felsinotherium forestii Capellini, 1872 ( 28 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1872 Capellini, G. (n.gen.n.sp.; Plioc., Italy)
x 1875a Owen, R. (brain; 102, 104.)
x 1875b Owen, R. (comp. w/ Prorastomus; 559-561, 564-567.)
1876 Lawley, R.
x 1877 Lawley, R. (near Volterra, Italy; 341-342.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 67, 70.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; 137-139.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m409.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 60.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ F. Serresi; 1859-1860.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. (diet & tooth morphology; 254-255.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (suppression of replacement premolars; 429.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 433, 451, 453-454, 456, 458-459, 464, 475, 478-479, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Gregory, J.T. (comp. w/ F. ossivallense; 36-39.)
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (dentition comp. w/ Dugong; 6.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; m152-153.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 21.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 438-441.)
x 1954 Ennouchi, E. (comp. w/ Moroccan F. cf. serresi; m82.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 68.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 68, 70.)
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (referred to Metaxytherium; 37, 45-47.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium kachchhense; 22.)
1988a Pilleri, G.
x 1997 Capasso, L. (hyperostosis; 616-617, 619.)
2004 D'Anastasio, R. (hyperostosis of ribs)
Felsinotherium gastaldi de Zigno, 1878 ( 11 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
x v 1878a Zigno, A. de ("Felsinotherium n. sp."; review; 68, 70.)
* 1878b Zigno, A. de (n.sp.; Plioc., Italy)
1878c Zigno, A. de
x 1886 Portis, A. (notes single known occurrence; 357-358, 360.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m409.)
x 1902 Lovisato, D. ("Felsinotherium cfr. Gastaldii"; Sardinia; 5.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m479.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium ortegense; 93.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (syn. of Metaxytherium forestii; m37.)
x 1987 Canocchi, D. (m499.)
1988a Pilleri, G.
Felsinotherium gervaisi Capellini, 1872 ( 8 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1872 Capellini, G. (n.sp.; Plioc., Italy)
1876 Lawley, R.
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 67, 70.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 68.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (syn. of Metaxytherium forestii; m37.)
1980 Azzaroli, A.
x 1982 Azzaroli et al. (considered Late Ruscinian [Plioc.] in age; 56, 58.)
Felsinotherium gunteri Simpson, 1932 ( 3 )
(nomen nudum; lapsus for Felsinotherium ossivallense)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (nomen nudum; lapsus for F. ossivallense; m449.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H.
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (referred to Metaxytherium floridanum; 399.)
Felsinotherium ortegense Kellogg, 1966 ( 2 )
(= Potamosiren magdalenensis)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (lapsus for Metaxytherium ortegense; pl. 36.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (syn. of Potamosiren magdalenensis; 383-384.)
Felsinotherium ossivallense Simpson, 1932 ( 5 )
(= Metaxytherium floridanum)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (n.sp.; "Plioc." [actually Mioc.], Florida; 446-456.)
x * 1941 Gregory, J.T. (rostrum; 33-40, 2 pls.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m66; comp. w/ Metaxytherium & Felsinotherium spp., 68; comp. w/ M. calvertense, 79.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ Metaxytherium forestii; 44-46.)
x * 1988 Domning, D.P. (referred to Metaxytherium floridanum; 396, 399.)
Felsinotherium sabalpinum [sic] Anonymous, Zoological Record, Mammalia 47: 63, 1911 ( 0 )
(lapsus for F. subapenninum, wrongly attributed to Issel, 1910)
Felsinotherium serresii (Gervais, 1849) de Zigno, 1878 ( 19 )
(= Metaxytherium serresii)
* 1878b Zigno, A. de (n.comb.)
x 1886 Portis, A. (?syn. of F. subapenninum; m356.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (reconstruction of skeleton; 1858-1862.)
* 1920 Depéret & Roman
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 58, 61-64, 66-67.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 431-432, 435, 440, 443, 451, 453-454, 458-459, 463, 468-469, 475, 478-480.)
x 1941 Gregory, J.T. (comp. w/ F. ossivallense; 36-40.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; m152.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 21.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 439-441.)
x 1954 Ennouchi, E. ("F. cf. serresi"; Plioc., Morocco; 77, 79-82.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 65, 67, 69, 72.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review, 68, 70; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense, 73, 78, 82, 84, 88; comp. w/ F. alleni, 91; comp. w/ M. ortegense, 93.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ Metaxytherium forestii; 37, 45-47.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium cf. medium; 2-3, 8-9, 11-12.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 12.)
x 1982 Azzaroli et al. (m58.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium serresii; 207, 210.)
Felsinotherium subapenninum (Bruno, 1839) de Zigno, 1878 ( 6 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
x * 1878a Zigno, A. de (n.comb.; 70.)
x 1886 Portis, A. (summary of Italian records; 356-357, 359-360.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. ("F. subapenninicum"; comp. w/ Metaxytherium krahuletzi; 409-410.)
1910 Issel, A.
x 1912 Issel, A. ("F. subappenninum"; humerus; 119-121, 2 pls.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 451, 453, 479.)
Fiction ( 14 )
(SEE ALSO: Children's Literature)
1851 Melville, H.
1869 Verne, J.
1875 Verne, J. (DD)
1894 Kipling, R. (HG)
1956 Laye, C. (TS)
x 1973 Scheffer, V.B. (HG; Bering Is.; 64-65.)
x 1978 Isham, C.H. (TML; Florida; children's story; [1-14].)
x 1989 García M rquez, G. (TMM; Colombia; 142, 324, 331-332, 336-337, 344.)
1994 Ayres, E.C.
1997 Hiaasen et al. (TML; Florida; mystery novel)
2005 Oberheu, J.C. (TML; children's book)
2006 Tomblin, M.S. (TML; novel)
2010? Reiken, F. (TML)
x 2014-15 Winsor, M.P. (in imaginary dialogue between Strickland and Darwin on affinity; dugong, m75-76, m125, m181, m183.)
Florentinoameghinia mystica Simpson, 1932 ( 1 )
(Mammalia incertae sedis)
x * 1982 Sereno, P.C. (redescribed & referred to Sirenia; 1-10.)
Florentinoameghinia Simpson, 1932 ( 2 )
(Mammalia incertae sedis)
x 1980 McKenna, M.C. (possibly a sir.; 66.)
x * 1982 Sereno, P.C. (redescribed & referred to Sirenia; 1-10.)
Florida ( 557 )
1575 SEE Fontaneda, H., 1854.
x 1791 Bartram, W. (TML; hunting by Indians; 231-232.)
1822 Hackley, R.S.
x 1824 Harlan, R. (TML; hunting; 392.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (TML; hunting; 277.)
x 1833 Shepard, C.U. (Trichechus; ?Pleist., Suwannee Spring; 164.)
1837 Williams, J.L.
x 1846 Allen, J.H. (Manatus; ?Pleist., Tampa Bay; 41.)
x 1869 Brinton, D.G. (TML; Indian R.; 50-51.)
1871 Allen, J.A.
x 1872 Maynard, C. J. (TML; 142-143.)
1872 Maynard, C.J.
1873 Jordan, T.
x 1874a Anon. (TML; St. Augustine; 276.)
x 1874b Anon. (TML; gen. acc.; escape behavior; 446.)
1875 Wyman, J.
1875 Rambler (TML; Jupiter; hunting)
x 1877 De Pourtales, L.F. (?Trichechus; dredged bone fragments & distr. in common with West Indies; 144.)
x 1880 LeBaron, J.F. (TML; distr., hunting; 1005-1006.)
1882 Barber, E.A. (mound pipes, ?manatee effigies)
1883 Maynard, C.J.
1884 Henshall, J.A.
x * 1884b True, F.W. (TML; distr.; 114-115, 122-123.)
1885 Canova, A.
x 1889 Leidy, J. (Manatus antiquus; m27.)
1891 Clarke, S.F.
x 1891 Stuart, H.V. (TML; sold as beef; 137.)
1892 Munroe, K. (TML; children's book)
x 1892 Wright, J.McN. (TML; Santa Lucia R.; 294-296.)
1893 Anon.
1893 Chobee, O.K. (TML)
x 1895 Bangs, O. (TML; Indian R.; 783-787.)
1896c Anon.
1896 Cory, C.B.
x 1898 Anon. (TML; hunting by Seminole Indians; 102.)
1901 Wack
1902 Anon.
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TML; Lake Worth; capture; 97.)
x 1907 Dimock, A.W. (TML; capture; 848-853.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; distr. & protective legislation; 233.)
1909 Dimock & Dimock (TML)
x 1909 Graham, S.C. (TML; in capt., Indian R.; 413.)
x 1910 Packard, W. (TML; St. Lucie & Indian Rs.; 144-145.)
x 1913 Matson & Sanford (fossil "manatees" [Metaxytherium floridanum]; Bone Valley; m146.)
1914 Brown, W.P.
x 1915 Matson, G.C. (fossil "manatee" [Metaxytherium floridanum]; pl. 12.)
x 1916 Sellards, E.H. (TM; Pleist.; 104.)
1917 Brown, W.P. (TML)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (TML; used for food; 338-339, 342-345.)
x 1919 Hay, O.P. ("Trichechus antiquus?"; ?Pleist.; 109.)
x 1919 Safford, W.E. (TML; Miami area; 423-424.)
x * 1922a Hay, O.P. (Metaxytherium floridanum, n.sp.; 1-4.)
x 1922 Swanton, J.R. (TML; hunting by Indians; 389.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (Metaxytherium floridanum; 232-238, pl. 26.)
x 1929a Simpson, G.G. (Trichechus; Pleist.; 564.)
x 1929c Simpson, G.G. (fossil sirs. [Hesperosiren]; Mioc., Quincy; 511, 518.)
1930b Simpson, G.G.
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (review of fossil sirs.; Hesperosiren crataegensis, n.gen.n.sp., Mioc.; Felsinotherium ossivallense, n.sp., "Plioc." [actually Mioc.]; 425-427, 445-448, 470.)
x 1939 Gut, H.J. (Trichechus; Pleist.; 50-53.)
x 1941 Gregory, J.T. (Felsinotherium ossivallense; rostrum; 33-40, 2 pls.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (TML; 60, 64.)
x 1941 Hamilton, W.J., Jr. (TML; Lee Co.; 687, 690-691.)
x 1942 Gunter, G. (TML; 89-90.)
1943 Bartram, W.
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (TML; 272-273.)
x 1944 Barbour, T. (TML; Miami area; 98-99, 166-167.)
x 1946 Moore, J.C. (TML; Putnam Co.; 58.)
x 1946 Swanton, J.R. (TML; hunting by Indians; 250, 282, 297-298, 329.)
x 1947 Harwood, K. (TML; in capt., Miami; pop. acc.; 50, 89.)
x 1948 Cahalane, V.H. (TML; Everglades; 258.)
x 1949 Sprunt, A., Jr. (TML; pop. acc.; 286-288, 337.)
x 1949 Trumbull, S. (TML; status; 337.)
x * 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; range; 1-19.)
x * 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Everglades; 22-36.)
x 1951 Vernon, R.O. (indet. sir.; Middle Eoc., Levy Co.; m110.)
x 1952 Anon. (TML; in capt.; pop. acc.; 129-130.)
x * 1953 Moore, J.C. (TML; distr.; 120-122, 156.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TML; Miami; killed for dissection; 192.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; pop. acc.; 401-404.)
x 1955 Severin, K. (TML; in capt.; pop. acc.; 147-149.)
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (Hesperosiren; paleoecology; 1022.)
x 1958 Fichter, G.S. (TML; status; pop. acc.; 31-35.)
x 1959 Kellogg, R. ("manatee" [Metaxytherium floridanum]; Mioc., Bone Valley; m6.)
x 1960 Hutton & Sogandares (TML; trematode Chiorchis fabaceus; m290.)
1960 Ledbetter, C.S.
x 1962 Vickers, E.D. (indeterminate sirs.; Gadsden County; Mioc.; 28-29.)
1963 Fix, J. (TML)
x 1964a Anon. (TML; weed control; 29-30.)
x 1964 Hume, A.G. (TML; parasite Harpacticus pulex; 517-518, 528.)
x 1964 Lapham, L.H. (TML; weed control; 38-39.)
x 1964 Moore, J.C. (TML; injuries by boats; pop. acc.; 7-8.)
1964 Stroud, R.H.
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; mortality, distr., migrations; 166-168.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. ("sir." [actually cetacean] tusk; ?Mioc.; 78.)
x 1967 Anon. (TML; weed control; pop. acc.; 33-35.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (TML; conservation & weed control; 3-5, 34.)
x 1967 Truslow & Vosburgh (TML; Everglades; 537-538.)
x 1968 Betz, J.J. (TML; manatee-farming scheme, ca. 1893; 204-209.)
x 1968 Olsen, S.J. (Halitherium & indeterminate sirs.; Mioc., northern Florida; 129-130, 133-134.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TML; behavior; gen. acc.; 342-353.)
1969 Lyons, E. (TML)
1970 Barada, B.
1970 Radhakrishnan & Bradley (TML; in capt.; parasites)
x 1971a Barada, B. (TML; Crystal R.; pop. acc.; 18-23.)
1971b Barada, B.
1971 Hartman, D.S.
x 1971 Reinhart, R.H. (fossil & Recent sirs.; pop. acc.; 7-8.)
x 1972a Anon. (TML; porpoises "playing" with manatee; 4.)
x 1972a Hartman, D.S. (TML; status & behavior; pop. acc.; 20-22.)
1973 O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; Blue Spring; pop. acc.)
x 1974a Anon. (Blue Spring; manatee refuge established; 10.)
