Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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N

Nanosiren Domning in Domning & Aguilera, 2008 ( 4 )
* 2008a Domning & Aguilera (n.gen., Late Mioc.-Early Plioc., Venezuela & Florida)
x 2013 Lambert & Muizon (cf. Nanosiren sp.; Late Mioc., Sacaco Basin, Peru; m719.)
x 2015 Amson et al. (comp. w/ supposed sir. rib reidentified as sloth; 2.)
2018 Domning, D.P. (Nanosiren sp.; Mioc.; Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina; 251-255.)
Nanosiren garciae Domning in Domning & Aguilera, 2008 ( 2 )
* 2008a Domning & Aguilera (n.gen.n.sp., Early Plioc., Florida)
2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al.
Nanosiren sanchezi Domning & Aguilera, 2008 ( 2 )
* 2008a Domning & Aguilera (n.sp., Late Mioc., Venezuela)
* 2012 Koyabu & Sánchez (Late Mioc., Venezuela)
Natural Death or Injury ( 92 )
(SEE ALSO: Captivity, Sirenians in; Natural Enemies; Pathology; Temperature, Effects of)
x 1881 Crane, A. (?TI; shattered humerus & spinal injury; 459.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; ice, surf, rocks; 184, 198, 200.)
x 1904 Freund, L. (DD; fractured metacarpals; 375-376, pls. 14-15.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; ?shark bite; m240.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; scratched by shells; 77.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; India; m88.)
1931 Loth, E.
1931 Slijper, E.J.
x 1932 Korschelt, E. (DD, rib fractures, 450; TML, lesion on radius, 451.)
1936 Slijper, E.J.
1940 Loth, E.
x 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; scars from ?coral or ?shells; 142.)
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; calf; 121.)
1959b Anon. (DD; New South Wales; stranding; 49.)
x 1960 Mani, S.B. (DD; India; stranding; 216-217.)
x 1961 Silas, E.G. (DD; India; stranding; 263-264.)
x 1962 Marlow, B.J. (DD; New South Wales; stranding; 433.)
x 1963 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; India; strandings; 152.)
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; Florida; cold & ?red tide; 166-167.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; cyclone & salinity change; 217.)
x 1972a Anon. (TML; Florida; "played with" by porpoises; 4.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; Somalia; surf; m302.)
x 1975 Domning & Frye (Metaxytherium jordani; fractures; 2.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TI; females killed by mating herds; 225.)
x 1976 Gallagher, M.D. (DD; Bahrain; cold, nets, oil, or seismic surveys as possible causes of death; 211.)
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; ?mass mortality; 20.)
x 1978 Odell et al. (TM; Bahamas; 292.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; gashes on belly, 38; mortality factors, 123-125.)
1980 Harper, H. (TML; Florida)
x 1981 Beck et al. (TML; Florida; mortality, 1978; 76-85.)
x 1981 Brownell & Ralls (TML; Florida; carcasses salvaged, 1974-77; 147-154.)
x 1981 Campbell & Irvine (TML; Florida; cold mortality, 1976-77; 86-91.)
x 1981 Irvine, Odell, & Campbell (TML; Florida; mortality, 1974-77; 67-75.)
x 1981 Powell et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; calf stranded; 645.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (TML; U.S.A. north of Florida; starvation, cold; 153-154, 156.)
x 1983 Best, R.C. (TI; bowel obstruction during fasting; 62.)
x * 1983 Bonde et al. (TM; salvage & necropsy manual; i-v, 1-175.)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (TM; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; 1294-1296.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (TML; Florida; necropsy findings; cold mortality, malnutrition, meningoencephalitis, periventriculitis, 1331-1334; red tide, 1334.)
x 1984 Buergelt, C.D. (TML; Florida; summary of necropsy findings, 1980-83; 28-29.)
x 1984c Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; stranding by cyclone; 106-107.)
x 1984 Robinson, N.H. (DD; New South Wales; strandings; 157.)
x * 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (TML; Florida; mortality, 1976-81; 1-11.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Florida; cold mortality; 16.)
1986 Marsh, Freeland et al. (DD; Australia; stranding by cyclone)
x 1987 Walsh et al. (TML; Florida; omphalitis & peritonitis; 702-704.)
* 1988 Beeler & O'Shea (TML; southeastern U.S.A.)
x 1988 Hasegawa, H. (DD; Okinawa; 23.)
x 1988 Ho, H.C. (DD; Singapore; strandings; 24-25.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; southeastern U.S.A.; historical records of mortality; 186-187, 190-191, 199.)
x 1988 Rathbun et al. (TMM; Honduras; starvation in lagoon; 306-307.)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; stranding by cyclone; 78-84.)
1990 Oliveira et al. (TMM; northeastern Brazil; mortality)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TM; northwestern Florida, 1982-85; 22-23, 30-32.)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard (Paleoparadoxia; Mioc., California; 199-203.)
x * 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; red tide, 1982; 165-179.)
x 1993 Brown, J. (DD; Australia; seagrass dieoff; pop. acc.; 11.)
