Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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I

Immunology ( 15 )
x 1897 Anon. (Trichechus; in capt., England; 36.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (DD; stomach & duodenum histology; 291-292.)
x 1985 Lowenstein, J.M. (immunology & phylogeny; 543-544.)
x 1996c Anon. (TML; study of effects of red tide toxins; pop. acc.; 11.)
x 1998 Bossart et al. (TML; immunohistochemistry of brevetoxicosis; 277-281.)
2002 Bradley & Reynolds (TML; interleukin 2)
2005 Sweat et al. (TML; surface interleukin-2 receptor expression; blood mononuclear cells)
2008 Tripp et al. (TM; serum immunoassay)
2008 Halvorsen & Keith (TML; immunosuppression cascade)
2012 Sulzner et al. (TMM; Belize)
2018 Wong et al. (DD; Australia; polyclonal anti-dugong immunoglobulin G antibody)
2018 Borges et al. (TI; diagnosis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia)
2018 Ferrante et al. (TML)
2018 Breaux et al. (TML)
2019 Mendonça et al. (TMM; immunoglobulins)
India ( 87 )
(SEE ALSO: Indian Ocean)
1830-35 Gray, J.E. (DD)
x 1833 Robison, J. (DD; preserved specimen; 100-101.)
1840 Grant, C.W.
1867 Jerdon, T.C. (DD)
1872 Wynne, A.B.
1876 Blanford, W.T.
1891 Blanford, W.T. (DD)
x 1895 Phipson, H.M. (DD; Gulf of Cutch; 490.)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (DD; m98-99.)
x 1905 Linstow, O.v. (DD; nematode Ascaris halicoris; m258.)
x * 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; Gulf of Mannar; 238-243.)
1927 Raj, S.
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; 85-86.)
x 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; Gulf of Mannar; 987.)
1942 Moses, S.T.
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; in capt.; 198-202.)
x 1960 Mani, S.B. (DD; Saurashtra coast; 216-217.)
x * 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 1-8.)
x 1961 Santapau & Abdulali (DD; Bombay; erroneous report corrected; 796.)
x * 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; Saurashtra coast; 263-266.)
x 1963 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; Gulf of Cutch; 152.)
1964 Silas, E.G.
x * 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; Rameswaram; natural history, hunting; 80-82.)
x * 1967a Jones, S. (DD; status; 215-220.)
x 1971 Sharma & Gupta (DD; trematode Paracochleotrema indicum; 285.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr.; 308.)
x * 1974 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; osteological variation; 173-184.)
* 1975 Sahni & Mishra
x 1976 Whitaker, Z. (DD; hunting, econ. use; 6.)
x 1977a Anon. (DD; Tamil Nadu; meat sold; 439.)
x 1977 Nair & Lal Mohan (DD; in capt.; sound recordings; 277.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (Metaxytherium, Mioc.; indeterminate sir., Eoc.; Kutch; 216-218.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. ("Metaxytherium sp."; Late Olig., Kutch; 45A-49A.)
1977? Hussainy, H.S.H. (DD)
1978 Bhaskar, S. (DD; Gulf of Kutch)
x 1978 Satsangi & Trivedy (Halitherium sp., Late Olig.; 571-576.)
1979 Sahni, A. (Eoc.)
* 1980 Jones, S.
x 1980 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; Gulf of Mannar & Palk Bay; seasonal occurrence, sex ratio; 391-397.)
x * 1980 Sahni & Kumar (Ishatherium subathuensis, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Eoc., Simla Hills; 132-135.)
1980 Sahni & Mitra
x 1980 Sahni et al. (supposed sir. [Ishatherium]; Early Eoc., Simla Hills; 270-271.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; distr. & status; 45-52.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (DD; nematode Paradujardinia; 309.)
1983 Jones, S.
1983 Neumayer, E. (DD; depicted in rock paintings)
1986 Bhaskar, S. (DD)
x * 1987 Bajpai et al. (Metaxytherium kachchhense, n.sp.; Early Mioc.; 20-25.)
1988 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; conservation)
1988 Silas & Fernando (DD)
1989 Krishna Pillai et al. (DD; Gulf of Mannar)
1990 Venkateswarlu, T. (DD)
x 1990 Rao & Khan (DD; Andaman Islands; status; 33.)
x 1991 Basu et al. (Eoc.-Mioc., Kachchh; 9-10.)
x * 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; Gulf of Kutch; anatomy, status; 368-379.)
