Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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H

Haiti ( 6 )
x 1851 Gosse, P.H. (TMM; 346-347.)
x 1942 Morison, S.E. (TMM; sighted by Columbus; 309-310.)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (TMM; status & distr.; 234-236.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 575, 601.)
2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (TM; status & conservation)
2019 Domínguez-Tejo (TMM; history & conservation status)
Halianassa allisoni Kilmer, 1965 ( 4 )
(= Dioplotherium allisoni)
x * 1965 Kilmer, F.H. ("H.(?) allisoni"; n.sp.; Mioc., Baja California; 57-74.)
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (m395.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (role in North Pacific paleoecology; 353-354, 356-357, 360.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (referred to Dioplotherium; 4-5.)
Halianassa brocchii (de Blainville, 1844) Bronn, 1848 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1855 Kaup, J.J. (n.comb.)
Halianassa collinii von Meyer, 1846 ( 6 )
(= Halitherium christolii, in part; Halitherium schinzii, in part)
x * 1846 Meyer, H.v. (n.sp.; considered to include Pugmeodon Schinzi & Manatus Schinzi; 328.)
x 1847 Meyer, H.v. (Linz, Austria; 189-190.)
1855 Ehrlich, F.C.
x 1867 Hauer, F.v. ("H. Collini"; Mioc., Hainburg, Austria; 140-141.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (m309.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 69.)
Halianassa cordieri (de Christol in de Blainville, 1844) Bronn, 1848 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1848 Bronn, H.G. (n.comb.)
Halianassa cordieri (de Christol, 1844) Bronn, 1848 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1848 Bronn, H.G. (n.comb.)
Halianassa cuvieri (de Christol, 1832) Bronn, 1848 ( 6 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1848 Bronn, H.G. (n.comb.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (comp. w/ Trichechus; 209.)
x 1970 Ginsburg, L. (Mioc., France; 189.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; m182.)
x 1973 Crusafont-Pairó, M. (Spain; occurrences & bibliography; 96-97.)
1975 Crusafont-Pairó & Golpe Posse (Spain)
Halianassa jordani (Kellogg, 1925) Reinhart, 1951 ( 4 )
(= Dusisiren jordani)
x * 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (n.comb.; brain; 210.)
x 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (occurrence; 14.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ H. allisoni; 64-65, 69, 71-72.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (referred to Dusisiren; m21.)
Halianassa studeri von Meyer, 1838 ( 14 )
(= Halitherium schinzii, in part; Metaxytherium krahuletzi and M. medium, in part; Protosiren minima, in part)
x * 1838 Meyer, H.v. (n.gen.n.sp.; 667.)
x 1839a Meyer, H.v. (in faunal list; 4.)
x 1839b Meyer, H.v. (m77.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (synonymy; 674-675.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208.)
* 1887 Studer, T.
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium spp.; m1861.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 444-445, 475-478.)
x * 1952 Thenius, E. (referred to Thalattosiren; 110-112.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review, 68-69, pl. 43; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense, 78.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ Metaxytherium forestii; 43.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (H. studeri sensu Studer a ?syn. of Metaxytherium krahuletzi; 208, 223.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (proposed suppression by designation of neotype; 122-125.)
x * 1989 ICZN (neotype designated, name suppressed; 83-84.)
Halianassa vanderhoofi Reinhart, 1959 ( 13 )
(= Dusisiren jordani)
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (n.sp.)
x 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (occurrence; 9, 14.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ H. allisoni; 64-65, 69, 71-72.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 75, 77-78.)
1966c Shikama, T.
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (m346.)
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (syn. of Metaxytherium jordani; 395.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium jordani; m217.)
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium riveroi; 7, 10.)
x 1975 Domning & Frye (syn. of Metaxytherium jordani; m3.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium jordani; m354.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Dusisiren jordani; 21, 69-71.)
x 1981 Clark, J.C. (Mioc., Santa Cruz, California; 28, 34.)
Halianassa von Meyer, 1838 ( 31 )
(= Halitherium, in part; Metaxytherium, in part; Protosiren, in part)
x * 1838 Meyer, H.v. (n.gen.; 667.)
x 1840a Meyer, H.v. (additional material; m587.)
x 1840b Meyer, H.v. (synonymy; 587.)
x 1843 Meyer, H.v. (considered to include Flonheim sirs. & Halitherium Christolii; 702, 704.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (syn. of Halitherium; 207, 220.)
x 1857 Jäger, G. (comp. w/ Dugong; 98.)
x 1867 Stache, G. (Mioc., Austria; 142-143.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (synonymy; 92.)
* 1887 Studer, T.
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 51.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (nomenclature; m209-211.)
x * 1952 Thenius, E. (syn. of Halitherium; 110-111.)
x 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (occurrence in Pacific; 13-14.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 68-69.)
x 1966 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (artist's reconstruction; 59.)
1966c Shikama, T.
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (syn. of Metaxytherium; 395.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (not senior to Metaxytherium, 183-184; comp. w/ M. medium, 188.)
x 1973 Crusafont-Pairó, M. (Spain; occurrences & bibliography; 96-97.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (syn. of Metaxytherium; 191-192.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (syn. of Metaxytherium; m216.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m47A.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (H. sensu Studer; phyletic position; 577, 579.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1982 Ridgway, B. (Hawthorn Formation [Mioc.], Florida; 13.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (H. Studer a syn. of Metaxytherium; 207.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (proposed suppression, as syn. of Halitherium; 122-125.)
x * 1989 ICZN (name suppressed; 83-84.)
Halianassinae Reinhart, 1959 ( 2 )
(subfamily; = Halitheriinae, in part; Hydrodamalinae, in part)
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (new subfamily; 8, 62-63.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (divided between Halitheriinae & Hydrodamalinae; 3-4.)
Halibutherium Gloger, 1842 ( 2 )
(nomen nudum; = Halitherium?)
* 1842 Gloger, C.
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m481.)
Halicore australis (Retzius, 1794) Owen, 1847 ( 32 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1847 Owen, R. (n.comb.)
x 1857 Fairholme, J.K.E. (Australia; 352-353.)
1860 Bennett, G. (Australia)
1876 Gill, W.W. (Torres Strait)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (synonymy; 76.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 293-298.)
x 1881 Anon. (Australia; econ. use; 738-747.)
x 1882 Faithful, P. (Moreton Bay, Queensland; 4-7, 9-11, 13, 15.)
x 1883 Wallace, A.R. (Queensland; 54.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (teeth; 467-468.)
x * 1886 Miklouho-Maclay, N. de (brain; 193-196, pl. 24.)
x * 1887 Ward, H.L. (vertebrae, pelvis; 536.)
1888 Senior, W. (Moreton Bay, Queensland)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (econ. use; 221.)
1893 Kent, W.S. (Queensland)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; 1-7, pl. 1.)
x 1905 De Vis, C.W. (comp. w/ H. brevirostris; 27-29.)
x * 1906 Annandale, N. (synonymized with H. dugong; 238.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (m135.)
x 1924a Petit, G. ("H. australe"; distr. comp. w/ other species; 124-125.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 67-69.)
x 1929 Birulia, A.A. (pelvis, comp. w/ HG; m88-89.)
x 1933b Dollman, G. (comp. w/ African dugong; m16.)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. ("H. australe"; distr.; 4222.)
x 1937 Promus, J. (Queensland; netting; 40-41.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 330-331.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. ("H. australe"; m56.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 134.)
x * 1967 Welsby, T. (Moreton Bay, Queensland; 1: 102-110, 2: 233-257.)
1968 Banfield, E.J. (Queensland)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal region; 6.)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello (syn. of Dugong dugon; m14.)
Halicore brevirostris De Vis, 1905 ( 4 )
(= Dugong dugon)
x * 1905 De Vis, C.W. (n.sp.; ?subfossil, Papua New Guinea; 27-30, pl. 10.)
1975 Mahoney & Ride
x 1982 Molnar, R.E. ("H. brevirostre"; ?Pleist., Papua New Guinea; 676, 679.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (m297.)
Halicore cetacea Illiger, 1815 ( 10 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1815 Illiger, C. (n.sp.)
x 1848 Gistel, J. (in classification; 83.)
1876 Bsk., V.
1877 Heuglin, M.T.v.
1878 Linstow, O.v.
x 1880 Hartmann, R. (external morphology; 156-159.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (nematode Ascaris halicoris; m149.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (m536.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 382.)
x 1994 Matthies, E. (illustrations reproduced; 188-189, 191, 193.)
Halicore cuvierii de Christol, 1832 ( 12 )
(= Metaxytherium medium, in part; Metaxytherium serresii, in part; Protosiren minima, in part)
* 1832b Christol, J. de (n.sp.)
x 1838 Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa Studeri; 667.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (synonymy; 674-675.)
x 1840b Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa; 587.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. ("Halichore"; m206, 208, 221.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m475.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (history of name, m102; m113.)
x 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 113.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (m69; history of name, 70.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; m182.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 206-207, 210.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (history of confusion with Halianassa; 123.)
Halicore dugong (Gmelin, 1788) Illiger, 1811 ( 109 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1811 Illiger, C. (n.comb.)
1820 Ranzani, C.
1821 Raffles, T.S.
1829-44 Guérin-Méneville, F.-E.
1830-35 Gray, J.E. (India)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (m113.)
x 1835b Duvernoy, G.L. ("H. Dugung"; in classification; tab. 4.)
x 1837 Burmeister, H. (in classification; 793.)
1838-45 Smith, A.
1838 Waterhouse, G.R.
x 1838 Waterhouse, G.R. (Sumatra; 35.)
x 1843 Backhouse, J. (Australia; 368-369.)
x 1851 Barkow, H.C.L. (fetus; nerves & muscles; 119-122.)
x 1851 Diesing, C.M. ("H. Dugung"; nematode Ascaris Dugonis, n.sp.; 191, 502.)
1851 Horsfield, T. ("H. dugung"; Siam; 139.)
1852-53 Kelaart, E.F. (Sri Lanka)
1853 Pucheran & Jacquinot
x 1857 Jäger, G. (skull; 98-99, pl. 6.)
x 1869a Bickmore, A.S. (Aru Islands; 244.)
x 1869b Bickmore, A.S. (Aru Islands; 182.)
1871 Klunzinger, C.B. (Red Sea; hunting, econ. use)
1871 Van Beneden, P.J.
x 1876 Southwell, T. (gen. acc.; 57, 75-76.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 293-298.)
1878 Klunzinger, C.B. (Red Sea)
x 1884 Fischer, P. (barnacle Platylepas bissexlobata; New Caledonia; 359.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m468.)
x 1887b Baur, G. (supernumerary phalanges; 840.)
1887 Collett, R. ("H. dugung var. australis"; Queensland)
1888 Ching, J.L. ("H. dugong australis")
x 1889a Leboucq, H. (fetus; nails; 190-192.)
1889b Leboucq, H.
1889 Turner, W.
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m221.)
1894 Turner, W.
x 1894 Zaaijer, T. ("H. dujong"; cranial sutures; 340.)
x 1895 Phipson, H.M. (India; 489-490.)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (India, Sri Lanka; 98-99.)
x 1895 Yerbury & Thomas (Red Sea; 555.)
x 1897 Etheridge et al. (?Pleist., Sydney, Australia; 170-174, 178-180, pls. 8-11.)
1900 Etheridge, R., Jr. (?Pleist., Papua New Guinea)
1901a Finsch, O. ("H. dujong"; Papua New Guinea, Australia; hunting)
x 1901 Roth, W.E. (Queensland; hunting; 30.)
x * 1904 Freund, L. (manus; osteology; 363-397, pls. 14-15.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (m4.)
x 1905 Etheridge, R., Jr. (New South Wales; 17-19, pl. 4.)
1905 Freund, L. (sternum)
x 1905 Knauff (pelvis; 306, 309.)
x 1905 Linstow, O.v. (India, Red Sea; nematode Ascaris halicoris; m258.)
x * 1906 Annandale, N. (India, 238-243; Australia, 238, 242; Andaman Islands, 241.)
1906a Dexler & Freund
x 1907 Annandale, N. (pelvis, 79; manus, 79-80.)
x * 1907 Pick, F.K. (lung anatomy & histology; 245-272.)
* 1908a Freund, L. (skull; ontogeny)
x 1908b Freund, L. (bones & cartilages of nasal region; 254-256.)
x 1908 Hanitsch, R. ("H. duyong"; in capt., Singapore; 13.)
1911 Dexler & Eger
1911 Riha, A.
1912a Dexler, H.
x * 1912b Dexler, H. (brain; 97-190, pls. 5-6.)
x * 1914a Freund, L. (skeletal embryology; 353-386, pl. 16.)
1915 Matthes, E.
1921c Matthes, E.
1921d Matthes, E.
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (m135.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (distr.; Madagascar, natural history; 124-127.)
x 1924c Petit, G. (kidney; 2198-2200.)
x 1926 Cheesman, R.E. (Red Sea; 348, m350.)
x 1926 Dahl, K. (Australia; m266.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. ("H. dugung"; diet, mastication; 251, 254-255.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (gen. acc.; 84-97, pls. 1-4.)
x 1929 Petit & Rochon-Duvigneaud (eye, sensory capacities; 129-138.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis, osteosclerosis, 410-413, 415, 427; tooth replacement, 429; neoteny of brain & genitalia, 430-431.)
x * 1932 Hirasaka, K. (Taiwan; 1-4, pl. 1.)
x 1932 Korschelt, E. (rib fractures; 450.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (distr. in Pacific; 4221-4222.)
x 1934 Thomson, D.F. (Cape York, Australia; hunting lore; 237-263, pls. 29-31.)
x 1935a Wislocki, G.B. (lungs; 385, 388, 392-394.)
x 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (placentation; 159, 164, 172-173, 176.)
x 1936 Lopes, A.P. (Mozambique; 28-36.)
x 1936 Sunter, G.H. (Northern Territory, Australia; harpooning; 47-48.)