1974 Caldwell, D.K.
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (sir. fossil record, Eoc.-Pleist.; m7-8.)
x * 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; distr., status & conservation; 1-46, 62-247.)
1974 Proby, K.H.
1974 Stephens, W.H., III (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1974 Webb, S.D. (TM; Pleist.; 18.)
x 1975a Anon. (manatee research laboratory, Gainesville; 12-13.)
x 1975b Anon. (TML; conceived & born in capt., Miami; 6-7.)
x 1975c Anon. (TML; Everglades; "bloated" manatees sighted; 5.)
x 1975 Forrester et al. (TML; human-induced pathology; 566-568.)
x 1975 Lynd, W. (TML; Miami; rescue & rehabilitation; 28-29.)
x 1975 Weber, T., Jr. (TML; harpooning from bridges; 66-67.)
1976 Campbell, H.W.
1976 Odell, D.K.
1976d Anon.
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (TML; gen. acc.; 1, 3-6.)
1976 Carr, A.
x 1976 Collard et al. (TML; Pensacola Bay; 48.)
1976 Furlow, L.T. (TML)
x 1976 Odell, D.K. (TML; southern Florida; aerial survey; 203-212.)
x 1976 Reed, J. (TML; in artificial Lake Ponte Vedra; m12.)
D * 1976 Reinhart, R.H. (fossil sirs. & Desmostylus)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; behavior, popular misconceptions, & conservation; 209-214.)
1976 Stewart, R. (TML; Blue Spring; pop. acc.)
x 1976 Webb, S.D. (Trichechus; immigration in Late Blancan [Plioc.]; 221, 223, 226.)
x 1976 Wray, P. (TML; pop. acc.; 13-15.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (TML; feeding ecology; 249-251.)
x 1977 O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; Crystal R.; pop. acc.; 65, 67.)
1978b Finnley, D.
1978c Finnley, D.
x 1978 Harper, H. (TML; Merritt Is.; release of captives; 12.)
x * 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TML; aerial census; 613-617.)
1979 Barada, B. (TML)
x 1979 Barrett, S.K. (TML; southeastern Florida; mortalities in flood-control dams; 26.)
1979 Carr, A., III (TML; conservation)
x 1979 Forrester et al. (TML; parasites; 5.)
x 1979 Harper, H. (TML; Blue Spring; news reporting; 16.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; ecology & behavior; i-viii, 1-153.)
x 1979 Leatherwood, S. (TML; Indian & Banana Rs.; aerial survey; 47-59.)
1979 Leccese, M. (TML; refuges established)
1979 McNulty, F.
x 1979 Odell & Reynolds (TML; southern Florida; mortality; 572-577.)
1979 Odell, D.K. (TML; Everglades National Park)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; behavior; pop. acc.; 44-53.)
1979 Tangley, L. (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1979 Twiss, J.R., Jr. (TML; conservation; pop. acc.; 10-17.)
1979 Webb, S.D.
x 1980 Abrahamson, D. (TML; Crystal R.; pop. acc.; 92-94, 96, 98-99, 104.)
x 1980a Anon. (TML; status; pop. acc.; 49.)
x 1980b Anon. (TML; pop. acc.; 97-98, 100.)
1980c Anon.
1980 Blount, S. (TML; Crystal R.; pop. acc.)
x 1980 Cumbaa, S.L. (TML; at archeological sites; 6, 8-9.)
1980 Finnley, D. (TML; Merritt Is. & Chassahowitzka)
1980 Harper, H. (TML; mortality)
1980 Hill, K. (TML)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; clinical parameters; 2-10.)
1980 Kirshenbaum, J.
1980 Patton, G.W. (TML; Tampa Bay)
1980 Raloff, J.
x 1980a Sleeper, B. (TML; pop. acc.; 42-47.)
x 1980 Telander, R. (TML; pop. acc.; 28-35.)
1980 Wolfe, P. (TML; Crystal R.; pop. acc.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TML; in capt., Orlando; husbandry; 121-127.)
x 1981 Beck et al. (TML; mortality, 1978; 76-85.)
x 1981a Beusse et al. (TML; mortality, 1974-77; 98-101.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TML; treatment of injuries; 111-120.)
x 1981 Bingham, B. (TML; drinking fresh water; pop. acc.; 90-91.)
x * 1981 Brownell & Ralls (TML; workshop proceedings; 1-154.)
x * 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TML; review; 3-16.)
x 1981 Campbell & Irvine (TML; cold mortality, 1976-77; 86-91.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (TML; captive rearing of orphans; 141.)
x 1981 Irvine, Odell, & Campbell (TML; carcass salvage & mortality, 1974-77; 67-75.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (TML; in capt., St. Augustine; husbandry; 128-130.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TML; organ weights & sexual maturity; 52-53.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TML; use of Blue Spring & St. Johns R.; 41-51.)
x 1981 Powell, J.A., Jr. (TML; use of Crystal R.; 33-40.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Blue Lagoon, Miami; behavior; 233-242.)
x * 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Blue Lagoon, Miami; social behavior; 431-451.)
x 1981c Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Blue Lagoon, Miami; behavior & effects of human activities; 25-32.)
x 1981 Rose, P.M. (TML; aerial survey at power plants, 1977-78; 22-24.)
1981 Shane, S.H. (TML; Brevard Co.; use of power-plant effluents)
x 1981 Sleeper, B. (TML; pop. acc.; 16-20.)
x 1981 Webb et al. (Metaxytherium; Late Mioc., Love Bone Bed; 517, 521, 535.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; in capt., Miami; husbandry; 103-110.)
x 1982b Anon. (fossil sir. rib dredged off Clearwater; 11.)
x 1982 Beck et al. (TML; analysis of propeller wounds; 531-535.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; St. Johns R.; ecology & behavior; 4668.)
x 1982 Bonde, R.K. (TML; accidental mortality; pop. acc.; 3-5.)
x 1982 Bradford, D. (TML; conservation; public opinion survey; 9.)
x 1982 Dick, T.M. (TML; pop. acc.; 19-22.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Trichechus sp., Pleist., 604-605; TML, quartz sand & tooth wear, 615-616.)
x * 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Protosiren sp. & other Eoc. sirs., 4, 6, 9-11, 17-18; TM, Pleist., Waccasassa R., 18.)
x * 1982 Eberhardt, L.L. (TML; censusing methods; 1-18.)
x 1982 Fletemeyer, J. (TML; sonar monitoring; 296-299.)
1982 Iker, E.
x 1982 Irvine et al. (TML; western peninsular Florida; aerial surveys; 621-630.)
x 1982 Medway, Bruss et al. (TML; Blue Spring; blood serum osmolality & salinity; 231-232.)
x 1982 Michelson, R.C. (TML; Banana & Indian Rs.; automated radiotracking; 79-85.)
1982a O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; pop. acc.)
1982b O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; in capt.; pop. acc.)
x 1982 Rattner, D. (TML; pop. acc.; 29-31.)
1982 Reed, N.P. (TML; pop. acc.)
1982 Reynolds & Odell (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1982 Ridgway, B. (cf. Halianassa; Middle Mioc., St. Petersburg; 7, 13, 15.)
x 1982 Scott & Powell (TML; St. Johns R.; commensal feeding by heron; 215-216.)
1982 Stewart, V.N. (TML)
x 1982 Thiel, R. (TML; pop. acc.; 4-7.)
x 1982 Watterlond, M. (TML; pop. acc.; 94, 96.)
1983b Anon. (TML; pop. acc.)
1983 Barile et al. (TML; conservation)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; Blue Spring; food consumption in wild; 1186-1192.)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (TML; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; 1294-1296.)
1983 Faulkner, D.
x 1983 Gluckman & Hamann (list of laws & regulations relevant to manatees; 174-184.)
x 1983a Gluckman, D. (laws & educational programs re: manatees; 233-252.)
x 1983b Gluckman, D. (laws re: water quality & weed control; 253-273.)
x 1983c Gluckman, D. (manatee habitat acquisition programs; 274-301.)
x 1983d Gluckman, D. (National Environmental Policy Act & manatee protection; 317-320.)
x 1983a Hamann, R. (laws re: marina & dock construction & dredging; 185-232.)
x 1983b Hamann, R. (laws re: spring flow at manatee winter refugia; 302-309.)
x 1983c Hamann, R. (U.S. Endangered Species Act, Marine Mammal Protection Act & manatee protection; 310-316.)
x 1983 Irvine, A.B. (TML; metabolism & distr.; 316, 328-331.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (TML; Jacksonville; use of power plants; 1-24.)
x * 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; northeastern Florida; aerial census; 1-56.)
x 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; strategies to reduce boat-related mortality; 1-19.)
x * 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Brevard Co. & lower St. Johns R.; boat mortality; 1-41.)
x * 1983 Kochman et al. (TML; Crystal R.; temporal & spatial distr.; 69-124.)
1983 MacDougall, W.L.
x 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Metaxytherium, discoveries, 4, 16-25; Protosiren, fossil manatees, 24.)
1983 Murphy, M.J.T.
x 1983 O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Crystal R.; potential herbicide hazards; 159-173.)
x * 1983 Packard & Mulholland (TML; aerial surveys, 1977-82; 1-119.)
x 1983 Packard & Nichols (TML; sample sizes required for mark-recovery studies; 1-14.)
x 1983 Packard et al. (TML; St. Johns R.; aerial survey; 1-10.)
1983a Packard, J.M. (TML; Crystal R. research & management plan)
* 1983b Packard, J.M. (TML; Crystal R. research & management plan)
1983 Priest, R. (TML; mortality; pop. acc.)
x 1983 Puckett, C. (Citrus Co.; public attitudes toward manatees; 321-346.)
x 1983 Rathbun, F. (TML; pop. acc.; museum exhibit; 6-10.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TML; use of warm-water sources; pop. acc.; 40-44.)
x 1983b Shane, S.H. (TML; Brevard Co.; abundance, distr., & movements; 1-9.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Brevard Co.; 1-8.)
x 1983 Wilkins, K.T. (TM; Pleist.; Rock Springs; 70, 76-77, 79.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (TML; pathology; 1331-1334.)
x 1984 Buergelt, C.D. (TML; mortality, 1980-83; summary; 28-29.)
x 1984 DiPerna, P. (TML; captive breeding; pop. acc.; 16-17.)
x 1984 Hall, A.J. (TML; photos; 400-413.)
x 1984 Irvine & Scott (TML; development of marking techniques; 12-26.)
x 1984 Lewis et al. (TML; Tampa Bay; feeding on algae; 189-191.)
x 1984 O'Shea et al. (TML; contaminant concentrations; 741-748.)
x 1984 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Ft. Myers; abundance, 1983-84; 1-63.)
x 1984a Packard, J.M. (TML; impact on seagrass beds; 21-22.)
x * 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TML; northern Gulf Coast; 1-28.)
x 1984 Reynolds & Ferguson (TML; Dry Tortugas; 187-189.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (TML; Brevard Co.; use of power-plant effluents; 180-187.)
x 1984 Snipes, R.L. (TML; cecum; 67-68.)
1984 Spillan, T. (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1984a White, J.R. (TML; in capt., Miami; births; proposed breeding program; pop. acc.; 414-418.)
x 1984b White, J.R. (TML; captive breeding & release; 369-375.)
x 1985b Anon. (TML; pop. acc.; 16, 18.)
x 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (TML; Blue Spring & St. Johns R.; vocalizations; 816-819.)
x 1985b Domning, D.P. (TML; habitat protection; [2].)
x 1985 Etheridge et al. (TML; Crystal R.; plant consumption; 21-25.)
1985 Kneissler, M. (TML)
x 1985 Kochman et al. (TML; Crystal R.; temporal & spatial distr.; 921-924.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (TML; mortality, 1976-81; 1-11.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Rathbun et al. (TML; capture & handling; 337-339.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Ft. Myers; use of power plant, 1984-85; 1-20.)
x 1985a Packard, J.M. (TML; aerial survey techniques; i-vi, 1-68.)
x 1985b Packard, J.M. (TML; population model; 5, 15-17.)
x 1985 Packard, Summers & Barnes (TML; St. Johns R.; aerial survey; 347-351.)
x 1985 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; power plants, 1982-83; 413-422.)
1985 Rose, P.M.
x 1985 Walters, M.J. (TML; pop. acc.; 171-172, 175-176.)
1986 Kirby, T. (TML)
1986 Marine Mammal Commission (TML; Crystal R.; habitat protection needs)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (TML; specimens in Carnegie Museum; 293-296.)
x 1986 O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Blue Spring; feeding on acorns; 183-185.)
x * 1986 Packard & Wetterqvist (TML; northwestern coast; habitat; 279-310.)
x 1986 Packard et al. (TML; Ft. Myers; aerial survey; 265-275.)
1986 Patton, G.W. (TML)
x 1986 Ray & Domning (TML; conservation; 77-78.)
x 1986 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; power plants, 1984-85; 103-113.)
x 1986 Sleeper, B. (TML; pop. acc.; 86-99.)
x 1987b Anon. (TML; in capt.; bottle-feeding of orphan; 225.)
1987 Baugh, T.M.
1987 Bertram, G.C.L. (TML; Cape Kennedy)
x 1987c Domning, D.P. (Trichechus not a recent arrival in Florida; 1-2.)
1987 Patton et al. (TML)
x 1987 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; use of power-plant refugia; pop. acc.; 263-269.)
x 1987 Sleeper, B. (TML; pop. acc.; 18-22.)
1987 Thorhaug, A. (Biscayne Bay; seagrass restoration)
x 1987 Walsh et al. (TML; omphalitis & peritonitis; 702.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (TML; parasites; 628-637.)
