Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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M

Madagascar ( 22 )
1658 Flacourt, E. de
1902 Moriceau (DD; hunting)
1915 Kaudern, W.
1921 Gruvel, A.
x 1922 Dandouau, A. (?DD fat as remedy; 119.)
1922 Gruvel, A.
x * 1923a Petit, G. (DD; 75-83.)
x * 1924 Dandouau, A. (DD; hunting; 151-153.)
x * 1924a Petit, G. (DD; distr. & food; 125-127.)
1925 Monod, T.
1925c Petit, G. (DD)
1926 Petit, G. (DD)
x 1927 Collignon & Cottreau (Halitherium sp.; Mioc.; 138, 164-165, 169.)
1927a Petit, G. (DD)
x * 1927b Petit, G. (DD; hunting; 246-250.)
1928 Grandidier & Grandidier
1937 Petit, G. (DD)
1949 Poisson, H.
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (significance of "Halitherium" occurrence; 576.)
* 2009 Samonds et al. (Eotheroides lambondrano, n.sp.; Middle Eoc.)
2012 Muir & Kiszka (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
* 2019 Samonds et al. (Mioc.)
Malta ( 9 )
x 1866 Adams, A.L. (Halitherium; 595-596.)
x 1868 Falconer, H. (Halitherium; 304.)
1870 Adams, A.L. (Halitherium)
x 1875a Owen, R. (Halitherium; 104-105.)
x * 1879 Adams, A.L. (Halitherium; 525-527, pl. 25.)
1982 Zammit-Maempel, G. (indet. sir. fossils.)
1982 Zammit-Maempel, G. (indet. sirs.; Early Olig.)
2006 Gatt, M.
* 2011 Bianucci et al. (Dugongidae indet.; Olig. & Mioc.)
Manatee: SEE Trichechus and synonyms ( 0 )
Manatherium delheidi Hartlaub, 1886 ( 8 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
x * 1886b Hartlaub, C. (n.gen.n.sp.; Olig., Belgium; 369-378.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 137.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (syn. of Metaxytherium guettardi; 200.)
* 1929a Sickenberg, O.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m147, m156.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m107.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (m439, m441.)
x 1980 Tobien, H. (Mainz Basin, Germany; stratigraphic occurrence; 209.)
Manatherium Hartlaub, 1886 ( 7 )
(= Halitherium)
x * 1886b Hartlaub, C. (n.gen.; Olig., Belgium; 369-378.)
* 1929a Sickenberg, O.
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 424, 474, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Sirenavus, 149; in classification, 152-154, pl. 6.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Halitherium; 135.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Halitherium; m576.)
2014 Voss, M.
Manati balaenurus Boddaert, 1785 ( 4 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1785 Boddaert, P. (n.sp.)
x 1883 Stejneger, L. (syn. of Rytina gigas; m78, m86.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 92.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 130-131.)
Manati clusii Pennant, 1793 ( 1 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1793 Pennant, T. (n.sp.)
Manati gigas Zimmermann, 1780 ( 11 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
x * 1780 Zimmermann, E.A.W. (n.sp.; 426.)
x 1883 Stejneger, L. (priority of name; m78.)
x 1902 Allen, J.A. ("at present recognized in nomenclature"; 22.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (syn. of Rhytina gigas; m136.)
x 1924 Thomas et al. (type species of Rhytina; m347.)
x 1950 Mohr, E. (quotes Zimmermann's description; 184.)
x 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina gigas; m292.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 75, 92.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 130-132.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina gigas; 383.)
x * 1985 Melville, R.V. (species name placed on Official List of Specific Names; 175-176.)
Manati Steller, 1774 ( 8 )
(= Hydrodamalis)
x * 1774 Steller, G.W. (n.gen. [used uninomially]; distr.; 97.)
x 1780 Zimmermann, E.A.W. (in classification; 425-426.)
1801 Bechstein, G.
x 1902 Allen, J.A. (Manati Zimmermann "of even date with Manatus Storr"; 22.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus; 309.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 74.)
x * 1981c Domning, D.P. (suppression proposed; 130-132.)
x * 1985 Melville, R.V. (name suppressed; 175-176.)
Manati trichechus Boddaert, 1785 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus manatus, in part; Trichechus senegalensis, in part)
* 1785 Boddaert, P. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (applied to both TM & TS; 535, 537.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus, in part; 310.)
Manatida Haeckel, 1866 ( 3 )
(family; = Trichechidae)
* 1866 Haeckel, E. (n.fam.)
1868a Brandt, J.F.
x 1872a Gill, T. (syn. of Trichechidae; 14.)
Manatidae Gray, 1821 ( 14 )
(family; = Trichechidae)
x * 1821 Gray, J.E. (n.fam.; in classification; 309.)
x 1825 Gray, J.E. (in classification; 340, 344.)
x 1839 Bonaparte, C.L. (in classification; diagnosis; 4.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 272.)
x 1884 Flower, W.H. (in classification; m184.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (m421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (in classification; m215.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (diagnosis; 5.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. (teeth; m57.)
x 1932c Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Trichechidae; 281.)
x 1942 Macarovici & Oescu (m376.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Trichechidae; 136.)
x 1974 Savage, J.M. (zoogeography; 15, 20, 26, 29.)
Manatides Billberg, 1827 ( 1 )
("Nation" within Tribe Anthropocephala; both taxa = Sirenia)
* 1827 Billberg, G.J. (new taxon)
Manatina Bonaparte, 1837 ( 2 )
(subfamily within Order Cete; = Sirenia)
* 1837 Bonaparte, C.L. (new subfamily)
x 1839 Bonaparte, C.L. (in classification; diagnosis; 4.)
Manatoidea Gill, 1872 ( 1 )
(superfamily; = Trichechidae)
x * 1872a Gill, T. (new superfamily; in classification; 14.)
Manatus aequatorialis Lacépède, 1799 ( 3 )
(nomen nudum)
* 1799 Lacépède, B.G.E. de (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (considered nomen nudum; 535.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus; 310.)
Manatus africanus Oken, 1816 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
* 1816 Oken, L. (n.sp.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (syn. of M. Senegalensis; m45.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (lapsus for M. senegalensis; 137.)
Manatus americanus (Link, 1795) Illiger, 1815 ( 86 )
(= Trichechus manatus; also used by many authors for T. inunguis)
* 1815 Illiger, C. (n.comb.)
1817b Desmarest, A.G.
1820 Ranzani, C.
1822 Cuvier, F.
x 1824 Harlan, R. (comp. w/ other species; 390-394, pl. 13.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m277.)
x 1826 Wied-Neuwied, M. zu ([= TM] southern Brazil; 601-604.)
1829-44 Guérin-Méneville, F.-E.
x 1831 Spix & Martius (Brazil; natural history & econ. use; 1122-1123.)
x 1833 Shepard, C.U. (?Pleist., Suwannee Spring, Florida; 164.)
x 1835b Duvernoy, G.L. (in classification; tab. 4.)
x 1837 Richardson, J. (m162.)
x 1838a Owen, R. (cecum, m32; gall bladder, m34; heart, m35; lungs, m36; kidneys, 39.)
x 1838 Wiegmann, A.F.A. (relationship to other species; 12, 14-17.)
x 1839 Diesing, C.M. (comp. w/ M. exunguis; 230.)
x 1848 Schomburgk, R. (syn. of M. australis; 786.)
x 1849 Warren, J.C. (presentation of skeleton & skin to Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.; 199.)
x 1850 Cornalia, E. ([= TI] Manacapuru, Brazil; 303, 311.)
1850 Jäger, G.v. (osteology)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (comp. w/ M. nasutus; 45-47.)
x 1851 Gosse, P.H. (Jamaica, 341-346, 348-349; Haiti, 346-347.)
* 1852 Vrolik, W.T. (anatomy)
x 1853 Wallace, A.R. (possible identity with Amazonian manatee; 458.)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (syn. of M. australis; m29.)
x 1857 Holton, I.F. ([= TM] Colombia; 46.)
x 1857 Jäger, G.v. (Suriname; skull & skeleton; 91-98, pl. 6.)
x 1857b Owen, R. (comp. w/ M. Vogelii; 99.)
x * 1865 Gray, J.E. (comp. w/ M. senegalensis; 131, 134-138.)
x 1869 Leidy, J. ("Manatus americanus fossilis, Harlan"; m414.)
x 1871 Cunningham, R.C. ([= TI?] from Amazonia; in capt., Rio de Janeiro; 798.)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (anatomy, 127-189, pls. 17-26; in capt., 191-193.)
x 1874 Keller-Leuzinger, F. ([= TI] Amazonia; 81, 83.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (South America; 2: 42, 45, 187-194, 235-237.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (brain, comp. w/ Eotherium; 100-105, pl. 3.)
x 1875b Owen, R. (comp. w/ Prorastomus; 559-561, 563-567.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (from Guyana; in capt.; anatomy & behavior; 452-462; pl. 26.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (gen. acc.; 56-59.)
1877 Garrod, A.H.
x 1878 Harting, J.E. (gen. acc.; in capt., England; 285-287.)
x * 1880 Murie, J. (in capt., 21-26; anatomy, 27-44, pls. 5-9.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (in capt., Brighton; 456-460.)
x 1882 Sumichrast, F. (Mexico; 213.)
1883 Albrecht, D.
x 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (syn. of M. latirostris in part & M. inunguis in part, 88-94; comp. w/ M. inunguis, 90.)
1883 Henshaw, H.W. (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
x 1884 Doran, A.H.G. (ear ossicles; 368, 370.)
x 1885 Santa-Anna Nery, F.J. de ([= TI] Amazonia; 67-68, 71, 168.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m468.)
x 1886 Waldeyer, W. (pharynx; 245-246, 248.)
x 1887b Baur, G. (supernumerary phalanges; 840.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (syn. of M. australis; m356.)
x 1889 Zipperlen, A. (in capt.; morphology; 25-26.)
x 1890 Pilliet, A.H. (stomach; 450-453.)
x 1891 Costa e Silva, B. da ("mamatus americanus" [= TI]; Brazil; 4.5-m specimen; 93-95.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 216, 219-220.)
x 1892 Waldeyer, W. (stomach & intestine; histology; 79-85.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Brazil; 120-121.)
x 1895 Veríssimo, J. ([= TM] Maranhão, Brazil; culinary use; 99, m129.)
x 1896 Neish, W.D. (syn. of M. australis; m288.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (m6.)
x 1907a Anon. ([= TI] Juru  R., Brazil; 98.)
x 1907 Freund, L. (history of attempts to keep in capt.; 66-71.)
x 1912b Dexler, H. (brain, comp. w/ DD; 97-98, 181, 186.)
x 1914 Woodroffe, J.F. ([= TI] Brazil & Peru; hunting; 243-244.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (Cuba; gen. acc.; 84-95.)
x 1919 Hanson, F.B. (sternum; 81, 111.)
x 1922 Sonntag, C.F. (tongue; 646.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (m135.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (in capt.; historical records; 59-60.)
x 1925 Bittencourt, A. ([= TI] Amazonas, Brazil; exploitation; 134-136.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. (diet & mastication; 251, 254, 256.)
x 1927 Brash, J.C. (alveolar septal reworking & tooth replacement; 19-20.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (m86.)
x 1933 Jobim, A. ([= TI] Brazil; hunting; 136, 140-144.)
x 1934 Addison, W.H.F. (brain cells; 587, 590.)
x 1934 Bittencourt, A. ([= TI] Brazil; hunting; 24-25.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (type species of Halipaedisca Gistel; m534.)
x 1937 Pinheiro, A. ([= TI] Brazil; hunting; 215-218.)
x 1938 Todd & Todd (epiphyseal union sequence; 32.)
x 1953 Brash, J.C. (tooth replacement; 463-467.)
x 1960 Vúletin, A. ("Manatí americanus"; m124.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis in part & T. m. manatus in part; 309-310.)
x 1966 Bittencourt, A. ([= TI] Brazil; pop. acc.; 35-36.)
x 1967 Fiuza Lima, F. ("M. americano" [= TI]; Brazil; captive breeding proposed; 17-18.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (syn. of Trichechus manatus; m339.)
x 1994 Matthies, E. (illustration reproduced; 192.)
Manatus antiquus Leidy, 1856 ( 11 )
(nomen dubium)
x * 1856b Leidy, J. (n.sp.; ?Mioc., eastern U.S.A.; 165.)
x 1869 Leidy, J. (in synopsis; 414.)
x 1877 Leidy, J. (Ashley phosphate beds, South Carolina; 214.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (m116.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m378.)
x 1889 Leidy, J. (Peace Creek, Florida; m27.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (history of study; 232.)
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (referred to Halitherium; 455-458, pls. 2-3.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (history of study; 420-421, 444-445, 470.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (specimens referred to Metaxytherium floridanum; 396, 399.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (considered nomen dubium; 416.)
Manatus atlanticus Oken, 1838 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus manatus, in part; Trichechus senegalensis, in part)
* 1838 Oken, L. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus manatus in part & T. senegalensis in part; 536, 538.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus in part; 310.)
Manatus australis Retzius, 1794 ( 38 )
(= Trichechus manatus, in part; Trichechus senegalensis, in part; also used by many authors for T. inunguis)
* 1794 Retzius, A.J. (n.sp.)
1802 Tilesius, W.G.
x 1808 Tiedemann, F. (gen. acc.; 555-556.)
1835-36 Poeppig, E.F.
x 1837 Burmeister, H. (in classification; 793.)
x 1838 Wiegmann, A.F.A. (considered the appropriate name for the Orinoco manatee; 17.)
x 1848 Schomburgk, R. ([= TM] Guyana; [= TI?] Rio Branco, ?Brazil; 786.)
x 1855a Gervais, P. ([= TI] anatomy, 114-115; econ. use, 116.)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (comp. w/ other species; 29-33.)
x 1857 Rapp, W.v. ([= TI] distr.; m87-88.)
x 1857 Shaw, N. (comp. w/ TS; 99.)
x 1860 Nordmann, A.v. (comp. w/ M. maeoticus; 331, 333.)
x 1863 McBain, J. (Belize; comp. w/ M. Senegalensis; 261-267.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (syn. of M. americanus; m131, m133, m135.)
x 1867 Claudius, M. (ear region, comp. w/ HG; 6-7, 9-11, 13-14.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (m166.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (syn. of M. americanus; m57.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 293-294.)
x 1878 Filhol, H. (comp. w/ M. Coulombi; 125.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (lapsus [in title] for M. americanus; 456.)
x 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (considered the correct name for the Amazonian manatee; 88-89, 95.)
x 1883 Stoll, O. (Lake Izabal, Guatemala; m346.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (Britain; m114, 116.)
x 1885 Santa-Anna Nery, F.J. de ([= TI] Amazonia; 67-68, 71, 168.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (Tabasco, Mexico; distr., hunting, econ. use; 356-358.)
x 1889 Anon. (from Guyana; in capt., London; 527-528.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (syn. of M. americanus; m220.)
x 1896 Neish, W.D. (Jamaica; gen. acc.; 287-288.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (m6.)
x 1902 Andrews, C.W. (m293.)
x * 1903 Rodriguez Ferreira, A. (Par , Brazil; 169-174.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (syn. of M. americanus; 89.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (m537.)
1955 Tucker, R.
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis in part & T. m. manatus in part; 309-310.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (m126.)
x 1994 Matthies, E. (illustration reproduced; 188-189.)
Manatus balaenurus (Boddaert, 1785) Bechstein, 1800 ( 1 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1800 Bechstein, J.M. (n.comb.)
Manatus borealis (Gmelin, 1788) Link, 1795 ( 9 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1794-95 Link, H.F. (n.comb.)
1802 Ozeretskovsky, N.
x 1808 Tiedemann, F. (gen. acc.; 555-556.)
1811 Pallas, P.S.
x 1828 Fleming, J. ([= TM?] Britain; 29.)
x 1837 Bell, T. ([= TM?] Britain; 525.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (syn. of Rhytina Stelleri; m104.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. ([= TM?] Britain; m469.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
Manatus brocchii (de Blainville, 1844) de Blainville, 1844 ( 2 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m209, 214.)
Manatus Brünnich, 1771 ( 99 )
(= Trichechus)
1751 Klein, J.T.
x * 1771 Brünnich, M.T. (n.gen.; in classification & key; 34, 38-39.)
1777 Scopoli, J.A.
x 1784 Mayer, J. (fossil "Mannatus"; Czechoslovakia; 262-263.)
x 1809a Cuvier, G. (fossils; m303.)
x 1811 Illiger, C. (in classification; 140-141.)
x 1815 Rafinesque, C.S. (in classification; 60.)
x 1821 Gray, J.E. (in classification; 309.)
1822 Albers, C.F.
x 1825 Gray, J.E. (in classification; m340.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m275; 278-279.)
x 1825b Harlan, R. (supposed fossil, Maryland [actually cetacean]; 236.)