1938 Asano, N.
x 1938 Todd & Todd (epiphyseal union sequence; 32-33.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (m56.)
x 1951 Aragon, F. (Philippines; 265-268.)
x 1953 Brash, J.C. (tooth replacement; 464-466, 468-471.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 129-130, 134.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (syn. of Dugong dugon; m37.)
x 1959 De Silva, J.A. (Sri Lanka; conservation; 173-174.)
x 1959a Engel, S. (lung anatomy & histology; 102-104, 106, 111-114.)
x * 1959b Engel, S. (lung anatomy & histology; 90-100.)
x 1960 Jonklaas, R. (Sri Lanka; pop. acc.; 302-304.)
x 1960 Mani, S.B. (India; 216-217.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (India; 263-266.)
x 1961 Slijper, E.J. (closure of foramen ovale & ductus arteriosus; 536.)
1961 Thiemmedh, J. (Gulf of Thailand)
x v * 1962 Engel, S. (lung anatomy & histology; 95-107.)
x 1963 Fenart, R. (skull; vestibular orientation; 92-98.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m69.)
x 1967 Tsuyuki & Itoh (fatty acids; 1035-1037.)
x 1970 Cansdale, G.S. (probable identity of Biblical tachash; 138-139.)
x 1971 Fleischer, G. (ear; functional anatomy; 351-353, 355-359.)
x 1974 Itoh & Tsuyuki (fatty acids, comp. w/ TS; 310.)
x 1976 Fleischer, G. (anchoring of stapes; 305, 308-310.)
x 1979 Hoch, E. ("H. dugon"; syn. of Dugong dugon; m597.)
x 1982 Molnar, R.E. (?Pleist., Papua New Guinea; 680.)
x 1994 Matthies, E. ("H. dujong", in part; illustrations reproduced; 188, 190, 192.)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello (syn. of Dugong dugon; m14.)
Halicore halicore Hilmy, 1949 ( 2 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1949 Hilmy, I. S. (n. comb.)
* 1949 Hilmy, I. S. (n. comb.)
Halicore hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1832 ( 8 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1828-99 Hemprich & Ehrenberg (n.sp.)
x 1888 Hart, H.C. (mentioned in Bible; 26-27, 220, 228.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (mating; m77.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (distr., comp. w/ other species; 124-125.)
x 1930 Aharoni, J. (dispersal to Palestine via Suez Canal; 330.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (?syn. of Dugong dugon; 330.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (m56.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 4, 36.)
Halicore Illiger, 1811 ( 63 )
(= Dugong)
x * 1811 Illiger, C. (n.gen.; in classification; 140-141.)
* 1822 Fleming, J. ("Halicora"; unjustified emendation; 2:204.)
x 1825 Gray, J.E. ("Halicora"; in classification; m341.)
x 1827 Berthold, A.A. (in classification; 62.)
x 1827 Billberg, G.J. (in classification; tab. A.)
x 1828 Billberg, G.J. (in classification; tab. A.)
x 1837 Burmeister, H. (in classification; 793.)
x 1838a Kaup, J.J. (comp. w/ Halytherium dubium; 319.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. ("Halichore"; comp. w/ Halitherium serresii, 211-217; comp. w/ Toxodon, 218-219.)
x 1864 Dana, J.D. (in classification; m169.)
x 1867c Brandt, J.F. (brain, comp. w/ Trichechus & Hydrodamalis; 269-270.)
x 1867 Claudius, M. (ear region, comp. w/ HG; 10-11.)
x 1870 Adams, A. (Sakhalin; 198.)
1870 Krauss, C.F.F.
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1872a Murie, J. (anatomy, comp. w/ TMM; 133, 135, 137, 141, 154, 166-167, 170-171, 173-174, 179, 183, 190-191.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 272.)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (comp. w/ Halitherium; 2-5.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (brain; m102, m104-105.)
x 1875 Wilder, B.G. (m111.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 292-298.)
x 1880 Cope, E.D. (squamosal foramina; 456.)
x 1880a Zigno, Achille de (comp. w/ Halitherium veronense; 294, 296.)
x 1883a Cope, E.D. (m54.)
x 1883b Cope, E.D. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 309.)
x 1884 De Vis, C.W. (comp. w/ Chronozoon; 394.)
x 1884 Doran, A.H.G. (ear ossicles, comp. w/ HG; 367-370.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (skull, m459; rostral pads, m460; brain, 461; manus, m462; tusks, m465; teeth, 467; m470, m472.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (comp. w/ Prohalicore, 134-135, pl. 1; descent, 136-138.)
x D 1888 Marsh, O.C. (thought related to Desmostylus; m96.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 416, 418-421.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (descent from Olig. Belgian sir.; 199-200.)
x 1890 Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; m65.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy, 213-214, 220-221; m223.)
x 1894 Dawson, G.M. (m156-157.)
x 1895 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of Dugong; 449-450.)
x 1897 Sinclair, W.F. (meat; m198.)
x 1898 Anderson, R.J. (manus; 765-767.)
x 1899 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of Dugong; m494.)
x 1902a Osborn, H.F. (m714.)
x 1903a Smith, G.E. (brain; m328.)
x 1904 Eggeling, H. (sternum; 99.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; 1-8, 11, pl. 1.)
x 1905 Toldt, C. (angular process of mandible; m337.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 50-51, 60.)
1910 Anon.
x 1912 Issel, A. (Assab, Eritrea; comp. w/ Felsinotherium subapenninum; 121.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium; 1860.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ Desmostylus; 385-389, 391.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (tooth formula; 26-28.)
x 1922 Sonntag, C.F. (tongue; 646-647, 654.)
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (pachyostosis; m357.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (German East Africa; feeding behavior; 225-226.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (anatomy; gen. acc.; 53-54, 61-64.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp.; 106-108, 111-113.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (nasals, 15-16, m18; phylogeny, 21.)
x 1944 Zbyszewski, G. (humerus, comp. w/ Metaxytherium petersi; m72.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Dugong; 135.)
x 1952a Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (lack of fossils in Indian Ocean, & vernacular name, m610; descent from Indosiren, 611.)
1957 Pronina, I.G.
x 1960 Kappers et al. (epiphysis, spinal cord; 1: 286, 2: 1064.)
1972 Hasegawa, U.
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Dugong; m578.)
Halicore indica (Boddaert, 1785) Desmarest, 1822 ( 9 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1822 Desmarest, A.G. ("H. indicus"; n.comb.)
1830 Cheek, H.H.
x 1849 Owen, R. ("Halicore indicus"; forelimb adapted as fin; m5-6.)
x 1886 Miklouho-Maclay, N. de ("H. indicus"; m193.)
1896 Stossich, M. (nematode Ascaris halicoris)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (nematode Ascaris halicoris; m151.)
x 1922 Sonntag, C.F. ("H. indicus"; tongue; 646.)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello ("H. indica"; syn. of Dugong dugon; m14.)
x 2014-15 Winsor, M.P. (in imaginary dialogue between Strickland and Darwin on affinity; "Halicore indicus"; m183.)
Halicore lottum Ehrenberg, 1832 ( 5 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1828-99 Hemprich & Ehrenberg (n.sp.)
1877 Heuglin, M.T.v.
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (?syn. of Dugong dugon; 330.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 4, 36.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 382.)
Halicore malayana Owen, 1875 ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
x * 1875b Owen, R. (n.sp.; comp. w/ Prorastomus; 560-561, 563, 565-566.)
Halicore maximovitschii Rogovich, 1875 ( 1 )
(Nomen nudum; Cetacea)
x 1875 Rogovich, A. S. (Ukraine; 37.)
Halicore medius [sic] (Desmarest, 1822) de Serres, 1838 ( 4 )
(= Metaxytherium serresii, not M. medium)
x 1835 Serres, M. de (Montpellier, France; m238-239 [in 1838 ed.])
x * 1838 Serres, M. de (n.comb.; Plioc., Montpellier, France; 286.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. ("Halichore"; m205, 209, 221.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium serresii; 210.)
Halicore minuta Bronn, 1838 ( 1 )
(= Hippopotamidae)
* 1838 Bronn, H.G. (n.sp.)
Halicore syren Brookes, 1828 or 1830? ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1828b Brookes, J. (n.sp.)
Halicore tabernaculi Rüppell, 1834 ( 23 )
(= Dugong dugon)
x * 1834 Rüppell, E. (n.sp.; Red Sea; 99-114, pl. 6.)
x 1838a Owen, R. (heart, m35; skeleton, 41.)
1845a Reichenbach, H.G.L.
1871 Ule, O.
x 1875a Owen, R. (m102.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (gen. acc.; 57, 76.)
x 1881 Anon. (m738.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m468.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m221.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; 4-7, pl. 1.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; m60.)
x 1914a Freund, L. (pelvis; 372-373.)
x 1916 Lucas, F.A. (pop. acc.; 315-316, 318.)
x 1920 Schoff, W.H. (Biblical references to use of hide; 10-11, 51-53, 77, 140.)
x 1924a Petit, G. (syn. of H. hemprichi; m124.)
x 1925 Mertens, R. (type specimen listed; 30.)
x 1929 Birulia, A.A. (pelvis, comp. w/ HG; m87-88.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (?syn. of Dugong dugon; 330.)
x * 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (referred to Dugong dugon as subspecies; 37-39.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (pop. acc.)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal region; 6.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (syn. of Dugong dugon; m305.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 382.)
Halicorea Brandt, 1846 ( 2 )
(tribe or family; included Manatus and Halicore but not Rytina)
* 1846c Brandt, J.F.
x 1848 Gistel, J. (in classification; 83.)
Halicoreae Brandt, 1833 ( 1 )
(tribe; included Manatus and Halicore but not Rytina)
* 1833 Brandt, J.F. (new tribe)
Halicorida Brandt, 1868 ( 2 )
(family; = Dugongidae)
* 1868a Brandt, J.F. (n.fam.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (divided into 3 families; 13-14.)
Halicoridae Gray, 1825 ( 11 )
(family; = Dugongidae)
x * 1825 Gray, J.E. (n.fam.; in classification; 341, 344.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 14, 91-92.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 272-273.)
x 1884 Flower, W.H. (in classification; m184.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (m421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (in classification, m220; m223.)
x 1895 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of Dugongidae; 450.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. (teeth; m57.)
x 1932c Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Dugongidae; 281.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Dugongidae; 135.)
Halicorinae Abel, 1913 ( 1 )
(subfamily; = Dugonginae)
* 1913a Abel, O. (new subfamily)
Halicoroidea Gill, 1872 ( 3 )
(superfamily; = Dugongidae)
x * 1872a Gill, T. (new superfamily; in classification; 13, 91-92.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 272-273.)
Haligyna Billberg, 1827 ( 4 )
(= Hydrodamalis)
x * 1827 Billberg, G.J. (n.gen.; in classification; tabs. A & B, 33.)
x 1828 Billberg, G.J. (in classification; tabs. A & B, 33.)
x 1925 ICZN (nomenclature; 38.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 75.)
Haligyna borealis (Gmelin, 1788) Billberg, 1827 ( 3 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
x * 1827 Billberg, G.J. (n.comb.; 33.)
x 1828 Billberg, G.J. (in classification; 33.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
Halipaedisca americana (Link, 1795) Gistel, 1848 ( 1 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
x * 1848 Gistel, J. ("H. americanus"; n.comb.; 83.)
Halipaedisca Gistel, 1848 ( 6 )
(= Trichechus)
x * 1848 Gistel, J. (proposed as replacement name for Manatus; 83.)
1850 Gistel & Bromme
x 1925 ICZN (syn. of Trichechus; 38.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus; 534.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. ("Halipaediscus"; syn. of Trichechus; 309.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Trichechus; m578.)
Halitherida Carus, 1868 ( 2 )
(family; = Halitheriinae)
* 1868 Carus, J.V. (n.fam.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Dugongidae; 135.)
Halitheriidae Gill, 1872 ( 7 )
(family; = Halitheriinae)
x * 1872a Gill, T. (n.fam.; in classification; 13, 91-92.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 273.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (m421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m222.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Dugongidae; 135.)
Halitheriinae (Carus, 1868) Abel, 1913 ( 8 )
(subfamily)
* 1913a Abel, O. (new rank)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
1960 Kaiser, H.E.
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (redefined; 3-5.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (Halitheriinae indet.; Early Mioc., Oregon; 263-276.)
1992 Kohno & Takaizumi (Halitheriinae indet.; Late Mioc., Japan)
2002 Kobayashi, S. (indeterminate halitheriine; Mioc.; Japan)
* 2014 Voss, M. (considered invalid)
Halitherium abeli Spillmann, 1959 ( 9 )
(= Halitherium christolii)
* 1959 Spillmann, F. (n.sp.; Late Olig., Austria)
1969 Spillmann, F. (Late Olig., Austria)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. (stratigraphic & phyletic position; 205.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 367.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 389, 397.)
x 1986 Rothausen, K. (comp. w/ tooth from German Olig.; 529.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of H. christolii; 207, 225, 227.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium floridanum; 408.)
2016 Voss et al. (synonymized with Lentiarenium cristolii (n.comb.))
Halitherium aegyptiacum (Owen, 1875) von Zittel, 1893 ( 2 )
(= Eotheroides aegyptiacum)
* 1893 Zittel, K.A.v. (n.comb.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. ("H. (Eotherium) Aegyptiacum"; m410.)
Halitherium alleni Simpson, 1932 ( 3 )
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (n.sp.; 445.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (referred to Felsinotherium; 91-92.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (history of name; 416.)
Halitherium angustifrons de Zigno, 1875 ( 7 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
* 1875a Zigno, A. de (n.sp.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 68, 70.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (m78.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 17-19, 21.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (nature of type material; 387.)
x 1983 Bizzotto, B. (comp. w/ Prototherium; 100, 108.)
Halitherium antillense Matthew, 1916 ( 10 )
x * 1916a Matthew, W.D. (n.sp.; Olig., Puerto Rico; 23-29.)
1916b Matthew, W.D.
v 1916 Reeds, C.A.
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m232.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m422, 496.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 67.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 65-66.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dusisiren; 73-74.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (review; 21, 31-32.)
Halitherium antiquum (Leidy, 1856) Allen, 1926 ( 5 )
(nomen dubium; = "Manatus antiquus")
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (n.comb.; 455-459, pls. 2-3.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m421, 444.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (history of name; 91.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (considered nomen dubium; 396.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (considered nomen dubium; 416.)
Halitherium beaumontii (de Christol in de Blainville, 1844) Gervais, 1852 ( 2 )
(nomen dubium)
* 1852 Gervais, F.L.P. (n.comb.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
Halitherium bellunense de Zigno, 1875 ( 14 )
* 1875a Zigno, A. de (n.sp.; Italy)
x 1877 Lawley, R. (m342.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 68, 70.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (teeth; 78.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m410.)