* 1988 Beeler & O'Shea (TML; distr. & mortality)
1988 Brown, R.C. (fossils; pop. acc.)
x 1988 Bulman, P. (TML; enforcement of boat speed laws; 23.)
x 1988 Carowan, G. (TML; in capt., Epcot Center, Orlando; rehabilitation & release; 5.)
x 1988 Dailey et al. (TML; Hobe Sound; boat kill, parasites; 159.)
1988 Dickey, B. (TML; Kennedy Space Center)
x * 1988 Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium floridanum; Mioc.; 395-426.)
x 1988 Hurst & Beck (TML; dietary analysis techniques; 1-145.)
1988 Marine Mammal Commission (TML; east coast; habitat protection needs)
x 1988 McClenaghan & O'Shea (TML; genetic variability of subpopulations; 481-488.)
1988 Nabor & Patton (TML; west coast; aerial surveys)
x * 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; past & present distr., abundance, & mortality, & future prospects; 184-204.)
1988b O'Shea, T.J. (TML; east coast; research efforts)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (TML; northern Banana R.; abundance & distr.; 323-338.)
x 1988 Rathbun, G.B. (TML; Crystal & Indian Rs.; aerial survey methods; 71-75.)
* 1988 Reynolds & Gluckman (TML; conservation)
1988a Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; aerial surveys)
1988b Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; power plants, 1977-1986)
1988 Silverberg & Morris (TML; Homosassa Sprs.; diet)
1988 Sleeper, B. (TML; pop. acc.)
1988 Weigle et al. (TML; Tampa Bay; use of power plants)
1988 Wilhelm et al. (TML; Tampa Bay; scar patterns)
x 1989a Anon. (TML; drinking from hose; 187.)
x 1989 Baugh et al. (TML; Cumberland Sound; feeding on Spartina; 88-90.)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (sirs.; Mioc., Suwannee R.; 54-60.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (Dioplotherium manigaulti; Early Mioc.; 416-418.)
1989 Fox, A. (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1989 Hulbert & Morgan (TM; Early Pleist., Leisey sites; 11.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TML; distr., status, & biogeography; 567-571, 576-579, 603-604.)
x 1989 Lewis, T.A. (TML; boat mortality; pop. acc.; 42-49.)
x * 1989 Morgan, G.S. (sirs.; Mioc., Suwannee R.; 27, 29-30, 32-34, 37-39, 43, 46, 49.)
1989 Nabor & Patton (TML)
x 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Ft. Myers; at power plant, 1984-85; 692-700.)
1989 Patton et al. (TML; Port of the Islands)
x 1989 Reid & O'Shea (TML; satellite tracking; 217-232.)
x 1989 Upton et al. (TML; parasites Eimeria spp.; 87-90.)
x 1989 Walsh, K. (TML; children's article; 2-9.)
1990 Buckingham, C.A. (TML; Crystal R.; response to disturbance)
1990 Chu & Dampier (TML; pop. acc.)
1990 Clark, M.G. (TML; children's book)
x 1990a Domning, D.P. (Hobe & Jupiter Sounds; rhizivory experiments; 34-36.)
x * 1990b Domning, D.P. (Corystosiren varguezi, n.gen.n.sp.; Plioc.; 361-362.)
1990 Gannon, F. (TML; pop. acc.)
1990 Gilbrook, M.J. (TML; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Houhoulis, P. (TML; W. Tampa Bay; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
x 1990 Ivany et al. (Protosiren; Eoc.; seagrass community; 244-258.)
1990 Kautz, R.S. (TML; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Morgan & Patton (TML; west coast; aerial surveys)
1990 O'Shea & Kochman (TML; distr. & ecology in relation to Geogr. Information Systems)
1990 Osborn, R.G. (TML; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
x * 1990 Rathbun et al. (TML; northwestern Florida; distr. & movements; 1-33.)
* 1990 Reynolds & Haddad (TML; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems Workshop)
x 1990a Turner, R.O. (TML; new sanctuary established at Merritt Is.; 10.)
x 1990b Turner, R.O. (TML; legislation; 7.)
1990 Weigle & Haddad (TML; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
x 1991 Beck & Barros (TML; impact of debris; 508-510.)
x 1991 Bryant, J.D. ("Hesperosiren" crataegensis; Mioc.; 475-476, 484, 486.)
1991 Goodwin & Thompson (TML)
1991 Kadel, Dukeman & Patton (TML; west coast; aerial surveys, 1988)
1991 Kadel, Morgan & Patton (TML; west coast; aerial surveys, 1990)
1991 Kiely, J. (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1991 Lefebvre & Kochman (TML; use of Crystal & Homosassa Rs.; aerial survey methodology; 299-305.)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; southwestern Florida; mortality from red tide, 1982; 165-179.)
x 1991 Provancha & Hall (TML; Banana R.; impact on seagrass beds; 87-98.)
x 1991 Reid et al. (TML; Florida; distr. & movements; 180-190.)
x 1992a Anon. (Save the Manatee Club-Florida Audubon controversy; 89.)
x D 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (checklist of fossil species; 28-29, 33.)
1992 Kadel & Patton (TML; west coast; aerial surveys, 1985-90)
x 1992 Kadel, J. (TML; Ft. Myers; "white" individual; 15-16.)
1992 Nelson, M.S. (Save the Manatee Club activities)
* 1992 O'Shea et al. (TML; population biology; interim report of workshop)
1992 Salisbury, C.A. (TML; in capt., Tampa)
x 1992 Shackley, M. (TML; effects of tourism; 257-265.)
x 1992 Simmons, N. (TML; rehabilitation; pop. acc.; 9.)
1992 Wood et al. (TML; conservation)
1992 Yokel, B.J. (Save the Manatee Club-Florida Audubon Soc. controversy)
x 1993 Bonde, R.K. (TML; gen. acc.; 16-18.)
1993 Epstein, R. (TML; pop. acc.)
1993 Hughes, C.D. (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1993 O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; pop. acc.; 1-127.)
1993 Smith, K.N. (TML; threats to seagrass habitats)
1993 Ward & Weigle (TML; conservation; GIS applications)
1993 Wolf, M. (TML; pop. acc.)
x 1993 Yokel, B.J. (settlement of Florida Audubon Soc.-Save the Manatee Committee lawsuit; 2, 19.)
1994 Vallee, J.D. (TML; boat collisions)
x 1994 Brooks, L.S. (TML; Manatee Information Radio established in Crystal River; 33.)
x 1994 Garrott et al. (TML; power plants, 1977-1992; 642-654.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (TML; status, research, conservation; 158-160, 164.)
x 1994 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; power plants, 1982-1992; 163-177.)
x 1994 Tilmant et al. (TML; south Florida; effects of 1992 hurricane; 236.)
x 1995 Ackerman et al. (TML; mortality, 1974-1992; 223-258.)
1995 Gorzelany & Koelsch (TML; Sarasota Bay)
1995 Koelsch, J.K. (TML; Sarasota Bay)
x 1995 Kraus, J. (TML; Merritt Island soft-release site; 8-9.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Hartley (TML; Blue Spring; reproduction & early-age survival; 157-170.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Langtimm (TML; adult survival; 194-222.)
* 1995 O'Shea et al. (TML; population biology)
x 1995 O'Shea, T.J. (TML; conflicts with waterborne recreation; 297-311.)
x 1995 Rattner, R. (TML; pop. acc.; 22-29.)
1996a Seifert, D.D. (TML; conservation)
x 1996 Ames & Van Vleet (TML; organochlorine residues; 374-377.)
x 1996a Anon. (TML; 1995 mortality; pop. acc.; 11.)
x 1996b Anon. (Sarasota Co.; study of compliance with speed zone regulations; 5.)
x 1996d Anon. (TML; 1996 die-off ?due to red tide; 456-457.)
x 1996 Arnold, D.W. (TML; conservation efforts by Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection; 6-7.)
x 1996 Behler, D.A. (TML; adoption program; 1996 die-off; 16.)
x 1996 Holden, C. (TML; 1996 die-off due to red tide; 191.)
x 1996 Koelsch, J.K. (TML; Sarasota Co.; research by Mote Marine Lab; 8-10.)
x 1996 Marmontel et al. (TML; age determination by growth layers in bone; 54-88.)
x 1996 Marshall, C.D. (TML; gen.acc.; 6-10.)
x 1996 Pain, S. (TML; protective devices on flood-control gates; 22.)
x 1996 Russell, B.J. (TML; in capt., Sarasota; pop. acc.; 5.)
x 1996 Trocine & Trefry (Indian River Lagoon; metal concentrations; 754-759.)
x 1996 Turner, R.O. (TML; 1996 die-off; 27.)
1996 Miller et al. (TML; aerial survey & aerophotogrammetry)
x 1996 Morgan & Portell (indeterminate sirs.; Brevard County; ?Late Plioc.; m11.)
x 1997a Anon. (TML; rehabilitation facilities needed outside Florida; 498.)
x 1997b Anon. (TML; boat speed zone enforcement; 756.)
1997 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TML)
x 1997 Craig et al. (TML; Atlantic coast; population trends, 1982-92; 524-541.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (Crenatosiren olseni; Late Oligocene, Suwannee R.; 397-398.)
x 1997 Marmontel et al. (TML; population viability analysis, 1976-91; 467-481.)
x 1997 Wells, R. (manatee research at Mote Marine Lab; 12.)
1997? Young, A. (TML; Tampa; rehabilitation from red tide; pop. acc.)
x 1998 Bossart et al. (TML; 1996 die-off due to red tide; 276.)
x 1998 Deutsch et al. (TML; radio-tracking; 18-29.)
x 1998 Langtimm et al. (TML; adult survival probabilities; 981-997.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML; in capt.; osmoregulation experiments; 450.)
x 1998 Rathbun, G.B. (TM; gen. acc.; 146-151.)
x 1998 Salvesen, D. (TML; research & conservation; pop. acc.; 17-23.)
x 1998 Wright et al. (TML; use of PIT tags; 641-645.)
x 1999 Renz, M. (Metaxytherium floridanum (Middle Mioc.) and an undescribed dugongine; 57-66.)
x 1999 Abellera, B.J. (TML; pop. acc.; 32.)
x 1999 Bossart, G.D. (TML; gen. acc.; conservation; 1178-1183.)
1999 Buckingham et al. (TML; response to boats)
x v 1999 Koeppel, D. (TML; pop. acc.; 66, 68-69.)
x 1999 Maynard, T. (TM; pop. acc.; 34-37.)
x 1999 Miller et al. (TML; Banana R.; strip-transect aerial survey methods; 561-570.)
x 2000 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Indian River Lagoon; seagrass use; 289-297.)
x 2000 DiEdwardo, J.A. (TML; pop. acc.; 22-25.)
x 2001 Allen & Carol (TML; pop. acc.; 12-15.)
x 2001 O'Shea et al. (TML; injury & suffering; population biology; 31-43.)
* 2001 Weigle et al. (TML; Tampa Bay & west coast; movements of radio-tagged animals, 1991-96; 1-156.)
x 2001 Zastrow & Jaquette (Florida; marina permitting; 23-27.)
2002 Penders, T. (TML; Windover site)
x 2002 Ashley, G. (TML; boat collisions & regulations; 8.)
x 2002 Verdon, M. (TML; conflicts with boaters; 89-94.)
2002 White et al. (TML; Duval Co.; seasonal distr.)
2002 Wright et al. (TML; Tampa Bay; habitat use, 1987-94; 259-274.)
2002 Yakutchik, M. (TML)
2002 Cox et al. (proposed re-evaluation of rare species)
2003 Aipanjiguly et al. (TML; Tampa Bay; attitudes of boaters)
2003 Langtimm & Beck (TML; mortality from hurricanes)
x 2003 Grimes & Becnel (TML; in capt., Bradenton; pop. acc.; 75-77.)
2003 Stith et al. (TML; Everglades; response to restoration)
2004 Hauxwell et al. (TML; Kings Bay; feeding on Vallisneria americana)
2004 McGill, T. (anti-manatee tract)
2004 Smith & Mezich (TML; Manatee Springs; effects of grazing)
2004 King & Heinen (TML; Crystal & Homosassa Rivers; harassment by swimmers)
2004 Kendall et al. (TML; estimating reproductive rates)
2004 Langtimm et al. (TML; survival estimates from photo-identification)
2004 Runge et al. (TML; stage-structured population model)
2004 Craig & Reynolds (TML; Atlantic coast; model of population trends)
x 2004 Missimer & Tobias. (cf. Dugongidae; Late Plioc.; Lehigh, Florida; m62.)
2004 Pittman, C. (TML; controversies over conservation)
2004 Gorzelany, J.F. (Gulf Coast; boater compliance with manatee speed zones)
x 2005 Flewelling et al. (TML; red tide, 2002: 755-756.)
2005a Laist & Reynolds (TML; effects of warm-water refuges)
2005b Laist & Reynolds (TML; future of warm-water refuges)
* 2005 Domning, D.P. (Trichechus manatus bakerorum, n.subsp.; Late Pleist.)
x 2005 Reed et al. (dugongid bones on submerged terrace in Straits of Florida; 275, 281, 287.)
2006 Sorice et al. (TML; management as tourism attraction)
2006 Laist & Shaw (TML; Brevard County; boat speed restrictions and mortality)
2006 Langtimm et al. (TML; effects of hurricanes)
2007 Lowry et al. (TML; conservation status & history of U.S. listing)
2007 Gannon et al. (TML; Sarasota Bay; habitat selection)
2007 Edwards et al. (TML; aerial surveys; detection probability)
x 2008 Chiang, M. (TML; Lake Okeechobee; anti-crush system on canal lock gates; pop. acc.; 8-10.)