1826 Saint-Hilaire, I.G.
x 1827 Berthold, A.A. (in classification; 62.)
x 1827 Billberg, G.J. (in classification; tab. A.)
x 1828 Billberg, G.J. (in classification; tab. A.)
x 1833 Finch, I. (fossil; Virginia; 229.)
x 1835 Serres, M. de (fossil "manatus"; m238 [in 1838 ed.])
x 1837 Burmeister, H. (in classification; 793.)
x 1838a Kaup, J.J. (comp. w/ Pugmeodon; 319.)
x 1838 Serres, M. de (Plioc., Montpellier, France; 285.)
x 1844 Smith, J.L. (fossil, South Carolina; 116-117.)
x 1846 Allen, J.H. (?Pleist., Tampa Bay, Florida; 41.)
x 1847 Brandt, J.F. (comp. w/ Hydrodamalis; 47-48.)
x 1848 Gistel, J. (Halipaedisca proposed as replacement name; 83.)
x 1849 Gibbes, R.W. (supposed Eoc. record, South Carolina; 193.)
x 1850 Gibbes, R.W. (supposed Eoc. record, South Carolina; 67-68.)
x 1850 Kneeland, S., Jr. (skeleton & affinities; 42-47.)
x 1853 Wallace, A.R. (Amazonia; 185-187, 458-461.)
x 1854 Leidy, J. (Plioc., North America; m10.)
x 1855 Owen, R. (comp. w/ Prorastomus; 542-543.)
x 1856a Leidy, J. (comp. w/ Ischyrotherium; m89.)
1857 Rapp, W.v.
1858a Krauss, C.F.F.
x 1860 McBain, J. (teeth; 152.)
1862a Krauss, C.F.F.
1864 Dana, J.D. (in classification; m169.)
x 1867c Brandt, J.F. (brain, comp. w/ HG & DD; 269-270.)
x 1868 Cope, E.D. (?Pleist., Maryland; m138.)
x 1868 Heuglin, M.T.v. (Ethiopia; 247, 289.)
x 1869 Leidy, J. (synopsis of North American remains; 414.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (syn. of Trichechus; 91.)
1872 Krauss, C.F.F.
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 269, 272.)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (comp. w/ Halitherium; 2-5.)
x 1875 Wilder, B.G. (m111.)
1876 Sclater, P.L.
1877 Leidy, J.
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 292-297.)
1878 Tegetmaier, W.B.
x 1880 Cope, E.D. (squamosal foramina; 456.)
x 1880a Zigno, A. de (comp. w/ Halitherium veronense; 293-294, 296.)
x 1884 Doran, A.H.G. (ear ossicles, comp. w/ HG; 367-370.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (rostral pads, m460; brain, 461; ear ossicles, 462; manus, m462; teeth, m464, m472.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 416, 418-419, 421.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (descent from Olig. Belgian sir.; 199-200.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 213, 215-220, 224.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (origin of tooth pattern; m82.)
x 1893 Howes & Harrison (teeth; m790.)
x 1895 Gundlach, J. (Cuba; m20.)
1897b Kükenthal, W.
x 1899 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of Trichechus; m494.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (diagnosis; 5-6.)
x 1902 Allen, J.A. ("Manatus Storr" "of even date with" Manati Zimmermann; 22.)
x 1904 Eggeling, H. (sternum; 99.)
x 1904 Freund, L. (manus, comp. w/ DD; 368, 372-373, 377-380, 383, 389-394.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; m2, 9-11, pl. 1.)
x 1905 Knauff (pelvis; 306.)
x 1907b Arldt, T. (biogeographic significance; 674.)
x 1909 Anderson, R.J. (maxilla; 745.)
x 1912 Issel, A. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium subapenninum; m121.)
x 1912a Matthes, E. (fetus, ear; 598.)
x 1914a Freund, L. (comp. w/ DD embryo; number of cervical vertebrae, 359; fusion of cervical vertebrae, m360; vertebral column, 365; pelvis, 372-373; scapula, m375; forelimb, m380, m386.)
1916b Anon.
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (comp. w/ Halitherium antillense; 24.)
1918b Aichel, O.
x 1922 Sonntag, C.F. (tongue; 646-647.)
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (pachyostosis; m357.)
x 1924 Thomas et al. (name preferred to Trichechus; 347.)
x 1925 ICZN (use of name, vs. Trichechus; 34, 38-40.)
x 1926 Aichel, O. (teeth; 43.)
x * 1929 ICZN (name suppressed in favor of Trichechus; 19.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus; 534.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (anatomy; gen. acc.; 53-54, 59, 61-64.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (nasals, m18; phylogeny, 21.)
1945 Matthes, E.
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Trichechus; in classification; 136.)
x 1949 Sanderson, I.T. (Suriname; 781.)
x * 1952 Hemming, F. (suppression in favor of Trichechus; 159-160.)
x 1952a Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (comp. w/ Indosiren; 611.)
x 1954 Aragão, A. de (Brazil; hunting; 54-56.)
D 1957 Pronina, I.G.
x 1960 Kappers et al. (pineal body; 2: 1064.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus; 309.)
x 1968 Romer, A.S. (name preferred to Trichechus; 200.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Trichechus; m578.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Trichechus; 130-132.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (syn. of Trichechus; m305.)
2005 Ward, L.W. (fossil "manatus"; Stratford Hall, Virginia)
Manatus christolii (Fitzinger, 1842) de Blainville, 1844 ( 1 )
(= Halitherium christolii)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
Manatus clusii (Pennant, 1793) Bechstein, 1800 ( 1 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1800 Bechstein, J.M. (n.comb.)
Manatus coulombi Filhol, 1878 ( 7 )
(= Eotheroides aegyptiacum)
x * 1878 Filhol, H. (n.sp.; Eoc., Egypt; 124-125.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m378.)
x 1902 Andrews, C.W. (comp. w/ Eosiren libyca; 293.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Eotheroides aegyptiacum; m474.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Eotheroides aegyptiacum; m575.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; ?syn. of Protosiren fraasi; 71, 75.)
Manatus cuvieri (de Christol, 1832) de Blainville, 1844 ( 5 )
(= Metaxytherium medium, in part; Metaxytherium serresii, in part)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (syn. of Halitherium Cordieri; m309.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; m182.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium serresii; 210.)
Manatus dubius (Cuvier, 1824) de Blainville, 1844 ( 1 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
Manatus dugung (Erxleben, 1777) de Blainville, 1844 ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
Manatus exunguis Natterer in Diesing, 1839 ( 9 )
(= Trichechus inunguis)
x * 1839 Diesing, C.M. (n.sp.; in quotation from Natterer; nematode Heterocheilus tunicatus, 230; trematode Amphistoma fabaceum, 236.)
x 1845 Stannius, H. (m2.)
x 1851 Diesing, C.M. (nematode Heterocheilus tunicatus; 209, 502.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (syn. of M. inunguis; m169.)
x 1929 Stunkard, H.W. (trematode Chiorchis fabaceus; account quoted from Diesing; 254.)
x 1936 Baylis, H.A. (m257.)
x * 1981c Domning, D.P. (suppression proposed; 131-132.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; 310, 312.)
x * 1985 Melville, R.V. (name suppressed; 175-176.)
Manatus fluviatilis Olfers, 1818 ( 9 )
(= Trichechus m. manatus)
* 1815 Illiger, C. (nomen nudum)
* 1818 Olfers, I. (n.sp.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (syn. of M. americanus; m135.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (syn. of M. americanus; m57.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (m6.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (syn. of M. americanus; m89.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (considered nomen nudum; 536.)
x 1959 Hershkovitz, P. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus; 342.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus; 310.)
Manatus fossilis Holl, 1829 ( 12 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1829 Holl, F. (n.sp.)
1832 Meyer, H.v.
x 1834 Keferstein, C. (France, Bohemia, Maryland; 2: 217.)
x 1838a Kaup, J.J. (m319.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (syn. of Pugmeodon; 676.)
1845 Pédroni, P.M.
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208, 210.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (syn. of Halitherium Cordieri; m309.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (m104.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; m139.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of collection, 101-102; m113.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; m182.)
Manatus giganteus DeKay, 1842 ( 6 )
(Cetacea)
* 1842 DeKay, J.E. (n.sp.)
x 1869 Leidy, J. (m414.)
x * 1904 Case, E.C. (referred to Trichechus; 56.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m231.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m421.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 66.)
Manatus gigas (Zimmermann, 1780) Lucas, 1891 ( 2 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
x * 1891 Lucas, F.A. (n.comb.; 623.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
Manatus guettardi de Blainville, 1844 ( 7 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.sp.)
1845 Pédroni, P.M.
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208, 210.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (m104.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; m142.)
x * 1889 Lefèvre, T. (referred to Metaxytherium; Belgium; 199.)
x 1892 Barbosa Rodrigues, J. ("M. Guetardi?"; Brazil; 53-54.)
Manatus guyannensis Bechstein, 1800 ( 2 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1800 Bechstein, J.M. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus manatus; 535.)
Manatus hydropithecus (Shaw, 1800) Fischer, 1829 ( 1 )
(Steller's "sea-ape"; nomen nudum)
* 1829 Fischer, J.B. (n.comb.)
Manatus indicus (Boddaert, 1785) Daudin, 1802 ( 2 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1802 Lacépède & Daudin (n.comb.)
1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de
Manatus inornatus Leidy, 1873 ( 9 )
(nomen dubium)
x * 1873 Leidy, J. (n.sp.; South Carolina; 336-337, pl. 37.)
x 1884b True, F.W. (m116.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m378.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m232.)
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (syn. of Halitherium antiquum; 455, 457-458.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (history of study; 420-421, 444-445.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 65-66.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (considered nomen dubium; 416.)
Manatus inunguis Natterer in von Pelzeln, 1883 ( 40 )
(= Trichechus inunguis)
x * 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (n.sp.; in quotation from Natterer; syn. of M. australis; Amazonas, Brazil; 88-94.)
* 1886a Hartlaub, C.
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (comp. w/ Manatherium; 372.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m220.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Brazil; 120.)
x 1895 Veríssimo, J. (Brazil; hunting & econ. use; 35-40, 92-93, 96, 99-102, 117, 119, 129.)
x 1896 Sclater, P.L. (in capt., London; 212.)
x * 1897 Beddard, F.E. (comp. w/ M. latirostris; 47-53.)
x 1897b Kükenthal, W. (diagnosis, based on external characters; 40.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (nematode Heterocheilus tunicatus; m107, m169-170.)
x 1904 Goeldi & Hagmann (Brazil; 89-90.)
x 1905 Mitchell, P.C. (intestine; 464-465.)
x 1907 Freund, L. (history of attempts to keep in capt.; 68, 71.)
x 1916a Anon. (in capt., New York; 1419, 1421.)
x 1919 Anon. (in capt., New York; supposed stomach anomaly; 46.)
x 1921b Marcus, H. (number of teeth; 155.)
x 1923 Kostanecki, K. (cecum; 273-276.)
x 1924b Petit, G. (kidney; m245.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (m86.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; 537.)
x 1938 Devillers, C. (in capt.; measurements, behavior; 84-88.)
x 1938 Todd & Todd (epiphyseal union sequence; 32.)
x 1939a Moraes, R. (Brazil; export in 17th century; 91-92.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (gen. acc.; 54-55, 59, 61.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (nasals; 15.)
x 1948 Mendes, A. (syn. of Trichechus manatus; m325.)
x 1949 Vieira, C.O.C. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; m268.)
x 1951 Wegner, R.N. (dental capsule; 76-81.)
x 1952 Nimuendajú, C. (Amazonas, Brazil; "rarely caught" by Tukuna Indians; m26.)
1954 Barroso, A. E. V. (Manatus inunguis, Ilha de Marajó, Brazil)
x * 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 129-135.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; m309.)
x 1961 Slijper, E.J. (closure of foramen ovale & ductus arteriosus; 536.)
x 1965 Ruschi, A. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; m30.)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; m82.)
x 1973 Pine, R.H. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; m74.)
x 1976 Fleischer, G. (anchoring of stapes; 305, 309-310.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Trichechus inunguis; 131.)
x * 1985 Melville, R.V. (specific name placed on Official List of Names in Zoology; 175-176.)
Manatus koellikeri Kükenthal, 1897 ( 11 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
x * 1897b Kükenthal, W. (n.sp.; Suriname; 40.)
x 1907 Freund, L. (m71-72.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (validity doubtful; 59.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus manatus; 537.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (validity doubtful; m54.)
* 1945 Matthes, E. (synonymized with Trichechus m. manatus)
x 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. (skin structure; 308.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus; 310.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (syn. of Trichechus manatus; m339.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (syn. of Trichechus manatus; m88.)
Manatus latirostris Harlan, 1824 ( 63 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
x * 1824 Harlan, R. (n.sp.; Florida; 390-394, pl. 13.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (Florida, 277; Belize, m278.)
x 1837 Richardson, J. (m162.)
x 1838 Wiegmann, A.F.A. (relationship to other species; 12-17.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (comp. w/ M. nasutus; 45-47.)
x 1851 Wyman, J. (skull; 192.)
x 1856b Leidy, J. (comp. w/ M. antiquus; 165.)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (validity doubtful; m29, m33.)
x * 1857 Rapp, W.v. (Suriname; anatomy; 87-98, pl. 3.)
x 1861 Möbius, K. (Belize; structure of rostral pads; 148-156, pl. 7.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (syn. of M. americanus; 131-132, 135.)
1868a Anon.
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (m166.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (syn. of M. americanus; m57.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 293-297.)
1878 Gulliver, G.
x 1883 Pelzeln, A.v. (name used for TM in preference to M. americanus; 89, 91, 93-95.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (ear ossicles, 462; m468.)
* 1886a Hartlaub, C.
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (comp. w/ Manatherium; 371, 375.)
x 1887 Martin, K. (Suriname; 27.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (syn. of M. australis; m356.)
x 1891 Leidy, J. (trematode Amphistomum fabaceum; 413-414.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (syn. of M. americanus; m220.)
x 1892 Tuckerman, F. (tongue; 77.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Brazil; 120.)
x 1896 Kükenthal, W. (embryonic dentition; 513-526.)
x * 1897 Beddard, F.E. (comp. w/ M. inunguis; 47-53.)
x 1897b Kükenthal, W. (diagnosis; 39.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (diagnosis, 6; pl. 2.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; 9-11, pl. 1.)
x 1907 Freund, L. (history of attempts to keep in capt.; 68-71.)
x 1908c Abel, O. (locomotor organs; m403.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (in capt.; anatomy, behavior, etc.; 225-236, pl. 9.)
1912b Matthes, E.
x 1915 Anon. (from Puerto Rico; in capt., New York; 1216-1217.)
x 1916a Anon. (in capt., New York; behavior, comp. w/ M. inunguis; 1421.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (syn. of M. americanus; m89.)
x 1918 Ménégaux, A. (syn. of TM; m699.)
x 1924b Petit, G. (kidney; 245.)
1932 Korschelt, E. (radius & ulna; 451.)
x 1932 Sokoloff & Caballero (trematode Schizamphistoma manati; 163, 167.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus manatus latirostris; 536.)
x 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (syn. of Trichechus latirostris; m159.)
x 1936 Baylis, H.A. (m257.)
x 1938 Todd & Todd (epiphyseal union sequence; 32.)
1940 Wislocki, G.B.
x 1941 Pycraft, W.P. (illustration; 328.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (gen. acc.; 54-55.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (nasals; 15.)
x 1947 Harwood, K. (Florida; in capt.; pop. acc.; 50, 89.)
x 1955 Miller & Kellogg (syn. of Trichechus manatus latirostris; m791.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus, in part; 310.)
x 1961 Slijper, E.J. (closure of foramen ovale & ductus arteriosus; 536.)
x 1963 Alvarez, T. (syn. of Trichechus manatus latirostris; m465.)
x 1965b Kaiser, H.E. (body cavity nomenclature; 426-428.)
x 1966a Kaiser, H.E. (body cavity; 61, 66.)
x 1976 Koopman, K.F. (cotype in Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia; 23.)
x 1978a Domning, D.P. (myology; 5.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (syn. of Trichechus manatus; m339.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (cotypes; 113.)
x 1994 Matthies, E. (illustration reproduced; 188, 190.)
Manatus maeoticus Eichwald, 1850 ( 8 )
(Pinnipedia?)
v 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de
* 1850 Eichwald, E.v.
x * 1860 Nordmann, A.v. (Bessarabia; 328-333, pl. 25.)
x 1861 Nordmann, A.v. (Bessarabia; 581-582, pl. 11.)
1900 Sinzov, I.
x 1931 Simionescu, I. (Romania; 146, 154-155, 157.)
x * 1942 Macarovici & Oescu (Bessarabia; 351, 353, 376-379, 382, pl. 7.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (Bessarabia; 281-282.)
Manatus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758) [author of combination not identified] ( 3 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
x 1917 Holland, W.J. (Isle of Pines, Cuba; 356.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (syn. of M. americanus; 89.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 133-134.)
Manatus minor Daudin, 1802 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1802 Daudin, F.M. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus in part & T. inunguis in part; 536.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of Trichechus m. manatus in part & T. inunguis in part; 309-310.)
Manatus nasutus Wyman in Perkins, 1848 ( 11 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
x v * 1848 Perkins, G.A. (species described but not named; 198-199.)
x * 1848 Wyman, J. (n.sp.; 199.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (skull; 45-47.)
x * 1851 Wyman, J. (skull; 192.)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (?syn. of M. senegalensis; m29, m33.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (syn. of M. senegalensis; m132, m134.)
x 1872a Murie, J. (lungs; m172.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (syn. of M. senegalensis; m57.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 536, 538.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 382.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 126.)
Manatus oronocensis Bechstein, 1800 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1800 Bechstein, J.M. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus manatus in part & T. inunguis in part; 535.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. ("M. orenocensis", "M. oronecensis"; syn. of Trichechus m. manatus in part & T. inunguis in part; 309-310.)