* 1905a Abel, O.
x 1927 Collignon & Cottreau (m165.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 474, 476-478.)
x 1937 Venzo, S. (considered Chattian [Olig.] in age; 7, 13, 196.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (m69.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (probably not Halitherium; 207.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (?related to rytiodontines; 425-426.)
* 2017 Voss et al. (made the basis of Italosiren, n.gen., as Italosiren bellunensis)
Halitherium brocchii (de Blainville, 1844) Gervais, 1847 ( 1 )
(=Metaxytherium subapenninum)
x * 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (n.comb.; 221.)
Halitherium bronni Krauss, 1858 ( 6 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1858b Krauss, C.F.F. (n.sp.)
x 1862 Bronn, H.G. (m418.)
* 1862b Krauss, C.F.F. (comp. w/ H. schinzii)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian ?Halitherium; 1186-1187.)
2014 Voss, M.
* 2021 Domning, D.P. (conservation of name in preference to Kaupitherium bronni)
Halitherium canhami Flower, 1874 ( 7 )
(= Miosiren canhami)
x * 1874 Flower, W.H. (n.sp.; Mioc., England; 1-7, pl. 1.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (m104, 105.)
x 1879 Smith, R.
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
1891 Newton, E.T.
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (m21.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
Halitherium capgrandi (Lartet, 1866) Cope, 1883 ( 1 )
(= Rytiodus capgrandi)
x * 1883a Cope, E.D. (n.comb.; comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 52.)
Halitherium chouqueti Gaudry, 1884 ( 3 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
x * 1884 Gaudry, A. (n.sp.; 373-375, pl. 17.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 136.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m410.)
Halitherium christolii Fitzinger, 1842 ( 35 )
* 1842 Fitzinger, L.J. (n.sp.; Late Olig., Austria)
x 1843 Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa; 704.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m209.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (synonymy; 310.)
* 1904a Abel, O.
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (comp. w/ ?H. antillense; m26.)
1916b Matthew, W.D.
x 1926 Allen, G.M. (comp. w/ H. antiquum; m457.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m474, 478.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 19-21.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (m439, m441.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m207.)
* 1959 Spillmann, F.
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 67-68.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 69.)
1969 Spillmann, F. (Late Olig., Austria)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian ?Halitherium; 1187.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 73, 76-77.)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. (comp. w/ H. pergense; 200, 202-207, 209, pl. 40.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 367.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 9, 12, 73, 118.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 576.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 389, 397.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ Eoc. sirs.; 43.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (phyletic position; 211.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (considered ancestral to Metaxytherium; 207-208, 220-227.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (?ancestor of Metaxytherium; 417-418.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224-226.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; 409.)
x 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; 178.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 301-302.)
2013 Reiter & Mittermayr (Late Olig., Linz, Austria)
* 2016 Voss et al. (synonymized with Lentiarenium cristolii (n.comb.))
Halitherium cordieri (de Christol in de Blainville, 1844) Peters, 1867 ( 3 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
x * 1867 Peters, K.F. (n.comb.; skeleton; 309-314, pl. 7.)
1899 Kornhuber, A.
x 1952 Thenius, E. (syn. of Thalattosiren petersi; 109.)
Halitherium curvidens de Zigno, 1875 ( 5 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
* 1875a Zigno, A. de (n.sp.; Late Eoc., Italy)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 68, 70.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (m78.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (syn. of Prototherium veronense; m387-389, m395-397.)
Halitherium cuvieri (de Christol, 1832) Kaup, 1840 ( 8 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
x * 1840 Kaup, J.J. (n.comb.; 675.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m221.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (syn. of H. Cordieri; m310, m314.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
1906 Couffon, O.
1923 Préaubert (France)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; m182.)
x 1976 Kordos, L. (m282.)
Halitherium dubium (Cuvier, 1824) Kaup, 1838 ( 7 )
(= Halitherium schinzii, not Protosiren minima; used in reference to misidentified material)
x * 1838a Kaup, J.J. ("Halytherium dubium", n.gen.n.sp.; Olig., Germany; 319, pl. 2.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208.)
x 1866 Lartet, E. (occurrence; m684.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m410.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (history of name; 70.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (history of name; 122-125.)
Halitherium fossile (Holl, 1829) Gervais, 1847 ( 13 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
x * 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. ("H. fossilis", n.comb.; 221.)
x 1884 Gaudry, A. (comp. w/ H. Chouqueti; 375.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 137-138.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (teeth illustrated; 223.)
1909 Mayet & Lecointre
x 1919 Gómez Llueca, F. (syn. of Metaxytherium Cuvieri; 54.)
1926 Cottreau, J.
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m113.)
x 1956 Bataller, J.R. (Spain; skull; 24-25, pls. 6-8.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 182-183.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (m3.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Mioc., Spain; 45, 171-172, 174.)
Halitherium guettardi (de Blainville, 1844) Gervais, 1847 ( 8 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
x * 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (n.comb.; 221.)
x 1866 Lartet, E. (occurrence; m684.)
x 1884 Gaudry, A. (m373.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (syn. of H. schinzi; m410.)
1920 Depéret & Roman (syn. of H. schinzi; m37.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m101, m113.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 21-22.)
Halitherium Kaup, 1838 ( 126 )
x * 1838a Kaup, J.J. ("Halytherium"; n.gen.; 319, pl. 2.)
x 1838b Kaup, J.J. (comp. w/ DD; m536.)
x 1839b Meyer, H.v. ("Halytherium"; syn. of Halianassa; 77.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (synonymy, 674-675; diagnosis, 675.)
x 1840b Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa; 587.)
x * 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (review & diagnosis; 203-221.)
1855 Kaup, J.J.
1858b Krauss, C.F.F.
x 1861 Van Beneden, P.J. (Germany, Austria; 481.)
x 1864 Dana, J.D. (m183.)
x 1866 Adams, A.L. (Mioc., Malta; 595-596.)
x 1866 Lartet, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus, etc.; 678-680, 682-683, 685.)
x 1867 Claudius, M. (ear region, comp. w/ HG; 6, 9-10.)
1867 Peters, K.F.
1867 Stache, G.
x 1867 Stache, G. (Mioc., Austria; 141, 144.)
x 1868 Falconer, H. (Malta; 304.)
x 1868 Fuchs, T. ("Halitherium" [= Metaxytherium krahuletzi]; Early Mioc., Austria; 591.)
x 1870 Delfortrie, E. (Early Mioc., France; bones scarred by fish teeth; 261.)
x 1871 Farge, E. (Middle Mioc., France; bone scarred by sharks; 265-268, pl. 2.)
x 1872 Farge, E. (Middle Mioc., France; bone scarred by sharks; 412-416.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1872a Murie, J. (anatomy, comp. w/ TMM; 135, 154, 167, 190-191.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (affinities; 271-272.)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 2, 5-7.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (brain, 102; Malta, 104, 105.)
x 1875b Owen, R. (comp. w/ Prorastomus; 566-567.)
x 1875 Wilder, B.G. (phyletic position; m111.)
1875a Zigno, A. de (Mioc., Isthmus of Suez)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (m292.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (Italy, 67-70; comp. w/ Felsinotherium, 69.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; 131, 135-139, 141-142.)
x 1883a Cope, E.D. (South Carolina; 54.)
x 1883b Cope, E.D. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 309.)
1885 Gaudry, A.
x 1885 Ryder, J.A. (hind limbs; m515, 519.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (femur, m459; teeth, m464, m472; comp. w/ other sirs., 465.)
x 1886 Hauer, F.v. ("Halitherium" [=Metaxytherium medium]; Middle Mioc., Ottakring, Austria; 27-28.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (comp. w/ Manatherium; 370, 374-376.)
x * 1887 Flot, L. (ancestral to Trichechus, 136-138; "new species", 138, pl. 1.)
1887 Gaudry, A.
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 416-419, 421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 213, 222-224.)
1892 Viguier, M.-G.
1901 Kornhuber, A.
x 1902b Osborn, H.F. (m715.)
1902 Schafarzik, F. (Hungary)
1903 Van Oort, E.D.
* 1904a Abel, O.
x 1904 Freund, L. (carpus, comp. w/ DD, etc.; m394.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; m1, m6-7.)
1905 Van Oort, E.D.
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 51-52, 59-60.)
x 1906 Almera, D.J. (Middle Eoc., Spain; 379.)
1911 Lefeuvre
x 1914 Depéret, C. (m1858-1859.)
x 1914a Freund, L. (fusion of cervical vertebrae; m360.)
x 1917 Schréter, Z. ([actually Metaxytherium]; Hungary; m176.)
1922 Dal Piaz, G.
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (vertebral epiphyses; m236.)
x 1924 Andrews, C.W. (dentition; m306.)
x 1924 Hay, O.P. (teeth; m4.)
x * 1927 Collignon & Cottreau (Mioc., Madagascar; 138, 164-165, 169.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (m98.)
x 1929 Birulia, A.A. (pelvis, comp. w/ HG; m88-89.)
1934 Nopcsa & Heidsieck
x 1935 Dartevelle, E. ("Halitherium sp.?"; Mioc., Congo; 717-718.)
1935 Fekete, Z. (Hungary)
1937 Dal Piaz, G.
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (dentition, comp. w/ DD; 5-6, 14.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (Hungary, m146; comp. w/ Sirenavus, etc., 148-149, 151, 154, pl. 6.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ Trichechus; m59.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of name, 103-104; m106; comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp., 108.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 18-23.)
x 1943 Kellogg, R. (Caribbean; m299.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 438-441.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m207, 209.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (senior syn. of Halianassa; 110-111.)
x 1953 Maldonado-Koerdell, M. ("cf. Halitherium"; Olig., Mexico; 146-148.)
x 1953 Zapfe, H. (m14.)
1954 Astre, G.
x 1956 Bataller, J.R. (Eoc. & Mioc., Spain; 24-25.)
1959 Spillmann, F.
x 1959 Telles-Antunes, M.C.F. (Early Mioc., Lisbon; 129-137, pl. 1.)
1963 Patte, E.
1964 Rey, R. (France)
x 1968 Olsen, S.J. (Mioc., northern Florida; 129, 133-134.)
x 1970 Chavanon & Saubade (Olig., France; 261-262.)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. ("?Halitherium sp."; Eoc., Romania; 1185-1191.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (comp. w/ Metaxytherium medium; 184, 186, 188.)
x 1973 Crusafont-Pairó, M. (Spain; occurrences & bibliography; 97-98.)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. ("?Halitherium sp." of Fuchs [1970] comp. w/ other Halitherium species; 206-207.)
x 1974 Anglada et al. (Early Mioc., France; 1-2.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (Mississippi; m8.)
x 1974 Patte, E. (corrects erroneous record from Poitou, France; 24.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366-367.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (Madagascar specimen considered Dugongidae indet.; 217.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. (Madagascar specimen considered Dugongidae indet.; 47A.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position, occurrence in Africa; 575-579.)
x 1978 Satsangi & Trivedy (Late Olig., India; 571-576.)
1978 Schäfer, W.
1979 Kattinger, E.
x 1980 Inuzuka et al. (m641.)
1980 Sahni & Mitra
x 1980 Sanders, A.E. (Olig., South Carolina; 612.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (supposed Eoc. records; 5, 39.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (body proportions, 375; distr., 378-380; pelvis, 392.)
x 1983 Bizzotto, B. (comp. w/ Prototherium, etc.; 100, 106, 111.)
x 1985a Kordos, L. (Hungary; zoogeography; 314.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (m209.)
1986 Rothausen, K.
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (suppression of spelling Halytherium proposed; Pugmeodon schinzii proposed as type species; 122-125.)
x * 1989 ICZN (spelling Halytherium suppressed; type species designated; name placed on Official List; 83-84.)
x 1991 Basu et al. (comp. w/ ?halitheriine from India; 10.)
x 1995 Fichter, J. (specimen in Kassel, Germany; 154.)
x D 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure; 353-354, 356.)
x 2000 Cappetta et al. (indeterminate sir. ["Halitherium sp."]; Late Eoc., Jordan; 91.)
x 2000 Mayor, A. (France; as ?inspiration of folklore & use for Paleolithic tools; 145, 166, 259, 325.)
x 2001 Böhme, M. (Early Olig., Germany; 76-79.)
2008 Voss, M. (Germany; Lower Olig.)
2011 Diedrich, C. G. (placodont reptiles comp. w/ Halitherium & Dugong: macroalgae diets?)
* 2014 Voss, M. (considered a nomen dubium)
x 2015 Rocher et al. (Rauzan, France; humerus found in Bordeaux collection; 16.)
2015 Houssaye et al. (osteosclerosis)
* 2021 Domning, D.P. (conservation of name)
Halitherium kaupi Krauss, 1858 ( 1 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1858b Krauss, C.F.F. (n.sp.)
Halitherium maeoticus (v. Eichwald, 1850) Lungu & Rzebik-Kowalska, 2011 ( 1 )
x * 2011 Lungu & Rzebik-Kowalska ("?Halitherium maeoticus" (sic; n.comb.); Late Mioc., Moldova; 30.)
Halitherium minor Cope, 1883 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium serresii)
x * 1883a Cope, E.D. (n.comb.; comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 52.)
Halitherium olseni Reinhart, 1976 ( 14 )
(= Crenatosiren olseni)
x 1971 Reinhart, R.H. ("H. olsenensis", nomen nudum; m8.)
* 1976 Reinhart, R.H. (n.sp.; Mioc., Florida)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium kachchhense; 22-23.)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (Early Mioc., Suwannee R., Florida; 54-56, 59.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium manigaulti; 421, 424-426.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (m435.)
x 1989 Morgan, G.S. (Early Mioc., Suwannee R., Florida; 27, 30, 32, 39.)
x 1990b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Corystosiren varguezi; 369.)
x 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (comp. w/ Metaxytherium cf. calvertense; 25.)
x * 1991b Domning, D.P. (made the basis of Crenatosiren, n.gen.; 398.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (comp. w/ Dioplotherium cf. allisoni, 124; comp. w/ cf. Rytiodus, 133.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (syn. of Crenatosiren olseni; 33.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Crenatosiren olseni; 397-398.)
Halitherium pergense (Toula, 1899) Spillmann, 1959 ( 6 )
(= Halitherium christolii)
* 1959 Spillmann, F. (n.comb.)