1991 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD)
1993b Lal Mohan, R. S. (DD; status)
x 1993a Anon. (DD; Palk Bay & Gulf of Mannar; conservation; 42.)
x 1993 Gingerich et al. ("Protosiren" of Sahni & Mishra, 1975, referred to Cetacea; 410-411.)
1993a Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD)
1993 Das & Basu
x 1994 Das & Basu ("Eotheroides waghapadarensis" (Eoc.) and "Kotadasiren gracillis" (Olig.-Mioc.); Kutch; 5.)
* 1996 Das, H.S. (DD; Andaman & Nicobar islands)
x * 1997 Bajpai & Domning (Bharatisiren kachchhensis, n.gen. n.comb.; Early Mioc.; & other sirs.; 219, 221, 226-227.)
1998 Dhandapani & Alfred
1998 Khacher, L. (DD; Gulf of Kachchh)
1998 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; mortality)
1999 Ramakrishna et al. (DD; West Bengal)
x 2002 Kumaran, P. (DD; review & critique of past studies; m1210-1220.)
2003 Singh, H.S. (DD; Gulf of Kutch)
2004 Badrudeen et al. (DD)
* 2006 Bajpai et al. (Eoc. & Olig.; Kutch)
2008 Jayasankar et al. (DD; PCR-based sex determination)
2008 Ilangakoon et al. (DD; Gulf of Mannar)
2009 D'Souza & Patankar (DD; Andaman Islands)
* 2009 Bajpai et al. (Ashokia antiqua, n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc.; Kutch)
* 2009 Thewissen & Bajpai (Domningia sodhae, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Mioc., Kutch)
* 2010 Pandey, C. N.; Tatu, K. S.; Anand, Y. A. (DD; status)
* 2010 Bajpai et al. (Kutchisiren cylindrica, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Mioc., Kutch)
2011 D'Souza & Patankar (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Islands; conservation)
2012 Vivekanandan & Jeyabaskaran (DD)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al. (multispecies fossil sir. community)
* 2012a Hines, E. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
2013 Sivakumar, K. (DD; conservation)
x 2015 Malakar et al. (DD; Andaman Islands; 7176-7179.)
x 2017 Chatterjee et al. (brief summ. of Eoc. sir. record; 92.)
2020 Singh, L. A. K. (DD; Maharashtra)
Indian Ocean ( 41 )
(SEE ALSO: Africa; Asia; Australia; East Indies; India; Madagascar; Red Sea; Sri Lanka)
1902 Miller, G.S. (Andaman Islands)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; Andaman Islands; m241.)
x 1929 Prater, S.H. (DD; Andaman Islands; 987.)
x 1933b Mortensen, T. (DD; Rodriguez; Leguat's account; 23-26.)
x 1934b Mortensen, T. (DD; Rodriguez; Leguat's account; 71-72, 76.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; Indian Ocean & adjacent areas; geographic variation in skeleton; 329-345.)
x 1960 Williams, J.H. (DD; Persian Gulf & North Andaman Is.; 9-12.)
1970 Snow, D.W. (DD)
x * 1972 Stoddart, D.R. (DD; former distr., western Indian Ocean; 205-215.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr.; 307-308.)
1973 Gruchet, H. (DD; Mozambique Channel)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (fossil sirs.; 216-218.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. (review of fossil sir. records; 47A.)
x 1978 Abdulali, H. (DD; Great Nicobar Is.; 749.)
x 1979 Nishiwaki et al. (DD; distr.; 133-141.)
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Islands; 46.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (DD; India & Comoro Islands; nematode Paradujardinia halicoris; 309-310.)
1984 Hanneberg, P. (DD; Seychelles)
1984b Nishiwaki, M. (DD)
1988 James, D.B. (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Islands)
1990 Rao, G.C. (DD; Andaman Is.)
1992 Bhaskar & Rao (DD; Nicobar Is.)
x 1993 Staub, F. (DD; extinct in Mauritius; 10-11, 48-49.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (DD; distr. & status; 161, 163-164.)
1995 Domning, D.P. (DD; evolution; possible dispersal from Atlantic via Cape of Good Hope)
x 1998 Mukerjee, M. (DD; Andaman Is.; pop. acc.; 20-21.)
x 1999 Das & Dey (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Is.; 195-198.)
x 1999 Louette, M. (DD; Mayotte, Comoro Is.; 58.)
x 2002 Moutou, F. (DD; some Indian Ocean records; m50.)