Manatus oweni Du Chaillu, 1861 ( 7 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
x * 1861a Du Chaillu, P.B. (n.sp.; name conditionally proposed; West Africa; measurements, habits; 367.)
x 1861b Du Chaillu, P.B. (m471.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (syn. of M. senegalensis; 133-134.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (syn. of M. senegalensis; m57.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 537-538.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 382.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 126.)
Manatus renggeri Bronn, 1838 ( 1 )
(nomen nudum; lapsus for Halitherium schinzii)
* 1838 Bronn, H.G. (n.sp.; nomen nudum)
Manatus schinzii (Kaup, 1838) de Blainville, 1844 ( 2 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
x 1846 Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa Collinii; 328.)
Manatus senegalensis Desmarest, 1817 ( 57 )
(homonym of Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795)
* 1817b Desmarest, A.G.
1822 Cuvier, F.
x 1824 Harlan, R. (comp. w/ other species; 390-394, pl. 13.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m277.)
1827-34 Griffith et al.
x 1837 Herapath, A. N. (Gabon R.; gen. acc.; 110-111.)
x 1837 Richardson, J. (m162.)
x 1838 Wiegmann, A.F.A. (relationship to other species; 12-13.)
x 1849 Warren, J.C. (m199.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (comp. w/ M. nasutus; 45-47.)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (comp. w/ M. Vogelii & other species; 29-33.)
x 1857b Owen, R. (comp. w/ M. Vogelii; 99-100.)
x 1860 McBain, J. (skull; 150-152.)
x 1861a Du Chaillu, P.B. (m367.)
x 1863 McBain, J. (comp. w/ M. australis; 261-267.)
x * 1865 Gray, J.E. (comp. w/ M. americanus; 131-138.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (m166.)
x 1874 Schweinfurth, G. (Keebaly R., West Africa; 159-160, 512.)
x 1874 Schweinfurth, G. (Keebaly R., West Africa; 138, 422.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (gen. acc.; 57, 59.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (gen. acc.; 293-294.)
x 1883 Moloney, C.A. (Gold Coast; capture; 27-29.)
x 1883 Rochebrune, A.T. de (Senegambia; 190-191.)
x 1884 Doran, A.H.G. (ear ossicles; 368-369.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (teeth; 468.)
* 1886a Hartlaub, C.
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (comp. w/ Manatherium; 370, 372-374.)
x 1888 Jentink, F.A. (Liberia; measurements; 33-34.)
x 1890 Büttikofer, J. (Liberia; distr. & capture; 2: 392-393.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 217, 220.)
x 1894 Miller, W.D. (tooth caries; 15-18.)
1894 Turner, W.
x 1897b Kükenthal, W. (diagnosis; 39.)
x 1903 Gruvel, A. (Congo; barnacle Chelonibia manati; 116.)
x 1907 Freund, L. (history of attempts to keep in capt.; 71.)
x 1921a Marcus, H. (tooth replacement; 574-586, pls. 18-19.)
x 1921b Marcus, H. (number of teeth; 155.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (m135.)
x 1924b Petit, G. (kidney; 245.)
x 1924c Petit, G. (kidney; 2197-2200.)
x 1925 Pécaud, G. (Benué R.; 48.)
x 1928b Petit, G. (fusion of cervical vertebrae; 429-431.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (m86.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 410, 412-413, 415.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 536, 538.)
x 1936 Baylis, H.A. (Nigeria; trematode Chiorchis fabaceus; 257.)
x 1937 Johnson, E. ("Manabus senegalensis"; Gambia; 63-64, 66.)
x 1937 Sanderson, I.T. (Mamfe, West Africa; 266-268.)
x 1938 Todd & Todd (epiphyseal union sequence; 32.)
x 1939 Beal, W.P.B. (gen. acc. & possible econ. use; 125-126.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (gen. acc.; 54-62.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (nasals; 15.)
x 1951 Wegner, R.N. (dental capsule; 76-81.)
x 1953 Brash, J.C. (tooth replacement; 463-464.)
x 1954b Friant, M. (brain; 130-131, 134.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (m126.)
Manatus simia Illiger, 1815 ( 1 )
(Steller's "sea-ape"; nomen nudum)
* 1815 Illiger, C.
Manatus simininus Bechstein, 1800 ( 1 )
(Steller's "sea-ape"; nomen nudum)
* 1800 Bechstein, J.M.
Manatus sphaerurus Illiger, 1815 ( 2 )
(nomen nudum; = Trichechus senegalensis)
* 1815 Illiger, C. (n.sp.; nomen nudum)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (nomen nudum; syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 536, 538.)
Manatus stroggylonurus Bechstein, 1800 ( 2 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
* 1800 Bechstein, J.M. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 536-537.)
Manatus studeri von Meyer, 1837 ( 7 )
(nomen nudum; = Metaxytherium krahuletzi)
x * 1837 Meyer, H.v. (n.sp.; nomen nudum; 677.)
x * 1838 Meyer, H.v. (referred to Halianassa; 667.)
x 1839a Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa Studeri; 4.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (?referred to Halitherium; 675.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (referred to Thalattosiren; 110-111, 113.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 68-69.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (considered nomen nudum; 122-125.)
Manatus tabernaculi (Rüppell, 1834) de Blainville, 1844 ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.comb.)
Manatus vogelii Owen, 1856 ( 14 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
* 1856 Owen, R. (n.sp.)
x * 1857 Baikie, B. (skull, comp. w/ other species; 29-33, pl. 51.)
1857b Owen, R. (reprinting of Owen [1856]; 99-100.)
x 1861a Du Chaillu, P.B. (probable senior syn. of M. Oweni; 367.)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (syn. of M. senegalensis; 133-134.)
v 1869 Verne, J. ("ajoub"; fictional account)
x 1874 Schweinfurth, G. (Keebaly R., West Africa; 160, 572.)
x 1874 Schweinfurth, G. (Keebaly R., West Africa; 138, 422.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. (syn. of M. senegalensis; m57.)
1877 Heuglin, M.T.v.
x 1925 Pécaud, G. (Lake Chad & Chari R.; 48.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 537-538.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (m56.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis; 126.)
Manatus vulgaris Bechstein, 1795 ( 1 )
* 1795 Bechstein, J.M. (n.sp.)
Maryland ( 16 )
x 1825a Harlan, R. (Manatus; 278.)
x 1825b Harlan, R. (Manatus [erroneous report]; 236.)
x 1834 Keferstein, C. (Manatus fossilis; m2: 217.)
x 1868 Cope, E.D. (Manatus; ?Pleist., Charles Co.; m138.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. (Trichechus giganteus; Mioc.; 56-57, pl. 26.)
1904 Shattuck, G.B.
x 1906 True, F.W. (?Metaxytherium; Calvert Formation; 835, 840, pl. 76.)
x 1917 Palmer, W. (Mioc. sir.; 344.)
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (Metaxytherium; paleoecology; 1022.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium calvertense, n.sp.; Middle Mioc.; 66-67, 71.)
1971 Gernant et al.
x 1980 Burton, B. (?TML; Chesapeake Bay; 19, 40-41.)
x 1984b Domning, D.P. (fossil & Recent sirs.; pop. acc.; 5-6.)
x 1987 Shisler, M. (?TM; Solomons Harbor; 34.)
x 1998 Bohaska, D.J. (indet. dugongid; Early Mioc.; m183-185.)
* 2018 Domning, D.P. (Sir. fauna of Mioc. Chesapeake Group; U.S. East Coast.)
Masrisiren abeli Kretzoi, 1941 ( 3 )
(= Eotheroides aegyptiacum)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (n.gen.n.sp.; Eoc., Egypt; 152.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (nature of type material; 387.)
Masrisiren Kretzoi, 1941 ( 2 )
(= Eotheroides)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (n.gen.; Eoc., Egypt; in classification; 152, 155, pl. 6.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Eotheroides; m575.)
Mastication ( 34 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Ingestive)
1878 Tegetmaier, W.B. (Trichechus; lips)
x 1921a Marcus, H. (Trichechus; ?propalinal jaw motion; 581.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium & Hydrodamalis; 57-58.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. (sirs. interpreted as molluscivores; 251-256.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; "little chewing"; 217.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; cause of tooth wear; 340.)
x 1941b Heuvelmans, B. (Trichechus; 10-11.)
x 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; molar occlusion; 143-144.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; role of rostral pads; 22-23.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium & Hydrodamalis; 217-218.)
x * 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (TMM; rate & sound frequency of chewing; 21, 24.)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (DD; thought ineffective at chewing dry plants, 88, or algae, 92-93.)
x 1977a Domning, D.P. (DD; jaw muscles; 27-28.)
x * 1978a Domning, D.P. (TI; jaw mechanics; 57-67.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; jaw mechanics; 117-121.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; rate = 2 chews/sec; 85.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD: adaptations to tooth wear; 199.)
x 1980 Miller et al. (TM; propalinal jaw movement & tooth replacement; 128A.)
x 1982 Marsh et al. (DD; condition of stomach contents; tooth size; 59, 64.)
x 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; chewing rate & food consumption; 1187-1191.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (Trichechus; tooth replacement; pop. acc.; 8, 10-11.)
x * 1984 Domning & Hayek (TI; chewing & tooth replacement; 119-125.)
x 1985 Etheridge et al. (TM; chewing rate & food consumption; 21-25.)
x D 1985 Fortelius, M. (sirs. & desmostylians; functional anatomy of cheek teeth; 11, 52-53, 57, 65.)
x 1986 Gallivan & Best (TI; chewing rate; 554-556.)
1988 Janis & Fortelius
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (Xenosiren yucateca; 435-436.)
x * 1998 Marsh et al. (DD, TML, TMM; fragment size of stomach contents; 250-255.)
D 2000 Taru, H. (Paleoparadoxia tabatai)
D 2000 Werth, A.
D 2000 Taru, H. (Paleoparadoxia tabatai)
2006a Lanyon & Sanson (DD; degenerate dentition & tooth wear)
2006 Kobayashi & Tazaki (Hydrodamalinae; evolution of mastication)
* 2006b Lanyon & Sanson (DD)
Medicinal Applications ( 51 )
(SEE ALSO: Economic Use)
1526 Oviedo, G.F. de (TMM; West Indies)
x 1665 Rochefort, C. de (TMM; West Indies; 195.)
x 1667 Rochefort, C. de (TMM; West Indies; 393-394.)
1710 Labach, L.A. ("manatee stones")
x * 1770 Alston, C. (Trichechus; petrous bones; medicinal use; 537-538.)
x 1809a Cuvier, G. (Trichechus; ear bones; m275, 287.)
1814 Merolla da Sorrento, J. (TS; ribs, ear bones)
x 1814 Santos, J. dos (DD; Mozambique; tusks; 701.)
x 1826 Wied-Neuwied, M. zu (TMM; Brazil; bone; 603.)
1852 Sidney, S. (DD; Australia; oil)
x 1857 Fairholme, J.K.E. (DD; Australia; oil; 353.)
x 1860 McGrigor-Croft, J. (DD; oil; 7166-7169.)
1863 Gould, J. (DD; Australia)
x 1874 Estacio da Silveira, S. (TMM; Maranhão, Brazil; bone; as anticoagulant; 27.)
x 1881 Anon. (DD; Australia; oil; 743.)
x 1882 Faithful, P. (DD; Queensland; oil; 6-7, 9-10, 13, 15.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (TMM; Mexico; bones; 357-358.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (Trichechus; Brazil; hide, oil; for rheumatism; 120.)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (DD; Sri Lanka; fat; 99.)
x 1901 Anon. (DD; Torres Strait; fat; m21239.)
x 1909 Anon. (DD; Australia; meat; 93.)
x 1912 Harris, W.K. (DD; Australia; oil, lard; 227-228.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (Trichechus; oil; 345.)
x 1922 Dandouau, A. (?DD; Madagascar; fat; 119.)
x 1923 Jackson, E.S. (DD; Australia; oil; m282.)
x * 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Comoro Islands; bone, tusks, fat; 83.)
1925 Cardim, F.
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; fat, oil, bones; 87.)
x 1931 Meek, C.K. (TS; Nigeria; virility charm; 304.)
x 1935 Allen, G.M. (DD; China; tympanic bones; 81.)
x 1935 Sowerby, A. de C. (DD; China; tympanic bones; 81.)
1937 Petit, G.
x 1938 Wood, T. (DD; oil; for baldness; m53.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; fat; for baldness & for "strangles" in horses; 189.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L.
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; meat, for intestinal disorders & for causing abortion, 80; oil, for dysentery, intestinal ulcers, & piles; 81.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; meat; m218.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Queensland; oil; 1: 102-103, 2: 249-250.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; oil; 386, 388.)
x 1971 Almeida, A. de (DD; use by Australians [in Timor?]; oil; 212.)
x 1971 Bertram & Bertram (DD; Australia; oil; 146-147.)
x 1972 Stoddart, D.R. (DD; European use of dugong "stone"; 208-209, 214.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sabah, powdered teeth, m308; Queensland, oil, 322.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; bones; for asthma; 13.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Trichechus; Brazil; hide, fat, bone; meat considered "unhealthy"; 94.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Australia; oil; 260.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; bones; 1011.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; meat, oil, skin, bones; 293-294.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Nigeria; skin; m80.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; oil, bones, meat, blood; 97-98, 114-115.)
1992 Correa-Viana & O'Shea (TMM; Venezuela)
Mediterranean Sea ( 13 )
(SEE ALSO: Africa; Malta; other countries bordering the Mediterranean)
x 1930 Aharoni, J. (DD; Palestine; dispersal via Suez Canal; 330.)
1945 Anon. (DD; Palestine)
1973 Symeonidis & Schultz (Mioc., Crete)
x 1981d Domning, D.P. (sirs. & marine plants; paleoecology; 419.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (Messinian [Late Mioc.] salinity crisis & sir. paleoecology; 229-230.)
2004 Marcopoulou-Diacantoni & Logos (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Crete; Late Miocene)
x 2004 Athanassiou, A. (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Mioc., Crete; 2.)
2008 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium spp.; Mioc.-Plioc.; peri-Messinian dwarfing)
2009 Clementz et al. (Tethys-Mediterranean sirs.; Eoc.-Plioc.; diets, salinity; stable isotopes)
2010 Svana et al. (Crete)
* 2012 Sorbi et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Plioc., Italy & Spain)
2013 Prista et al. (Euro-North African sirs.; extinction)
* 2014 Prista et al. (Euro-North African Sirenia biodiversity & climate)
Mermaid Legend ( 49 )
(SEE ALSO: Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance; Ri)
1750 Rumph, G.E. (legends based on dugongs)
x 1796 Stedman, J.G. (Suriname; mermaids & "Watra Mama"; 177-178.)
1802 Tilesius, W.G.
x 1809a Cuvier, G. (sir. origin of legend; 280-281.)
x 1828 Fleming, J. (Britain; sirs. & mermaids; 30.)
x 1829 Anon. (Shetland Islands; manatee-like animal caught; 57-60.)
1869 Timbs, J. ("mermaids", incl. sirs., 33-48.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. ("mermaid" [probably a seal] identified as a sir.; 291.)
x 1893 Anon. (pop. acc.; 800.)
1916 Lucas, F.A. (pop. acc.; 315.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (misc. accounts; 340-341.)
x 1917 Rodway, J. (Guyana; "water mamma"; 491, 499.)
x * 1923a Petit, G. (Madagascar; myth; 78-82.)
x 1924e Petit, G. (sir. origin of legend considered probable; 294-295.)
x 1926 Cheesman, R.E. (DD; Red Sea; m348.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (pop. acc.; 17-18.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; Indian Ocean; legends; 96-97.)
x 1930 Anon. (pop. acc.; 37-38.)
x 1930a Simpson, G.G. (pop. acc.; 41-42.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (Africa; frozen dugong carcass exhibited as mermaid; 219.)
1945 Lewis, C.
x * 1951b Burton, M. (sir. origin of legend challenged; 588.)
1952 Pires de Lima, F. de C.
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (Florida; pop. acc.; 401.)
x 1956 Loftin, H. (pop. acc.; 350.)
x 1957 Burton, M. (sir. origin of legend discounted, in light of manatee behavior; 272.)
x 1957b Carrington, R. (history of legend, 33-39; sirs., 38-39.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (connection with dugongs considered probable; 46-47.)
x 1958 Loftin, H. (pop. acc.; 256.)
x 1958 Savory, B. (Aden; stuffed "mermaids"; 255.)
x 1959 Smith, F.G.W. (connections with sirs.; pop. acc.; 74-82.)
1960 Almeida, A. de
x 1960 Crusz, H. (Sri Lanka; pop. acc.; 300-301.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (India; reaction of populace to legend; 215.)
x 1979 Zhang, Z.-m. (China; capture of supposed mermaids [dugongs]; 33-36.)
x 1985 Greenwell, J.R. ("ri" & possible sir. or cetacean origins of legend; 152-153.)
1989a Kamiya, T.
x * 1991 Pietsch, T.W. (S. Fallours' painting of a mermaid probably based on a dugong; 1-25.)
x 1994 Dennis, J. (pop. acc.; 70-72.)
1994 Kataoka, T.
x 1995 Knappert, J. (Malaysia, Indonesia, Manus Islands; legends of origin of dugong; 68.)