1969 Spillmann, F. (Late Olig., Austria)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian ?Halitherium; 1185-1186.)
x * 1973 Spillmann, F. (stratigraphic position & comparisons with other species; 197-209.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of H. christolii; 207.)
2016 Voss et al. (synonymized with Lentiarenium cristolii (n.comb.))
Halitherium raulinii (Gervais, 1849) Depret, 1895 ( 1 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
x * 1895 Depéret, C. ("H. (Trachytherium) Raulini"; n.comb.; m410.)
Halitherium schinzii (Kaup, 1838) Kaup, 1855 ( 101 )
* 1855 Kaup, J.J. (n.comb.)
x 1862 Bronn, H.G. (vertebrae, ribs, humeri, tusks; 416-418.)
* 1862b Krauss, C.F.F.
x 1866 Lartet, E. (occurrence; m684.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (comp. w/ H. cordieri; 309-314.)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (m3, 5.)
x * 1879 Adams, A.L. ("H. Schinzi?"; Malta; 525-527, pl. 25.)
* 1882 Lepsius, G.R.
x 1884 Gaudry, A. (comp. w/ H. Chouqueti; 373-375, pl. 17.)
1885a Flot, L.
1885b Flot, L. (Montmorency, France)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (skeleton, 466; teeth, 467; m470.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 136.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 417.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (Olig., Belgium; 198-200.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (comp. w/ H. bellunense & H. veronense; 78, 81-83.)
x 1893 Howes & Harrison (vertebral epiphyses; m790.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m410; comp. w/ Metaxytherium krahuletzi, 411.)
x 1902 Andrews, C.W. (comp. w/ Eosiren libyca; 295.)
1904 Koch, A. ("Halitherium ... aff. Schinzi"; Hungary)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 60.)
1911 Schmidtgen, O.
x 1912 Issel, A. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium subapenninum; 121.)
1912 Schmidtgen, O.
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium Serresi; 1858-1859.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (comp. w/ H. antillense; 24-26.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m233.)
x 1925 Abel, O. (most skeletons said to be composite; 48.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 58, 67.)
x 1926 Allen, G.M. (comp. w/ H. antiquum; 456.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. (diet & tooth morphology; 251-252, 254.)
x 1927 Collignon & Cottreau (comp. w/ Madagascar Halitherium; 164-165.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (illustration of skeleton; 20.)
x 1928b Petit, G. (fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 & 3; m431.)
1929a Dette, K.
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis, osteosclerosis, 409-415, 427; tooth replacement, 429.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 424, 431-436, 443-444, 454, 456, 460, 464, 472, 474, 476-478, 480, 495, 499.)
x 1932b Simpson, G.G. (critique of restorations; 7.)
1935 Haupt, O. (Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany)
1936 Gillet & Théobold (Olig., France)
1936 Neumann, D. (manus)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m147, m151.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103, m113.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 19, 21.)
x 1946 Slijper, E.J. (spinal column; tab. 5.)
1947 Cailleux & Feugueur
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (m439, m441.)
1962 Barthel, K.W.
x 1962 Schäfer, W. (manner of decay of carcass; 53-56.)
x * 1962 Wilhelm, W. (Olig., Germany; skeleton; 51-53.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 67-68.)
1966 Barthel, K.W.
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (?Mississippi, 66; Europe, 68-69; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense, 76, 78, 81, 83-85, 88.)
x 1967 Siegfried, P. (femur, comp. w/ Eotheroides libyca; 165, 169-171.)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian ?Halitherium; 1185-1188.)
x 1972 Sittler, C. (Olig., Alsace, France; vertebrae; 113.)
x 1973 Crusafont-Pairó, M. (Spain; occurrences & bibliography; 97.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 72-73, 75-77.)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. (comp. w/ H. pergense; 198, 200, 202-204, 206-207, 209.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ Metaxytherium forestii; 43.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium cf. medium; 2-4, 6, 12.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 367.)
x 1977 Schäfer, W. (display, Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt; 196-197.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 3, 9, 12, 16, 73-74.)
x 1978 Satsangi & Trivedy (comp. w/ Halitherium sp. from India; m575.)
x * 1980 Tobien, H. (Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany; occurrences summarized; 207-209.)
1982 Bahlo & Tobien (Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (molarization of premolars; m608.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ Eoc. sirs.; 30, 39.)
* 1982 Fischer & Krumbiegel
x 1982 Fischer, K. (Middle Olig., Germany; 151-153.)
1983 Müller, A.
x 1983 Müller, A. ("H. schinzi"; Olig., Germany; 71-72, pl. 27.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272-273.)
x 1986 Rothausen, K. (Olig., Germany; 520-521, 528-529, 539, 545, 548.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (?ancestral to Metaxytherium; 207, 220-227.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (history of name; 122-125.)
* 1987 Pilleri, G.
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ rytiodontines; 423, 425.)
1991 Freess, W.B. (Olig., Germany)
1992 Schindler & Schindler (Olig., Germany)
1994 Bizzarini, F. (Olig., France)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224-226.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ dugongines in cladistic analysis; m409.)
1999 Fichter, J. (Halitherium ?schinzii; Olig., Schauenburg-Hoof, Germany)
2004 D'Anastasio, R. (hyperostosis of ribs)
2005 Cahuzac & Audouin (Olig., France; paleoecology)
2006 Gatt, M. (Malta)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 296, 298-299, 301.)
2008 Müller, A.
2008 Diedrich, C.G. (Olig., Germany)
2010 Diedrich, C.G. (comp. w/ placodontids)
x 2010 Micklich & Hildebrandt (Early Olig., Germany; 3, 13, 18, 19.)
2010 Bizzarini & Reggiani (Olig., France; skull & dentition; reconstructed skeleton exhibited in Venice)
* 2011 Voss, M. (Early Olig., Münsterland, Germany)
2012 Schöggl & Micklich (early Olig., Germany)
2013a Diedrich, C.G. (Germany; paleobiogeography; shark predation)
* 2014 Voss, M. (considered a nomen dubium)
2019 Gol'din et al. (comp. w/Dugongidae indet.; early Olig., Ukraine)
* 2021 Domning, D.P. (conservation of name by designation of a neotype)
Halitherium schinzii forma delheidi (Hartlaub, 1886) Sickenberg, 1934 ( 6 )
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (new rank)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp.; 107-108.)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian ?Halitherium; 1185-1188.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 72.)
x 1982 Fischer, K. (comp. w/ other H. schinzii; 151-152.)
2014 Voss, M.
Halitherium schinzii forma typica Sickenberg, 1934 ( 2 )
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (new subspecies)
2014 Voss, M.
Halitherium schinzii lareolense Pilleri, 1987 ( 3 )
* 1987 Pilleri, G. ("H. s. lareolensis"; new subspecies)
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (syn. of H. schinzii; 385.)
2014 Voss, M.
Halitherium serresii Gervais, 1847 ( 10 )
x * 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (n.sp.; Plioc., Montpellier, France, 210-217, 221; comp. w/ Toxodon, 218-219.)
* 1859 Gervais, F.L.P.
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (m5.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (m104.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (m67.)
x 1883a Cope, E.D. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 52.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (syn. of Felsinotherium Serresi; 1858.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (history of name; 70.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium serresii; 207, 210.)
Halitherium studeri (von Meyer, 1838) Kaup, 1855 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium krahuletzi)
* 1855 Kaup, J.J. (n.comb.)
Halitherium subappeninum (Bruno, 1839) Kaup, 1855 ( 2 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1855 Kaup, J.J. (n.comb.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (comp. w/ H. Cordieri; 310.)
Halitherium taulannense Sagne, 2001 ( 4 )
* 2001 Sagne, C. (n.sp.; Late Eoc., France; 471-476.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 301.)
2007 Floquet et al. (Late Eoc.; Taulanne, France; taphonomy)
2014 Voss, M.
Halitherium uytterhoeveni Abel, 1925 ( 2 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
x * 1925 Abel, O. (n.sp.; nomen nudum; Olig., Belgium; 39.)
1934b Sickenberg, O. (206)
Halitherium veronense de Zigno, 1875 ( 13 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
* 1875a Zigno, A. de (n.sp.; Late Eoc., Italy)
x 1877 Lawley, R. (m342.)
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review; 68, 70.)
x * 1880a Zigno, A. de (additional material; 291-298, pl. 4.)
1882 Zigno, A. de
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 136.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (referred to Prorastomus; 78, 81-83.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. ("H. (Prototherium) Veronense"; m410.)
x 1902 Yoshiwara & Iwasaki ("H. varonense"; m12.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 52.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m473.)
x 1942 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition & synonymy; 1.)
Halobioidea Ameghino, 1889 ( 1 )
(= Sirenia)
* 1889 Ameghino, F. (new taxon, rank not specified)
Halysiren Kretzoi, 1941 ( 3 )
(= Metaxytherium)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (proposed as replacement name for Cheirotherium, 153; in classification, 153-155, pl. 6.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m577.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium; 208-209.)
Halytherium Kaup, 1838 ( 4 )
(= Halitherium)
x * 1838a Kaup, J.J. (n.gen.; Olig., Germany; 319, pl. 2.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (proposed suppression in favor of Halitherium; 122-125.)
x * 1989 ICZN (correct spelling deemed to be Halitherium; 83-84.)
* 2021 Domning, D.P. (nomenclature; syn. of Halitherium)
Haplosiren Kretzoi, 1951 ( 4 )
(= Metaxytherium)
x * 1951 Kretzoi, M. (n.gen.; Mioc., Hungary; 438-441.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (considered nomen nudum; 112.)
x 1985a Kordos, L. (Hungary; zoogeography; 314.)
1985c Kordos, L.
Haplosiren leganyii Kretzoi, 1951 ( 6 )
(= Metaxytherium medium?)
x * 1951 Kretzoi, M. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Hungary; 438-441.)
1982c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium serresi; 29-30.)
1984 Kordos & Solt
1985b Kordos, L.
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (?syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 208, 215, 229.)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (comp. w/ Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
Hematology: SEE Biochemistry; Circulatory System ( 0 )
Hemicaulodon Cope, 1869 ( 4 )
(Pinnipedia; = Odobenus)
* 1869 Cope, E.D. (n.gen.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1883a Cope, E.D. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 52.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m150.)
Hemicaulodon effodiens Cope, 1869 ( 6 )
(Pinnipedia; = Odobenus rosmarus)
* 1869 Cope, E.D. (n.gen.n.sp.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m231.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m65; comp. w/ Rytiodus, 78.)
* 1975 Ray, C.E.
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (considered an odobenid; 2.)
Herbicides: SEE Pollution, Effects of ( 0 )
Hesperosiren crataegensis Simpson, 1932 ( 14 )
(= Metaxytherium crataegense)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Florida; 427-443, 455, 464, 478, 495, 499.)
x 1932b Simpson, G.G. (mounted skeleton, New York; 5-7.)
x 1941 Gregory, J.T. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium ossivallense; 38.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 66, 70.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review, 66; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense, 73, 78, 84-85.)
x 1971 Reinhart, R.H. (m8.)
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium riveroi; 7.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H.
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 205-206.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium floridanum; 400-401, 413-415, 417-418.)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (m56.)
x 1989 Morgan, G.S. (m39.)
x 1991 Bryant, J.D. (Mioc., Florida; 475-476, 481, 484, 486.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Florida; in checklist; 29.)
Hesperosiren Simpson, 1932 ( 15 )
(= Metaxytherium)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (n.gen.; Mioc., Florida; 424, 426-427.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153, 155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m210.)
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (paleoecology; 1022.)
x 1965 Arata & Jackson (m176.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (m217.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (comp. w/ Metaxytherium medium; 184, 186.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (m8.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ Metaxytherium forestii; 43.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 14, 49, 51, 74.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium kachchhense; 22.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (records from Bone Valley [Florida] erroneous; 397, 400-401.)
* 1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (synonymized w/ Metaxytherium)
Hippopotamus dubius Cuvier, 1824 ( 6 )
(= Protosiren minima)
* 1821-24 Cuvier, G. (n.sp.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m209-210.)
x 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (syn. of H. minimus; 113.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 68-70.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (considered type species of Halitherium; m576.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (history of name; 122-125.)
Hippopotamus intermedius Holl, 1829 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1829 Holl, F. (n.sp.)
Hippopotamus medius Desmarest, 1822 ( 11 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1822 Desmarest, A.G. (n.sp.)
x 1835 Serres, M. de (Montpellier, France; m239 [in 1838 ed.])
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (syn. of Halitherium Cordieri; m309.)
x 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 113-114.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 69-70.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 182-183.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (m3.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (m577.)
1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; 206.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (confusion with Halianassa; 123.)
Hippopotamus minimus Desmarest, 1822 ( 3 )
(= Protosiren minima)
* 1822 Desmarest, A.G. (n.sp.)
x 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (priority over H. dubius; 113.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (priority over H. dubius; 123.)
Hippopotamus minutus Cuvier, 1824 ( 1 )
(Hippopotamidae)
* 1821-24 Cuvier, G. (n.sp.)
Histology ( 127 )
(SEE ALSO: Skeleton; other organ systems)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; digestive organs, 317; lung cells & sacs, 319.)
x 1861 Möbius, K. (TM; rostral pads; 148-156, pl. 7.)
x 1862 Goebel, A. (HG; bone; chemical analysis; 188-193.)
1877 Garrod, A.H.
1878 Gulliver, G.
1878 Tomes, C.S. (teeth)
1880 Murie, J.
x 1890 Pilliet, A.H. (Trichechus; stomach; 450-453.)
x 1892 Waldeyer, W. (Trichechus; stomach, intestine; 81-85.)
1898 Tomes, C.S. (teeth)
1901 Gebhardt, F.A.M.W. (bone)
x 1907 Pick, F.K. (DD; lung, 258-269; blood cells, 266-267.)
x 1908 Humphreys, J. (Trichechus; dentine; m8.)
1911 Lefeuvre (Halitherium; bone)
1913 Hopewell-Smith, A. (DD; dentine)
1924 Mummery, J.H. (dentine)
x 1929 Petit & Rochon-Duvigneaud (DD; eye; 135-136.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (osteosclerosis; 407-412, 416, 434-435.)
x 1934 Addison, W.H.F. (Trichechus; brain cells; 587, 590.)