* 2008a Domning & Aguilera (Nanosiren garciae, n.gen.n.sp., Early Plioc.)
2008 Wood, J.R. (TML; children's book)
2008 Harr et al. (TML; Kings Bay; toxin in algal mats)
2009 Gonzalez-S. et al. (TML; detection by side-scan sonar)
2009 Evans et al. (participatory adaptive management; Kings Bay)
2009 Landsberg et al. (TML; Karenia brevis red tides)
2009 Nico et al. (TML; Blue Spring; interactions with armored catfish)
* 2010 Pittman, C. (TML; conservation; historical account)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (TML; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
2010 Gibbs et al. (TML; Blue Spring; disturbance by invasive catfish)
2010 Nico, L.G. (TML; Blue Spring; association with armored catfish)
x 2010 Winger, J. (TM; pop. acc.; 24-29.)
2010 Jett & Thapa (TML; speed zone compliance by boaters)
2010 Garbin & Mann (potential impacts of bridge construction on manatee mating area)
2010? Reiken, F. (TML; fiction)
2011 Semeyn et al. (TML; Lee County; aerial surveys)
2011 Martin et al. (TML; sea level rise)
2011 Slone, D. (TML; inverted haloclines as warm-water refugia)
2011 Miksis-Olds & Wagner (TML; behavioral response to noise)
2011 Stith et al. (TML; southwest Florida; warm-water refugia; temperature-inverted haloclines)
2011 Donà et al. (TML; seroepidemiology of papillomavirus)
2012 Slezak, R.E. (TML; Wakulla Springs; children's book)
* 2012 Deutsch & Reynolds (TML; status & conservation issues)
2012 Sadchatheeswaran et al. (TML; southwest Florida; brevetoxin levels)
2012 Jett et al. (TML; Florida; boater speed-zone compliance)
2012 Chen, X. (Crystal River/Kings Bay; hydrodynamics)
2012 Stith et al. (TML; passive thermal refugia)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al. (multispecies fossil sir. community)
2012 Seidman, D. (diatribe against the Save the Manatee Club)
2012 Rappucci et al. (TML; Port Everglades; tidal cycle effects)
x 2012 Dewar, H. (TML; Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge; gen. acc.; 4.)
2012 Tucker et al. (TML; low genetic diversity; population structure; conservation)
2012 Wong et al. (TML; oral temperature, heart & respiration rate)
2013 Capper et al. (TML; algal bloom toxins)
2013 Flamm et al. (TML; southwestern Florida; managing warm-water habitat)
x 2013 Friedman-Rudovsky, J. (TM; Cuba-Florida collaborative research; 447.)
2013 Bonde et al. (TML; Crystal River; health assessments)
* 2013 Laist et al. (TML; warm-water refuges)
2013 Bauduin et al. (TML; interaction with watercraft)
2013 Rhoades, R.L. (TML; Crystal River & Lowry Park Zoo; pop. acc.)
x 2013 White, M. (TML; Crystal River, Florida; pop. acc.; 82-97.)
2014 Kleen & Breland (TML; Citrus County & Kings Bay; seasonal use of warm-water refuge)
2014 Merson et al. (TML; Crystal River; hindgut microbial communities)
* 2014a Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (Metaxytherium albifontanum, n.sp.; Late Olig.)
2014 Merson et al. (TML, Crystal River; hindgut microbial communities)
2016 Edwards et al. (TML; diving & risk of boat collisions)
* 2016 Edwards & Ackerman, eds. (TML; aerial surveys of distribution, 1984-2004)
2016 Takeuchi et al. (TM; trace metals)
2016 Adimey et al. (TML; post-release monitoring)
2017 Wyrosdick et al. (TML; Toxoplasma gondii)
2017 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme)
2017 Slone et al. (TML; Crystal River; warm-water refuge use; GPS telemetry)
2017 Haase et al. (TML; movements & habitat use; satellite telemetry)
2017 Wyrosdick, Gerhold et al. (TML; Toxoplasma gondii)
2018 Hostetler et al. (TML; statewide abundance estimate)
2018 Carr& Milstein (TML; critique of preserving power plants as thermal refuges)
2018 Sanktjohanser, F. (TML; pop. acc.)
2018 Rycyk et al. (TML; behavioral response to boats)
2018b Alvarez-Alemán et al. (TML; traveling between Florida and Cuba)
2019 Hardy et al. (TML; cold-related mortality)
2019 Palmer et al. (TM; PFAS in plasma)
2019 Littles et al. (TML; Kings Bay; movements in and out of winter refuge)
2019 Woodworth et al. (TML; Melanothamnus maniticola n.sp. (Rhodophyta).)
2019 Hill et al. (TML; in capt.; diet)
2020 Reeves & Gillett-Kaufman (TML; Everglades; bitten by mosquitoes [Aedes, Anopheles, & Culex])
2020 Fitt, W. (TML; eating Chondrilla caribensis & other sponges)
2020 Haase et al. (TML; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
2021 Lazensky et al. (TML; mortality increase; proteomic approach)
2021 De María et al. (TML; glyphosate)
v 2021 Swanson, Jess (TML; places to view them; pop. acc.)
2021 Gonzalez et al. (TML; nematode Cutidiplogaster manati and others)
2022 Allen et al. (TML; Indian River Lagoon; diet)
2022 Landsberg et al. (TML; Indian River Lagoon mortality event; clostridial infection)
Florida Manatee: SEE Trichechus manatus; Trichechus manatus latirostris; and synonyms ( 0 )
Folklore: SEE Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance ( 0 )
Food ( 204 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Ingestive; Captivity, Sirenians in; Digestive System; Food Plants; Weed Control) (NOTE: Plants reported as part of the captive but not the natural diet of sirs. will not necessarily be found under Food Plants. Papers referring to them are, however, indexed here.)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; condition of stomach contents; m317.)
x 1821b Home, E. (DD; "fuci" in stomach; 391.)
x 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; in capt.; milk, banana; 192-193.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; in capt.; 456, 459-461.)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; in capt.; 21-23.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (Trichechus; in capt.; 459-460.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (Trichechus; Americas; 118-119.)
x 1887 Martin, J.K. (TMM; Suriname; 27.)
x 1889 Scammon, C.M. (Trichechus; in capt.; 582.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (Trichechus; in capt., Brighton; 218.)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (DD; Sri Lanka; m99.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; kelps; 198.)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TML; in capt., New York; Zostera, lettuce, celery; 97.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; India; green alga; 242.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, 55-57; Trichechus, 57.)
x 1908b Anon. (TML; in capt., New York; eelgrass, lettuce; 427.)
x 1915 Ostenfeld, C.H. (sirs. & seagrass dispersal; m180.)
x 1916a Anon. (TI; in capt., New York; Zostera, lettuce, bread, etc.; 1421.)
1921 Burkill, H.I.
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (iodine content & thyroid gland; 358.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; plants, 126; condition of stomach contents, 127.)
1924 Ridley, H.N.
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt., Hamburg; lettuce, cabbage, bread, Pistia, etc., 65, 119-121, 124-125; coprophagy, 122-123; meat, fish, 123-124.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; 88.)
x 1931 Brimley, H.H. (TML; in capt., North Carolina; 321.)
x 1932 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Taiwan; algae, crabs; 1.)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Taiwan; algae, crabs; 4221.)
x 1938 Devillers, C. (TI; in capt.; cabbage, maize, etc.; 88.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; in capt., New York; lettuce, etc.; 142-143.)
x 1940 Coates, C.W. (TI; in capt., New York; clover, alfalfa; 99-100.)
x 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; plants: "comida-de-peixe-boi," "pyrypioca," 100; "canarana," "perimembéca," "arros brabo," "mururé," 102.)
x 1944 Morais Rêgo, A.R. de (TI; Brazil; fruits, grass, detritus; 10.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; plants & mud in stomach, 41; less food available in black waters, 54-57; eating mud, 57; food plants, 56-58; calves eating plants at age of 2 months, 58.)
x 1947 Harwood, K. (TML; in capt., Miami; water hyacinth, grass, fruit, bread; 50.)
1949 Poisson, H.
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; 33-34.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; 403.)
x 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; plants only, no roots; 17-18.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD; Palau; clams & sea cucumbers; 22-24, 27.)
1957 Odum, H.T.
x 1959 De Silva, J.A. (DD; Sri Lanka; 174.)
x * 1959 Jones, S. (DD; India; in capt., & stomach contents of wild specimens; 198-201.)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TMM; Guyana; 762.)
x 1960 Mani, S.B. (DD; India; algae in stomach; m217.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 2-3.)
x 1963 Hofmeister, M. (?TM; in capt., Ohio; lettuce, spinach, celery; 12.)
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; Indonesia; plants, ?crabs; 150.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 115, 118.)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; Mexico; terrestrial grasses ?preferred to seagrasses; 410-412.)
x * 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 86, 88.)
x 1967 Aung, S.H. (DD; in capt., Rangoon; 221.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (TML; Florida; experiments; pop. acc.; 4.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; in capt., Cairns, Australia; 220.)
x 1968b Anon. (TI; in capt., San Francisco; lettuce; 2-3.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (DD, Sri Lanka, roots, etc., 386, 388; Trichechus, 389.)
x 1969 Herald, E.S. (TI; in capt., San Francisco; lettuce; 29.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; ?oysters, etc.; m395.)
x 1972 Caldwell & Caldwell (TML; in capt.; plants, herring, beef; 454.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Australia; stomach contents; 884, 886.)
x 1972 Phillips, C. (sirs. in capt.; suggested diets; 36-37.)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; seagrasses, algae, silt, animal matter; 678-680.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; diet, 31-37; algae, 37, 55, 57, 79, 87, 101, 107, 109, 114, 129; lawn grass, palm fronds, cabbage, etc., 87-88, 101-102, 122.)
x 1975 Dayton, P.K. (Hydrodamalis; abundance of kelp due to sea otters; 236-237.)
x D 1975 Domning, D.P. (North Pacific sirs. & desmostylians; feeding ecology; 824.)
x 1975 Kirkman, H. (DD; Stradbroke Is., Australia; "seagrass", m131; description of seagrass communities.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM, TI; in capt., Brazil; diets; 224-225.)
x * 1976 Allen et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta; food analyses & feeding methods; malnutrition; 36-38.)
x 1976 Cole & Okera (TS; Sierra Leone; rice crops; m43.)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (DD; Red Sea; stomach contents; 81-96.)
x 1976 Tas'an (DD; in capt., Jakarta; Zostera, Ipomoea, lettuce, cabbage, carrots; 5, 7-8.)
x 1977 Boever et al. (TI; St. Louis, Missouri; lettuce & other vegetables; 5.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (TML; Florida; feeding ecology; 249-251.)
x D 1977b Domning, D.P. (North Pacific sirs. & desmostylians; 355-361.)
x * 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; diet & role in ecosystem; 235-248.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (DD; milk & seagrasses in gut; 276.)
x D * 1978b Domning, D.P. (North Pacific; sirs. & desmostylians; 110-118, 139-146.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; Suriname; bananas, etc.; 338.)
x * 1978 Powell, J.A., Jr. (TM; wild & captive; fish; 442.)
1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia, "bushy alga", 125, 131; Palau, sea cucumbers, 135; seagrasses, 125, 134-135.)
x 1979 Bachman & Irvine (TML; milk volume in late lactation; 874.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; diet & feeding ecology, 44-58; algae, 48-51; list of algae that may be accidentally ingested [taxa not separately indexed here], 49-51; invertebrates, 53; detritus & feces, 53, 55; food consumption in capt., 54-55.)
1979 Johnstone, I.M. (DD; Papua New Guinea; methods for analysis of seagrass meadows as dugong habitat)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta & Okinawa; misc. plants; 8-9, 18-19, 26.)
x 1980 Denton et al. (DD; Queensland; metal content of seagrasses; 211-215.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI, TML; in capt.; lettuce; food position preference; 544.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; in capt.; lettuce, herring; weight loss & gain; 2, 7-8.)
x 1980 Sander, H.E. (DD; Papua New Guinea; characteristics of preferred seagrass beds; 1-31.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TML; in capt., Florida; misc. vegetables, tube feeding, 121, 123, 125; artificial formula, 125-127.)
x * 1981 Best, R.C. (wild & captive sir. diets & nutrition; 3-29.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TML; Florida; feeding ecology; review & research needs; 5.)
x * 1981 Channells & Morrissey (DD; Queensland; technique & key for identifying seagrasses in stomach samples; 303-309.)
x 1981a Denton, G.R.W. (DD; Queensland; metal content of seagrasses; 170-171.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; in capt., Cairns, Australia; seagrass, milk; 203-204.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (TML; in capt., St. Augustine, Florida; vegetables, fish, etc.; 128.)
x * 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (DD; Papua New Guinea; mouth samples, 681-690; algae, 682, 685.)
x 1981 Murray, R.M. (DD; importance of volatile fatty acids; 166-168.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TML; Blue Spring, Florida, 49-50; detritus, wood, palmetto leaf, etc.; 49.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; in capt., Miami; milk, vegetables, etc., 105-106; palm fronds, 107.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; St. Johns R., Florida; food preferences; 4668.)
* 1982 Best et al. (TI; in capt., Brazil; artificial formula)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (Trichechidae; diet & evolution; 609-616.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Eoc. sirs.; 61-63.)
x * 1982 Marsh et al. (DD; Queensland; stomach contents; algae, seagrasses; 55-67.)
x D 1982 Reinhart, R.H. (desmostylians possibly "herbivorous to omnivorous"; 552.)
x 1982 Werzinger, J. (TM; in capt., Nuremberg; artificial formula, carrots, lettuce, etc.; 36-37.)
x * 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; St. Johns R., Florida; food consumption in wild; 1186-1192.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; dry-season fasting; 61-64.)
x 1983 Irvine, A.B. (TML; in capt., Florida; lettuce, herring; 317.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; green algae, lawn grass, etc.; 6.)
x 1984b Best, R.C. (TI; diet & digestive physiology; gen. acc.; 374-376.)