2009 Thomas, L.
2010 Hysing-Dahl, C.
2012 Muir & Kiszka (DD; East Africa)
x 2013 Senter & Snow (forelimb skeleton of Bartholin's (1654) "merman" identified as Trichechus sp.; Brazil; 257-262.)
2015 Nontji, A. (DD; Indonesia; "dugong princess" legends)
* 2017 Moore et al. (DD; Indonesia; "lost princess" legends)
* 2018 Brito, C. (history of the manatee-mermaid connection in European natural history)
2020 Scribner, V. (Mermaid lore, including sirs.)
Mesosiren Abel, 1906 ( 7 )
(= Prototherium)
x * 1906 Abel, O. (n.gen., Late Eoc., Italy, 52-59; comp. w/ Paraliosiren, 59.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 471, 473, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 6, 9.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Prototherium; m135.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Prototherium; m575.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Prototherium; 378-379.)
Mesosiren dolloi Abel, 1906 ( 3 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
x * 1906 Abel, O. (n.gen.n.sp.; Late Eoc., Italy; 52-59.)
x 1942 Heuvelmans, B. (comp. w/ Prorastoma veronense; 1, 4.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (nature of type material; 387.)
Metabolism: SEE Respiration and Diving ( 0 )
Metaxytheriinae Kretzoi, 1941 ( 1 )
(subfamily; = Halitheriinae)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (new subfamily; 155.)
Metaxytherium albifontanum Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2014 ( 1 )
* 2014a Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (n.sp.; Late Olig., Florida, South Carolina)
Metaxytherium alleni (Simpson, 1932) Fondi and Pacini, 1974 ( 1 )
(= Halitherium alleni)
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (n.comb.; comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-46.)
Metaxytherium allisoni (Kilmer, 1965) Domning, 1971 ( 4 )
(= Dioplotherium allisoni)
x * 1971a Domning, D.P. (n.comb.; 110.)
x 1972a Domning, D.P. (distr.; 147, 149.)
x 1975 Domning, D.P. (feeding ecology; 824.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (referred to Dioplotherium; 5.)
Metaxytherium aquitaniae Pilleri, 1987 ( 1 )
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (n.sp.)
Metaxytherium arctodites Aranda-Manteca, Domning, and Barnes, 1994 ( 1 )
* 1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (n.sp.; Middle Mioc., Baja California & California)
Metaxytherium argoviense Pilleri, 1987 ( 1 )
(unavailable name, proposed conditionally; = Metaxytherium krahuletzi)
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (n.sp., proposed conditionally)
Metaxytherium beaumonti de Christol in de Blainville, 1844 ( 10 )
(nomen dubium)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.sp.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m209-210.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m409.)
1920 Depéret & Roman
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m475.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (m69.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m69-70.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (considered nomen dubium; 206, 208.)
Metaxytherium bellunense (de Zigno, 1875) Lepsius, 1882 ( 2 )
(= Halitherium bellunense)
* 1882 Lepsius, G.R. (n.comb.; 180.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (m112.)
Metaxytherium brocchii (de Blainville, 1844) Laurillard, 1846 ( 1 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
* 1846 Laurillard, C.L. (n.comb.)
Metaxytherium calvertense Kellogg, 1966 ( 28 )
(= Metaxytherium crataegense)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (n.sp.; Middle Mioc., Maryland; 71-90, pls. 33-43.)
x 1971 Reinhart, R.H. (m8.)
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (comp. w/ M. riveroi; 10, 14.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (m8.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-46.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (Florida)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (comp. w/ M. cf. medium; 2, 7-9, 11.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 7, 12, 14, 74.)
x 1984b Domning, D.P. (pop. acc.; 5.)
x 1984c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ sir. from Pamunkey R., Virginia; 224.)
x 1984 Muizon, C. de (Peru; m171.)
x 1985 Muizon & De Vries (Peru; m560.)
x * 1985 Muizon & Domning (Mioc., Peru; 189-206, 209-213.)
1986b Anon.
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 273.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ M. kachchhense; 22-23.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ M. floridanum; Florida records erroneous; 397, 400-401, 416-418.)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (m56, 59.)
x 1990 Aranda-Manteca, F.J. ("Metaxytherium cf. M. calvertense"; Mioc., Baja California; 100, 103-104, 108, 111, pl. 3.)
x * 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (M. cf. calvertense; Mioc., Puerto Rico; 21-26, 37-38.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Florida; in checklist; 29.)
* 1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (synonymized w/ M. crataegense)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (South America; review; 326.)
x 1997b Carone, G. (comp. w/ M. medium; 94, 98.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren magdalenensis; m388.)
x 1999 Fierstine, H.L. (syn. of M. crataegense; m435.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 301-302.)
x 2015 Amson et al. (syn. of M. crataegense; m2.)
Metaxytherium catalaunicum Pilleri in Pilleri, Biosca, & Via, 1989 ( 3 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1989 Pilleri et al. (n.sp.; Mioc., Spain)
1994 Aragonés i Valls, E.
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (syn. of M. medium; 387.)
Metaxytherium christoli (Fitzinger, 1842) Laurillard, 1846 ( 4 )
(= Halitherium christolii)
* 1846 Laurillard, C.L. (n.comb.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m409; comp. w/ M. krahuletzi, 411.)
1902 Schlosser, M.
x 1914 Depéret, C. (phyletic position; 1861.)
Metaxytherium cordieri de Christol in de Blainville, 1844 ( 5 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.sp.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m208, 210.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103, m113.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m70.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of M. medium; 206.)
Metaxytherium crataegense (Simpson, 1932) Aranda-Manteca, Domning, and Barnes, 1994 ( 6 )
* 1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (n.comb.)
x 1998 Bohaska, D.J. (m183, m185.)
x 1999 Fierstine, H.L. (distr. via Central American Seaway; 435.)
2011 Álvarez A., A. (Cuba)
x 2015 Amson et al. (comp. w/ supposed sir. rib reidentified as sloth; 2.)
* 2018 Domning, D.P. (Mioc. Chesapeake Group; U.S. East Coast; 241-262.)
Metaxytherium cuvierii (de Christol, 1832) de Christol in de Blainville, 1844 ( 38 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1844 Blainville, H.M.D. de (n.sp.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (m206, 209-210, 221.)
1852 Christol, J. de
x 1919 Gómez Llueca, F. (Mallorca; teeth, vertebra; 54-59, 61, 64, pls. 16-17.)
1920 Depéret & Roman
x 1922 Roman, F. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium from Early Mioc. of France; 232.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (humerus, comp. w/ M. floridanum; 233-235.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ M. jordani; 58, 63, 67.)
1926 Cottreau, J.
1928 Cottreau, J.
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 414.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 427, 431-432, 435, 440, 442, 451, 453-454, 456, 468, 475-476, 478-480.)
x 1941 Gregory, J.T. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium ossivallense; 37, 39-40.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Masrisiren; m152.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (m1985.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103, m106; comp. w/ "Metaxytherium n. sp.", 108-110; 113.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 15-17, 19-21, 23-24.)
x 1946 Bauzá, J. (Mallorca; tooth; 376, pl. 18.)
1947 Lecointre, G.
x 1949 Colom & Bauzá (Mallorca; teeth; 91-92, pl. 7.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 439, 441.)
x 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (syn. of M. medium; 113-114.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (comp. w/ Thalattosiren; m111, m113.)
x 1956 Bataller, J.R. ("Metaxitherium cuvieri"; Mioc., Spain; skull; 24-25, pls. 6-8.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 67, 69, 72.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium spp., 68; history of name, 70; comp. w/ M. calvertense, 73-74, 78-80, 83-86.)
1970 Ginsburg & Janvier (France)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (syn. of M. medium; 182-183.)
1974 Albetrecht, R. (skeleton displayed, Angers)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ M. forestii; 44-45.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (syn. of M. medium; 3.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of M. medium; m12, 14.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (syn. of M. medium; m29.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ M. kachchhense; 22-23.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of M. medium; 206-208, 210, 230.)
x 1997a Carone, G. (Italy; m4.)
2004 Marcopoulou-Diacantoni & Logos ("M. cuvieri"; Crete; Late Miocene)
x 2004 Athanassiou, A. (Mioc., Crete; 2.)
Metaxytherium de Christol, 1840 ( 85 )
* 1840 Christol, J. de (n.gen.)
1840 Serres, M. de
1841a Christol, J. de
1841b Christol, J. de
x 1846 Gervais, F.L.P. (France; m264.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (syn. of Halitherium; 206-211, 220-221.)
x 1847 Meyer, H.v. (Otmarsingen, Switzerland; humerus; 189.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1875a Owen, R. ("Metaxitherium"; m102, m104.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. ("Metaxitherium"; m376.)
x D 1888 Marsh, O.C. ("Metataxytherium"; thought related to Desmostylus; m96.)
x 1888 Neviani, A. (Mioc., Italy; 68-69.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 416, 418-419, 421.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (syn. of Halitherium; 78.)
x 1893 Howes & Harrison (vertebral epiphyses; m790.)
x 1902c Abel, O. (Mioc.; Vienna Basin, Austria; m1176.)
x 1902a Osborn, H.F. (m714.)
* 1904a Abel, O.
x 1904 Freund, L. (carpus, comp. w/ DD, etc.; m394.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; m3, m6-8.)
1905a Abel, O.
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 51-52.)
x 1906 True, F.W. (?Metaxytherium; Maryland; 835.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium serresi; 1858-1859.)
x 1922 Roman, F. (Early Mioc., France; 231-232.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (Sicily; skeleton in British Museum; 18-19.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (m98.)
x 1929 Birulia, A.A. ("Metaxitherium"; pelvis, comp. w/ HG; m88-89.)
1931 Glaessner, M.F.
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (review; 421-469-474-488, 495-499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 152, 154-155, pl. 6.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (history of name, 102-105; "new species" described but not named, 106-113.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. ("Metaxytherium nov. spec."; 15-16, 22-24.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Halianassa; 135.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 438-441.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m209-210.)
x 1952 Cañigueral, J. (Mioc., Mallorca; 387-390.)
x 1952a Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (comp. w/ Indosiren; 611.)
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (Maryland; paleoecology; 1022.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium, 68; comp. w/ Halianassa, 69; review, 70-71.)
1969 Calzada, S. (Mioc., Spain)
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (name preferred over Halianassa; 395.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (priority of name; 183-184.)
x 1972 Barnes, L.G. (Mioc., California; 142.)
x 1973 Tekkaya, I. ("Halitherium (Metaxytherium) sp."; Upper Mioc. or Lower Plioc., Turkey; m118.)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (Mioc., India; 216-218.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. ("M. sp."; Late Olig., India; 46A-49A, pl. 1.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (comp. w/ HG; 9, 11-12, 16-17.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & occurrence in Africa; 576-579.)
x 1979 Boaz et al. (Plioc., Libya; 137-139.)
x 1980 Sanders, A.E. (Olig., South Carolina; tooth; 612.)
x 1981 Webb et al. (Late Mioc., Love Bone Bed, Florida; 517, 521, 535.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ Eoc. sirs.; 18, 30, 39.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (distr., 378-380; pelvis, 392.)
x 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Mioc., Florida; 4, 16-25.)
1984 Dophin, Y.
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (senior syn. of Felsinotherium, 207; descent from Halitherium, 207-208, 223-227.)
x 1987a Domning, D.P. (in ancestry of HG; pop. acc.; 64, 66, 68.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (priority over Halianassa; 123.)
1988b Pilleri, G. (Mioc., Spain; pathology)
x 1988 Roetzel, R. (Early Mioc., Austria; 402.)
1988? Ober & Hudson (DD; Torres Strait; teaching kit)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (Mioc., Suwannee R., Florida & Georgia; 56-59.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Xenosiren yucateca; 432, 435-436.)
x 1989 Geraads, D. (Late Mioc., Tunisia; 781, pl. 2.)
x 1989 Morgan, G.S. (Mioc., Suwannee R., Florida & Georgia; 29, 32-33, 37-39, 43, 46, 50.)
x 1990a Domning, D.P. (rhizivory experiments with model tusks; 35-36.)
x 1990b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Corystosiren varguezi; 363.)
x 1991 Czyzewska & Radwanski ("Thalattosiren (= Metaxytherium)"; Middle Mioc., Poland; 184-185, 188.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (cf. Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., Brazil; 120-121, 133-134, 137, 142.)
x 1994a Domning, D.P. (Caribbean; pop. acc.; 72-73.)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (South America; review; 326-327.)
x 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure; 354.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Crenatosiren olseni; 397, 409.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Mioc., Spain; 23, 57, 61, 171, 175, 227.)
x 1998 Hulbert & Pratt (Chatham Co., Georgia; m415.)
x 2001 Bernal, F. (Upper Mioc., Murcia, Spain; pop. acc.; 3.)
x 2001 Iturralde-V., M.A. ("Methaxytherium? sp."; Mioc.; Dominican Republic; m8.)
2004 Linares, O.J. (?Metaxytherium; Late Mioc.; Urumaco, Venezuela)
2006 Gatt, M. (Malta)
2011 Cione et al. (South America, Mioc.)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al.
2012 Veléz-J. et al. (Metaxytherium sp.; Late Mioc., Argentina)
2013 Benoit et al. (endocranial morphology)
x 2020 Goes, P. (TS; m60.)
Metaxytherium floridanum Hay, 1922 ( 29 )
x v * 1915 Matson, G.C. ("manatee"; Bone Valley, Florida; first illustration of holotype; pl. 12.)
x * 1922a Hay, O.P. (n.sp.; "Olig." [actually Mioc.], Bone Valley, Florida; 1-4, pl. 1.)
x * 1923a Allen, G.M. (Bone Valley, Florida; additional material; 232-239, pl. 26.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (m59; comp. w/ M. jordani, 67-68.)
x 1926 Allen, G.M. (comp. w/ M. manigaulti; 459.)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs., 421, 467; referred to Felsinotherium, 446-447, 496.)
x v 1959 Kellogg, R. ("manatee"; Bone Valley, Florida; m6.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 66.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ M. calvertense; 79.)
x 1971 Reinhart, R.H. (m8.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45-46.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H.
x v 1982b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren, 602; tooth wear, 614.)
x 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Bone Valley, Florida; 19, 24-25.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (comp. w/ M. calvertense; 192, 205-206.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ M. kachchhense; 22-23.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (comp. w/ M. serresii; 213.)
x * 1988 Domning, D.P. (revision; 395-426.)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (m56.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium manigaulti; 420.)
x 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (comp. w/ M. cf. calvertense; 25.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Florida; in checklist; 29.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren magdalenensis; 388-390.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Crenatosiren olseni; 401.)
x 1999 Renz, M. (Polk County, Florida; Middle Mioc.; 57-66.)
x 2003 Bianucci & Landini (comp. w/M. medium; 568.)
x 2005 Reed et al. (dugongid bones (M. floridanum?) on submerged terrace in Straits of Florida; 275, 281, 287.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 298-299, 301.)
* 2018 Domning, D.P. (M. cf. floridanum; Mioc.; Maryland, Virginia; 250-254, 258-259.)
Metaxytherium forestii (Capellini, 1872) Fondi and Pacini, 1974 ( 8 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (n.comb.; Plioc., Italy; 37-53, pls. 43-46.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ M. serresii; 29-31.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1987 Canocchi, D. (comp. w/ M. gervaisi & M. serresii; 499-508.)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (phylogeny; comp. w/ M. serresii; 208-209, 211-217, 220-230.)
* 1988a Pilleri, G. (synonymized with M. subapenninum)
x 1997b Carone, G. (comp. w/ M. medium; 98.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 296-299, 301.)
Metaxytherium fossile (Holl, 1829) Depéret, 1895 ( 6 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
x * 1895 Depéret, C. (n.comb., 409; comp. w/ M. krahuletzi, 411-412.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium serresi; 1858-1859, 1861.)
x 1919 Gómez Llueca, F. (syn. of M. Cuvieri; 54.)
x 1922 Roman, F. (syn. of M. cuvieri; m232.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 439, 441.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Mioc., Spain; m171.)
Metaxytherium gastaldi (de Zigno, 1878) Fondi and Pacini, 1974 ( 2 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (n.comb.; comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-47.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of M. forestii; 208, 223.)
Metaxytherium gervaisi (Capellini, 1872) Fondi and Pacini, 1974 ( 3 )
(= Metaxytherium subapenninum)
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (n.comb.; comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-46.)
x * 1987 Canocchi, D. (Early Plioc., Italy; 497-513.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of M. forestii; 208.)
Metaxytherium guettardi (de Blainville, 1844) Laurillard, 1846 ( 4 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1846 Laurillard, C.L. (n.comb.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (Olig., Belgium; 199.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (supposedly "new" combination; 113.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 22-23.)
Metaxytherium jordani Kellogg, 1925 ( 17 )
(= Dusisiren jordani)
x * 1925 Kellogg, R. (n.sp.; Late Mioc., California; 59-70, pls. 9-11.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m422, 454, 488, 496.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (?syn. of M. petersi; m1985.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ M. calvertense, 84; comp. w/ Rytiodus, 92.)