1934 Nopcsa & Heidsieck (pachyostosis)
x * 1935a Wislocki, G.B. (TM; lungs; 385-396.)
x * 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (TML; placenta; 164-171, 176-177, pls. 4-7.)
x 1938 Oldham et al. (TI; hypophysis; 27-32.)
x D 1939c Ijiri, S. (Desmostylus japonicus; tooth; 135-138.)
1940 Bélanger, L.F. (lungs)
x * 1942b Fawcett, D.W. (TML; bone, 271-285, 287-303, 308-309; thyroid, 285-287, 304-307.)
1946 Widdowson, T.W. (dentine)
1947 Amprino & Godina (bone)
x 1951 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; pituitary, adrenal; 57-62, pls. 1-2.)
1951 Kleinschmidt, A. (HG, skin, 294-295, 306-308, 310; TM, skin, 308.)
x 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; tooth enamel, dentine, cementum; 144-146, pls. 28-29.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TM; thyroid, adrenal, pituitary, thymus; 201.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD; changes caused by trematodes; 503-505.)
x 1955 Bernhauser, A. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; bone; 168-169, 185.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; skin; 11.)
x 1958 Enlow & Brown (Trichechus; bone; 198-199, pl. 34.)
x 1958 Knoll, W. (Trichechus; blood cells; 332-333.)
x 1959a Engel, S. (DD; lung; 102-104, 106, 111-114.)
x * 1959b Engel, S. (DD; lung; 90-100.)
1960 Schwille, F. (bones, teeth)
x * 1962 Engel, S. (DD; lung; 95-107.)
1962 Glas, J.-E. (tooth enamel)
x 1963 Boyde & Stewart (TM; tooth enamel; 1102-1103.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (Paleoparadoxia; pachyostosis; 196-197, 199.)
x D 1964 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (desmostylians; pachyostosis; 214.)
1967 Boyde & Lester (teeth)
1967 Cave & Aumonier (DD)
1967 Lester & Boyde (teeth)
x * 1968 Lemire, M. (Trichechus, DD; stomach; 477-491.)
x 1969 Caldwell et al. (DD; gall bladder, liver; 437-441.)
x 1969b Kaiser, H.E. (pachyostosis & histochemistry; m207-208.)
D 1971 Iwata & Uozumi
x 1972 Blessing et al. (Trichechus; spleen; 175-178, 182-188, 190, 193, 195-198, 200-202.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; digestive tract; 885-887.)
1972 Ota, Y.
x 1972 Verhaart, W.J.C. (Trichechus; brain; 271-292.)
D 1973 Kobayashi & Kamei
D 1974 Kozawa, Y.
x 1975 Forrester et al. (TM; histopathology; 567.)
x 1976 White et al. (TML; blood; 413-415.)
x * 1977 Marsh, H. (DD; stomach, duodenum; 273, 278-292.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; incisor growth layers; 301-310, 4 pls.)
x 1980 Denton et al. (DD; liver; haemosiderin deposits; 213-214.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; teeth; 184-189, 196.)
x 1980 Miller et al. (TM; transseptal fibers & tooth replacement; 128A.)
x 1980 Domning & Myrick (TI; bone; tetracycline marking; 203-207.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; intestine, liver; salmonellosis; 203-206.)
1981 Kaiser et al.
x 1981 Kamiya & Yamasaki (DD; sinus hair; 193-197.)
x 1981 Yamasaki et al. (DD; tongue; 185, 190-191.)
x 1982 Cohen et al. (TM; photoreceptors; 197-202.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (bone density, 387-389; HG, skin, 402, 404-409.)
x 1982 Medway, Black & Rathbun (TM; hematology; 11-15.)
x 1982 Reynolds & Krause (TM; duodenum; 35-38.)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (TM; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; 1294-1296.)
x 1983 Piggins et al. (TI; retina; 116-117, 123.)
x 1983 Wall, W.P. (TM; bone density; 197, 201-204.)
x 1984 Bazzini et al. (TM; hemopoiesis in vertebral bodies; 19.)
D 1984a Kozawa, Y.
x 1984b Kozawa, Y. (tooth enamel prisms; 438-440.)
x * 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (DD; female reproductive tract; 751-763.)
x * 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Glover (DD; male reproductive tract; 723-740.)
x 1984 Snipes, R.L. (TM; cecum; 71-74.)
1985 Kozawa, Y. (tooth enamel)
x 1985 Mackay-Sim et al. (TM; olfactory epithelium; 187-191.)
x 1985 Ralph et al. (TM; pineal region of brain; 55-60.)
x 1986 Bazzini et al. (TM; hemopoiesis; 150-152.)
1986 Kalashnikova & Kazanskaya (TM; liver cells)
1986 Umnova & Novoselova (TM; skeletal muscles)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (TM; external auditory meatus, 367; tympanic membrane, 368; tympanic cavity, 370; eustachian tube, 373.)
D 1988b Kamiya, H. (Paleoparadoxia; tooth enamel)
1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (DD; pachyostosis)
x * 1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (DD; pachyostosis; 2107-2119.)
x 1989 Hill & Reynolds (TM; kidney; 53-56.)
x 1989 Maluf, N.S.R. (TM; kidney; 277-278, 280, 282-283.)
x 1990 Buergelt et al. (TML; thickened heart valves; 220-227.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 334-336, 358-364.)
x 1992 Ketten et al. (TML; middle & inner ear; 83-84, 86-88.)
D 1992 Sakae, T. (Desmostylus; enamel mineralogy)
D 1994 Pfretzschner, H.U. (tooth enamel)
x * 1995 Marshall & Reep (TML; cerebral cortex; 1-18.)
x 1995 Ricqlès & Buffrénil (HG; pachyosteosclerosis; 47-53.)
x 1996 Marmontel et al. (TML, TMM; growth layers in bone; 54-88.)
x * 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (TML; gastrointestinal tract; 544-556.)
x 1997 Capasso, L. (Felsinotherium forestii, DD; hyperostosis; 616-617, 619-620.)
x 1998 Bossart et al. (TML; brevetoxicosis; 277-281.)
D 1999 Suzuki & Kozawa (Desmostylus; tooth enamel)
2001 Miller et al. (TML; spermatozoa; 253-256.)
x 2001 Reep et al. (TML; vibrissae; 1-14.)
2001 Rommel & Lowenstine (TML; microscopic anatomy)
2002 Levin & Pfeiffer (TML; tongue)
x * 2002 Reep et al. (TML; postcranial tactile hairs; 145, 148-152.)
2004 D'Anastasio, R. (hyperostosis of ribs)
2005 Harper et al. (TML; vascularization of cornea)
2005 Sweat et al. (TML; surface interleukin-2 receptor expression; blood mononuclear cells)
2006b Yan, Clifton et al. (TML; fracture toughness of rib)
2006a Yan, Clifton et al. (TML; rib bone; fracture mechanics)
2008b Clifton et al. (TML; rib bone; quantitative fractography)
2008 Buffrénil et al. (Prototherium monserratense & undetermined dugongids; Eoc., Spain; pachyosteosclerosis)
2010 Astibia et al. (indeterminate dugongids; early Middle Eoc., Spain; pachyosteosclerosis in ribs)
* 2010 Buffrénil et al. (evolution of pachyosteosclerosis)
2010 Amaral et al. (TI; spermatozoa)
2011 Guido et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Cessaniti, Italy; micromorphology, geochemistry, & diagenesis of ribs)
D 2013 Hayashi et al. (desmostylians; bone histology & aquatic adaptation)
2013 Bills et al. (TML; anal glands)
x 2015 Amson et al. (supposed sir. rib reidentified as sloth; 1-4.)
* 2020 Barboza & Larkin (TML; olfactory epithelium)
Historical Notes ( 37 )
x 1846a Brandt, J.F. (discussion of study of rostral pads of HG; 91-94.)
1861 Brandt, J.F.
x 1868c Brandt, J.F. (discussion of contents of Symbolae Sirenologicae; 471-474.)
x 1868d Brandt, J.F. (new reconstruction of HG in Symbolae Sirenologicae; 457-458.)
x 1893 Stejneger, L. (HG skeletons in museums; 81.)
x 1897 Sinclair, W.F. (DD; possible mention by Cosmas of Alexandria [6th century A.D.]; 198.)
x 1923 Jackson, E.S. (DD; Australia; medicinal use of oil by Dr. Wm. Hobbs; m282.)
D 1939b Tokunaga, S. (identification of Togari Desmostylus skull; iii-v.)
x 1942 Simpson, G.G. (early finds of fossil sirs. in North America; m177.)
D 1971 Takashi, Y.
x 1974 Rayfield, E. (map with illustration of HG reproduced from National Ocean Survey archives, after Dall [1891]; 45, 47.)
x 1975 Bertram & Sale (report of meeting on dugong research in East Africa; 389-390.)
x D 1977 Hasegawa, Y. (artists' reconstructions of desmostylians; pop. acc.; 90-91.)
1978 Arvy, L.
x 1978 Stanbury, P.J. (DD; Australia; accounts of Dampier & Portlock; 18.)
x 1985 Baldwin, C.L. (DD; Australia; research in progress, Feb. 1984; Appendix.)
1987 Bertram, G.C.L. (account of the Bertrams' studies of sirs.)
x 1988 Flannery, T. (HG skeleton in Australian Museum, Sydney; 462.)
x 1991 Dubois, A. (Siren bartholini; 109, 114, 117.)
x 1991 Pietsch, T.W. (S. Fallours' painting of a mermaid probably based on a dugong; 1-25.)
1991 Yamashita, K. (DD; in ancient Japanese documents)
x D 1993 McAnally, L.M. (Cornwallius sookensis; British Columbia; discovery & theft of type material; 8-9.)
x 1994 Matthies, E. (manatee & dugong illustrations from 19th-century German works; 186-193.)
x 2002 Bertram, B. (obituary of G. C. L. Bertram; 304.)
x 2002 Kumaran, P. (DD; India; review & critique of past studies; m1210-1220.)
* 2006 Mattioli & Domning (HG; Commander Islands; skeletal material in museums; history of collecting)
D 2007 Hasegawa, Y. (studies of desmostylian evolution & locomotion)
x 2007 Ewan & Ewan (DD; reproduction of earliest illustrations of skull; 1038.)
* 2010 Luna & Passavante (Trichechus, Brazil; history of conservation by Instituto Chico Mendes)
2011 Lourie, P. (TI, TML, TS; field studies)
2012 Domning, D.P. (TI; in capt., INPA, Manaus, Brazil; history of project)
x 2013 Friedman-Rudovsky, J. (TM; Cuba-Florida collaborative research; 447.)
2014 McDonald, P. (TML, Florida; interview with Patrick Rose)
x 2014-15 Winsor, M.P. (in imaginary dialogue between Strickland and Darwin on affinity; m75-76, m125, m181, m183.)
x * 2015 Rocher et al. (Rytiodus capgrandi; France; rediscovery of lost skull; 13-18.)
* 2018 Brito, C. (history of the manatee-mermaid connection in European natural history)
2021 Siciliano et al. (Trichechus spp.; Brazil; hunting & capture)
Homing: SEE Migration and Movements ( 0 )
Honduras ( 10 )
(SEE ALSO: Central America)
x 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (TMM; m59.)
1935 Strong, W.D. (TMM)
1940 Hagen, V.W.v. (TM)
1974 Davidson, W.V. (TMM now absent from Bay Islands)
x * 1979 Klein, E.H. (TMM; status & distr.; 21-28.)
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (TMM; status; 301-308.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 582, 606.)
x 1993 Healy, P. (TM; supposed manatee effigies on prehistoric pottery; 202-203.)
1994 Livermore, B. (TMM; aerial survey; pop. acc.)
* 2014 González-Socoloske et al. (TMM; aerial surveys; entanglement in fishnets; poaching)
Hungary ( 23 )
1902 Schafarzik, F.
1904 Koch, A.
1911 Koch, A. (Halitherium; Olig.)
x 1917 Schréter, Z. (Metaxytherium petersi; Mioc.; 176-177.)
1934b Sickenberg, O.
1935 Fekete, Z.
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (Sirenavus hungaricus, n.gen.n.sp., Middle Eoc.; & other sirs.; 146-147, 156.)
1944 Mottl, M. (Eoc.)
x * 1951 Kretzoi, M. (Haplosiren leganyii, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc.; 438-441.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (indeterminate sir.; Early Eoc., Dudar; 273-277.)
1955 Kretzoi, M.
1965 Balogh & Rónai (Eoc.)
1971 Detre et al. (Eoc.)
1976 Kordos, L.
x * 1977 Kordos, L. (Paralitherium tarkanyense, n.gen.n.sp.; Late Eoc., Felsőt rk ny; 349-367.)
x 1978 Kordos, L. (Protosiren cf. fraasi; Middle Eoc., Felsőgalla; 288-289.)
* 1979 Kordos, L. (Anisosiren pannonica, n.gen.n.sp.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (Eotheroides sp.; Middle Eoc., Balinka; 385-397.)
1983 Báldi, T.
1984 Kordos & Solt
x 1985a Kordos, L. (sir. fossil record; 314.)
1985b Kordos, L. (specimens collected by F. Leg nyi)
1985c Kordos, L.
Hunting and Capture ( 357 )
(SEE ALSO: Accidental Death or Injury; Archeological Sites, Sirenians at; Captivity, Sirenians in; Conservation; Economic Use; Natural Enemies; Weed Control)
1526 Oviedo, G.F. de (TMM; West Indies)
x 1743 Barrere, P. (TMM; French Guiana; 159-161, 1 pl.)
1764 Soimonov, F.I. (HG)
x * 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (Trichechus; South & Central America; 57-59, pl. 13.)
x 1791 Bartram, W. (TML; Florida; 231-232.)
x 1801 Edwards, B. (TMM; West Indies; remoras; 1: 127.)
x 1809 Descourtilz, M.E. (TMM; San Domingo; 2: 274-276.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; Singapore; harpoons; 180-181.)
x 1824 Harlan, R. (TML; Florida; harpoon; 392.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (TML, Florida, 277; TMM, Belize, 278; harpoons.)
x 1826 Wied-Neuwied, M. zu (TMM; Brazil; harpoons; 603.)