1984 Janzen, D.H.
D 1984a Kozawa, Y.
x 1984 Lewis et al. (TML; Florida; algae; 189-191.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel (TM; consumption rates & digestive efficiencies; 176-179.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; low nutritive value of seagrasses; fertilization of seagrass beds by rain & silt runoff; effects of nutrition on reproduction; 782-784.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; list of food plants, including algae; 634-637, 639.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (TML; Florida; red & green algae; 184.)
x 1985 Morales et al. (TI; in capt.; lettuce, cabbage, celery, spinach, fish; 1230.)
x 1985 Qiu, Y.-X. (TM; in capt., Beijing; vegetables; 35.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; nutritional content of Halodule & Amphibolis; 476-479, 485-488.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; list of food plants, including algae [taxa of algae not separately indexed here], 989-991; food habits, 1001-1004.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (TMM; Mexico; list of food plants, including algae [taxa of algae not separately indexed here], 595-597; rotten stalks, mud, etc. in dry season, 597.)
x * 1986 Gallivan & Best (TI; feeding, fasting, & metabolic rate; 552-557.)
x 1986 Morales, P. (TI; in capt.; lettuce, cabbage, celery, spinach, fish; 44-45.)
x 1987b Anon. (TML; in capt., Orlando, Florida; artificial formula, romaine lettuce, hydroponic wheat; m225.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (seagrasses in the post-Messinian [Plioc.] Mediterranean; 229-230.)
x 1987 Whitten et al. (DD; possible role in dispersing seeds of seagrasses; 204.)
x D 1988 Estes & Steinberg (North Pacific sirs. & desmostylians & evolution of kelp; 21-22.)
x * 1988 Hurst & Beck (TML; Florida; dietary analysis techniques; i-xii, 1-145.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; possible dry-season fasting; 298.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; fish, rice, grass, mangroves; 81.)
1988 Silverberg & Morris (TML; Florida)
x 1989 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; sea pens, mussels; 4-6.)
x D 1989a Domning, D.P. (North Pacific sirs. & desmostylians & evolution of kelp; 53-56.)
x D 1989 Estes & Steinberg (North Pacific sirs. & desmostylians & evolution of kelp; 57-60.)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; ascidians; 170-171, 175.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (DD; South Sulawesi; stomach contents; 229-233.)
* 1993 Smith, K.N. (TML; Florida; review)
x 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (TML; in capt.; food rewards used in training; 14-15.)
x 1995 Lanyon & Marsh (DD; in capt., Jakarta; coprophagy; 120-123.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Queensland; algae, dead plants, & sediment, following seagrass die-off; 513, 517.)
x * 1995a Preen, A.R. (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; ascidians Sycozoa pulchra, Polycarpa spp.; polychaetes, other invertebrates, seagrasses, and algae; 163-171.)
x 1995 Wille, C. (TMM, Belize; mangos, etc.; m17.)
1996 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; in capt.)
* 1996 Ames et al. (TML; diet determined by stable carbon isotope analysis)
1996 De Iongh et al. (DD; in capt., Surabaya; preferences; 19-34.)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; lingulid brachiopods & Sipunculus sp.; m74.)
x D 1997 Pauls, E.B. (Desmostylus hesperus; tooth microwear & diet; 69A.)
x 1998 Bossart et al. (Florida; ascidians; 278, 281.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; plants, hydroids, ascidians; 395-396.)
* 1999 Valentine & Heck (Trichechus, DD; seagrass herbivory; review)
x 1999 Gerstein et al. (TML; in capt.; food rewards used in training; 3575.)
x 1999 Rosas et al. (TI, in capt.; Brachiaria, cabbage, lettuce; mineral deficiencies; 37-42.)
x 1999 Walker & Macko (TML, Florida; carbon & nitrogen isotopes in teeth; 323, 326-329, 331.)
2000 Hemminga & Duarte (seagrass)
2001 Adulyanukosal et al. (DD; Thailand; stomach contents)
2002a Whiting, S.D. (Northern Territory, Australia; algae)
* 2002b Whiting, S.D. (Northern Territory, Australia; algae)
x * 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; food plants; 67-72.)
x D 2003 Clementz et al. (Desmostylus; diet inferred from stable isotopes; 506-519.)
* 2003 Courbis & Worthy (TML; Florida; tunicates)
2003 André & Lawler (DD; near infrared spectroscopic analysis of diet)
2004a Goto et al. (DD; in capt.; effects of age, body size, & season on food consumption & digestion)
2004 Yamamuro et al. (Kyushu, Japan; brown algae; stable isotopes of gut contents)
2005 Andre et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; diet comp. w/ green turtles)
2005 Mellors et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; seagrass meadows; biogeochemical parameters)
2006 Reich & Worthy (isotopic assessment of manatee feeding habits)
2006 Lawler et al. (near infrared spectroscopic analysis of seagrass nutrients)
2007 Sheppard et al. (DD; seagrass habitat)
2007 Clementz et al. (diet & carbon isotope fractionation)
2008 Corbett et al. (HG; kelp diet & stable isotope composition of bone)
2008 Borges et al. (TM; northeastern Brazil; food items consumed)
2008 Diedrich, C.G. (Anomotherium langewieschei, Halitherium schinzii, Olig., Germany; DD, Red Sea)
2008 Marsh & Kwan (DD; Torres Strait; female reproductive biology & seagrass dieback)
2008 Sheppard et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; seagrass nutrients)
* 2008 Guterres et al. (TI; potential food plants; identification manual)
2009 Alves-Stanley & Worthy (TML; carbon & nitrogen stable isotopes)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
D * 2010 Newsome et al. (sirs. & desmostylians; use of stable isotope biogeochemistry to study ecology; review)
2010 Diedrich, C.G. (macroalgae; sir. diets comp. w/ placodontids)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (TML, TMM; Florida, Belize, Puerto Rico; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
2010 Siegal-Willott et al. (TML; aquatic vegetation & lettuce; nutrient analyses)
2010 Sheppard et al. (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia; habitat use & food choice)
2011 Gómez Lépiz, A. (TM; Costa Rica; food preferences)
2012 Guterres-Pazin et al. (TI; ingestion of invertebrates, seeds, and plastic)
* 2012 Beck & Clementz (Techniques for determining food habits of sirenians.)
2012 Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico; feeding ecology)
2013 Capper et al. (TML; Florida; algal bloom toxins)
2013 Guterres-P. et al. (TI; toxic plants in diet)
2014 Ciotti et al. (TMM; Brazil; C & N isotopes)
2014 Guterres-P. et al. (TI; Brazil; feeding ecology)
2014 Vélez-Juarbe, J. (use of sirs. as proxy for seagrass distribution)
2014 Esenowo et al. (TS; Nigeria; food preferences)
* 2015 Reich et al. (Sirs. as indirect paleo-seagrass indicators)
* 2017 Allen et al. (TMM; Belize; plants, sponges, diatoms)
* 2019 Nurdin et al. (DD; Indonesia; nutritional value of seagrass species)
2019 McLarty et al. (TMM; Cuba; habitat characterization using side-scan sonar)
* 2019 Odewumi et al. (TS; Nigeria; water parameters & flora of habitat)
* 2019 Hill et al. (TML; Florida, in capt.; diet)
2019 Harshaw et al. (TML; apparent digestibility of fiber)
* 2020 Fitt, W. (TML; Florida; Chondrilla caribensis & other sponges)
2020 Caicedo-Herrera et al. (TMM; Colombia; opportunistic fish consumption)
2021 Bullen et al. (HG; structuring of North Pacific kelp forests)
2022 Allen et al. (TML; Indian River Lagoon, Florida; dietary shift; stomach contents)
Food Plants: ( 0 )
(NOTE: In the following citations of references to species of food plants, where a sirenian taxon is not specified, reference is to the sirenian species native to the geographical area(s) mentioned.)
Food Plants: Agarum cribrosum ( 1 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
Food Plants: Agarum gmelini ( 2 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Agarum pertusum ( 2 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Agarum turneri ( 2 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Alaria esculenta ( 2 )
(brown alga; Alariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Alismaceae ( 1 )
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (S. America; 2: 193.)
Food Plants: Alternanthera philoxeroides ( 4 )
(Amaranthaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 31.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 47, 53.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (St. Johns R., Florida; 50.)
Food Plants: Amphibolis antarctica ( 6 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; feeding behavior; 641.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; feeding behavior; 97.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (Shark Bay, Australia; 90-91.)
x 1985 Anderson & Prince (Shark Bay, Australia; 554.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (Shark Bay, Australia; 474, 476, 478, 484-488.)
x 1994 Anderson, P.K. (Shark Bay, Australia; not a preferred food; 381, 383, 386-387.)
Food Plants: Anabaena ( 2 )
(blue-green alga; Nostocaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (Florida; 8.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236, 240.)
Food Plants: Anacharis ( 3 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; m92.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
Food Plants: Andropogon nardus ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224-225.)
Food Plants: Annona glabra ( 2 )
(Annonaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. ("Anona"; Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. ("Anona"; review; 19.)
Food Plants: Annona reticulata ( 2 )
(Annonaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. ("Anona"; Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. ("Anona"; review; 19.)
Food Plants: Artocarpus altilis ( 2 )
(breadfruit; Moraceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
Food Plants: Artocarpus integrifolia ( 2 )
(Moraceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
Food Plants: Arundinella gigantea ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Avicennia germinans ( 1 )
(Verbenaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1002.)
Food Plants: Avicennia marina ( 1 )
(Verbenaceae)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 682, 685.)
Food Plants: Avicennia nitida ( 2 )
(Verbenaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7, 9.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 44.)
Food Plants: Azolla ( 1 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
Food Plants: Brachiaria ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
2013 Barbosa et al. (TI, in capt.; passage time of digesta)
Food Plants: Brachiaria mutica ( 6 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Gallivan & Best (Brazil; in capt.; 552-553.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (Brazil; in capt.; 39.)
x * 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; analysis; 44.)
x 1999 Rosas et al. (Brazil, in capt.; 38.)
2010 Pantoja et al. (TI; in capt.)
2011 Drummond et al. (TI; in capt.; serum biochemical analytes)
Food Plants: Brachiaria plantaginea ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Cabomba ( 7 )
(Cabombaceae)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; m92.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 544-545.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7, 11-13, 17, 20-21.)
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; m266.)
x 1984 Domning & Hayek (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 106-107, 119-121.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Cabomba aquatica ( 5 )
(Cabombaceae)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345-347.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 20.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (Guyana; 341.)
Food Plants: Cabomba australis ( 1 )
(Cabombaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
Food Plants: Cabomba palaeformis ( 1 )
(Cabombaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 992.)
Food Plants: Caladium arborescens ( 2 )
(Araceae)
1858a Krauss, C.F.F. (Suriname; 392.)
1887 Kappler, A. (Suriname)
Food Plants: Canna indica ( 2 )
(Cannaceae)
1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; in capt.; 166.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Caulerpa prolifera ( 1 )
(green alga; Caulerpaceae)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; 395-396.)
Food Plants: Caulerpa racemosa ( 2 )
(green alga; Caulerpaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 94, 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Caulerpa serrulata ( 2 )
(green alga; Caulerpaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 94, 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Caulerpa taxifolia ( 2 )
(green alga; Caulerpaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 94, 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Cecropia ( 1 )
(Moraceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
Food Plants: Centrosema brasilianum ( 2 )
(Fabaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Ceramium ( 2 )
(red alga; Ceramiaceae)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (Queensland; after cyclone; 678.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Ceratophyllum ( 4 )
(Ceratophyllaceae)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (Trichechus; in capt.; m459.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m492.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
1986 Shaul & Haynes (Jamaica)
Food Plants: Ceratophyllum demersum ( 7 )
(Ceratophyllaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32, 92.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 249.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46, 52, 55-56, 130, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8, 12, 20.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236, 240.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; 1191.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 992.)
Food Plants: Ceratopteris pteridoides ( 1 )
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Chaetomorpha ( 2 )
(green alga; Cladophoraceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 94.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Chara ( 4 )
(green alga; Charophyceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 31.)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Chara hornemanni ( 1 )
(green alga; Charophyceae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 51.)
Food Plants: Chloris ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 595-596.)
Food Plants: Chrysymenia wrighti ( 2 )
(red alga; Rhodophyta)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 269.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 199.)
Food Plants: Cladium jamaicense ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 1001.)
Food Plants: Cladophora ( 1 )
(green alga; Cladophoraceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Coccoloba ( 1 )
(Polygonaceae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Cocconeis ( 1 )
(diatom)
x 1977 Murray et al. (Australia; as aufwuchs; 8.)
Food Plants: Cocos nucifera ( 1 )
(Palmae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
Food Plants: Codium decorticatusa ( 2 )
(green alga; Codiaceae)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 269.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 199-200.)
Food Plants: Codium magnum ( 2 )
(green alga; Codiaceae)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 269.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 199-200.)
Food Plants: Conocarpus erectus ( 1 )
(Combretaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
Food Plants: Constantinea rosa-marina ( 2 )
(red alga; Weeksiaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Convolvulaceae ( 1 )
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; 32.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea ( 10 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1923a Petit, G. (Madagascar; 75.)
x * 1959 Jones, S. (India; 198-200.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (New Caledonia; 216.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 416-418, 421-422.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (Queensland; 212.)