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (comp. w/ Japanese Plioc. Hydrodamalis sp.; 390, 393, 395.)
x 1971a Domning, D.P. (m110.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (evolution; 217-220.)
x 1972a Domning, D.P. (evolution & distr.; 147-149.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45.)
x 1975 Domning & Frye (pathology; 1-3, pl. 1.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & role in North Pacific paleoecology; 354, 356-358, 360.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (m3.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (referred to Dusisiren; 2, 21.)
x 1980 Kurtén & Anderson (m341.)
x 1981 Clark, J.C. (Late Mioc., Santa Cruz, Calif.; 34.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-379.)
x 1987a Domning, D.P. (m66.)
Metaxytherium kachchhense Bajpai, Singh, and Singh, 1987 ( 3 )
(= Bharatisiren kachchhensis)
x * 1987 Bajpai et al. ("M. kachchhensis"; n.sp.; Early Mioc., India; 20-25.)
x 1996a Domning, D.P. (spelling emended to M. kachchhense; 386.)
x * 1997 Bajpai & Domning (made the basis of Bharatisiren, n.gen.; 219.)
Metaxytherium krahuletzi Depéret, 1895 ( 45 )
x v 1868 Fuchs, T. ("Halitherium"; Early Mioc., Austria; 591.)
x * 1895 Depéret, C. (n.sp.; Early Mioc., Austria; 408-412, 415, pl. 2.)
* 1904a Abel, O.
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; m1.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (phyletic position; m1861.)
x 1922a Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ M. floridanum; 3.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (humerus, comp. w/ M. floridanum; 233, 235.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ M. jordani; 67-68.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis, 409, 414; not a syn. of M. studeri, 428.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 451, 453, 458, 468, 475, 478.)
x v 1936 Resch, R. ("Seekuh"; Early Mioc., Austria; m26, m28.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 20-21.)
x 1944 Zbyszewski, G. (humerus, comp. w/ M. petersi; m72.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 439, 441.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (comp. w/ Thalattosiren; m111-113.)
x 1953 Zapfe, H. (Early Mioc., Austria; 14.)
x 1955 Bernhauser, A. (Early Mioc., Austria; bone histology; 168-169, 172, 185.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 68-69.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m69; comp. w/ M. calvertense, 83.)
x * 1971 Daxner-Höck, G. (Early Mioc., Eggenburg region, Austria; 764-765, pls. 3-4.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ M. cuvieri; 45.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 12, 14, 29, 73-74.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (comp. w/ M. calvertense; 205-206, 210-211.)
1986 Pervesler & Steininger
x 1986 Rothausen, K. (comp. w/ ?Halitherium; 529.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ M. kachchhense; 22-23.)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (phylogeny; comp. w/ M. serresii; 207-208, 220-227, 229.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (?syn. of Halianassa studeri of Studer; 123.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ M. floridanum; 400, 415, 417.)
1990 Stojaspal, F. (Early Mioc., Austria)
x 1991a Pervesler & Roetzel (Mioc., Eggenburg region, Austria; pop. acc.; 97-101.)
x 1991b Pervesler & Roetzel (Early Mioc., Austria; paleoecology & taphonomy; 156-157.)
1995 Pervesler et al. (taphonomy)
1996 Pervesler et al. (taphonomy)
x 1996 Pervesler, P. (construction of museum display; 75-80.)
x 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; 178-179.)
x 1998 Pervesler et al. (Early Mioc., Austria; paleoecology & taphonomy; 87-103.)
x 2000 Pervesler et al. (Early Mioc., Austria; paleoecology & taphonomy; 213-215.)
* 2001 Domning & Pervesler (osteology, distr., relationships; 1-89.)
2005 Herkner, B. (display of skeleton, Frankfurt)
x 2006? Kriznar, Matija (M. ?krahuletzi; Slovenia; 26.)
2008 Sorbi, S. (M. cf. krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; France)
* 2019 Samonds et al. (M. cf. krahuletzi; Mioc., Madagascar)
2020 Carone & Rizzo (M. cf. krahuletzi; Sardinia; early Mioc.)
Metaxytherium krahuletzi excelsum Pilleri, 1987 ( 2 )
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (new subspecies; 16.)
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (syn. of M. krahuletzi; 386.)
Metaxytherium lovisati Capellini, 1886 ( 9 )
(nomen dubium)
* 1886a Capellini, G. (n.sp.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (syn. of Halitherium fossile; 137.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (m409.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (vertebrae, comp. w/ M. floridanum; 235-236.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 464.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (?syn. of M. medium; 208.)
x 1997a Carone, G. (Italy; m4.)
2020 Carone & Rizzo (Sardinia; early Mioc.; nomen dubium)
Metaxytherium manigaulti (Cope, 1883) Allen, 1926 ( 7 )
(= Dioplotherium manigaulti)
x v * 1925 Kellogg, R. (referral to Metaxytherium proposed but new combination not used; 59.)
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (n.comb.; review; 458-459, pls. 2-3.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (history of study; 421, 445.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review; 92.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-46.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Dioplotherium manigaulti; m11.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Dioplotherium manigaulti; 415-417.)
Metaxytherium medium (Desmarest, 1822) Hooijer, 1952 ( 34 )
x 1886 Hauer, F.v. ("Halitherium" [=Metaxytherium medium]; Middle Mioc., Ottakring, Austria; 27-28.)
x * 1952 Hooijer, D.A. ("M. medius", n.comb.; 114.)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (review, 70; comp. w/ M. calvertense, 78-80, 84-86.)
x * 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (Middle Mioc., France; 161, 182-191.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45.)
1975 Ginsburg & Janvier (Mioc., Touraine & Anjou, France)
x * 1977 Hooijer, D.A. ("M. cf. medium"; Mioc., Netherlands; 1-25.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 7, 12-14.)
x 1979 Ginsburg et al. (Middle Mioc., Doué, France; 224, 226.)
1979 Telles-Antunes, M. (Portugal)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ M. serresii; 29-31.)
x 1982 Hooijer, D.A. (comp. w/ rib from Netherlands; 261.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (phyletic position; 211.)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (phylogeny; comp. w/ M. serresii; 206-209, 212-218, 220-230.)
1987 Moncharmont Zei & Moncharmont (Italy)
1988 Vazzana, A. (Calabria, Italy; Mioc.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ M. floridanum; 400, 403, 411, 413-415, 417-418.)
x 1989 Geraads, D. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp. from Tunisia; 781, 791.)
x 1997a Carone, G. (Late Mioc., Italy; 2-10.)
x 1997b Carone, G. (Late Mioc., Italy; 91-100.)
x 2000 Bagnato et al. (Late Mioc., Italy; 4-10.)
x 2000 Lardeux, H. ("Metaxytherium"; Middle Mioc., France; skeleton at Angers; 78-79.)
x 2000 Plusquellec & Racheboeuf (Middle Mioc., France; 32-36.)
x 2001 Sach & Heizmann (Metaxytherium cf. medium; Early Mioc., Germany; 11, 15, 23, 42-43, 52, 72, pl. 7.)
x 2001 Carone, G. (Late Mioc., Italy; 34, 36.)
x 2003 Bianucci & Landini (Late Mioc., Italy; 567-573.)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 296, 298-299, 301.)
2006 Estevens, M. (Mioc., Portugal)
x 2008 Inan et al. (Middle Mioc., Turkey; 1-7.)
2009 Rateau et al. (Mioc., Channay-sur-Lathan, France.)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
x 2017 Marra et al. (Upper Mioc., Calabria, Italy; 387, 390.)
2021 Feichtinger et al. (M. cf. medium; middle Mioc., Styria, Austria; predation by tiger shark (Galeocerdo))
Metaxytherium meyeri Abel, 1904 ( 5 )
(nomen dubium)
* 1904a Abel, O.
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m475.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (m113.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (considered nomen dubium; 207-208.)
Metaxytherium ortegense Kellogg, 1966 ( 7 )
(= Potamosiren magdalenensis)
x * 1966 Kellogg, R. (n.sp.; Mioc., Colombia; 92-94, pl. 36.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45-46.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dusisiren; 43, 74.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren; 602, 612.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (comp. w/ M. calvertense; 205.)
x 1990b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Corystosiren varguezi; 370.)
x * 1997a Domning, D.P. (synonymized w/ Potamosiren magdalenensis; 383, 385-386, 388-391.)
Metaxytherium ossivallense (Simpson, 1932) Reinhart, 1971 ( 6 )
(= Metaxytherium floridanum)
x * 1971 Reinhart, R.H. ("M. ossivalense"; n.comb.; m8.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m45-46.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H.
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (syn. of M. floridanum; m205.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (comp. w/ M. kachchhense; 22-23.)
x * 1988 Domning, D.P. (synonymized with M. floridanum; 399-401, 416, 421.)
Metaxytherium pergense Toula, 1899 ( 2 )
(= Halitherium christolii)
* 1899 Toula, F. (n.sp.)
x 1973 Spillmann, F. (syn. of Halitherium pergense; 197-200.)
Metaxytherium petersi Abel, 1904 ( 19 )
(= Thalattosiren petersi)
* 1904a Abel, O. (n.sp.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (pelvis; m1.)
x 1917 Schréter, Z. (Mioc., Hungary; 176-177.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m233.)
x 1926 Allen, G.M. (comp. w/ M. manigaulti; m459.)
* 1928 Sickenberg, O. (referred to Thalattosiren)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 414.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m443.)
1934 Pia & Sickenberg
1938 Suklje, F.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (Hungary; m146.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (Late Mioc., Santa Cruz, California [erroneous record]; 1984-1985.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (m23.)
x 1944 Zbyszewski, G. ("Metaxitherium Petersi"; Mioc., Portugal; 69-72.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 439, 441.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (syn. of Thalattosiren petersi; 32, 109.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (comp. w/ M. cf. medium; 2, 4, 12.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (supposed California specimen referred to Dusisiren jordani; 21.)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (syn. of M. medium; Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
Metaxytherium riveroi Varona, 1972 ( 7 )
(= Metaxytherium crataegense?)
x * 1972 Varona, L.S. (n.sp.; Middle Mioc., Cuba; 6-19.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (m8.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 14, 74.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (comp. w/ M. calvertense; 205.)
x 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (syn. of M. calvertense; 24-25.)
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (syn. of M. crataegense; 386.)
2011 Álvarez A., A. (Cuba; syn. of M. crataegense)
Metaxytherium serresii (Gervais, 1849) Depéret, 1895 ( 22 )
x * 1895 Depéret, C. (n.comb., 409; comp. w/ M. krahuletzi, 411-412.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-47.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (occurrence in Africa; 577.)
x v 1982 Boaz & Cramer (Plioc., Libya; pop. acc.; 37, 40-41.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (Plioc., Libya; 29-32.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1987 Canocchi, D. (comp. w/ M. gervaisi & M. forestii; 499, 505-508.)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (Plioc., Libya & France; morphology, systematics, phylogeny, & paleoecology; 205-232.)
1987 Pilleri, G.
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ M. floridanum; m411.)
1988c Pilleri, G.
x 1989 Geraads, D. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp. from Tunisia; 781, 791.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren magdalenensis; m389.)
1999 Sendra et al. (Plioc.; Spain)
x 2006 Pledge, N.S. (comp. w/ "Dugonginae incertae sedis", Early Plioc., South Australia; 297-299, 301.)
* 2007 Carone & Domning (Late Mioc., Calabria, Italy; paleoecology)
2008 Gramigna et al. (Cessaniti, Calabria, Italy)
2011 Guido et al. (Late Mioc., Cessaniti, Italy; micromorphology, geochemistry, & diagenesis of ribs)
2013 Carone & Marra (Mioc., Italy)
* 2013 Carone et al. (Late Mioc., Calabria, Italy)
x 2017 Marra et al. (Upper Mioc.; Calabria, Italy; 381, 387-388, 390.)
Metaxytherium studeri (von Meyer, 1838) Depéret, 1895 ( 4 )
(= Metaxytherium krahuletzi)
x * 1895 Depéret, C. (n.comb.; 409.)
1904a Abel, O.
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (suppression of replacement premolars; distinctness from M. krahuletzi; 428.)
1987 Pilleri, G.
Metaxytherium subapenninum (Bruno, 1839) Fondi and Pacini, 1974 ( 9 )
x * 1974 Fondi & Pacini (n.comb.; m44-46.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (considered nomen dubium; 208-209.)
* 1988a Pilleri, G.
2007 Sorbi & Vaiani (Metaxytherium cf. subapenninum; Early Plioc.; Italy)
* 2012 Sorbi et al. (Plioc., Italy & Spain)
2012 Tinelli et al. (Plioc., Italy; ground-penetrating radar)
x 2018 Dominici et al. (Plioc., Italy, taphonomy, 7-8, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24.)
x 2019 Bianucci et al. (lower Pliocene, Italy; 2, 6-8.)
* 2022 Pandolfi et al. (M. cf. subapenninum; tusk; Late Mioc.; Montebamboli, Italy)
Metaxytherium vanderhoofi (Reinhart, 1959) Shikama and Domning, 1970 ( 4 )
(= Dusisiren jordani)
x * 1970 Shikama & Domning (n.comb.; 395.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (comp. w/ M. forestii; 45-46.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (synonymized with Dusisiren jordani; 21.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-379.)
Mexico ( 96 )
(SEE ALSO: Baja California; Central America)
1566 SEE Landa, D. de, 1941.
1588 SEE Noyes, E., 1932.
1859 Beltran, P. (TMM; Yucatan; hunting)
x 1882 Sumichrast, F. (TMM; 213.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (TMM; Tabasco; 356-358.)
1887 Shufeldt, R.W. (TMM; Coatzacoalcos R.)
1903 Benavente, T. de (TMM; Veracruz, 16th century)
1917 Gaumer, G.F. (TMM; Yucatan; in caves)
x 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TMM; Bay of Campeche; 69.)
x 1932 Müllerried, F.K.G. (indeterminate sir.; Olig., Chiapas; 71-73.)
1932 Noyes, E. (TMM; Yucatan)
x 1932 Sokoloff & Caballero (TMM; Tampico; trematode Schizamphistoma manati; 163, 167.)
x * 1941a Gunter, G. ("TML"; 61, 64.)
x 1941b Gunter, G. ("TML"; 12-13.)
x * 1941 Landa, D. de (TMM; Yucatan; hunting, 16th century; 190-191.)
1950a Durand, J.
x 1953 Maldonado-Koerdell, M. (indeterminate sir.; Olig., Chiapas; 146-148.)
x 1957 Pollock & Ray (Mayapan; carved manatee rib; 644, 653.)
1958 Ingles, L.G.
1962 Proskouriakoff, T. (TMM; Yucatan)
x 1963 Alvarez, T. ("TML"; "probably extirpated" from Tamaulipas; 465.)
1963 Hall & Dalquest
1964 Wauchope, R. (TMM; Yucatan)
1965 Jones & Lawlor (TMM; Cozumel)
x * 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; natural history; 408-419.)
1970 Philip & Fisher
1971 Lange, F.W.
1975 Genoways & Jones (TMM; Yucatan)
1975 Wing, E.S. (TMM; Quintana Roo)
1977 Wing, E.S. (TMM; Veracruz)
x 1978 Campbell & Gicca (TMM; status & distr.; 257-264.)
x 1981 Villa-R. & Colmenero-R. (TMM; southeastern Mexico; status survey; 703-707.)
x 1982 Wing & Reitz (TMM; Yucatan, Veracruz; at archeological sites; 16, 24.)
1983 Gallo R., J.P. (TMM)
x 1984 Colmenero-R., L.C. (TMM; status & distr.; 243-254.)
x * 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; distr., status, ecology, conservation; 955-1020.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (TMM; Tabasco; diet, seasonal movements, & seasonal breeding; 589-602.)
1989b Colmenero-R., L.C. (TMM; Quintana Roo; 1-24.)
x * 1989d Domning, D.P. (Xenosiren yucateca, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc. or Plioc., Yucatan; 429-430.)
x 1989 Lazcano-B. & Packard (TMM; Tamaulipas; 202-205.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 579-580, 605.)
1990 Colmenero-R. & Zárate (TMM; Quintana Roo)
x * 1990b Domning, D.P. (Corystosiren varguezi, n.gen.n.sp.; Plioc., Yucatan; 361-362.)
1991 Colmenero-R., L.C. (TMM; recovery plan)
1991 Morales & Olivera (TMM; Quintana Roo)
1992 Morales & Olivera (TMM; gen. acc.)
x D 1993 Perrilliat, M. (Xenosiren yucateca & Cornwallius sookensis; in catalog of type specimens; 39-40.)
1993 Zárate B., E. (TMM; Quintana Roo)
1994 Morales-V. & Olivera-G. (TMM; Bahia de Chetumal)
1997 Morales & Olivera (TMM; Quintana Roo)
x 1997 Romeu, E. (TMM; gen. acc.; 2-6.)
D * 1998 Barnes, L.G. (sequence of fossil assemblages)
x 1998 Axis-A. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo; habitat use; 791-803.)