1826 Humboldt, A.v. (TMM; Bahia de Jagua, Cuba; use of freshwater springs at sea)
x 1829 Maw, H.L. (TI; Brazil-Peru border; harpoons; m237.)
x 1831 Spix & Martius (TI; Brazil; hunted during high water; 1122.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; harpoons; 100, 112-113.)
x 1836 Smyth & Lowe (TI; Peru; harpooned in rainy season; 242-243.)
1837 Williams, J.L.
x 1838 Humboldt, A.v. (TMM; Orinoco R.; annual hunts; 9.)
x 1843 Backhouse, J. (DD; Australia; nets; 368-369.)
1845 Brumund, J.F.G. (DD; Aru Islands)
x 1847 Edwards, W.H. (TI; Brazil; harpoons; 187.)
1847 Young, T. (TM)
1852 MacGillivray, J. (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; fishery)
x 1853 Wallace, A.R. (TI; Brazil; 187, 460.)
x 1857 Fairholme, J.K.E. (DD; Australia; nets, harpoons; 353.)
x 1857 Holton, I.F. (Trichechus; Colombia, Brazil; m46.)
x 1857 Shaw, N. (TS; Benué R., Africa; m99.)
x 1863c Brandt, J.F. (HG; extermination; 558-564.)
1867 Rosenberg, C.B.H.v (DD; Aru Islands)
x 1867a Brandt, J.F. (HG; extermination; 445-450.)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 1: 673; 2: 149-153, 157.)
1871 Klunzinger, C.B. (DD; Red Sea)
x 1871 Myers & Myers (TMM; Orinoco R.; harpoons, stockades; 103.)
1875 Moresby, J. (DD; Torres Strait; captures in 1873)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (Trichechus; South America; 2: 45, 187-191, 194.)
1875 Rambler (TML; Florida)
1876 Gill, W.W. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1876 Orton, J. (TI; Brazil; harpoons, nets; 299, 477.)
x 1880 LeBaron, J.F. (TML; Florida; nets, guns; 1006.)
x 1881 Anon. (DD; Queensland; nets, 744-745; harpoons, 745.)
x * 1881 Flower, W.H. (TS; West Africa; traps set on land; manatee-catching society; 454-455.)
x 1882 Faithful, P. (DD; Queensland; nets [made in England!], harpoons; 11.)
x 1883 Moloney, C.A. (TS; Gold Coast; traps, nets; 27-28.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (Trichechus; Americas; nets, guns, harpoons, crossbows; 123-127.)
x 1886 Miklouho-Maclay, N. de (DD; Australia; nets, drowning; m193.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (TMM; Mexico; harpoons; 357.)
x * 1887 Stejneger, L. (HG; Commander Islands; 1048-1053.)
1888 Senior, W. (DD; Queensland)
1889 Jacobsen (DD; Indonesia)
x 1890 Büttikofer, J. (TS; Liberia; guns, harpoons, nets, fences; 2: 392-393.)
x 1891 Stuart, H.V. (TML; sold as beef in New York; 137.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Trichechus; Brazil; harpoons, nets; 120.)
1893 Stretton, W.G. (DD; Australia; making of harpoon rope)
1894 Kuroiwa, T. (DD)
x * 1895 Veríssimo, J. (TI; Brazil; harpoons, nets; 35-39, 92-93.)
x 1898 Anon. (TML; Seminole Indians, Florida; harpoons; 102.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; clubs, axes, hooks; 197-199.)
x 1901 Anon. (DD; Torres Strait; nets, harpoons; 21238-21239.)
* 1901a Finsch, O. (DD; Papua New Guinea, Australia)
x 1901 Roth, W.E. (DD; Queensland; harpoons, fences; 30.)
1902 Moriceau (DD; Madagascar)
x * 1903 Rodriguez Ferreira, A. (TI; Par , Brazil; 169-170, 172-173.)
x 1904 Allen, J.A. (TMM; Colombia; 423.)
x 1904 Wilcox, W.A. (TMM; Puerto Rico; nets; 387.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; India, nets, 241-242; Australia, nets, 242.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; Australia; nets; 51-52, 55, 60-61, 64.)
x 1907 Dimock, A.W. (TML; Florida; live capture; 848-853.)
1908 Dimock, A.W.
1908 Maclaud, C. (TS; West Africa)
x 1909 Anon. (DD; Australia; nets; 93.)
x v 1909 Dimock & Dimock (TML; Florida; capture for New York Aquarium; 39-59.)
x 1910 Packard, W. (TML; Florida; accidental netting; m144-145.)
x 1911 Gann, T.W.F. (TMM; Belize; ?use of nets by ancient Maya; 78.)
x 1912 Harris, W.K. (DD; Australia; nets, harpoons; 227.)
x 1912 Rodway, J. (TMM; Guyana; m84.)
x 1913 Frobenius, L. (TS; Yoruba rituals; 1: 199.)
x 1914 Woodroffe, J.F. (TI; Amazonia; traps; 243-244.)
1917 Brown, W.P. (TML; Florida)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (TML; Florida; 343-344.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (TMM; Cuba; 95.)
x 1919 Jay, D. (DD; Australia; harpoons; 40-41.)
x * 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TMM; Panama; 70-71.)
x 1922 Golder, F.A. (HG; by Bering expedition; 237-238, 279.)
x 1922 Swanton, J.R. (TML; Florida; by Indians; 389.)
x * 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar, harpoons, nets, rituals, 75-77, 81-82; New Guinea, nets, 82.)
1924 Abraham, H.C. (DD; Malaysia; harpoons)
1924 Adams, M.P.G. (DD; northwestern Australia)
x * 1924 Dandouau, A. (DD; Madagascar; harpoons, rituals; 151-153.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; Brazil; for aquarium; 63-64.)
x 1925 Fernandes, A. de A. (Trichechus; Brazil; harpoons; 263-267.)
x 1925 Lee, I. (DD; Australia; net; 520.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; hooks, harpoons; 180, 227-228.)
1925 Tindale, N.B. (DD; Australia)
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (TS; Congo; nets; kept alive for weeks; 30.)
x 1926 MacCreagh, G. (TI; Rio Uaupés area, Brazil; by Tiquié Tucana Indians; harpoon, blowgun; 313, 323-324.)
x 1926 Schurz, W.L. (TI; Brazil; 2 photos of carcasses; 449-450.)
1927 Landtman, G. (DD; New Guinea; rituals)
x * 1927b Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; rituals; 246-250.)
x 1928 Cundall, F. (TMM; Jamaica; 139, 143.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; nets, harpoons; 87-88.)
x 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; Andaman Islands, harpoons; India, nets; 987.)
x 1931 Tate, G.H.H. (Trichechus; South America; harpoons; 253.)
1932 Haddon, A.C. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1932 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Japan & Ryukyus; 3.)
1932 Petrie, C.C. (DD; Queensland; nets & harpoons)
1933 Oshima, H. (DD; Japan)
x * 1933 Jobim, A. (Trichechus; Brazil; techniques; 140-144.)
x 1934 Bittencourt, A. (TI; Brazil; 24-25.)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (DD; Japan & Ryukyus; 4221.)
x * 1934 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Cape York, Australia; Aboriginal hunting lore; 237-263, pls. 29-30.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; Central America; 216-217.)
x 1936 Sunter, G.H. (DD; Australia; harpoons; 47-48.)
x 1937 Johnson, E. (TS; Gambia; nets; 63-64.)
x 1937 Pinheiro, A. (Trichechus; Brazil; 215-218.)
x 1937 Promus, J. (DD; Queensland; commercial netting; 40-41.)
x 1937 Sanderson, I.T. (TS; West Africa; 267.)
x 1937 Sunter, G.H. (DD; Australia; harpoons; 53-61.)
x * 1937 Woods, F.J. (TS; Nigeria; traps, bait, harpoons, nets; 23-27.)
x 1938 Wood, T. (DD; Buccaneer Archipelago, Australia; m53.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; Brazil; harpoons, nets, guns; 148.)
1939 Patterson, E.K. (DD; Australia)
x 1939 Wavrin, M. de (Trichechus; Amazonia & northern South America; beating, harpoons; 194-196.)
x 1940 Machado, F. de P. (TI; Brazil; hunted chiefly in winter; 246.)
x 1941 Landa, D. de (TMM; Yucatan; harpoons; 16th century; 190-191.)
x 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; harpoons, nets; 100, 102, 153.)
x 1942 Morison, S.E. (TMM; Cuba, remoras, in 1494, 457; Dominican Republic, in 1502, 592.)
1944 Andreyev, A.I. (HG)
x * 1944 Morais Rêgo, A.R. de (TI; Brazil; harpoons; 10-12.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; hunted less in black water, 45; holes made by hunters in floating meadows, 48; hunting pressure in different regions, 53-55; hunting methods, 72-83.)
1945 Church, A.E. (DD; Australia)
x 1945 Santos, E. (TI; Brazil; harpoons, nets; 157-158.)
x * 1946 Baughman, J.L. (Trichechus; Americas; 234-237.)
1946 Harney, W.E. (DD; Australia)
x 1946 Swanton, J.R. (TML; Florida; by Indians; 250, 282, 297-298, 329.)
x 1947 Harwood, K. (TML; Florida; live capture by harpoon; 50.)
x 1947 Marden, L. (TMM; Guatemala; 546, 552, 558.)
* 1948 Andreyev, A.I. (HG; Bering Is., 1759-60; Cherepanov's account; 113-115.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Senegal; harpoons, nets, shark nets, superstitions; 188-189.)
x 1948 Mendes, A. (TI; Brazil; harpoons, nets; 326.)
x 1949 Loveless, J.R. (DD; Queensland; nets; 8.)
1950a Durand, J. (TM)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; poaching; 4, 6, 8-11.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; 23, 35.)
1951 Taylor, D.M. (TMM; Belize)
x 1952 Andreyev, A.I. (HG; Bering Is., 1758-59; 19.)
x 1954 Aragão, A. de (TI; Brazil; harpoons; 54-56.)
x * 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; nets, harpoons; 19.)
1956 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Queensland)
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (TS; Senegal; accidental capture; 1368-1369.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; Red Sea; nets; 5.)
x 1957 Meggers & Evans (TI; Brazil; by Indians; m570.)
x 1958 Fichter, G.S. (TML; Florida; m31-32.)
x 1959 De Silva, J.A. (DD; Sri Lanka; 173-174.)
x 1959 Spittel, R.L. (DD; Sri Lanka; statistics; 174-175.)
x 1960 Blancou, L. (TS; West Africa; m244.)
x 1960 Crusz, H. (DD; Sri Lanka; 301-302.)
x 1960 Jonklaas, R. (DD; Sri Lanka; nets, harpoons; 303.)
x 1960 Mani, S.B. (DD; India; 217.)
x * 1960 Norris, C.E. (DD; Sri Lanka; statistics; 297-300.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; India; nets, harpoons; 7-8.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; India; nets; 265-266.)
x 1962 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 1329.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (TMM; Guyana)
1963 Freundt de Castro, E.
1963 Kulatunge, D.
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; Indonesia; harpoons, nets; 150-151.)
x 1964a Anon. (TML; Florida; netted for weed-control study; 29-30.)
x 1964 Cansdale, G. (TS; Ghana; rituals; m171.)
x 1964 Johnson, D.H. (DD; Arnhem Land, Australia; 507.)
x 1965 Harrisson, T. (DD; Borneo & Sabah; hunting & accidental netting; 103.)
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; Florida; guns; 166-167.)
x * 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; Mexico; netting & live transport, 414-417; harpoons; m416.)
x 1966a Anon. (DD; Kenya; nets; pop. acc.; 46-49.)
x 1966a Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; 938-939.)
x 1966b Bertram & Bertram (gen. acc.; 212-217.)
x * 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; harpoons, nets; 85.)
x * 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; Rameswaram, India; nets; 80-82.)
1966 Sauer, C.O.
1967 Ihering, R. von (TI, Brazil; hunting.)
x 1967 Aung, S.H. (DD; Burma; net; m221.)
x 1967 Edwards, W.E. (HG; extermination; m148.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; net; 216-217.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (TMM; by Caribbean buccaneers; 387.)
1967 Van Reyk, P.
x * 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Queensland; harpoons, nets; 1: 104-110, 2: 233-257.)
1968 Banfield, E.J. (DD; Queensland; harpoons, nets, rifle; contraction of hide prevents bleeding from bullet wounds)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TMM no longer hunted in Belize; 293-294.)
x 1968 Grimwood, I.R. (TI; Peru; exploitation; 418.)
x 1969 Chelnokov, F.G. (HG; Bering Is.; butchering; 71, 73.)
x 1969 Gibson, J.R. (HG; by Russians; 30, 48, 51-52.)
x 1969 Grimwood, I.R. (TI; Peru; exploitation; 61.)
x 1970a Bertram & Bertram (DD: Sri Lanka; accidental netting; 53-55.)
x 1970b Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; accidental netting; 363.)
x 1970 Yin, T. (DD; Burma; nets; 326.)
1971 Ohama, N. (DD; Japan; nets)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (HG; extermination by North Pacific aborigines; 219.)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; nets; 300-301.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; nets, harpoons, drowning with a heavy stone; 397-398.)
x * 1972b Domning, D.P. (HG; extermination, & origin of North Pacific aboriginal whaling; 187-189.)
x 1972 Heinsohn & Birch (DD; Queensland; shark nets; 415-417.)
x * 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Queensland; shark nets; 205-208.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Australia; accidental netting; 884.)
x 1972 Stoddart, D.R. (DD; western Indian Ocean; by Europeans; 209-210.)
x 1972 Walker, K. (DD; Queensland; nets; 71, 73.)
x * 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD, magnitudes & trends of takes, 307-316, 333, techniques, 324-328; Trichechus, magnitudes & trends of takes, 316-321, 327.)
x 1973 Vorontsov, N.N. (HG; extermination by North Pacific aborigines; 124.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; vandalism, poaching; 214-215.)
x * 1974 Heinsohn & Spain (DD; Queensland; shark nets; 146-152.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; harpoons, nets; 12-14.)