2005 Jiwa, H. (DD)
2007 Kiszka et al. (DD; Mayotte)
2007 Hobbs et al. (DD; Cocos (Keeling) Islands)
2007 Kiszka, J.J. (DD; Mayotte, Comoro Islands; associations with dolphins)
2011 Hodgson, A.J. (DD; Aldabra, Seychelles, Comoros; migrations & movements; 250-251.)
2011 Singh & Kar (melissopalynological studies on mangrove honeys; Bangladesh & Andaman Islands)
2012 Raghunathan et al. (DD; Andaman & Nicobar Islands)
2012 Hamylton et al. (DD; Aldabra Atoll)
2013 Pusineri et al. (DD; Mayotte)
2013 D'Souza et al. (DD; Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago; occupancy trends)
2017 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; Andaman Sea & Gulf of Thailand)
* 2019 Plön et al. (DD; phylogeography)
Individual Variation ( 33 )
(SEE ALSO: Skeleton)
x 1809a Cuvier, G. (Trichechus; fetus, nails; 284.)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; jejunum; 318.)
x * 1838a Owen, R. (DD; viscera, m29-31, 34, m37; skeleton, 40; teeth, 43; measurements, 44-45.)
x 1883 Dybowski, B. (HG; skull; sexual dimorphism; 73.)
x * 1883 Stejneger, L. (HG; skull; 79-83.)
x 1887b Baur, G. (supernumerary phalanges; 840.)
x 1904 Freund, L. (DD; manus; 365-394.)
x 1914a Freund, L. (DD; sternum, pelvis; 367-373.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; manus; 95.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (TI, TM, TS; skeleton; 539-554, 561.)
D 1940 Ijiri, S.
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; tusks, 331-339; skull, 340-342; scapula, 341, 343-345.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; Red Sea; tail fluke; 10.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (hydrodamalines; nasals; m73.)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (DD; temporal & ear region; 6.)
x * 1974 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; India; skeleton; 173-184.)
x * 1974 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; Queensland; skull allometry; 249-257.)
x * 1975 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; Queensland; body allometry; 159-168.)
x * 1976 Spain et al. (DD; Queensland; skull; 491-497.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; supposed sexual dimorphism; 99-100.)
x 1981a Spain & Marsh (DD; Queensland; skull; geographic variation, sexual dimorphism; 143-161.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (TI, TM, TS; 87-144.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; skulls; 54-55, 70-71.)
x 1991a Domning, D.P. (DD; pelvic bones; sexual & ontogenetic variation; 311-316.)
x 1992 Roth, V.L. (TI; tooth size, comp. w/ elephants; 194-195, 197.)
1995 Furusawa, H. (HG; Bering Is.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (Crenatosiren olseni; 400-410.)
D 2000 Uno, H. (Desmostylus hesperus; variation in deciduous teeth; 153-158.)
2003 Nowacek et al. (TM; vocalizations)
2007 Adulyanukosol et al. (DD; Thailand; variation in reproductive behavior)
2011 Voss, M. (Halitherium schinzii; Early Olig., Münsterland, Germany)
2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Eoc. sirs.; sexual dimorphism in pelvic bones)
Indosiren javanensis von Koenigswald, 1952 ( 4 )
x * 1952 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Java; 610-612.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (review; 267-269.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ I. koenigswaldi; m226-227.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. ("I. javanense"; m297.)
Indosiren koenigswaldi Sahni and Mishra, 1975 ( 3 )
* 1975 Sahni & Mishra (n.sp.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium kachchhense; 22-23.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ Bharatisiren kachchhensis; 226-227.)
Indosiren von Koenigswald, 1952 ( 3 )
x * 1952 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (n.gen.; Mioc., Java; 610-612.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (considered "sirenian indeterminate"; 217.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. (considered "sirenian indet."; 47A.)
Insect Control ( 1 )
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Trichechus; Panama; mosquito control; 388-393.)
Integument ( 43 )
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; skin, hair, fat; 131-134.)
1872b Murie, J. (HG; skin)
x * 1873 Lütken, C.F. (supposed HG skin fragment actually cetacean; 273-274.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; skin, hair, fat; 183-185, 188, 197, 200.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; skin, hair, fat; 239.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; skin, 569; hair, 570-571.)
1915 Dosch, F.
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; length & spacing of body hairs, 172-173; horny epidermal fringe on tail, 213-215, pl. 6; shedding of epidermal cells, color & texture of epidermis, 215-217.)
x * 1925 Steller, G.W. (HG; skin, hair, fat; 230, 233-234.)
1929 Matthes, E. (skin thickness)
x 1950 Mohr, E. (HG; skin fragment at Hamburg; 181-185.)
1957a Haffner, K.v. (HG)
x * 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; skin color & structure, 7-11; hair, 8, 10, 12-15, 18, 20, 22-23.)