2000 Morales & Olivera (TMM; Chetumal Bay)
2001 Morales-V. & Padilla-S. (TMM; Quintana Roo)
* 2001b Anon. (TMM; conservation)
2002 Olivera-G. & Mellink (TMM; Bahia de Chetumal)
2002 Olivera & Mellink (TMM; Chetumal Bay; 285-293.)
D * 2002 Barnes, L.G. (evolutionary history of marine mammals)
2003 Morales et al. (TM; Yucatan Peninsula; status; 42-49.)
2003 Garcia-Rios & Gold-Bouchot (Bahia de Chetumal; trace metals)
2005 Olivera-G. & Mellink (TMM; Bahia de Chetumal)
2007 Serrano et al. (TM; Veracruz)
2008 Rodas-Trejo et al. (TMM; Chiapas)
2008 Mercadillo-Elguero et al. (TMM; Quintana Roo; in semi-captivity; ethogram, rehabilitation)
2009 Gonzalez-S. et al. (TMM; detection by side-scan sonar)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay; diet)
2010 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt.; activities & social interactions)
x 2010 Suárez-M. et al. (TMM; Quintana Roo; copepod Balaenophilus manatorum; 847-859.)
2011 Ardisson et al. (Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System)
2011 Nourisson et al. (TMM; genetic diversity)
2012 Daniel-Rentería et al. (TMM; Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz)
2012 Alvarado-Esquivel et al. (TMM; in capt.; Toxoplasma gondii)
2012 Morales-Serna et al. (TMM; parasitic copepods)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Padilla-S., et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay; movement patterns, habitat use)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al. (multispecies fossil sir. community)
2012 Moraes-Arraut et al. (Habitat assessment)
2012 Castelblanco-M. et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay; feeding ecology)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Morales-V., & Padilla-S. (TMM; craniometrical predictors of body size)
* 2013 Pozo-Montuy, G. (TM; conservation)
2014 Montserrat Landero et al. (TMM; Bahía de la Ascensión)
2014 Jimenez-D. & Olivera-G. (TMM; Usumacinta River; habitat characteristics)
2015 Niño-Torres et al. (TMM; Mexican Caribbean region)
2016 Romero-Calderon et al. (TMM; metals in bone tissue)
2016 Puc-Carrasco et al. (TMM; Tabasco)
2017 Serrano et al. (TM; Veracruz, Mexico)
2018 Gomez et al. (TMM; genetics)
2019 Gonzalez-Socoloske & Olivera-Gómez (TMM; Tabasco; food choice)
2019 Guevara et al. (TMM)
2019 Guevara Porras et al. (TMM; Campeche; conservation)
2020 Hénaut et al. (TMM; in capt.; feeding behavior; learning capacities & welfare)
2020 Corona-Figueroa et al. (TMM; Hondo River, Belize & Mexico; habitat use)
2020 Robles-Herrejón et al. (TMM; Yucatan Peninsula; management effectiveness)
2020 Ortega-Argueta & Castelblanco-Martínez (TMM; captive breeding & conservation)
* 2021a Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TML; travel to Mexican Caribbean)
???? Contreras Fleury et al. (TM; conservation status)
Migration and Movements ( 134 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Aggregative; Behavior, Shelter-seeking; Locomotion; Temperature, Effects of)
x 1820 Diard & Duvaucel (DD; Singapore; occurrence during northern monsoon; 160.)
x 1857 Shaw, N. (TS; Benué R.; rainy-season occurrence; 99.)
x 1877 De Pourtales, L.F. (?TM; supposed former migrations between Florida & West Indies; 144.)
x 1882 Sumichrast, F. (TMM; Mexico; ascending rivers during flood season; 213.)
x 1883 Moloney, C.A. (TS; Gold Coast; seasonal movements; 28.)
x 1895 Veríssimo, J. (TI; Brazil; seasonal movements into & out of lakes; 35.)
x 1904 Allen, J.A. (TMM; Colombia; entering rivers at high water; 423.)
x 1915 Seale, A. (DD; Philippines; rainy-season occurrence; m215.)
x 1933 Jobim, A. (TI; Brazil; daily movements in & out of lakes; 142-143.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; Puerto Rico & Central America; 216.)
x 1941 Hamilton, W.J., Jr. (TML; Florida; ?seasonal movements; 691.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; entering black waters, 27, 45, 56; in flooded forests in winter, 51; under floating meadows in summer, 56-57.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Senegal; entering lakes in rainy season, ascending rivers in dry season; 188.)
x 1949 Sanderson, I.T. (TMM; Suriname; rainy-season movements; 781.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; seasonal movements; 11-12, 15, 18.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (TML; Miami, Florida; residence; 7-10, 22.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; migration, m117; homing, 119.)
x 1964 Johnson, D.H. (DD; Arnhem Land, Australia; movements with tide; 507.)
x * 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; Florida; seasonal migration; 167-168.)
x * 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; Mexico; entering rivers & lakes in rainy season; 411-414.)
x 1966 Funaioli & Simonetta (DD; Somali Republic; rainy-season occurrence; m317.)
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 84.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; India; hunted, Nov.-Feb.; young not coming as close inshore as adults; movements during monsoon; 80-81.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; population mixing; 216.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Queensland; coastwise movements; 1: 104.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 350, 353.)
x 1970a Bertram & Bertram (DD; Sri Lanka; no evidence concerning movements; m54.)
x 1971 Hughes & Oxley-Oxland (DD; Mozambique; rainy-season abundance; 301.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; seasonal occurrence; 395-397.)
x 1972 Dupuy, A.R. (TS; ascending rivers at flood time; 780.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; Australia; no seasonal patterns, 207; individual movements, 211.)
x * 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; seasonal movements, 8-30, 204-209; movements in search of food, 31-37; in search of fresh water, 37-41; movement patterns described by county, 63-201.)
x 1974 Heinsohn & Spain (DD; Queensland; after cyclone; 151.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; ascending rivers in rainy season; 12, 14-15.)
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (DD; Australia; aerial survey of movements; 17-18.)
x 1976 Ligon, S.H. (DD; Australia; possible movements; 582.)
x 1976 Loveland, F.O. (TMM; Nicaragua; moving between salt & fresh water; 70, 74.)
x 1976 Paz & Ilani (DD; in northern Red Sea only in June & July; 74.)
x 1976 Webb, S.D. (Trichechus; immigration to North America in Plioc.; 221, 223, 226.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; 239-240.)
x 1977 Lovisek, J. (TI; Brazil; entering flooded forest; 64.)
x * 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; movements with tide; 8-9, 19.)
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; 16-20.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; Suriname; possible seasonal movements; 336.)
x * 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TML; Florida; seasonal movements; 615-616.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; travel routes, ?home range, seasonal migrations, open-water travel; 140-141.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; diurnal & seasonal movements, 17-35, 41-43; exploratory activity, 35-36.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TMM; Dominican Republic; 317.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; patterns of habitat use; 640-642.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; local movements; 32-33.)
x 1981 Hendrokusumo et al. (DD; Indonesia; seasonal occurrence; 14, 17.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; Wellesley Islands, Queensland; seasonal movements; 261-264.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (TI; Brazil; radiotracking & habitat use; 82-84.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; movements with tide; 56-60.)
x 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Blue Lagoon, Florida; not affected by tides; 235, 237.)
x 1981 Villa-R. & Colmenero-R. (TMM; Mexico; seasonal occurrence; 703.)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; local movements; 76, 80, 82-83.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; local movements; 92-93, 96.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; movements correlated with tides; 521.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; St. Johns R., Florida; seasonal movements; 4668.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (TML; U.S.A. north of Florida; seasonal movements; 153, 163.)
x 1982 Robineau & Rose (DD; Djibouti; possible daily movements; 236.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; Brazil; moving between lakes & rivers; 63.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (TML; Florida; local & long-distance movements; 6, 9, 13-14.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; northeastern Florida; seasonal movements; 16-17, 32-34, 44, 47-48.)
x 1983 Kochman et al. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; seasonal & diurnal movements; 92, 108, 114-121.)
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (TMM; Honduras; entering rivers in rainy season; 306.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TML; Florida; seasonal movements; pop. acc.; 40-44.)
x 1983b Shane, S.H. (TML; Brevard Co., Florida; seasonal movements; 1-9.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; 3, 6.)
1984b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia)
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; movements with tide; 39-40.)
x 1984 Colmenero-R., L.C. (TMM; Mexico; seasonal movements; 246-249.)
x 1984 Irvine & Scott (TML; Florida; sonic & radio tracking; 19-24.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; responses to tides & weather; 640.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TML; northwestern Florida; seasonal movements; 10-25.)
x 1985 Kochman et al. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; seasonal movements; 921-924.)
x * 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; seasonal movements; 480-489.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; seasonal movements; 977, 1007-1008.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (TMM; Mexico; seasonal movements; 594-595, 597.)
x 1986 Packard & Wetterqvist (TML; northwestern Florida; habitat use; 286-293, 296-299, 302.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; Ecuador; seasonal movements; 151, 155.)
x 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (TMM; abundance in western Cuba not seasonal; 4.)
x 1988a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; radiotracking; 11-14.)
x 1988 McClenaghan & O'Shea (TML; Florida; gene flow; 485-486.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; seasonal movements doubtful; 290-291, 297-298.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; Florida; seasonal movements; 185-188.)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (TML; Banana R., Florida; seasonal movements; 334-335.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; seasonal movements; 78.)
x 1989 Lazcano-B. & Packard (TMM; northern Mexico; ?seasonal north-south movements; m202.)
x 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; seasonal movements; 83.)
x 1989 Reid & O'Shea (TML; Florida & Georgia; satellite tracking; 220-221, 227, 230.)
x * 1990 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; Queensland; radio & satellite tracking; 86-98.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TML; northwestern Florida; seasonal & individual movements; 4-33.)
x 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Sir Edward Pellew Islands, Australia; migratory path; 92-93.)
x * 1991 Reid et al. (TML; Florida; 180-190.)
x 1994 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; seasonal movements; 171-173.)
x 1995b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay; photoidentification & movements; 205-206, 209-210.)
x 1995 De Iongh, Wenno et al. (DD; Lease Islands, Indonesia; satellite tracking; 761.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; Costa Rica; seasonal movements; m194-195.)
x 1996 Reid, J.P. (TML; Florida to Rhode Island; 13.)
x 1997 Reid, J.P. (TMM; Puerto Rico; radiotracking; 22-23.)
x 1998 Deutsch et al. (TM; radio-tracking; 20, 24-26.)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; seasonal movements; 138.)
x 1998 Preen, A.R. (DD; scale of occasional movement on order of 200 km; m176.)
* 2001 Weigle et al. (TML; west coast of Florida, 1991-96; 1-156.)
2003 Deutsch et al. (TML; movements & site fidelity along Atlantic coast of USA)
* 2003 Deutsch et al. (TML; Atlantic coast of USA; migration & site fidelity)
2003 Deutsch et al. (TML; U.S. Atlantic coast)
2004 Marsh et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia)
* 2004 Gales et al. (DD; Western Australia)
2005 Flamm et al. (TML; movement corridors; telemetry)
2006 Sheppard et al. (DD; movement heterogeneity)
2006 Langtimm et al. (TML; Florida; effects of hurricanes)
* 2007 Hobbs et al. (DD; Cocos (Keeling) Islands)
2008 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia)
2010 Calvimontes & Marmontel (TI; Brazil; ethnobiology)
* 2010 Alvarez-A. et al. (TML; Cuba)
* 2010 Arraut et al. (TI; western Amazon, Brazil; seasonal migrations)
2011 Hodgson, A.J. (DD; Arabian Gulf, Aldabra, Seychelles, Comoros; 250-251.)
* 2012 Castelblanco-M., Padilla-S., et al. (TMM; Chetumal Bay, Mexico & Belize; movement patterns, habitat use)
2012 Marmontel, Reid, et al. (tagging techniques & movement of sirs.)
2012 Moraes-Arraut et al. (TI; habitat assessment; seasonal migrations)
2012 Rappucci et al. (TML; Port Everglades, Florida; tidal cycle effects)
x 2013 Friedman-Rudovsky, J. (TM; Cuba & Florida; m447.)
2017 Arraut et al. (TI; Brazil; migration routes & hydroelectric dams)
2017 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; movements & habitat use; satellite telemetry)
* 2018b Alvarez-Alemán et al. (TML; traveling between Florida and Cuba)
2019 Littles et al. (TML; Florida; movements in and out of winter refuge)
* 2019 Crema et al. (TI; Brazil; stable isotopes in bones, teeth, & milk; movements between habitats and water types)
* 2020 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
2021 Cloyed et al. (TM; Gulf of Mexico)
2021 Keith-Diagne et al. (TS; Senegal River; movement patterns; satellite tracking)
* 2021a Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TML; Florida to Mexican Caribbean)
Milk ( 25 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Epimeletic; Behavior, Ingestive)
x 1763 Bellin, S. (TMM; Guianas; milk "extremely thick"; m66.)
x 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; mammary gland; 188-189.)
x 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; mammary gland & milk; 189.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; milk secretion; m240.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; fat of mother whiter during lactation; 60.)
x 1972 Heinsohn, G.E. (DD; milk found in calf's stomach; 210.)
x * 1979 Bachman & Irvine (TML; milk composition; 873-878.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TML; artificial formula; 126-127.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (review of natural milk & artificial formulas; 18, 21.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (TML; artificial formula; 141-146.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; artificial formula; 204.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; artificial formula; 105-106.)
x * 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI; artificial formula; 263-267.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (DD; lactation; 746-747, 764.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; lactation; 773, 776, 783.)
x 1985 Mühling, P. (TMM; artificial formula; 12.)
x * 1986a Pervaiz & Brew (TML; whey proteins; 846-854.)
x * 1986b Pervaiz & Brew (TML; milk composition; 357-360.)
x 1987 Colares et al. (TI; artificial formulas; 40-41.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; artificial formula; 44.)
1990 Spotte, S. (TML; artificial formula)
1999 Rodriguez et al. (TI; artificial milk formula)
2000 Vergara et al. (TMM, Brazil)
* 2019 Crema et al. (TI; Brazil; stable isotopes in bones, teeth, & milk; movements between habitats and water types)
* 2020 Maduro et al. (TI, in capt.; fed with mothers' milk; metabolism)
Miocene ( 300 )
x 1835 Jäger, G.F. (indeterminate sir.; Germany; 3-4, pl. 9.)
x 1837 Meyer, H.v. (Manatus Studeri, nomen nudum; Switzerland; 677.)
1839 Rigg, J. (Java)
x 1856b Leidy, J. (Manatus antiquus, n.sp.; New Jersey, Virginia, South Carolina; 165.)
x 1861 Nordmann, A.v. (Manatus maeoticus; Bessarabia; 581-582, pl. 11.)
x 1866 Adams, A.L. (Halitherium; Malta; 595.)
x 1866 Lartet, E. (Rytiodus, France, 673-674; other sirs. of Garonne Basin, 683-684.)
x 1867 Peters, K.F. (Halitherium Cordieri; Austria; 309-314, pl. 7.)
x 1867 Stache, G. ("Halitherium" or "Halianassa"; Hainburg, Austria; 141-144.)
x 1868 Fuchs, T. ("Halitherium" [= Metaxytherium krahuletzi]; Early Mioc., Austria; 591.)
x 1870 Delfortrie, E. (Halitherium; France; bones scarred by fish teeth; 261.)
x 1871 Farge, E. (Halitherium; Middle Mioc., France; 265-268.)
x 1872 Farge, E. (Halitherium; Middle Mioc., France; 412-416.)
1873 Delfortrie, E. (Rytiodus capgrandi; Early Mioc., France)
x 1873 Leidy, J. (Manatus inornatus, n.sp.; ?Mioc., South Carolina; 336-337, pl. 37.)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. (Halitherium canhami; England; 1-7, pl. 1.)
1875a Zigno, A. de (Halitherium; Isthmus of Suez)
x 1879 Adams, A.L. (Halitherium; Malta; 525-527, pl. 25.)
1881 Maureta & Thos (Metaxytherium; Spain)
x 1883 Cope, E.D. (Dioplotherium manigaulti, n.gen.n.sp.; South Carolina; 52-54.)
x 1886b Neviani, A. (indeterminate sirs.; Calabria, Italy; Middle Mioc.; 7-9.)
x 1886 Hauer, F.v. ("Halitherium" [=Metaxytherium medium]; Middle Mioc., Ottakring, Austria; 27-28.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (Prohalicore dubaleni, n.gen.n.sp.; France; 138.)
x D 1888 Marsh, O.C. (Desmostylus hesperus, n.gen.n.sp.; California; 94-96.)
x 1888 Neviani, A. (Metaxytherium; Italy; 68-69.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (Miosiren kocki, n.gen.n.sp.; Belgium; 415-416.)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi, n.sp.; Early Mioc., Austria; 408, 415.)
1902 Lovisato, D. (Sardinia.)
x D 1902 Yoshiwara & Iwasaki ([Desmostylus]; Japan; 1-2.)
x 1902c Abel, O. (Metaxytherium sp.; Vienna Basin, Austria; m1176.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. (Trichechus giganteus; Maryland; 56-57, pl. 26.)
x D 1906 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus; California; 151-152.)
x 1906 True, F.W. (?Metaxytherium; Maryland; 835, 840, pl. 76.)
x D 1911 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus; 404-407.)
x 1913 Matson & Sanford ("manatees"; Bone Valley, Florida; m146.)
x 1915 Matson, G.C. ([Metaxytherium floridanum]; Bone Valley, Florida; pl. 12.)
x 1917 Palmer, W. (Maryland; 344.)
x 1917 Schréter, Z. (Metaxytherium petersi; Hungary; 176-177.)
x 1919 Gómez Llueca, F. (Metaxytherium Cuvieri; Middle Mioc., Mallorca; 54-59, 61, 64.)
x D 1922 Hannibal, H. (Desmostylus; California, Oregon, Japan; 238-240.)
x 1922a Hay, O.P. (Metaxytherium floridanum, n.sp.; Florida; 3.)
x 1922 Roman, F. (Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., France; 231-232.)