1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 304, 307-309. x)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (Torres Strait; m57.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58-64.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (Torres Strait; 636-637.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (South Sulawesi; 231.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea angustata ( 1 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea australis ( 4 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1924a Petit, G. (Madagascar; 126-127.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (Madagascar; 88.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199-200.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (India; 2-3.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea ciliata ( 7 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199-200.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (India; 2-3.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m514.)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (Mozambique; m300.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (East Africa; 395.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (India & Sri Lanka; 47.)
D 2009 Fujiwara, S. (Ashoroa, Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi, P. tabatai; olecranon orientation, elbow joint angle, & forelimb posture)
Food Plants: Cymodocea isoetifolia ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (India; 2-3.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea manatorum ( 5 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1917b Anon. (Florida; m454.)
x * 1917 Fairchild, D. (Florida; 345.)
x 1918 Ménégaux, A. (Florida; 700.)
x 1919 Safford, W.E. (Florida; 424.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (Florida; 7.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea nodosa ( 4 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1918 Ménégaux, A. (West Africa; 701.)
x 1939 Beal, W.P.B. (West Africa; 125-126.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (Senegal; 188.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea rotundata ( 8 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199-200.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (India; 3.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (Kenya; 86.)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 82, 87-89, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14, 23.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 688.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (Queensland; 522.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines; 713-714.)
Food Plants: Cymodocea serrulata ( 4 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 688.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines; 713-714.)
Food Plants: Cynodon dactylon ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Cynodon pentadactyla ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Cyperus ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Cyperus articulatus ( 3 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. ("C. a. var. nodosus"; Brazil; 91.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 993.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Cyperus egersii ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Cyperus imbricatus ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Cyperus luzulae ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
Food Plants: Cyperus ochraceus ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Cyperus radiatus ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Cyperus surinamensis ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Cyperus virens ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Dichromena ciliata ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
Food Plants: Diplanthera ( 3 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (m386.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 416-418, 421-422.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (Queensland; 212.)
Food Plants: Diplanthera pinifolia ( 1 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 418.)
Food Plants: Diplanthera uninervis ( 5 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (Red Sea; 40, 42.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (Red Sea; m200.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 418.)
x 1979 Hilmy et al. (Red Sea; m200, 202.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. ("D. universis"; Indonesia; in capt.; 8-9, 19-20.)
Food Plants: Diplanthera wrightii ( 3 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 31-36, 101, 107, 109, 114, 155.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46-47, 51, 56-57, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
Food Plants: Distichlis ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida & Georgia; 37, 124.)
Food Plants: Distichlis spicata ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
Food Plants: Dumontia fucicola ( 2 )
(red alga; Dumontiaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Echinochloa ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x v 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. ("canarana"; TI; Brazil; 102.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; 32.)
Food Plants: Echinochloa elephantipes ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1831 Spix & Martius (Brazil; 1123.)
Food Plants: Echinochloa polystachya ( 9 )
(Gramineae)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (Brazil; 85.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10, 12, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (Brazil; in capt.; 39.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 67-72.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Echinochloa pyramidalis ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (TS; Ivory Coast; in capt.; 48.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Echinodorus amazonensis ( 1 )
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Ectocarpus ( 1 )
(brown alga; Ectocarpaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Egeria ( 1 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; m266.)
Food Plants: Eichhornia ( 8 )
(water hyacinth; Pontederiaceae)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345-346.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TM; Florida; in capt.; parts eaten; 121.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
x 1989 Timm et al. (Ecuador; naturally ?controlled by TI; 6.)
x 1991b Pervesler & Roetzel (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; Kühnring; 156-157.)
* 1995 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Kühnring; taphonomy)
1996 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Kühnring; taphonomy)
Food Plants: Eichhornia azurea ( 4 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x * 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Panama; 389, 392.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; 32.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Eichhornia crassipes ( 30 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x v 1947 Harwood, K. (TM; Florida; in capt.; 50.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (Florida; 34.)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (Mexico; 410.)
x * 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Panama; 389, 392.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida, Georgia; 31-32, 64, 74-75, 77-78, 90, 92, 94, 101, 106-107, 115, 121, 124, 161, 168-170, 175-176, 220.)
x 1975 Vietmeyer, N.D. (Trichechus; 71-73.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; 32.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 250.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 44, 46-47, 52-53, 56-57, 85, 130, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7, 9-13, 17-18, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (St. Johns R., Florida; 49-50.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 43-44.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; 1187.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (Turkey Creek, Florida; 6.)
x 1984 Irvine & Scott (Florida; 19.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel (TM; Florida; in capt.; digestive efficiencies; 176-179.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1001.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 595-596.)
x 1986 Gallivan & Best ("E. crassiceps"; Brazil; in capt.; 552-553.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (Brazil; in capt.; 39.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; 276, 281.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; 269, 273.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 67-72.)
2011 Gómez Lépiz, A. (TM; Costa Rica)
2011 Drummond et al. (TI; in capt.; serum biochemical analytes)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Eichhornia diversifolia ( 1 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
Food Plants: Eichhornia heterosperma ( 1 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 153-154.)
Food Plants: Eleocharis acicularis ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 12, 20.)
Food Plants: Eleocharis interstincta ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 44.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Eleocharis subarticulata ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Elodea densa ( 4 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46, 57.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 12, 20.)
Food Plants: Enhalus acoroides ( 14 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
1893 Vorderman, A.G. (Indonesia?)
x 1957 Bayer & Harry-Rofen (Palau; 501-502.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; not eaten; 419-421.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91, 92.)
1980 Denton et al. (Australia; 215.x)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 307-309. x)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 687-688.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (Sri Lanka; 3.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58-59, 65.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (Australia; 783.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (Torres Strait; 636-637.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (South Sulawesi; 229-232.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines; usually not eaten; 713-715.)
Food Plants: Enhalus koenigii ( 3 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
1893 Vorderman, A.G.
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Enteromorpha ( 2 )
(alga)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Eragrostis ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. ("E. aff. contrerasii"; Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Eragrostis hypnoides ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. ("E. hipnopsis"; Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Eragrostis reptans ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (Mexico; 410.)
Food Plants: Fimbristylis capillaris ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
Food Plants: Forsteronia ( 1 )
(Apocynaceae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Fucus ( 1 )
(brown alga; Fucaceae)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; m55.)
Food Plants: Fucus vesiculosus ( 2 )
(brown alga; Fucaceae)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. ("Fuscus vesiculosis"; Trichechus; in capt.; 166.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Fuirena robusta ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. ("Fuireria robusta"; Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Genipa americana ( 1 )
(Rubiaceae)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
Food Plants: Gracilaria ( 1 )
(red alga; Gracilariaceae)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (Florida; 184.)
Food Plants: Gracilaria verrucosa ( 1 )
(red alga; Gracilariaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Halodule ( 4 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58-65.)
x 1990a Domning, D.P. (Florida; 34.)
x 1995 Kalk, M. (Mozambique; 329.)
x 2004 Ortiz & Worthy (TM; Brazil, in capt.; 177.)
Food Plants: Halodule beaudettei ( 1 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
Food Plants: Halodule pinifolia ( 5 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 682, 685, 687-688.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. ("H. pirifolia"; Torres Strait; 636-637.)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (Australia; 82-83.)
Food Plants: Halodule uninervis ( 18 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland ("Holidule"; Mozambique; m300.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (East Africa; 395.)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 82-83, 87-92, 96.)
x 1977 Murray et al. (Australia; 8.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14, 23.)
x 1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 307-309.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 682, 685, 687-688.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (Queensland; 522.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (Shark Bay, Australia; 474, 476-478, 483-488.)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (Australia; 82-83.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (South Sulawesi; 231-232.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines; 713-714.)
x * 1995 De Iongh, Wenno & Meelis (Indonesia; distr., seasonal changes, & dugong grazing; 1-19.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. (Moreton Bay, Australia; 165.)
x 1997 Anderson, P.K. (Shark Bay, Australia; 434, 438, 442, 452, 456, 459.)
x 1997 Edmonds et al. (Exmouth Gulf, Australia; 213.)
x 1998 Marsh et al. (Queensland; fragment size in stomach contents; 252-254.)
x * 2001 Masini et al. (Shark Bay, Australia; distr., productivity, & impact of dugong grazing; 179-197.)
Food Plants: Halodule wrightii ( 15 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (Kenya; 86.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 250.)
x 1984a Packard, J.M. (Florida; 21-22.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (Florida; 15, 17, 24.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1001.)
x 1991 Provancha & Hall (Florida; 87-98.)
x 1997 Reid, J.P. (Puerto Rico; 23.)
x 1998 Marsh et al. (Florida, Puerto Rico; fragment size in stomach contents; 252-254.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; 395-396.)
x * 2000 Lefebvre et al. (Florida, Puerto Rico; 289-296.)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
2017 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Florida)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Halophila ( 13 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (Indonesia; 150.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (New Caledonia; 216.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (m386.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (East Africa; 395.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 416-419, 422.)
x 1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 307-309.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (Torres Strait; m57.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58-65.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (Torres Strait; 636-637.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 1001.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (South Sulawesi; 231.)
1999 Mukai et al. (Thailand; effects of grazing; carrying capacity)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Halophila decipiens ( 4 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 416-419.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 688.)
Food Plants: Halophila engelmanni ( 2 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 250.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Halophila ovalis ( 25 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (Australia; 56.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (Madagascar; 126.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (Australia; 88.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199.)
x 1962 Marlow, B.J. (Australia; 433.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (Kenya; 86.)
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 416-418.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review, 82; Red Sea, not eaten, 89.)
x 1977 Murray et al. (Australia; 8.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD feeding behavior; 641.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 687-688.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (Sri Lanka; 3.)
x v 1986 Williams, T.R. (New Ireland, Papua New Guinea; 66-67.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (India; 374.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines; 713.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. (Moreton Bay, Australia; 165-167.)
x 1996 Supanwanid, C. (recovery after simulated dugong grazing; 315-318.)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (Indonesia; ?cultivation grazing; 71-77.)
x 1997 Edmonds et al. (Exmouth Gulf, Australia; 213.)
x * 1999 Nakaoka & Aioi (Thailand; grazing & growth; 97-103.)
2001 Yamamuro et al. (Thailand)
2001 Yamamuro et al. (Thailand; nutrients & stable isotopes; 199-205.)
* 2005 Yamamuro & Chirapart (Thailand)
2011 Gaul et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; organobromine compounds)
Food Plants: Halophila ovata ( 3 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m514.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Halophila spinulosa ( 7 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; 416-417, 419.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 687-688.)
x * 1994 Anderson, P.K. (Shark Bay, Australia; 381-388.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. (Moreton Bay, Australia; 165-166.)
x 1997 Edmonds et al. (Exmouth Gulf, Australia; 213.)
Food Plants: Halophila stipulacea ( 4 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1959 Jones, S. (India; 199.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (Kenya; 86.)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 82, 87-92, 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Halosaccion glandiforme ( 1 )
(red alga; Palmariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
Food Plants: Heteranthera dubia ( 1 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
Food Plants: Hevea spruceana ( 1 )
(Euphorbiaceae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Hibiscus tiliaceus ( 2 )
(Malvaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; TMM, in capt.; flowers; 224.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
Food Plants: Hydrilla verticillata ( 12 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32, 115, 220.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 250.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46, 52, 55-57, 108, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8, 11-12.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236, 240.)
x 1981c Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 28.)
x 1983 Kochman et al. (Crystal R., Florida; 120.)
x 1983 O'Shea, T.J. (effects of herbicide; 165-166.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (Florida; 17.)
x * 1985 Etheridge et al. (TM; Crystal R., Florida; consumption rate & feeding experiments; 21-25.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; m276.)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; 649-658.)
Food Plants: Hymenachne amplexicaulis ( 7 )
(Gramineae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9-10, 12, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. ("H. amplexicaule"; Guyana; 341.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; 269.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Hymenachne donacifolia ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
Food Plants: Hymenaea coubaril ( 1 )
(Leguminosae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Hypnea ( 2 )
(red alga; Hypneaceae)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (Queensland; after cyclone; 678.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Impatiens ( 1 )
(Balsaminaceae)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (West Africa; 610, 615.)
Food Plants: Ipomoea ( 3 )
(Convolvulaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1976 Tas'an (Indonesia; in capt.; 5.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (Okinawa; in capt.; 18.)
Food Plants: Ipomoea aquatica ( 5 )
(Convolvulaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8, 10, 20, 23.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Ipomoea batatas ( 1 )
(Convolvulaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
Food Plants: Ipomoea setifera ( 1 )
(Convolvulaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
Food Plants: Kyllingia brevifolia ( 3 )
(= Killingia) (Cyperaceae)
x v 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. ("pyrypioca"; TI; Brazil; 100.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Lactuca sativa ( 5 )
(lettuce; Asteraceae) (SEE ALSO under Food)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19, 22.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel ("Lactuca lactuca"; TM; Florida; in capt.; digestive efficiencies; 176-179.)
x v 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 44.)
2010 Siegal-Willott et al. (TML; aquatic vegetation & lettuce; nutrient analyses)
Food Plants: Laguncularia racemosa ( 3 )
(Combretaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 44.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
Food Plants: Laminaria ( 2 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m463, 465.)
x 1946a Goodwin, G.G. ("Lampellaris"; Bering Is.; 61.)
Food Plants: Laminaria saccharina ( 2 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Laurencia ( 2 )
(red alga; Rhodophyta)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (Queensland; after cyclone; 678.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Leersia ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; m92.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
Food Plants: Leersia hexandra ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; not part of manatees' natural diet; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
Food Plants: Lemna ( 1 )
(duckweed; Lemnaceae)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (Turkey Creek, Florida; 6.)