1957a Haffner, K.v. (HG)
x 1962 Sarkar & Mitra (DD; hide, hair; 93-94, 1 pl.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (skin)
1966 Friedrich, H. (HG; supposed skin fragments, Bremen)
1968 Banfield, E.J. (DD; contraction of hide prevents bleeding from bullet wounds)
1974 Ling, J.K.
x 1975 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; skin thickness; 162-163, 165, 167.)
1977 Ling, J.K. (vibrissae)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; 130-132, 141-142.)
x 1980 Denton et al. (DD; depigmented skin; 215.)
x 1981 Kamiya & Yamasaki (DD; sinus hair; 193-197.)
1982 Sokolov, V.E. (DD, TI; skin)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (TI, TM, TS; skin texture & color, 90-92; nails, 91-92.)
1986 Sokolov, Chernova et al. (TMM)
x 1987 Elias et al. (TM; lipids in epidermis; 161-177.)
1988 Vorontsov, N.N. (hairlessness)
x * 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; thickness, weight, hair density, flipper callosities; 372-373.)
x 1992 Kadel, J. (TML; Florida; "white" individual; 15-16.)
x 1995b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; color variation, 207, 210; scars, 207-210; ?sunburn, 210.)
x 1998 Marshall, Clark, & Reep (TML; facial bristles & skin; 296-298.)
x * 1998 Reep et al. (TML; facial bristles & hairs; 257-273.)
x 1999 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (TMM; facial bristles & hairs; 61-69.)
x 2001 Reep et al. (TML; facial bristles & hairs; 1-14.)
* 2002 Kipps et al. (TML; skin density & buoyancy)
x * 2002 Reep et al. (TML; postcranial tactile hairs; 141-154.)
2003 Leistra et al.
x * 2004 Ortiz & Worthy (TM; body fat & cold susceptibility of calves; 176-183.)
2011 Silva et al. (TI; in capt., Brazil; skin lesions)
* 2019 Plön et al. (HG; genetic analysis of Bremen skin sample)
* 2022 Le Duc et al. (HG; genetics, thermoregulation, population biology)
Interspecific Interactions: SEE Community Ecology; Food; Food Plants; Natural Enemies; Parasites; Parasitology ( 0 )
Ischyrotherium antiquum Leidy, 1856 ( 3 )
(Reptilia)
x * 1856a Leidy, J. ("Ischyrotherium antiquus", n.gen.n.sp.; Nebraska; 89.)
x 1869 Leidy, J. (considered a reptile; 414.)
1882 Lepsius, G.R. (mistakenly considered syn. of Prorastomus; 185.)
Ischyrotherium Leidy, 1856 ( 1 )
(Reptilia)
x * 1856a Leidy, J. (n.gen.; Nebraska; 89.)
Ishatherium Sahni and Kumar, 1980 ( 3 )
(Proboscidea, Anthracobunidae)
x * 1980 Sahni & Kumar (n.gen.; Early Eoc., India; 132-135.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (m8.)
x 1983 Sahni et al. (pelvis, comp. w/ Protosiren; 81.)
Ishatherium subathuense Sahni and Kumar, 1980 ( 6 )
(Proboscidea, Anthracobunidae)
x * 1980 Sahni & Kumar ("I. subathuensis"; n.gen.n.sp.; Early Eoc., India; 132-135.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray ("I. subathuensis"; sir. affinities considered doubtful; 5, 55, 61.)
x 1986 Domning et al. ("I. subathuensis"; ?syn. of Anthracobune sp.; m44.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. ("I. subathuensis"; m21.)
x * 1991 Kumar, K. ("I. subathuensis"; considered sir. & Ypresian in age; 234-237.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. ("Ischatherium"; considered possibly a sir.; 85.)
Italosiren bellunensis (de Zigno, 1875) Voss, Sorbi, and Domning, 2017 ( 1 )
* 2017 Voss et al. (n.comb.)
Italosiren Voss, Sorbi, and Domning, 2017 ( 1 )
* 2017 Voss et al. (n.gen.)
Italy ( 72 )
1827 Catullo, T.A.
* 1839 Bruno, G.D.
* 1872 Capellini, G.
1873a Zigno, A. de
* 1875a Zigno, A. de
1875b Zigno, A. de
1876 Lawley, R. (Felsinotherium)
1877 Capellini, G.
x 1877 Lawley, R. (Felsinotherium Forestii; Volterra; 341-342.)
1878 Capellini, G.
x 1878a Zigno, A. de (review of fossil sirs. of Italy; 66-70.)