1923 Préaubert (Halitherium cuvieri; France)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (Metaxytherium floridanum; Florida; 231-238.)
1924 Campana, D. del (Italy)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium jordani; California; 60.)
x 1927 Collignon & Cottreau (Halitherium; Madagascar; 138, 164-165, 169.)
x 1927 Hopwood, A.T. (Metaxytherium; Sicily; 18.)
x 1929c Simpson, G.G. ([Hesperosiren]; Florida; 511, 518.)
x D 1931 Kellogg, R. (desmostylians, 219-227; Desmostylus, Washington, 226.)
x 1931 Simionescu, I. (Manatus maeoticus; Romania; 146, 155.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (Hesperosiren crataegensis, n.gen.n.sp., Felsinotherium ossivallense, n.sp., Florida; 425-426, 445-446, 469, 499.)
x D 1933 Hanna, G.D. (Desmostylus; California; 291.)
x 1935 Dartevelle, E. (?Halitherium; Congo; 715-720.)
x 1936 Resch, R. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; m26.)
x D 1937a Nagao, T. (Desmostylus minor, n.sp.; Sakhalin; 46-49.)
x D 1937b Nagao, T. (Desmostylella typica, n.gen.n.sp.; Honshu, Japan; 82-85.)
x D 1937c Nagao, T. (Desmostylus minor; Hokkaido, Japan; 110-113.)
D 1940 Woodring et al. (Desmostylus hesperus; California; 124.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (Metaxytherium petersi; California; 1985.)
x 1942 Macarovici & Oescu (Manatus maeoticus; Bessarabia; 351, 353, 378-379.)
x D 1944 Stenzel & Turner (?Desmostylus; Texas; 289.)
x 1944 Zbyszewski, G. (Metaxytherium petersi; Portugal; 69.)
x 1946 Bauzá, J. (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Mallorca; 376, pl. 18.)
x D 1949b Anon. (desmostylian; California; 313.)
x 1949 Colom & Bauzá (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Mallorca; 91-92, pl. 7.)
x 1949 Thenius, E. (Thalattosiren petersi; Czechoslovakia; 162-163.)
x D 1950 Shotwell, J.A. (Desmostylus hesperus; Oregon; 1541.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (Haplosiren leganyii, n.gen.n.sp.; Hungary; 438-441.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (Potamosiren magdalenensis, n.gen.n.sp.; Colombia; 203-211.)
x 1952 Cañigueral, J. (Metaxytherium; Mallorca; 387-390.)
x D 1952 DEREC (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; Japan; stratigraphy; 144.)
x 1952 Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (Indosiren javanensis, n.gen.n.sp., etc.; Java; 610-612.)
x 1952 Thenius, E. (Thalattosiren petersi; Austria; 33, 109-113.)
x 1953 Pascual, R. (Ribodon limbatus; Mioc.-Plioc., Argentina; 163-167.)
x 1953 Stirton, R.A. (Potamosiren magdalenensis & La Venta fauna; Colombia; 614.)
x 1953 Zapfe, H. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; 14.)
x 1955 Bernhauser, A. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; bone histology; 168-169, 172, 185.)
x 1956 Bataller, J.R. (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Spain; 24-25.)
1957 Comaschi Caria, I. (Sardinia)
x D 1958 Floyd et al. (supposed "sea cow"; Texas; 160-161.)
x 1959 Kellogg, R. ([Metaxytherium floridanum]; Florida; m6.)
x 1959 Telles-Antunes, M.C.F. (Halitherium; Early Mioc., Portugal; 129-137.)
x 1962 Vickers, E.D. (indeterminate sirs.; Florida, Georgia; Mioc.; 28-29.)
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (desmostylians, 3-16; sirs., North Pacific, 3-4, 9, 13-16; chronologic & geographic ranges.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (Paleoparadoxia; California; 193, 198.)
x D 1964 Nolan, T.B. (desmostylian ranges; A136-A137.)
x D 1965a Anon. (Paleoparadoxia; California; pop. acc.; 53.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (Halianassa(?) allisoni, n.sp.; Baja California; 57-58, 70-72.)
x D 1965 Mitchell & Lipps (Paleoparadoxia; San Clemente Is., California; 4-6.)
x D 1965 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (Desmostylus; California; iii, 3, 7, 21, 26-29, 36.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium calvertense, n.sp., Maryland, 66-67, 71, 78; M. manigaulti, Felsinotherium alleni, South Carolina, 78, 91-92; M. ortegense, n.sp., Colombia, 92-93.)
x 1966 Pascual, R. (cf. Felsinotherium; Argentina; 242.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (Sirenotherium pirabense, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Mioc., Brazil; 345-347, 354-356.)
x 1968 Olsen, S.J. (Halitherium & indeterminate sirs.; northern Florida; 129-130, 133-134.)
1968 Selley, R.C. (sir. [Rytiodus heali]; Jebel Zelten, Libya)
1969 Calzada, S. (Metaxytherium; Spain)
x 1969a Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Miodugong brevicranius, n.gen.n.sp.; Sri Lanka; 97.)
x 1969 Rensberger, J.M. (indeterminate sir.; California; 1-2.)
x 1969 Robinson & Black (indeterminate sirs.; Tunisia; m69.)
x 1970 Ginsburg, L. (Halianassa cuvieri; Middle Mioc., France; 189-190.)
x D 1970 Minch et al. (Desmostylus; Baja California; 3149-3153.)
x 1971 Daxner-Höck, G. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; 761, 764-765.)
x 1971a Domning, D.P. (sirs. & North Pacific correlation; 110-111.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamaline evolution; 217-220.)
x D 1971 Dubrovo & Sinel'nikova (desmostylians; Kamchatka; 670-673.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., France; 161.)
x 1971 Pratt, R.M. (indeterminate sirs.; dredged from seabed off U.S. Atlantic coast; 27, 31-33.)
x 1971 Savage, R.J.G. ("new genus"; Libya; m221.)
x D 1972 Barnes, L.G. (desmostylians & sirs.; western North America; 126, 140-142.)
x D 1972a Domning, D.P. (desmostylians & sirs.; western North America; stratigraphy; 146-149.)
x D 1972 Ikebe et al. (desmostylians; Japan; stratigraphic range; 44-45, 47-48, 65-66.)
1972 Schultz, O. (Austria)
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (Metaxytherium riveroi, n.sp.; Middle Mioc., Cuba; 6, 15-16.)
1973 Savage & Hamilton
x 1973 Tekkaya, I. ("Halitherium (Metaxytherium) sp."; Upper Mioc. or Lower Plioc., Turkey; m118.)
x 1974 Anglada et al. (Halitherium; Early Mioc., France; 1-2.)
1974 Robinson & Black (indeterminate sirs.; Tunisia)
x 1974 Voorhies, M.R. (indeterminate sir.; Middle Mioc., Georgia; 228.)
1975 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Touraine & Anjou, France)
1977 Alvinerie et al. (Early Mioc.)
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (Metaxytherium cf. medium; Netherlands; 2.)
x D 1977 Kamei & Okazaki (Desmostylus & Paleoparadoxia; Japan; stratigraphic range; 354.)
1977 Radwanski, A. (Poland)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (Metaxytherium, India; indeterminate sirs., Iran & elsewhere in Indian Ocean region; 216-218.)
x D * 1978b Domning, D.P. (Dioplotherium allisoni, Dusisiren spp., Paleoparadoxia, Desmostylus; N. Pacific; 101-107, 147-157.)
x D 1978 Susuki & Stadum (?Paleoparadoxia tabatai; San Clemente Is., California; 5, 21.)
D 1978 Tsunoda et al. (Paleoparadoxia tabatai)
x 1979 Ginsburg et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., France; 224, 226.)
x 1979 Takahashi et al. ("Dusisiren n. sp."; Late Mioc., Honshu, Japan; 228.)
x D 1980 Inuzuka et al. (supposed Dugong; Middle Mioc., Japan; 639-641.)
x 1980 Monroe, W.H. (indeterminate sirs.; Puerto Rico; 38, 78.)
x 1981 Barnes et al. (Hydrodamalis cuestae; Late Mioc., California; 56-57, 62-63.)
x D 1981 Clark, J.C. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia, Halianassa; California; 27-28, 34.)
x 1981 Webb et al. (Metaxytherium; Late Mioc., Florida; 517, 521, 535.)
x 1982 Thomas et al. (indeterminate sirs.; late Early Mioc., Al-Sarrar, Saudi Arabia; 120.)
x 1982 Aizu Fossil Research Group (Dusisiren cf. jordani; Japan; 282-284.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Potamosiren sp., Colombia, 601-602; Ribodon limbatus, Argentina, 602.)
x 1982 Ridgway, B. (cf. Halianassa; Florida; 7, 13, 15.)
x 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Metaxytherium; Florida; 4, 20, 22.)
x 1983 Takahashi et al. (Dusisiren [dewana]; Late Mioc., Honshu, Japan; 1-76.)
x 1984 Domning & Deméré (Hydrodamalis cuestae; California; 169-188.)
x 1984b Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium; Maryland, North Carolina; pop. acc.; 5.)
x 1984c Domning, D.P. (cf. Metaxytherium calvertense; Virginia; 224-225, 1 pl.)
1984 Kordos & Solt (Hungary)
x D 1984 Raschke, R.E. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia, Dioplotherium allisoni; Middle Mioc., California; 62, 64.)
x 1984 Raza et al. (indeterminate sir.; Early or Middle Mioc., Pakistan; 585.)
1985c Kordos, L. (Hungary)
x 1985 Muizon & De Vries (Metaxytherium calvertense; Peru; faunal connections with eastern North America; m560.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (Metaxytherium calvertense; Peru; 190-192.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (halitheriine; Early Mioc., Oregon; 263-265.)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (?Ribodon; Late Mioc., Peru & Brazil; 34.)
D 1986 Inuzuka & Karasawa (Paleoparadoxia)
x 1986a Pilleri, G. (indeterminate sir.; Germany; 18, 22, pl. 5.)
x 1986b Pilleri, G. (indeterminate sirs.; Italy; 21-22, pl.11.)
D 1986a Suzuki et al. (Paleoparadoxia; Japan)
D 1986b Suzuki et al. (Paleoparadoxia; Japan)
x 1986 Takahashi et al. (Dusisiren dewana, n.sp.; Late Mioc., Honshu, Japan; 297-300.)
x 1987 Bajpai et al. (Metaxytherium kachchhense, n.sp.; India; 20-25.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium, Europe, review, 206-208; Metaxytherium sp., Libya, 209.)
1987 Moncharmont Zei & Moncharmont (Metaxytherium medium; Italy)
x 1987 Whitmore, F.C., Jr. (indeterminate sir.; Saudi Arabia; m447.)
1988 Vazzana, A. (Metaxytherium medium; Calabria, Italy)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium floridanum; Florida; 395-426.)
x 1988 Roetzel, R. (Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., Austria; 402.)
1988 Vazzana, A. (Italy)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. ("Halitherium" olseni, Dioplotherium manigaulti, Metaxytherium sp.; Suwannee R., Florida & Georgia; 54-60.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (Dioplotherium manigaulti; Florida, South Carolina; 415-418.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (Xenosiren yucateca, n.gen.n.sp.; ?Mioc., Mexico; 430.)
x 1989 Geraads, D. (Metaxytherium sp.; Late Mioc., Tunisia; 781, 791.)
x 1989 Morgan, G.S. ("Halitherium" olseni, Dioplotherium manigaulti, Metaxytherium sp.; Suwannee R., Florida & Georgia; 27, 29-30, 32-34, 37-39, 43, 46, 49-50.)
D 1989 Satoh et al. (Early Mioc., Japan)
x 1989 Toledo, P.M. de (Sirenotherium pirabense; Brazil; 5-10.)
x D 1990 Aranda-Manteca, F.J. (Metaxytherium, Desmostylus; Middle Mioc., Baja California; 100, 103-104, 108, 111.)
x D 1990 Ferrusquia-V., I. (Desmostylus hesperus; Baja Calif.; 15, 17, 22-26.)
x * 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (Puerto Rico; localities; 16-17, 21-27, 32-33, 36-39.)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard (Paleoparadoxia; California [Stanford specimen]; 199.)
1990 Stojaspal, F. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria)
x 1991 Basu et al. (Early Mioc., India; 9-10.)
x 1991 Bryant, J.D. ("Hesperosiren" crataegensis; Florida; 475-476, 484, 486.)
x D 1991 Clark, J.M. (Paleoparadoxia weltoni, n.sp.; Early Mioc., California; 494-495.)
x 1991 Czyzewska & Radwanski (Thalattosiren; Middle Mioc., Poland; 184-185, 188.)
x 1991a Pervesler & Roetzel (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Austria; 97.)
x 1991b Pervesler & Roetzel (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; paleoecology & taphonomy; 156-157.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (Dioplotherium cf. allisoni, cf. Rytiodus, cf. Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., Brazil; 119-146.)
x 1991 Piller & Vávra ("Thalatosiren [sic] petersi"; Middle Mioc., Austria; m189.)
D 1992 Kaneko & Goto (Paleoparadoxia tabatai; Japan)
D 1992 Kaneko & Inuzuka (Paleoparadoxia tabatai, Desmostylus japonicus; Japan)
1992 Kohno & Takaizumi (Halitheriinae indet.; Late Mioc., Japan)
x 1993 Deméré, T.A. (indet. sir.; Late Mioc.-Early Plioc., California; 84.)
x 1994 Das & Basu ("Kotadasiren gracillis"; Oligo-Mioc., India; 5.)
1994 Aranda-Manteca et al. (Metaxytherium arctodites, n.sp.; Middle Mioc., Baja California & California)
x D 1994 Shimada & Inuzuka (Paleoparadoxia, Desmostylus; Japan; 553-556, 574.)
D 1995 Hasegawa et al. (Desmostylus; Middle Mioc., Japan)
1995 Kimura et al. (Late Mioc., Hokkaido)
* 1995 Kobayashi et al. (Dusisiren takasatensis, n.sp.; Late Mioc., Japan)
x * 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (fossil sirs.; review; 322, 325-328.)
1996 Lecuyer et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., France; paleotemperatures & paleosalinity)
x 1996 Piller et al. ("Thalatosiren [sic] petersi"; Middle Mioc., Austria; m16.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (Bharatisiren kachchhensis, n.gen. n.comb.; Early Mioc.; & other sirs.; 219, 221, 226-227.)
x 1997a Carone, G. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Italy; 2-10.)
x 1997b Carone, G. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Italy; 91-94.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (Potamosiren magdalenensis; Middle Mioc., La Venta, Colombia; 383-391.)
x D 1997c Domning, D.P. (Olig.-Mioc. boundary; biostratigraphic utility of sirs. & desmostylians; 178-179.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Metaxytherium; Spain; specimens in Barcelona; 23, 45, 57, 61, 171-172, 174-175, 227.)
D 1998 Kimura et al. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; Akan-cho, Hokkaido, Japan)
1998 Sendra, J.R. (Spain)
x 1998 Bohaska, D.J. (indet. dugongids; Early Mioc., Delaware & Maryland; 183-185.)
x 1998 Estevens, M. (Portugal; geographic & stratigraphic distr.; A161-A164.)
x 1998 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; paleoecology & taphonomy; 87-103.)
x 1999 Renz, M. (Metaxytherium floridanum; Middle Mioc.; Polk County, Florida; 57-66.)
x 1999 Whybrow & Clements (indet. sir.; Middle Mioc., Saudi Arabia; m465.)
2000 Cione et al. (Dioplotherium, Ribodon limbatus; Middle-Late Mioc., Argentina)
D 2000 Takaizumi & Sato (Paleoparadoxia; Japan)
x 2000 Bagnato et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Italy; 4-10.)
x * 2000 Estevens, M. (Portugal; 323-334.)
x 2000 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; 213-215.)
x 2000 Plusquellec & Racheboeuf (Metaxytherium medium; France; 32-36.)
x 2001 Sach & Heizmann (Metaxytherium cf. medium; Early Mioc., Germany; 11, 15, 23, 42-43, 52, 72, pl. 7.)
x 2001 Carone, G. (Metaxytherium medium; Late Mioc., Italy; 34, 36.)
* 2001 Domning & Pervesler (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Europe)
x 2001 Bernal, F. (Metaxytherium; Upper Mioc., Murcia, Spain; pop. acc.; 3.)
x 2001 Iturralde-V., M.A. (?Metaxytherium; Dominican Republic; m8.)
2002 Sabol & Holec (Slovakia)
2002 Kobayashi, S. (indeterminate halitheriine; Japan)
D 2002 Jiménez-Hidalgo et al. (Desmostylus hesperus; Middle Mioc., Baja California; 53.)
D 2002 Yoshida & Kimura (Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia tabatai; Akan, Hokkaido)
D 2002 Watanabe & Kimura (Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia tabatai; Akan, Hokkaido)
D 2002 Kimura, M. (Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia tabatai; Akan, Hokkaido)
D 2002 Sato & Kimura (Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia tabatai; Akan, Hokkaido)
2002 Kobayashi, S. (Japan)
2003a Estevens, M. (Portugal; Mioc.)