Food Plants: Limnobium spongia ( 1 )
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Ludwigia adscendens ( 1 )
(Onagraceae)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
Food Plants: Ludwigia helmintorrhiza ( 2 )
(Onagraceae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares ("L. helmintorriza"; TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Luziola spruceana ( 7 )
(Gramineae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 346-347.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9-10, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; 62.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (Guyana; 341.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Luziola subintegra ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. ("L. sabintegra"; Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Lyngbya ( 1 )
(alga)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM; Belize)
Food Plants: Machaerium lunatum ( 1 )
(Fabaceae)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (Suriname; 338.)
Food Plants: Machaerium wrightii ( 1 )
(Fabaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Madarosperma traillianum ( 1 )
(Asclepiadaceae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Mangroves ( 12 )
(SEE ALSO: Avicennia, Conocarpus, Laguncularia, Rhizophora)
x 1872 Maynard, C. J. (Florida; 143.)
1872 Maynard, C.J. (Florida)
x 1881 Flower, W.H. (Sierra Leone; 454.)
x 1895 Bangs, O. (Florida; 787.)
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (Senegal; 1369.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (Venezuela; 290.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (Sierra Leone; 81.)
x 1995 Wille, C. (TMM, Belize; m17.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; 395-396.)
2000 Fernandes, M. (Sirs. associated with mangroves)
2011 Emin-Lima et al. (Brazil, northern coast; TM, 46, 52-53; TI, 52-53.)
2011 Singh & Kar (melissopalynological studies on mangrove honeys; Bangladesh & Andaman Islands)
Food Plants: Mauritia flexuosa ( 1 )
(Palmaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
Food Plants: Medicago sativa ( 2 )
(alfalfa; Leguminosae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
Food Plants: Mesechites trifida ( 1 )
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Mimosa ( 1 )
(Leguminosae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 346.)
Food Plants: Mimosa pigra ( 1 )
(Leguminosae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 595-596.)
Food Plants: Montrichardia ( 5 )
(Araceae)
x v 1805 Pitou, L.-A. ("moucou moucou"; French Guiana; 2: 260.)
x 1887 Martin, K. (Suriname; 27.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 346.)
x v 1974b Dekker, D. ("mokko mokko"; Suriname; 2.)
2011 Amarante et al. (Brazil; Montrichardia linifera; nutritional characterization)
Food Plants: Montrichardia arborescens ( 7 )
(Araceae)
x v 1880 Murie, J. ("Moca-moca"; Guyana; in capt.; 21.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; m118.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (Suriname; 338-339.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8, 10, 20.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 43-44.)
Food Plants: Mougeotia ( 2 )
(green alga; Zygnemataceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236.)
Food Plants: Mucuna ( 1 )
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; 269.)
Food Plants: Myriophyllum ( 3 )
(Haloragaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. ("M. brasiliense and/or M. elatinoides"; Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 992.)
Food Plants: Myriophyllum brasiliense ( 2 )
(Haloragaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. ("M. brasiliense and/or M. elatinoides"; Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1983 O'Shea, T.J. (effect of herbicide; 165.)
Food Plants: Myriophyllum spicatum ( 6 )
(Haloragaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32, 220.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 249.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46, 52, 55-56, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8, 12, 20.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; m276.)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; 649-658.)
Food Plants: Najas ( 1 )
(Najadaceae)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
Food Plants: Najas arguta ( 1 )
(Najadaceae)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
Food Plants: Najas guadalupensis ( 5 )
(Najadaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32, 92.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 12, 20.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; 1191.)
x 1983 O'Shea, T.J. (effects of herbicide; 165.)
Food Plants: Najas marina ( 1 )
(Najadaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 1001.)
Food Plants: Navicula ( 2 )
(diatom; Naviculaceae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Nelumbium speciosum ( 3 )
(Nelumbonaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 346-347.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. ("Nelumbo speciosum"; Guyana, Suriname; 8.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. ("Nelumbo speciosa"; Guyana; 341.)
Food Plants: Nelumbo ( 4 )
(Nelumbonaceae)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram ("Nelumbium"; Guyana; m92.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Nelumbo lutea ( 1 )
(Nelumbonaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 1001.)
Food Plants: Neptunia oleracea ( 2 )
(Leguminosae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Nereocystis luetkeana ( 2 )
(brown alga; Lessoniaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Nitella ( 1 )
(green alga; Charophyceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
Food Plants: Nymphaea ( 7 )
(Nymphaeaceae)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; in capt.; 188.)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; m92.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10, 17, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. ("N. cf. rufescens"; West Africa; 609-610.)
Food Plants: Nymphaea ampla ( 1 )
(Nymphaeaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 1001.)
Food Plants: Nymphaea glandulifera ( 1 )
(Nymphaeaceae)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Nymphaea lotus ( 1 )
(Nymphaeaceae)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (West Africa; 609-610.)
Food Plants: Nymphaea odorata ( 1 )
(Nymphaeaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Operculina alata ( 2 )
(Convolvulaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
Food Plants: Oryza ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Oryza grandiglumis ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Oryza latifolia ( 4 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; 269.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Oryza perennis ( 4 )
(Gramineae)
x v 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. ("arros brabo"; TI; Brazil; 102.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10, 12.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Oscillatoria ( 2 )
(blue-green alga; Oscillatoriaceae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Pachira aquatica ( 1 )
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; 269.)
Food Plants: Panicum ( 6 )
(Gramineae)
x 1831 Spix & Martius (Brazil; 1123.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (Florida; 33.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida, Georgia; 37, 90.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 544.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Panicum amplexicaule ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
Food Plants: Panicum apressum ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Panicum chlorantum ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Panicum chloroticum ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Panicum dichotomiflorum ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Panicum elephantipes ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (Suriname; 338.)
Food Plants: Panicum gladiatum ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Panicum hemitomon ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 237, 240.)
Food Plants: Panicum jumentorum ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (Puerto Rico; m216.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
Food Plants: Panicum laxum ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Panicum maximum ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 993.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 595-596.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; 269.)
Food Plants: Panicum molle ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (Central America, Puerto Rico; 216-217.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
Food Plants: Panicum polycomum ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
Food Plants: Panicum purpurascens ( 6 )
(Gramineae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48, 130.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7, 9-10, 13, 20.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (St. Johns R., Florida; 50.)
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; m266.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; 1191.)
x 1984 Domning & Hayek (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 106-107, 119-121.)
Food Plants: Panicum spectabile ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1948 Mendes, A. (TI; Brazil; 326.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Panicum zizanioides ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Papilionaceae ( 1 )
1858a Krauss, C.F.F. ("brandimakka"; Suriname; 392.)
Food Plants: Paspalum ( 4 )
(Gramineae)
x 1831 Spix & Martius ("Paspalus"; Brazil; 1123.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida, Georgia; 37, 87, 94, 122.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; 32.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. ("P. aff. natatum"; Mexico; 595-596.)
Food Plants: Paspalum acuminatum ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Paspalum fasciculatum ( 7 )
(Gramineae)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (Venezuela; 14.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10, 12.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Paspalum paniculatum ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x * 1965 Lluch B., D. (Mexico; in stomach contents; 410.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 993.)
Food Plants: Paspalum pusillum ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Paspalum repens ( 13 )
(Gramineae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 347.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. ("Panicum repens"; Venezuela; 14.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9-10, 12, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (TI; Brazil; 83-84.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (Brazil; in capt.; 39.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (Guyana; 341.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 67-72.)
* 2011 Gómez Lépiz, A. (TM; Costa Rica; food preferences)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Paspalum vaginatum ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
Food Plants: Paspalum vergatum ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; not eradicated by manatees; 347.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (Guyana; 341.)
Food Plants: Pennisetum ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
Food Plants: Pennisetum purpureum ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (Sierra Leone; 81.)
Food Plants: Phalaris aquatica ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Phaseolus ovatus ( 3 )
(Leguminosae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Phaseolus pilosus ( 2 )
(Leguminosae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Phragmites communis ( 5 )
(Gramineae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (St. Johns R., Florida; 50.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236-237, 240.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 1001.)
1986 Shaul & Haynes (Jamaica)
Food Plants: Phyllospadix ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Pistia ( 2 )
(Araceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TM; Florida; in capt.; 121.)
Food Plants: Pistia stratiotes ( 11 )
(Araceae)
1897 Goeldi, E.A.
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt.; 65.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; 32.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8, 10, 12-13, 17, 20.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; 1187.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 1001.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Polygonum senegalense ( 2 )
(Polygonaceae)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (Senegal; 188.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (West Africa; 10.)
Food Plants: Polygonum spectabile ( 1 )
(Polygonaceae)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Pontederia ( 1 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
Food Plants: Pontederia cordata ( 3 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Pontederia rotundifolia ( 3 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x * 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Panama; 389, 392.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9, 20.)
Food Plants: Pontederia sagittata ( 1 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
Food Plants: Portulaca grandiflora ( 2 )
(Portulacaceae)
x 1880 LeBaron, J.F. ("Portulacca"; Florida; 1005.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. ("Portulacca"; Florida; 34.)
Food Plants: Posidonia ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (Indonesia; 150.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (m386.)
Food Plants: Posidonia australis ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91-92.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Potamogeton ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (Trichechus; in capt.; 295.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
Food Plants: Potamogeton angustifolia ( 1 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Potamogeton pectinatus ( 5 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9, 11, 20.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1001.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (Florida; 18, 27.)
Food Plants: Quercus virginiana ( 1 )
(live oak; Fagaceae)
x * 1986 O'Shea, T.J. (Florida; acorns; 183-185.)
Food Plants: Reussia rotundifolia ( 2 )
(Pontederiaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
Food Plants: Rhabdadenia biflora ( 3 )
(Apocynaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; 91.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 44.)
Food Plants: Rhabdadenia macrostoma ( 1 )
(Apocynaceae)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Rhizoclonium ( 2 )
(green alga; Cladophoraceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. ("Rhizoclinium"; review; 8, 12.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III ("Rhizoclinium"; Florida; 236.)
Food Plants: Rhizophora ( 1 )
(Rhizophoraceae)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (West Africa; 138.)
Food Plants: Rhizophora mangle ( 6 )
(Rhizophoraceae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 47-48.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7, 9-10.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 44.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1002.)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Ruppia ( 2 )
(Ruppiaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
Food Plants: Ruppia maritima ( 9 )
(Ruppiaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 31-35, 107.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224-225.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 249.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46, 51, 56-57, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7, 9, 21.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (Florida; 15, 17-18, 24.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1001.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (Florida; 17-18, 27.)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Sabal palmetto ( 2 )
(Palmae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (Blue Spring, Florida; 49.)
Food Plants: Sagittaria ( 4 )
(Alismataceae)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (Trichechus; in capt.; 295.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 12, 20.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Sagittaria graminea ( 1 )
(Alismataceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
Food Plants: Sagittaria guyanensis ( 1 )
(Alismataceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
Food Plants: Sagittaria latifolia ( 1 )
(Alismataceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
Food Plants: Salvinia ( 3 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1966b Bertram & Bertram (Africa; weed control; 216.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 21.)
Food Plants: Salvinia auriculata ( 6 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; 10, 12.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; Brazil; in capt.; 43.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Salvinia minima ( 1 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990.)
Food Plants: Salvinia minor ( 2 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; 10.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
Food Plants: Salvinia oblongifolia ( 1 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
Food Plants: Salvinia rotundifolia ( 3 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 47.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
Food Plants: Salvinia sprucei ( 2 )
(Salviniaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; 10.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
Food Plants: Sambucus canadensis ( 2 )
(Caprifoliaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (St. Johns R., Florida; 50.)
Food Plants: Sargassum ( 4 )
(brown alga; Sargassaceae)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (Queensland; after cyclone; 678-680.)
x 1974 Heinsohn & Spain (Queensland; after cyclone; 151.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
2004 Yamamuro et al. (Kyushu, Japan)
Food Plants: Scirpus ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
Food Plants: Scirpus cubensis ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; 61.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares ("Scyrpus"; Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Scleria cyperina ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Scleria luteola ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Scleria paludosa ( 1 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
Food Plants: Scleria pterota ( 2 )
(Cyperaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Simaba guianensis ( 1 )
(Palmaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
Food Plants: Spartina alterniflora ( 6 )
(Gramineae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. ("Spartina"; Florida, Georgia; 37, 67, 73, 79.)
1978 Ronald et al. (Guyana)
1979 Hardisky, M. (Georgia)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (Georgia; 153.)
x * 1989 Baugh et al. (Florida, Georgia; 88-90.)
Food Plants: Spartina bakeri ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (Florida; 44.)
Food Plants: Spartina brasiliense ( 3 )
(Gramineae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
x v 1981a Domning, D.P. ("paratur "; Brazil; 91.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Brazil; 44.)
Food Plants: Spirogyra ( 3 )
(green alga; Zygnemataceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 12.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; 596.)
Food Plants: Spyridia ( 2 )
(red alga; Rhodophyta)
x 1973 Spain & Heinsohn (Queensland; after cyclone; 678.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Stypopodium zonale ( 2 )
(brown alga; Phaeophyta)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 88, 92.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Symmeria ( 1 )
(Polygonaceae)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
Food Plants: Syringodium filiforme ( 18 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32-36, 101, 107, 109, 114, 160.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 250.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46-47, 51, 56-57, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
x 1984a Packard, J.M. (Florida; 21-22.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1001.)
x 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (Cuba; 9.)
x 1990a Domning, D.P. (Florida; 34.)
x * 1991 Provancha & Hall (Florida; 87-98.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; m276.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; 395-396.)
x * 2000 Lefebvre et al. (Florida, Puerto Rico; 289-296.)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; 649-658.)