1974 Proby, K.H. (TM; ?Florida)
x * 1974 Sikes, S. (TS; Nigeria; harpooning by Kabawa; 467-468.)
x 1975 Lynd, W. (TML; Florida; rescue & rehabilitation; 28-29.)
x 1975 Weber, T., Jr. (TML; Florida; dropping harpoons from bridges; 66-67.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; netted for aquarium; 35.)
x 1976 Cole & Okera (TS; Sierra Leone; traps; m43.)
x * 1976 Heinsohn, Marsh & Spain (DD; Australia, nets, netting technique, 117-121; Kenya, accidental netting, 121.)
x * 1976 Loveland, F.O. (TMM; Nicaragua; harpoons; 74-77.)
x 1976 Tas'an (DD; Indonesia; netted for oceanarium; 1-3.)
x 1976 Whitaker, Z. (DD; India; nets, clubs; 6.)
x 1977 Harris & Bertram (DD; Abu Dhabi; nets; 5-6.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; nets, harpoons; 242-244.)
x 1977 Lovisek, J. (TI; Amazonia; hunted during droughts; 64.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; by Aleuts & Russians; 3, 18.)
x * 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; questionnaire surveys; 13-26.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; N. Pacific; extermination, 132-135, 141; Yakovlev's and Cherepanov's accounts, 163-165.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; Suriname; baiting with bananas; 338.)
x 1978 Stanbury, P.J. (DD; Australia; by Dampier; m18.)
1978 Stark & Voorhies
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Palau; harpoons; skin thought "impenetrable" after being struck by first spear; use of unbarbed points; 127.)
x 1979 Caton, A. (DD; Australia; pop. acc.; photos of harpoons; 1-4.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; vandalism; 126.)
x 1979 Klein, E.H. (TMM; Honduras; harpoons; 24-25.)
1979 Moore, D.R. (DD; Cape York, Australia)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; Indonesia; nets; live capture; 1-5, 8, 17.)
1979c Cropp, B. (DD; Australia; hunting by Bardi Aborigines)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TMM; Dominican Republic; 317-318.)
x 1980 Cumbaa, S.L. (TML; prehistoric Florida; 8-9.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; harpoons, explosives; 24, 34-35.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (TI, TMM; Brazil; harpoons, stockades; 91-96.)
x 1981 Elliott, M.A. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; 63-64.)
x 1981 Hendrokusumo et al. (DD; Indonesia; accidental netting; 10, 12.)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; restrictions on harpooning & netting; 128-130.)
x 1981 Johannes, R.E. (DD; Palau; hunting & sale; 25, 68, 73.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (DD; Papua New Guinea; catch records; 682-684.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; Burma, India, Sri Lanka; 45-51.)
x * 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Wellesley Islands, Queensland; harpoons, lassos; 255-267.)
x 1981 Miller, R.R. (TML; New Jersey; nets; m53.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; harpoons; 54-62.)
x 1981 Powell et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; nets; 645.)
x 1981 Purse, B. (DD; Queensland; harpoons; review of film; 199-200.)
x 1981b Smith, N.J.H. (TI; Itacoatiara, Brazil; nets, harpoons; 95-96.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; harpoons; 517-519.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Trichechus; Amap , Brazil; bait, harpoons, nets; 43-44.)
x 1982a Best, R.C. (TI; Amazonas, Brazil; peak hunting seasons; 77.)
1982 Laughlin & Harper (HG)
x 1982 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; accidental netting, poaching; 3.)
x 1982 Wing & Reitz (TMM; Caribbean; spears; 24.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; hunted during dry-season congregations; 62-63.)
1983 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Torres Strait)
x * 1983 Marsh & Anderson (DD: Australia; capture myopathy; 1-3.)
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (TMM; Honduras; harpoons, nets; 305-307.)
x 1983 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; Papua New Guinea; economy & conservation; 14-15.)
x 1984b Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; 372-374.)
x 1984 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; platforms, harpoons, nets; pop. acc.; 298-301.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Australia; Aborigines' reluctance to kill "wati dangal"; 783.)
x * 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; catch statistics, 1976-79; 641-647.)
1985a Anon. (DD; Australia)
x 1985 Beckjord, J.-E. (DD; Papua New Guinea; nets; m155.)
x 1985 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; regulation of hunting; 89-90.)
x 1985 McKillop, H.I. (TMM; Caribbean region; historical, ethnographic, & archeological records; 338-348.)
x * 1985 O'Shea, Rathbun et al. (TML; Florida; no evidence of capture myopathy; 335-349.)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (TMM; Haiti; nets, harpoons, stoning to death; 234-236.)
x 1986 Bayliss, P. (DD; Cobourg Peninsula, Australia; harvest of about 12 per year by Aborigines; 35.)
x 1986 Blair, D. (DD; Queensland; photo of harpooning; S21.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; explosives, harpoons, nets; 1009-1010.)
x 1986 Goldsmith, P. (DD; East Africa; remoras; 231.)
* 1986c Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; traditional hunting & conservation)
x * 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; catch statistics; 53-55, 66, 69-73.)
x 1986 Prince, R.I.T. (DD; Western Australia; "by hand" & harpoons; catch estimates; 22-24, 36.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador, Peru; harpoons; 151, 154.)
x 1986 Williams, T.R. (DD; Papua New Guinea; gun; 67.)
1987 Beckett, J. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1987 Whitten et al. (DD; Sulawesi; 208.)
1988 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Australia)
x 1988 Carowan, G. (TML; Florida; accidental entanglement in shrimp net; m5.)
1988 Davis, S. (DD; Australia)
x 1988 Doig & Dyson (DD; Queensland; photos of hoop-netting; 436-437.)
1988 Gray & Zann (DD; Australia)
x 1988 Ho, H.C. (DD; Malaysia; harpoons; 22, 24.)
x 1988e Marsh, H. (DD; Queensland; harpoons, guns; 496-499.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; harpoons; 282, 286, 288-297.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Florida; historical records; 186, 190.)
x 1988 Rathbun et al. (DD; Palau; harpoons, guns, dynamite; 268.)
x * 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; traps, nets, harpoons, 76-84; catch statistics, 80-81.)
1988 Smith, A.J. (DD; Queensland)
x 1989 Bayliss & Freeland (DD; Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia; estimates of sustainable yield; 146-147.)
x 1989 Chambers & Bani (DD; Vanuatu; 13-14.)
x 1989 García M rquez, G. (TMM; Colombia; guns; fictional account; 331-332.)
x * 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; nets, harpoons, dynamite; catch statistics; 4, 86-89.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; catching by hand & killing with clubs, 47, 50, 114; drowning with cement blocks, 50; capture for tagging, 56, 87-88; metal hooks & harpoons, 96-97, 114; nets, 99, 114.)
x 1989 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; by Siona Indians; harpooning techniques; 1-4.)
x 1990 Smith & Marsh (DD; Queensland; management of traditional hunting; 47-55.)
x * 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Australia; traditional hunting & butchering customs, 91-110; poaching by whites with guns, 107, 110.)
1991 Johannes & MacFarlane (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1991 Marsh & Saalfeld (DD; Torres Strait; catch statistics, 1975-83, 188-189; sustainability of catch, 191-192.)
x 1992 Borobia & Lodi (TMM; northeastern Brazil; nets, harpoons; 40-41.)
1994 Cook, C. (DD; Australia; traditional hunting rights)
x 1994 Ponte et al. (DD; Queensland; traditional hunting rights; 260-261.)
x 1994 Ross, A. (DD; Australia; traditional hunting rights; m22-24.)
x 1995 Hellyer, P. (DD; United Arab Emirates; 28 animals estimated caught in 2 years; 32.)
1995 Karre, B. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1995 Marsh et al. (DD; Palau; harpoons, dynamite; 87-88.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; Costa Rica; guns, harpoons; m194.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (TS; Guinea-Bissau; firearms, 404, 409; nets, 405.)
x 1995 Smith et al. (DD; Vietnam; m164.)
x 1996 Anderson, I. (DD; Queensland; voluntary hunting moratorium by Aborigines; 5.)
x 1996 Grigione, M.M. (TS; Cameroon; attitudes responsible for low incidence of hunting; 192-195.)
x 1996 Reeves et al. (TI; Peru; harpoons, traps, nets; 247-250, 252-253.)
x 1996 Russel, M. (TM; Texas; net; rescue; 18-19.)
1996 Roberts et al. (DD; North Queensland; monitoring Aboriginal hunting)
1997 Friaes, P. (TI, Brazil)
x 1997 Marsh, Harris & Lawler (DD; Torres Strait; catch statistics; 1379, 1381, 1383-1384.)
x 1998 Deutsch et al. (TML, TMM; capture & handling for radio-tracking; 20-21.)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; harpoon traps, nets, fence traps; m138.)
x 1999 Das & Dey (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Is.; harpoons, nets; 196-197.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (TMM; Costa Rica; harpoons; 271-272.)
1999 Hope Vale Aboriginal Community (DD; Hope Vale, Australia; hunting management plan)
2002 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; Nicaragua; poaching)
2002 Jousse et al. (DD; Akab Island, United Arab Emirates; archaeological site; nets)
2003 Rouja et al. (DD; Australia; indigenous hunting & use of fat)
2004 Marsh et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; fishery unsustainable)
2005 Kwan, D. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; management of traditional fishery)
2005 Havemann et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef; traditional hunting agreements)
2006 Kwan et al. (DD; Australia)
2006 Lanyon, Slade et al. (DD; rodeo method of open-water capture)
2008 Garrigue et al. (DD; New Caledonia)
2008 Grech et al. (DD; bycatch assessment)
x * 2008 Turner, L.M. (HG; Attu; killed by women; 106-107.)
* 2008 McNiven & Bedingfield (DD; Torres Strait; archaeological sites; hunting rates)
2009 Calvimontes, J. (TI; Brazil)
x 2009 Dulvy et al. (HG, DD, TM; m137, m145.)
2010 Calvimontes & Marmontel (TI; Brazil; ethnobiology)
* 2010 Sikes, S.K. (TS; Nigeria)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; capture for health assessment)
2011 Ferreira et al. (Dugong, Trichechus; forensic genetics)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
* 2012 Lanyon et al. (DD; blood chemistry; no evidence of capture myopathy)
2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil)
* 2013 Bonde et al. (TML; Crystal River, Florida; capture for health assessments)
* 2013 Fuentes et al. (DD; Torres Strait; capture for tagging by harpoon and dermal holdfast)
2014 González-Socoloske et al. (TMM; Honduras; entanglement in fishnets; poaching)
2016 Cosentino & Fisher (TI, TM, TS; as bushmeat)
2016 Davies, N. (Amazonia; children's book on manatee hunting & protection)
2017 Moore et al. (DD; Indonesia)
2019 Mayaka et al. (TS; Cameroon; conflicts with humans)
* 2020 Kendall, S.
2021 Siciliano et al. (Trichechus spp.; Brazil; historical records)
Hydrodamalidae Palmer, 1895 (1833) ( 6 )
(family; = Hydrodamalinae)
x * 1895 Palmer, T.S. (n.fam.; 449-450.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (diagnosis; 5.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalinae; m13.)
Hydrodamalinae (Palmer, 1895 [1833]) Simpson, 1932 ( 9 )
(subfamily)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (new rank; 424.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
1960 Kaiser, H.E.
x 1971a Domning, D.P. (history in Pacific; 110-111.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (definition; 3-4, 13.)
1998 Kobayashi, S. (Japan)
2004 Furusawa, H. (phylogeny; endocranial casts)
2006 Kobayashi & Tazaki (evolution of mastication and spinal movement)
x 2019 Powell et al. (Sonoma County, California; Late Mioc.; indeterminate rib fragments of a hydrodamaline sirenian; 3, 11, 44, Pl. 12.)
Hydrodamalis cuestae Domning, 1978 ( 18 )
x v 1970 Shikama & Domning ("new species of Hydrodamalis"; m395.)
x v 1971a Domning, D.P. ("Hydrodamalis n. sp."; m110.)
x v 1971b Domning, D.P. ("Hydrodamalis n. sp."; evolution; 217-218, 220.)
x v 1975 Domning & Frye ("Hydrodamalis sp. nov."; pathology; 3-4, pl. 2.)
x v 1977b Domning, D.P. ("Hydrodamalis C"; phyletic position & role in North Pacific paleoecology; 354, 356-358, 360.)
x v 1977 Whitmore & Gard ("Hydrodamalis n. sp."; m3, m18.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (n.sp.; Plioc., California & Baja California; 29, 32, 35-36, 47-48, 55-61, 72, 75-93, 96-97, 100-104, 106-107, 114, 117, 123-124, 129, 143-146, 158-160, pls. 5-9, 13-17.)
x 1981 Barnes et al. (Plioc., San Mateo Formation, California; 56-57, 62-63.)
x 1983 Takahashi et al. (comp. w/ Yamagata Dusisiren; 8, 13, 15-16.)
x * 1984 Domning & Deméré (Plioc., San Diego Co., California; 169-188.)
x 1984 Rainey et al. (date of divergence from other dugongids; 587.)
x * 1986 Takahashi et al. (comp. w/ Dusisiren dewana; 296-298, 307-309, 312-313, 315-318.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium kachchhense; 22.)
x 1987a Domning, D.P. (pop. acc.; 66-71.)
x 1993 Deméré, T.A. (comp. w/ indet. sir. from California; m84.)
2005 Furusawa, H.
2008 Barnes, L.G. (type locality; 142.)
2013 Furusawa, H. (Dusisiren, Hydrodamalis; climatic cooling, size increase, loss of teeth)
Hydrodamalis gigas (Zimmermann, 1780) Palmer, 1895 ( 151 )
1742 SEE K. Yushin in Golder, F.A., 1922.
1742 SEE S. Khitrov in Golder, F.A., 1922.
1742 SEE Waxell, S.L.
v * 1751 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; anatomy & natural history)
1754 SEE P. Yakovlev in Domning, D.P., 1978b.
1759 SEE S. Cherepanov in Domning, D.P., 1978b.
x v * 1778 Zimmermann, E.A.W. (distinguished from manatee; 253.)
1790 Meares, J. (HG? on coast of western Canada?)
x v * 1802 Sauer, M. (exterminated in 1768; 181.)