* 1878b Zigno, A. de
1878c Zigno, A. de
1882 Zigno, A. de
x 1886b Neviani, A. (indeterminate sirs.; Calabria; Middle Mioc.; 7-9.)
* 1886a Capellini, G. (Metaxytherium lovisati, n.sp.; Sardinia)
1886b Capellini, G. (Sardinia)
1886a Neviani, A.
x 1886 Portis, A. (Felsinotherium spp.; Plioc., Piemonte; 356-360.)
1887 Gaudry, A.
x 1888 Neviani, A. (Metaxytherium; Mioc., Catanzaro; 68-69.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. ("Prorastoma veronense"; 77-78.)
1902 Lovisato, D. (Sardinia, Mioc.)
x 1902 Lovisato, D. ("Felsinotherium cfr. Gastaldii"; Sardinia; 5.)
x 1912 Issel, A. (Felsinotherium subapenninum; Plioc., Genova; 119.)
1924 Campana, D. del (Mioc., Catanzaro)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (Metaxytherium; Sicily; 18-19.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
1957 Comaschi Caria, I. (Mioc., Sardinia)
x 1966 Piccoli, G. (Prototherium cf. veronense; Late Eoc., Priabonian stratotype; 349-350.)
1969 Bartolomei, G. (Prototherium; Eoc., Vicenza)
1973 Mastrorilli, V.I. (Halitherium; Olig., Savona)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (Metaxytherium forestii; Plioc., Siena; 37, 48.)
x 1977 Bizzarini et al. (Prototherium veronense; Late Eoc., Possagno; 1-15.)
1980 Altichieri, L.
1980 Azzaroli, A. (Plioc.)
1981 Borgia et al.
x 1982 Azzaroli et al. (Felsinotherium gervaisi; Plioc., Val di Pugna; 56, 58.)
x * 1983 Bizzotto, B. (Prototherium intermedium, n.sp.; Late Eoc., Possagno; 95-99.)
1983 Carboni & Kotsakis (Mioc., Sardinia)
1985 Cigala-Fulgosi & Pilleri
x 1986b Pilleri, G. (indeterminate sir.; Mioc., Pietra Leccese; 21-22, pl. 11.)
x 1987 Canocchi, D. (Metaxytherium gervaisi; Early Plioc., Siena; 497-513.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium forestii; Plioc.; 208, 220-221.)
* 1987 Moncharmont Zei & Moncharmont (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc.)
1988 Vazzana, A. (Metaxytherium medium; Calabria; Mioc.)
1988 Vazzana, A.
1989 Pilleri & Cigala-Fulgosi
x 1997a Carone, G. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Calabria; 2-10.)
x 1997b Carone, G. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Calabria; 91-100.)
x 2000 Bagnato et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Calabria; 4-10.)
2001 Bianucci et al. (Val di Pugna; Plioc.)
2001 Bianucci et al. (Early Plioc., Val di Pugna)
x 2001 Carone, G. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Calabria; 34, 36.)
x 2003 Bianucci & Landini (M. medium; Late Mioc., Tuscany; 567-573.)
2003 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium; Late Mioc., Apulia; 59-63.)
2005 Bizzotto, B. (Prototherium spp.; Eoc.)
2005 Bianucci & Landini (sir. fossil sites; Province of Pisa)
2007 Sorbi & Vaiani (Metaxytherium cf. subapenninum; Early Plioc.; Tuscany)
* 2007 Carone & Domning (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Calabria; paleoecology)
2008 Gramigna et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Cessaniti, Calabria)
2011 Guido et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Cessaniti, Calabria; micromorphology, geochemistry, & diagenesis of ribs)
2011 Boschele et al. (Dugongidae indet.; Late Eoc., Early Olig., East Trentino Province)
* 2012 Sorbi et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Plioc.)
2012 Tinelli et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Plioc.; ground-penetrating radar)
2013 Carone & Marra (Metaxytherium serresii; Mioc., Calabria)
* 2013 Carone et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Calabria)
x * 2017 Marra et al. (Metaxytherium serresii & M. medium, Upper Mioc.; Calabria; 381, 386-388, 390.)
x 2018 Dominici et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum, Plioc., taphonomy, 7-8, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24.)
x 2019 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; lower Pliocene; 2, 6-8.)
* 2020 Carone & Rizzo (Metaxytherium cf. krahuletzi; Sardinia; early Mioc.)
2022 Pandolfi et al. (Metaxytherium cf. subapenninum; tusk; Late Mioc.; Montebamboli)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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