2011 Garcia et al. (antioxidant effect & polyphenol content)
2012 Buzzelli et al.
2017 Lefebvre et al. (TML; Florida)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Syringodium isoetifolium ( 12 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. ("Syringodium"; East Africa; 395.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; not eaten; 419.)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 82, 87-92.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14, 23.)
x 1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 307-309.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 688.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58.)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. ("Syringodium"; South Sulawesi; 231.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines, 714; Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, 715.)
x 1995 Kalk, M. (Mozambique; 329.)
x 1995 Lanyon & Marsh (DD; in capt., Jakarta; 120.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. (Moreton Bay, Australia; 165.)
Food Plants: Thalassia ( 4 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x * 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (Queensland; not eaten; 418, 422.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (Torres Strait; m57.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58-61.)
x 1999 Whiting, S.D. ("Thallasia"; Sahul Banks, Australia; 609.)
Food Plants: Thalassia hemprichii ( 10 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 89, 91, 94, 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 304, 307-309.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (Papua New Guinea; 685, 687-688.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (Sri Lanka; 3.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (Torres Strait; 636-637.)
D 1987b Inuzuka, N. (Hokkaido, Japan)
x 1993 Erftemeijer et al. (South Sulawesi; 231-232.)
x 1994 Aragones, L.V. (Philippines; 713-714.)
x 1998 Marsh et al. (Queensland; fragment size in stomach contents; 252-254.)
Food Plants: Thalassia testudinum ( 18 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 31-36, 107, 109, 122, 149, 155, 160, 168.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 250.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46-47, 51, 56, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8.)
x 1984a Packard, J.M. (Florida; 21-22.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 1001-1002.)
x 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (Cuba; 9.)
x 1998 Marsh et al. (Florida, Puerto Rico; fragment size in stomach contents; 252-254.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; m276.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; 394-396.)
x * 2000 Lefebvre et al. (Florida, Puerto Rico; 289-296.)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; 649-658.)
2001 Valentine & Heck (NE Gulf of Mexico)
* 2001 Valentine & Heck (TML; leaf nitrogen content & grazing)
2008 Di Carlo & Kenworthy (TMM; Puerto Rico; recovery of Thalassia from grazing)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
2010 Lacas et al. (Guadeloupe; ?effect of manatee grazing on primary production dynamics.)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM, Belize)
Food Plants: Thalassiophyllum clathrus ( 2 )
(brown alga; Laminariaceae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Bering Is.; 112.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 16.)
Food Plants: Thalassodendron ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (Torres Strait; m57.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; "probably eaten"; m61.)
Food Plants: Thalassodendron ciliatum ( 5 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 82, 87-92, 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14, 23.)
x 1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; m304.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (Torres Strait; 636-637.)
x 1995 Kalk, M. (Mozambique; 329.)
Food Plants: Theobroma cacao ( 2 )
(cocoa; Sterculiaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
Food Plants: Theobroma grandiflorum ( 2 )
(cocoa; Sterculiaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 19.)
Food Plants: Tradescantia diuretica ( 2 )
(Commelinaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224-225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Typha ( 2 )
(Typhaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 346.)
D * 1987b Inuzuka, N. (n.fam.)
Food Plants: Typha augustifolia ( 1 )
(Typhaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 9.)
Food Plants: Typha domingensis ( 4 )
(Typhaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 224.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 21.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 990, 1001.)
Food Plants: Typha latifolia ( 1 )
(Typhaceae)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (Turkey Creek, Florida; 6.)
Food Plants: Udotea argentea ( 2 )
(green alga; Udoteaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (Red Sea; 94.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Ulva ( 5 )
(green alga; Ulvaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 73.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
x 1984 Lewis et al. (Florida; 189-190.)
2017 Allen et al. (TMM; Belize)
Food Plants: Ulva lactuca ( 2 )
(green alga; Ulvaceae)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TM; in capt.; 231.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; 395-396.)
Food Plants: Ulva latissima ( 2 )
(green alga; Ulvaceae)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (Trichechus; in capt.; m459.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m492.)
Food Plants: Utricularia ( 4 )
(Lentibulariaceae)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 762.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; m92.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 8, 20.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. ("U. aff. gibba'; Mexico; 989.)
Food Plants: Utricularia foliosa ( 7 )
(Lentibulariaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345, 347.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10, 12.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; 154.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (Brazil; seasonal abundance; 42-43.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (Guyana; 341.)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (TI; Brazil; 69-70.)
Food Plants: Utricularia minor ( 2 )
(Lentibulariaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; 83.)
Food Plants: Vallisneria ( 2 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; 345.)
* 1998 Auil, N.E. (TMM; Belize manatee recovery plan)
Food Plants: Vallisneria americana ( 9 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (Blue Spring, Florida; 49-50.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; 1187.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (northeastern Florida; 44.)
x 1985 Etheridge et al. (TM; Florida; consumption rate; 21-23.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; 989, 992, 1001.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; m276.)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (TML; in capt.; feeding experiments; 649-658.)
2002 White et al. (TML; Duval Co., Florida; 220.)
* 2004 Hauxwell et al. (Kings Bay, Florida)
Food Plants: Vallisneria neotropicalis ( 6 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 32, 74-75, 78, 90, 92.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; in capt.; 224.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; 249-250.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 46, 51-52, 56-57, 139.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 7-8.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Vallisneria spiralis ( 3 )
(Hydrocharitaceae)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (Trichechus; in capt.; m456, 459, m461.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m492.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
Food Plants: Vaucheria ( 2 )
(yellow-green alga; Vaucheriaceae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (Florida; 8.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; 236.)
Food Plants: Victoria regia ( 2 )
(= Victoria amazonica) (Nymphaeaceae)
1909 Dilg, C. (TI; seed capsules; 135.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; young plants; 345.)
Food Plants: Vigna luteola ( 3 )
(Fabaceae)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (Brazil; 225.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 20.)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
Food Plants: Vigna repens ( 1 )
(Fabaceae)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; 48.)
Food Plants: Vossia ( 2 )
(Gramineae)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TS; in capt.; 351.)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (West Africa; 138-139.)
Food Plants: Vossia cuspidata ( 1 )
(Gramineae)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 10.)
Food Plants: Zostera ( 7 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TM; in capt.; 97.)
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (Indonesia; 150.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (m386.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (East Africa; 395.)
x * 1976 Allen et al. (South Sulawesi; 35-37.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (Indonesia; in capt.; 19.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (Queensland; 58-59, 63.)
Food Plants: Zostera capensis ( 2 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (review; 82, 91.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
Food Plants: Zostera capricornis ( 14 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (Australia; 56.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (m126.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (Australia; 88.)
x 1962 Marlow, B.J. ("Z. capricornii"; Australia; 433.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. ("Z. capricorni"; m514.)
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch ("Z. capricorni"; Queensland; 416-417, 419, 422.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. ("Z. capricorni"; review; 82, 91.)
x 1978 Anderson & Birtles ("Z. capricorni"; Queensland; 19.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. ("Z. capricorni"; DD; Australia; feeding behavior; 641.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; feeding behavior; 96.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14.)
x 1981 Channells & Morrissey (Queensland; technique for identification in stomach samples; 307-309.)
x 1995a Preen, A.R. ("Z. capricorni"; Moreton Bay, Australia; 165, 167.)
x 1997 Peterken & Conacher ("Z. capricorni"; Moreton Bay, Australia; effects of grazing by DD; 333-340.)
Food Plants: Zostera marina ( 7 )
(Potamogetonaceae)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TM; in capt.; 231.)
x 1916a Anon. (TI; in capt.; 1421.)
x 1976 Tas'an (Indonesia; 5.)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 269-270.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review; 14, 20, 23.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt.; 199-200.)
2001 Aketa et al. (DD in capt.; digestibility; 23-34.)
Formosa: SEE Taiwan ( 0 )
France ( 58 )
x * 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (Trichechus; stranded near Dieppe; 56-57.)
1833 Hamilton, R. (manatee stranded near Dieppe)
x 1834 Keferstein, C. (Manatus fossilis; m2: 217.)
x 1835a Duvernoy, G.L. (unidentified sir.; Roedersdorf; 1-9, 1 pl.)
x 1835 Serres, M. de ("halicore medius"; Montpellier; m238-239 [in 1838 ed.])
x 1838 Serres, M. de (Manatus & Halicore medius; Plioc., Montpellier; 285-286.)
x 1846 Gervais, F.L.P. (Metaxytherium; Montpellier; m264.)
x * 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (Halitherium Serresii, n.sp.; Plioc., Montpellier; 210-217, 221.)
x * 1866 Lartet, E. (Rytiodus Capgrandi, n.gen.n.sp., Mioc., 673-674; other sirs., 682-684.)
x 1870 Delfortrie, E. (Halitherium; Early Mioc.; bones scarred by fish teeth; 261.)
x 1871 Farge, E. ("Halitherium"; Middle Mioc.; 265-268.)
x 1872 Farge, E. ("Halitherium"; Middle Mioc.; 412-416.)
1873 Delfortrie, E. (Rytiodus capgrandi; Early Mioc.)
x 1875 Delfortrie, E. (Rytiodus; cviii.)
x 1878 Benoist, . (Rytiodus; lxxxiii.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (Rytiodus; Mioc.; 131-135.)
x * 1884 Gaudry, A. (Halitherium Chouqueti, n.sp.; Olig., Paris Basin; 372-375.)
1885b Flot, L. (Halitherium schinzii; Montmorency)
x * 1887 Flot, L. (Prohalicore Dubaleni, n.gen.n.sp., Mioc., Landes, 134, 138; "Halitherium n.sp.", Eoc., 138.)
1892 Viguier, M.-G. (Halitherium sp.; Plioc., Montpellier)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (Felsinotherium serresi; Plioc.; 1858-1862.)
x 1922 Roman, F. (Metaxytherium; Early Mioc.; 231-232.)
1923 Préaubert (Halitherium cuvieri)
1934b Sickenberg, O.
1938 Lapparent, A.F. de ("Halitherium"; Eoc., Taulanne)
1946 Richard, M. ("Eotherium sp."; Late Eoc.)
1963 Patte, E. (Halitherium; Olig., Poitou [erroneous record])
1964 Rey, R. (Halitherium)
x 1969 Freudenthal, M. (Eoc. sirs.; Taulanne; 64-65.)
x 1970 Chavanon & Saubade (Halitherium; Olig., Gironde; 261-262.)
1970 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc.)
x 1970 Ginsburg, L. (Halianassa cuvieri; Mioc., Loire Basin; 189.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Mioc.; 161, 183-184, 189.)
1972 Sittler, C. (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., Sundgau; 113.)
1974 Albetrecht, R. (Metaxytherium cuvieri; skeleton displayed, Angers)
x 1974 Anglada et al. (Halitherium sp.; Mioc., Sausset; 1-2.)
x 1974 Patte, E. (corrects erroneous record of Halitherium from Poitou; 24.)
1975 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Mioc., Touraine & Anjou)
x 1979 Ginsburg et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Mioc., Doué-la-Fontaine; 224, 226.)
1979 Viaud, J.-M. (Halitherium)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium serresii; Plioc., Montpellier; 206, 228-229.)
1994 Bizzarini, F. (Halitherium schinzii)
1996 Lecuyer et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc.; paleotemperatures & paleosalinity)
1999 Donder et al. (Eocene, Taulanne)
x 2000 Lardeux, H. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc.; skeleton at Angers; 78-79.)
x 2000 Mayor, A. ("Halitherium"; near Gironde estuary; as ?inspiration of folklore & use for Paleolithic tools; 145, 166, 259, 325.)
x 2000 Plusquellec & Racheboeuf (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Brittany; 32-36.)
* 2001 Sagne, C. (Halitherium taulannense, n.sp.; Late Eoc., Taulanne; 471-476.)
2002 Rocher, P. (Rytiodus capgrandi)
2005 Cahuzac & Audouin (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., Gironde; paleoecology)
2007 Floquet et al. (Halitherium taulannense; Late Eoc.; Taulanne; taphonomy)
x 2008 Rocher, P. (Halitherium schinzi (pl. 3) & Rytiodus capgrandi (pl. 13.)
2008 Sorbi, S. (Metaxytherium cf. krahuletzi; Provence; Early Mioc.)
2009 Rateau et al. (Metaxytherium medium, Mioc., Channay-sur-Lathan.)
2010 Bizzarini & Reggiani (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., France; skull & dentition; reconstructed skeleton exhibited in Venice)
x 2014 Londeix, L. (tusk of Rytiodus capgrandi and teeth & atlas of an indet. sir.; Mioc. (Aquitanian stratotype): 252-253.)
x * 2015 Rocher et al. (Rytiodus capgrandi, rediscovery of lost skull, 13-18; Halitherium humerus from Rauzan found in Bordeaux collection, 16.)
x * 2018 Buffrénil, V. de (sir. rib fragment; Vigny, Early Paleocene; 337-339.)
French Guiana ( 9 )
1664 Biet, A.
x 1743 Barrere, P. (TMM; 159-162, 1 pl.)
x 1805 Pitou, L.-A. (TMM; gen. acc.; 2: 259-260.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; status; m91.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 587, 608.)
1999 Richard-Hansen et al. (TMM; external measurements)
2003 Thoisy et al. (TM)
2005 Spiegelberger & Ganslosser (TMM; bank feeding)
* 2019 Vilaça et al. (TI x TM hybridization)
Fucotherium Kaup, 1840 ( 4 )
(= Metaxytherium)
x * 1840 Kaup, J.J. (published as syn. of Metaxytherium; 675.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. ("Furcotherium"; m481.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m577.)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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