1807 Jewitt, J. R. (HG? Nootka Sound, Canada?)
x v 1868d Brandt, J.F. (preparation of new restoration; 457-458.)
x v 1885 Stejneger, L. (Bering Is.; excavation of skeleton; 256-257.)
x v 1889 Scammon, C.M. (gen. acc.; 582-585.)
x * 1895 Palmer, T.S. (n.comb.; 449.)
v * 1899 Vaksmut, N.S. (skeletons deposited in various museums)
x v * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; anatomy & natural history; 181-201.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (parasites; 108, 149, 163, 169.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (diagnosis; 5, pl. 2.)
x v 1911 Anon. (photo of skull; 37.)
x v * 1922 Golder, F.A. (Bering Is.; observations by members of Bering expedition; 237-238, 279.)
x v 1923 Pütter, A. (weight probably 2-3 tons; m221.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (Bering Is.; hunting, anatomy, & natural history; vii, 139-140, 161, 180, 182, 226-237, 245.)
x v 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (illustration of skeleton; 21.)
x v 1928 Tolmachoff, I.P. (causes of extinction; 1137-1138.)
x 1929 Birulia, A.A. (pelvis; 87-90.)
x 1942 Scheffer, V.B. (in list of marine mammals; 46.)
1944 Andreyev, A.I.
x v 1946a Goodwin, G.G. (pop. acc.; 56-61.)
x 1951a Burton, M. (extinction; 178.)
x 1952 Andreyev, A.I. (Bering Is.; hunting, 1758-59; 19.)
x v 1964b Bertram & Bertram (possible survival; 313.)
x * 1965 Heptner, V.G. ("Hydromalis"; distr. & extermination; 91-93.)
1966 Heptner, V.G. (distr. & extermination)
x v 1967 Edwards, W.E. (extermination by prehistoric man; m148.)
1967 Heptner & Naumov
x * 1967 Jones, R.E. (Pleist., Monterey Bay, California; 143.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr., 5-6; H. stelleri a synonym, 12.)
x v 1969 Gibson, J.R. (hunting & use by Russians; 29-30, 48, 51-52, 54.)
1970b Anon. (extermination)
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (comp. w/ Japanese Hydrodamalis sp.; 390, 393, 395.)
x 1971a Domning, D.P. (m110.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (evolution; 217-220.)
x 1971 Gard & Szabo (Pleist., Amchitka, Alaska; 577.)
x v 1971 Hall, E.S., Jr. (at archeological site, Kangiguksuk, Alaska; 23, 34, 52.)
x 1972a Domning, D.P. (evolution; m147.)
x 1972b Domning, D.P. (hunting, extermination, & origin of North Pacific aboriginal whaling; 187-189.)
x 1972 Gard et al. (Pleist., Amchitka, Alaska; 867-868.)
x 1972 Scheffer, V.B. (size & weight; 912-913.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (extermination; 304-305, 325.)
x 1973 Scheffer, V.B. (gen. acc. & recent research; 64-67.)
x 1973 Vorontsov, N.N. (extermination by North Pacific aborigines; 124.)
x 1974 Addicott & Greene (zoogeographic significance of Monterey Bay occurrence; 251-252.)
x 1975 Dayton, P.K. (ecological interrelationships with kelp & sea otters; 236-237.)
x 1975 Domning & Frye (injuries & pathology; 2-3.)
x 1975 Domning, D.P. (feeding ecology & evolution; 824.)
x v 1975 Szabo & Gard (Pleist., Amchitka, Alaska; 459.)
x 1976 Fleischer, G. (anchoring of stapes; 305, 308-310.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & role in North Pacific paleoecology; 352, 354-359.)
1977 Gordon & Gordon
1977 Malukovich, V.
x * 1977 Whitmore & Gard (Pleist., Amchitka, Alaska; 1-19, pls. 1-8.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (morphology, evolution, extermination; 2, 19, 23, 26-33, 35-37, 40, 47, 51, 55, 57-61, 67, 69-71, 75-77, 80-90, 92-106, 112, 115-146, 161-165, pls. 5-9, 13-15, 17.)
x v 1978 McClung, R.M. (pop. acc.; 46-47.)
x 1978 Simenstad et al. (former ecological role in Aleutians; m409.)
* 1979 Liapunova, R. G. (Near Islands, Alaska)
x 1979 Takahashi et al. (m228.)
x 1980 Arvy, L. (extinction attributed to supposed "osteopetrosis"; 312.)
x 1980 Haley, D. (pop. acc.; artist's reconstruction; 7-11.)
x 1980 Inuzuka et al. (m640.)
x 1980 Kurtén & Anderson (Pleist., North America; 340-341.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (diet & nutrition; 3-4, 15-17.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (ascaridoid parasites; 319, 321.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (former distr.; 305.)
1982 Forsten & Youngman (gen. acc.)
x v 1982 Thiel, R. (pop. acc.; 7.)
x 1982 Warhol, P. (pop. acc.; artist's reconstruction; 10-12.)
x 1983 Gallivan et al. (thermoregulation; 255, 260.)
x 1983 Takahashi et al. (comp. w/ Yamagata Dusisiren; 13, 15-16.)
x 1984 Domning & Deméré (comp. w/ H. cuestae; 169, 176, 178-180, 183, 186.)
x 1984a Domning, D.P. (skeleton from Bering Is.; comment on V. Rich [1983]; 500.)
x 1984 McNally, R. (pop. acc.; 168-172.)
x 1984 Rainey et al. (molecular systematics; 586-587.)
x 1985 Laughlin, W.S. (Bering Is.; significance for Beringian anthropology; 780-781, 783.)
x 1985 Lowenstein, J.M. (immunology & phylogeny; 543-544.)
1985 Shinohara et al.
1986 Frost, O. W.
x v 1986 Bruemmer, F. (pop. acc.; artist's reconstruction; 24.)
1986 Kamiya, T.
x 1986 Takahashi et al. (comp. w/ Dusisiren dewana; 296-298, 302, 304, 316-318.)
x 1987a Domning, D.P. (evolution; pop. acc.; 64, 66-71.)
x 1988 Estes & Steinberg (evolution & availability of kelp; 21-22.)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (malleus & tympanic membrane; m369.)
x 1988 Flannery, T. (partial skeleton in Australian Museum, Sydney; 462.)
1988 Kamiya, T.
1989 Horn, G. (HG; children's book)
x 1989 Estes & Steinberg (evolution & feeding on kelp; 58-59.)
v 1989 Ijiri & Inuzuka
1989b Kamiya, T.
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (encephalization quotients & life history; 534-543.)
1992 Aubert, A.
x 1993a Domning, D.P. (extinction; 2.)
x 1993 Savinetsky, A.B. (Bering Is.; radiocarbon dates; 403-405.)
x 1993 Vermeij, G.J. (biogeography and extinction; 392-394.)
v 1994b Kamiya, T. (pop. acc.)
1994 Furusawa & Kohno (Middle Pleist., Japan)
v 1994b Kamiya, T. (pop. acc.; 14-15.)
x 1995a Anderson, P.K. (kelp-sea urchin-sea otter relationship; 391-394.)
1995 Furusawa, H. (Bering Is.; new specimens)
x 1995 Hoyt, E. (pop. acc.; 60-61.)
x v 1995 Papastavrou, V. (kelp-sea urchin-sea otter relationship; pop. acc.; 26.)
x 1995 Ricqlès & Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 47-53.)
x * 1997 Ozawa et al. (mtDNA sequence & tethythere phylogeny; 406-413.)
1997 Yakovlev, Y.M.
x v 1998 Gerber, Leah R. (gen. acc; m90-92.)
* 1998 Hoffmann & Domning (eds.)
1998 Sidorov, Y.
1999 Gibson, J.R. (role in Russian expansion)
x 1999 Feiler, A. (skeleton, Dresden; 402.)
1999 Nojo et al. (H. ?gigas; Pleist., Hokkaido, Japan)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello (cast of skull at Naples; 14-15.)
2001 Sysoeva, O. V.
2001 Jackson et al. (overfishing)
2002 Isakova, L. F. (Irkutsk Provincial Museum)
2002 Anderson & Domning (gen. acc.)
2003 Stefen, C. (Dresden)
2004 Savinetsky et al. (Bering Sea region; in archaeological sites)
x 2004 Csorba et al. (2 specimens in Hungarian Nat. Hist. Mus.; 317-320.)
2005 Furusawa, H.
2005 Turvey & Risley (modelling of extinction)
2006 Jousse et al. (Lyon)
* 2006 Mattioli & Domning (Commander Islands; skeletal material in museums; history of collecting)
x 2007 Frankel, J. (graphic story for children; [1-44].)
* 2007 Domning et al. (Aleutian Islands)
2008 Corbett et al. (kelp diet & stable isotope composition of bone)
* 2008 Rothauscher, H.
x 2009 Dulvy et al. (extermination; m137, m145.)
x 2011 Kowalski, K.M. (pop. acc.; 18-19.)
x v 2011 de Foy, K. (pop. acc.; 14-18.)
2013 Furusawa, H. (Dusisiren, Hydrodamalis; climatic cooling, size increase, loss of teeth)
2013 Benoit et al. (endocranial morphology)
2013 Dumont et al. (vertebral centra architecture)
2014 Jones, R.T. (extermination)
* 2014 Crerar et al. (St. Lawrence Is., Alaska; DNA, stable isotopes)
2015 Puttick & Thomas (Body mass evolution in Afrotheria)
* 2015 Springer et al. (molecular & morphological phylogeny)
2017 Crerar et al. (bone used for carvings)
* 2017 Gaudry et al. (HG; lack of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis)
* 2019 Plön et al. (genetic analysis of Bremen skin sample)
2019 Sharko et al. (molecular phylogeny; mitochondrial genome)
* 2021 Bullen et al. (HG; structuring of North Pacific kelp forests)
* 2021 Sharko et al. (nuclear genome)
Hydrodamalis Retzius, 1794 ( 48 )
* 1794 Retzius, A.J. (n.gen.)
x v 1809a Cuvier, G. (history of study, 277-278; as distinct genus, 282; comp. w/ Trichechus, 296-299; in Greenland, based on Fabricius, 299.)
x 1840 Baer, K.E.v. (syn. of Rytina; m53.)
x 1895 Palmer, T.S. (name considered senior to Rytina; 449.)
x 1899 Palmer, T.S. (name considered senior to Rytina; m494.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (diagnosis; 5.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (m7.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ Desmostylus; m386.)
x 1917 Palmer, W. (m344.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m231, 234; vertebrae, comp. w/ Metaxytherium floridanum, m235.)
x 1924 Thomas et al. (syn. of Rhytina; 347.)
x * 1925 ICZN (name upheld in preference to Rhytina; 38.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 421-424, 427, 435, 443, 454, 480-482, 485-488, 490, 495-496, 499.)
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (loss of teeth; 14.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153, 155.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (phylogeny; 1985.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (gen. acc.; 56-57.)
x v 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (loss of teeth; 5-6.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 136.)
x 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina; m292.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 63-64.)
x 1966a Kaiser, H.E. (illustration [from Kleinschmidt, 1951]; 61.)
x 1968a Kaiser, H.E. (occiput; 478.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr., 5; Rhytina a synonym, 12.)
x * 1970 Shikama & Domning (Plioc., Japan; 390-396, pl. 44.)
1971 Palmer, G.F.
x 1972a Domning, D.P. (evolution & distr.; 147-149.)
x 1973 Shikama et al. (Japan; stratigraphic range; 138, 140-141.)
x 1978a Domning, D.P. (neck muscles & feeding; 69.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (morphology, evolution, extermination; 2-4, 7, 12-13, 20, 25, 72-110, 112-146, 158-165.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; m574, 579.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (proposed placing on Official List of Generic Names; 130-132.)
1982 Furusawa & Kimura (Hokkaido)
1982 Kimura, M. (Hokkaido)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina; 382.)
x 1983 Kimura et al. (Pleist., Hokkaido; 162, 165, 167, 169, 174-175, pl. 4.)
x * 1985 Melville, R.V. (placed on Official List of Generic Names; 175-176.)
x 1989a Domning, D.P. (evolution & feeding on kelp; 53-56.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Xenosiren yucateca; 435-436.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; m362.)
x 1992 Jefferson et al. (Late Pleist., California; 29.)
1992 Pirika Sirenia Research Group (Pleist., Hokkaido)
1995 Furusawa & Kimura (Early Pleist., Hokkaido)
1998 Nagasawa & Kobayashi (Hydrodamalis sp.; Plioc.; Yamagata Prefecture, Japan)
x 2000 Domning, D.P. (m117.)
2007 Kohno et al. (Hydrodamalis sp.; Lower Pleist.; Tokyo, Japan)
2008 Myoken Research Group (Late Plioc.; Nagaoka, Japan)
2015 Prothero, D.R. (gen. acc.)
Hydrodamalis spissa Furusawa, 1988 ( 10 )
(= Hydrodamalis cuestae)
v 1982 Furusawa & Kimura
v 1984 Takikawa Investigation Group
x v 1986 Takahashi et al. ("H. cuestae (?)"; age & species assignment; 298, 317-318.)
* 1988 Furusawa, H. ("H. spissus", n.sp.; Plioc., Hokkaido, Japan)
1989 Furusawa, H.
1990 Furusawa et al.
1990 Furusawa, H.
1995 Furusawa & Kimura (Early Plioc., Hokkaido)
2005 Furusawa, H.
2013 Furusawa, H. (Dusisiren, Hydrodamalis; climatic cooling, size increase, loss of teeth)
Hydrodamalis stelleri Retzius, 1794 ( 27 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1794 Retzius, A.J. (n.gen.n.sp.)
x 1895 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of H. gigas; 449.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (parasites; 99, 100.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (gen. acc.; 135-137.)
x 1924c Petit, G. (kidney; 2199-2200.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 57-58, 61-67.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 20-21.)
1950 Gromova, V.I. (key to bones)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 129, 134-135.)
x * 1958 Grekov, V.I. (former distr.; 95-100.)
1964b Anon.
1964c Anon.
1964e Anon. (possible survival)
x 1965 Long, A. ("H. steller"; Pleist., Monterey Bay, California; carbon-14 date; 254.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m66.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (extinction; 386.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (syn. of H. gigas; 12.)
1969 McClung, R.M.
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (comp. w/ Metaxytherium medium, 186; relationships, 188-189.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 72.)
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (m9.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 74, 92.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (type species of Hydrodamalis; 130-131.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina gigas; 383.)
1983 Sylvestre, J.-P. (gen. acc.)
x 1989 Maluf, N.S.R. (kidney, comp. w/ TM & DD; 282.)
Hydropithecus simia (Illiger, 1815) Gloger, 1842 ( 1 )
(Steller's "sea-ape"; nomen nudum)
* 1842 Gloger, C. (n.comb.)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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