2003b Estevens, M. (Portugal)
2003 MacPhee et al. (Early Mioc., Cuba)
x 2003 Bianucci & Landini (M. medium; Late Mioc., Italy; 567-573.)
2003 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium; Late Mioc., Italy; 59-63.)
2004 Marcopoulou-Diacantoni & Logos (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Crete; Late Miocene)
x 2004 Aguilera & De Aguilera (early Miocene Cantaure Formation, Venezuela; scars of shark bites on sir. bones; 376-378.)
x 2004 Sánchez-V. et al. (indeterminate sir.; Early Mioc.; Venezuela; 109-110.)
x 2004 Athanassiou, A. (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Crete; 2.)
2004 Uno & Kimura (Desmostylus hesperus; Middle Mioc., Utanobori, Hokkaido, Japan)
2004 Aguilera & Rodrigues (indeterminate dugongids; Venezuela; shark predation)
2004 Linares, O.J. (Middle-Late Mioc.; Urumaco, Venezuela)
D 2006 Inuzuka et al. ("Paleoparadoxia tabatai"; Akita Prefecture, Japan)
2006 Bianucci et al. (Late Mioc., Chile)
D 2006 Hasegawa et al. (Paleoparadoxia sp.; Middle Mioc., Gunma, Japan; forelimb)
D 2007 Jacobs et al. (unnamed desmostylians; Unalaska; earliest Mioc.?)
* 2007 Carone & Domning (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Calabria, Italy; paleoecology)
2007 Tomida & Ohta (Desmostylus sp.; Hokkaido, Japan; Middle Mioc.)
* 2008a Domning & Aguilera (Nanosiren sanchezi, n.sp., Late Mioc., Venezuela)
2008 Gregorová & Zágoršek (indeterminate sir. rib; Middle Mioc., Czech Republic)
x 2008 Pickford, M. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Mioc., Pemba & Zanzibar Is., Tanzania; 231-232.)
x 2008 Rocher, Philippe (Aquitanian, France; Rytiodus capgrandi; pl. 13.)
x 2008 Inan et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Turkey; 1-7.)
D 2008 Hasegawa & Kimura (Paleoparadoxia sp., Kurosawa & Nakajima specimens; Middle Mioc., Gunma, Japan)
D 2008 Shimaguchi, T. (Aomori Prefecture, Japan; Middle Mioc.)
2008 Sorbi, S. (M. cf. krahuletzi; Early Mioc.; France)
D 2009 Jacobs et al. (desmostylians; Alaska)
2009 Feijó et al. (Mioc. sirs., Brazil; catalog of Museu Goeldi holdings)
2009 Feijó et al. (Mioc. sirs., Pará, Brazil; catalog of Museu Goeldi holdings; 148-155.)
* 2009 Thewissen & Bajpai (Domningia sodhae, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Mioc., Kutch, India)
D 2009 Inuzuka et al. (?desmostylian footprints; Lower Mioc., Japan)
2009 Rateau et al. (Metaxytherium medium, Channay-sur-Lathan, France.)
D 2009 Sakurai, K. (Desmostylus japonicus; Hokkaido, Japan)
2010 Uhen et al. (Dugongidae indet.; Early Mioc., Panama)
* 2010 Bajpai et al. (Kutchisiren cylindrica, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Mioc., India)
2011 Cione et al. (Metaxytherium, Dioplotherium; Mioc.)
x * 2011 Lungu & Rzebik-Kowalska ("?Halitherium maeoticus" (n.comb.); Late Mioc., Moldova; 30.)
2011 Bianucci et al. (Dugongidae indet.; Malta)
2011 Guido et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Cessaniti, Italy; micromorphology, geochemistry, & diagenesis of ribs)
2011 Domning & Sorbi (Rytiodus heali, n.sp.; Early Mioc., Jabal Zaltan, Libya)
2012 Koyabu & Sánchez (Nanosiren sanchezi; Late Mioc., Venezuela)
2012 Veléz-J. et al. (Metaxytherium sp., Dioplotherium sp.; Late Mioc., Argentina)
2013 Fitzgerald et al. (Sirenia indet.; Papua New Guinea & Australia)
* 2013 Fanti & Forti (indet. sir.; Oligo-Miocene, Palawan, Philippines)
x 2013 Lambert & Muizon (cf. Nanosiren sp.; Late Mioc., Sacaco Basin, Peru; m719.)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (Neoparadoxia cecilialina, n.gen.n.sp.; Late Mioc., Orange Co., California)
2013 Carone & Marra (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Italy)
2013 Carone et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Calabria, Italy)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
D 2014 Hasegawa et al. (Paleoparadoxia sp.; Early Mioc., Hokkaido, Japan)
x 2014 Londeix, L. (tusk of Rytiodus capgrandi and teeth & atlas of an indet. sir.; Aquitanian stratotype, France: 252-253)
2014 Boessenecker et al. (Purisima Fm.; Santa Cruz County, California; Late Mioc.; taphonomy)
2014 Mirzaie Ataabadi et al. (indet. sirs.; Oligo/Mioc., Iran)
2015 Moreno et al. (undescribed sir. remains, Guajira Peninsula, Colombia; Early to Middle Mioc.)
D * 2015 Chiba et al. (Ounalashkastylus tomidai, n.gen.n.sp., Olig.-Mioc., Alaska; cf. Vanderhoofius sp., Middle Mioc., Hokkaido)
x 2015 Amson et al. (supposed dugongine rib reidentified as the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus; Late Mioc., Peru; 1-4.)
D 2015 Matsui & Kawabe (Paleoparadoxia sp.; early Mioc., Chikubetsu, Hokkaido, Japan)
2016 Antoine et al. (Trichechinae; early Mioc., Peru)
D 2016 Santos et al. (Desmostylus; Middle Mioc., California; ontogeny & senescence)
x * 2017 Marra et al. (Metaxytherium serresii & M. medium, Upper Mioc.; Calabria, Italy; 381, 386-388, 390.)
D 2018 Matsui et al. (Paleoparadoxia femur; Fukushima, Japan)
* 2018 Domning, D.P. (Sir. fauna of Chesapeake Group; U.S. East Coast,New Jersey-North Carolina)
* 2019 Samonds et al.
* 2019 Vélez-Juarbe & Wood (Culebratherium alemani, n.gen.n.sp.; Panama)
x 2019 Powell et al. (Sonoma County, California; Late Mioc.; indeterminate rib fragments of a hydrodamaline sirenian; 3, 11, 44, Pl. 12.)
2019 Orihuela et al. (Dugongidae incertae sedis; Early Mioc., Cuba; brain endocasts)
2020 Carone & Rizzo (Metaxytherium cf. krahuletzi; Sardinia; early Mioc.)
2021 Feichtinger et al. (Metaxytherium cf. medium; Mioc., Styria, Austria; predation by tiger shark (Galeocerdo))
2022 Pandolfi et al. (Metaxytherium cf. subapenninum; tusk; Late Mioc.; Montebamboli, Italy)
Miodugong brevicranius Deraniyagala, 1969 ( 6 )
x 1969a Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Mioc., Sri Lanka; 97, 99, pl. 2.)
x 1969b Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Mioc., Sri Lanka; 235-237.)
* 1969c Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Sri Lanka)
1969d Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Mioc., Sri Lanka)
x 1977 Savage & Tewari (considered "Metaxytherium sp. indet."; 217.)
x 1977 Tewari et al. (considered "Metaxytherium sp. indet."; 47A.)
Miodugong Deraniyagala, 1969 ( 4 )
x 1969a Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Mioc., Sri Lanka; 97, 99, pl. 2.)
x 1969b Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Mioc., Sri Lanka; 235-237.)
* 1969c Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (n.gen.; Mioc., Sri Lanka)
1969d Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Mioc., Sri Lanka)
Miosiren canhami (Flower, 1874) Sickenberg, 1934 ( 2 )
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (n.comb.)
x 1973b Anon. ("Felsinotherium"; m[3].)
Miosiren Dollo, 1889 ( 16 )
x * 1889b Dollo, L. (n.gen.; Mioc., Belgium; 415-421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (teeth; 223.)
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 51-52.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 424, 434, 451, 473, 481, 487-488, 495.)
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (teeth, comp. w/ DD; m14.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 438-441.)
x 1952a Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (comp. w/ Indosiren; 611.)
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (paleoecology; 1021.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 574-575, 579.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ Eoc. sirs.; 58, 61.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (probably related to Anomotherium; 207.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; m362.)
x 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m178.)
Miosiren kocki Dollo, 1889 ( 11 )
x * 1889b Dollo, L. (n.sp.; Mioc., Belgium; 415-421.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium Serresi; 1858-1859, 1861.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 58, 67.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 410-411, 415-416, 435.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1941b Heuvelmans, B. (teeth, comp. w/ Trichechus; 9.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (m23.)
x 1946 Slijper, E.J. (spinal column; tab. 5.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (m69.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. ("M. kochi"; comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 84-85.)
* 2012 Beatty et al. (osteology and tooth development)
Miosireninae Abel, 1919 ( 5 )
(subfamily)
* 1919 Abel, O. (new subfamily)
1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
* 1994b Domning, D.P. (included within Trichechidae)
Mississippi ( 12 )
x 1965 Arata & Jackson (indeterminate sir.; Olig.; 175-177.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (indeterminate sirs.; Olig.; m8.)
1974 May, J.H. (indeterminate sir.; Olig.)
x * 1981 Gunter & Corcoran (TML; 97-99.)
1982 Dockery, D.T., III (indeterminate sir.; Olig.)
x 1983 Gunter & Perry (TML; 513.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TML; 2, 7, 20.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (TML; 5.)
x 1996a Domning, D.P. (lists 2 coins; 372.)
x 2004 Williams & Domning (TM; ?Pleist., in Mississippi R. drainage; 167-176.)
* 2005 Fertl et al. (TM)
2017 Hieb et al. (TM)
Mortality: SEE Accidental Death or Injury; Conservation; Hunting and Capture; Natural Death or Injury; Pathology; Population Biology; Temperature, Effects of ( 0 )
Museums, Catalogues or Inventories of Specimens in ( 50 )
1681 Grew, N. (Royal Soc., London)
x 1828a Brookes, J. (DD; Brookesian Museum, London; 12.)
x 1838 Waterhouse, G.R. (DD; Zool. Soc. London; 35.)
1850 Gray, J.E. (British Museum [Nat. Hist.])
1851 Horsfield, T. (DD; East-India Company, London; 139.)
1863 Blyth, E. (DD; Asiatic Soc., Calcutta)
1866 Gray, J.E. (British Museum [Nat. Hist.])
1882 Stahl, A. (Bayamon, Puerto Rico)
1884 Flower & Garson (Royal College of Surgeons, London)
1887 Jentink, F.A. (Mus. Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, Leiden)
1887 Lydekker, R. (fossil sirs.; British Museum [Nat. Hist.])
1891 Sclater, W.L. (DD; Indian Museum, Calcutta)
1892 Jentink, F.A. (Mus. Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, Leiden)
* 1899 Vaksmut, N.S. (HG; skeletons deposited in various museums)
1902 Smith, G.E. (Royal College of Surgeons, London; brains)
x 1904 Goeldi & Hagmann (Museu Goeldi, Belém, Brazil; 89-90.)
1912 Turner, W. (Edinburgh)
1923 Woodward, A.S. (British Museum [Nat. Hist.])
* 1934 Pia & Sickenberg (fossil sirs.; Austria)
1938? Themido, A.A. (Coimbra)
1966 Friedrich, H. (HG; supposed skin fragments, Bremen)
1976 Duguy & Cyrus (Recent sirs.; Marseille)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (Recent sirs.; Bordeaux; 290-292.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (N. Pacific fossil & Recent sirs.; 94, 147-162.)
1979 Duguy & Defretin (Recent sirs.; Lille)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (Recent sirs.; Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; 293-296.)
x 1986 Rothausen, K. (fossil sirs.; northwestern Germany; 520-521, 528-529.)
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (fossil sirs.; Switzerland)
* 1988d Pilleri, G. (Recent sirs.; Switzerland)
x 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; Sri Lanka; 89-90, 129-132.)
x 1989 Perrin & Kashiwada (TML; La Jolla, Calif.; 17.)
x D 1993 Perrilliat, M. (Xenosiren yucateca & Cornwallius sookensis; Inst. Geol., UNAM, Mexico; 39-40.)
x 1994 Agudo, A.I. (TM; Venezuela; 1-8.)
x 1995 Fichter, J. (Halitherium sp,; Kassel, Germany; 154.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Metaxytherium; Barcelona; 23, 45, 57, 61, 171-172, 174-175, 227.)
x 1997 Jefferson & Baumgardner (TM; Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection; 106.)
x 1997 Mignucci G. et al. (TM; Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras; 288-292.)
x 1999 Feiler, A. (HG; Dresden; 402.)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello (DD, HG; Univ. of Naples; 13-15.)
2000 Maio & Picariello (Univ. of Naples)
x 2000 Henriques et al. (holotype specimen of Sirenotherium pirabensis, Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; 19.)
2002 Isakova, L. F. (HG; Irkutsk Provincial Museum)
2003 Stefen, C. (HG; Dresden)
x 2004 Csorba et al. (HG; 2 specimens in Hungarian Nat. Hist. Mus.; 317-320.)
x 2005 Siciliano & Franco (TI, TM; Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; 35-36.)
2006 Jousse et al. (HG; Lyon)
* 2006 Mattioli & Domning (HG; Commander Islands; skeletal material in museums; history of collecting)
2009 Feijó et al. (Mioc. sirs.; Museu Goeldi, Belem; 148-155.)
D 2009 Sakurai, K. (Desmostylus japonicus; Hobetsu Mus., Japan)
2010 Bizzarini & Reggiani (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., France; skull & dentition; reconstructed skeleton exhibited in Venice)
Myology ( 54 )
x 1838a Owen, R. (DD; visceral muscles, 30-33; heart, 35; larynx, 38; genital organs, 40.)
1845 Stannius, H.F.
1849 Stannius, H.F.
x * 1851 Barkow, H.C.L. (DD; muscle innervation; 119-122.)
x 1862 Phillippo (Trichechus; heart; m684.)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; 134, 137, 143-164, 179-180, 189.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; m453, m457.)
x * 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; 32-35, pl. 8.)
x 1892 Waldeyer, W. (Manatus americanus; digestive tract; 81-85.)
1902 Pütter, A. (eyeball)
x 1904 Freund, L. (manus; 383-384, 390-391, 395.)
x 1907 Pick, F.K. (DD; smooth muscles of lung; 260-262, 266, 269-270.)
x 1908a Gudernatsch, J.F. (DD; tongue; 601-604.)
x 1909 Gudernatsch, J.F. (TM; tongue; 185-186.)
x 1910 Sterling, S. (forearm muscles & degree of aquatic adaptation; 667-668.)
1911 Riha, A.
1917 Kaudern, W.
1925a Petit, G. (genital organs)
1930 Freund, L.
* 1933 Bahrdt, H.J. (forelimb)
1934 Genschow, J. (muscles of nasal passages; 431-435.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; muscle color; 218.)
x * 1946 Slijper, E.J. (spinal muscles; 46-47, 50-53, 73-78, 112, 114, 120, tabs. 1, 3, 6.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TML; eye muscles, m194; abdominal & thoracic muscles, 202.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; muscles of penis; 31-33.)
x 1959b Engel, S. (DD; smooth muscles of lung; 98-99.)
x 1962 Engel, S. (DD; smooth muscles of lung; 96-97, 102-103, 105-107.)
x 1965 Robineau, D. (middle ear; 414, 417, 419.)
1968 Lemire, M.
1968 Saban, R. (head)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (ear region; 6, 10, 14, 26.)
1970 Turnbull, W.D. (jaw muscles)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; sketches of superficial muscles; 392-393, 396.)
x 1972 Blessing et al. (TI; muscle fibers of spleen; 176, 182.)
x 1972 Blessing, M.H. (?TI; myoglobin concentrations; 475-479.)
x 1972 Kenchington, R.A. (DD; digestive tract; m884, m886-887.)
* 1975 Saban, R. (TS; facial muscles)
x * 1977a Domning, D.P. (DD; comp. w/ Trichechus; 1-57.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; evolutionary changes; 357-359.)
x * 1978a Domning, D.P. (TI; comp. w/ other sirs.; 1-81.)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; evolutionary changes; 118-129.)
* 1986 Gambaryan & Sukhanov (TM)
1986 Rodionov, V.A. (TM; lipids in muscles)
1986 Umnova & Novoselova (TM; muscle ultrastructure)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (TM; ear & basicranial region; 368-374.)
x 1991 Frey, R. (locomotor muscles; 280-283, 319.)
x 1993 Fischer & Tassy (TM; panniculus carnosus; 223.)
x 1993 Shoshani, J. (support for tethythere and paenungulate relationships; 235-239, 241, 246-253.)
x * 1998 Marshall, Clark, & Reep (TML; facial muscles & "muscular hydrostat" of snout; 290-303.)
x 1998 Reep et al. (TML; innervation of facial muscles; 267-268, 270.)
x 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (TML; diaphragm; 41-51.)
D 2012 Fujiwara & Hutchinson (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi; elbow adductor moment arm & forelimb posture)
2021 Meshida et al. (TML; oblique muscles of eyeball)
2022 Meshida et al. (TML; rectus extraocular muscles; comp. w/ cetaceans.)
Myths: SEE Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance ( 0 )

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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