1993 Geraci & Lounsbury
1994 Spielman, D. (stranding)
x 1994 Tilmant et al. (TML; Florida; no observed mortality from 1992 hurricane; 236.)
x * 1995 Ackerman et al. (TML; Florida; mortality, 1974-1992; 223-258.)
x 1995b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; scars, 207-210; ?sunburn, 210.)
x * 1995 O'Shea & Hartley (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; early-age survival; 157-170.)
x * 1995 O'Shea & Langtimm (TML; Florida; adult survival; 194-222.)
x * 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Hervey Bay, Queensland; starvation; 507-519.)
1995 Reid et al. (TML; Atlantic coast, Florida; reproduction & mortality)
x 1996d Anon. (TML; Florida; 1996 die-off ?due to red tide; 456-457.)
x 1996 Behler, D.A. (TML; southwest Florida; 1996 die-off; 16.)
x 1996 Holden, C. (TML; Florida; 1996 die-off due to red tide; 191.)
x 1996 Turner, R.O. (TML; southwest Florida; 1996 die-off; 27.)
x * 1998 Bossart et al. (TML; Florida; 1996 die-off due to red tide; 276-282.)
x 1999 Das & Dey (DD; Nicobar Is.; ?cyclone; 197.)
x 2000 Cowan, D.F. (TM; Texas; death from starvation & cold; 5.)
* 2003 Langtimm & Beck (TML; Florida; mortality from hurricanes)
2003 Dybas, C.L. (algal blooms)
2004 Parente et al. (TMM; Brazil; strandings)
x 2005 Flewelling et al. (TML; Florida; red tide, 2002: 755-756.)
2005 Raloff, J. (TML; red tide; gen. acc.)
2006 Langtimm et al. (TML; Florida; effects of hurricanes)
2008 Schwarz, L.K. (TML; determining perinatal status of carcasses)
2008 Meirelles, A.C.O. (TMM; Ceará, Brazil; mortality)
2009 Landsberg et al. (TML, Florida; Karenia brevis red tides)
2009 Joly et al. (TML; necropsies; cause-specific mortality rates)
2010 Sas & Baatz (TML; red tide; brevetoxin-2)
2010 Aragones et al. (DD; Philippines; strandings, 1998-2009)
2012 Sadchatheeswaran et al. (TML; southwest Florida; brevetoxin levels)
* 2012 Bonde, Mignucci-Giannoni, & Bossart (pathology & mortality assessment)
2013 Laist et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuges & cold stress)
* 2019 Martony et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome)
2019 Martony, Isaza et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome; measurement of core body temperature)
2020 Conceição et al. (TMM; Panaquatira, Maranhão, Brazil; stranding)
2022 Landsberg et al. (TML; Florida; Indian River Lagoon mortality event; clostridial infection)
Natural Enemies ( 82 )
(SEE ALSO: Natural Death or Injury)
1745 Gumilla, J. (TMM; Guianas; "Tigres")
x 1763 Bellin, S. (TMM; Guianas; "Tigres"; m66.)
x 1855a Gervais, P. (TI; Amazonia; jaguar; 116.)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (TI; Amazonia; jaguar; 2: 202-204.)
x 1870 Delfortrie, E. (Halitherium; Early Mioc., France; bones scarred by fish teeth; 261.)
x 1871 Farge, E. (Halitherium; Middle Mioc., France; bone scarred by sharks; 265-268, pl. 2.)
x 1872 Farge, E. (Halitherium; Middle Mioc., France; bone scarred by sharks; 412-416.)
x 1872 Kingston, W.H.G. (TI; Amazonia; jaguars; 184-190.)
1875 Barbosa Rodriguez, J. (TI; Brazil; jaguars)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (TI; Amazonia; jaguar; 2: 235-237.)
x 1886 Portis, A. (Felsinotherium; Plioc., Italy; bones scarred by sharks; 357.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD: India; sharks; m240.)
x 1925 Lee, I. (DD; Australia; sharks; 20.)
x 1934 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Australia; sharks; 242.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM, sharks, caimans, m218; DD, crocodiles, 219-220.)
x 1937 Johnson, E. (TS; Gambia; crocodiles; 63.)
x 1937 Promus, J. (DD; Australia; killing shark with tusks; 41.)
x 1937 Sunter, G.H. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; dugong killing crocodile by falling on top of it; 60.)
1939 Patterson, E.K. (DD; Torres Strait; shark attack)
x 1941 Landa, D. de (TMM; Yucatan; bats; 191.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; jaguar & shark only known predators; 63-65.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Senegal; bitten by small fish, especially "Silures", but "friendly" with crocodiles; 189.)
x 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; sharks, killer whales; 18.)
x 1958 Leakey, L.S.B. (DD; East Africa; crocodiles; m19.)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (TMM; Guyana; immune to electric eels; 762.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (Trichechus; South America; fish)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; caimans, parrot-fish; m119.)
1964 Norwood, V.G.C.
x 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; sharks; 84.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium calvertense; Middle Mioc., Maryland; bones scarred by sharks; 67.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; wounded by stingray; 219.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; sharks, 2: 234; sharks eating drowned dugongs in nets, 2: 238-239.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (TMM; Belize; alligators; 293-294.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; sharks; 397.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (Metaxytherium forestii; Plioc., Italy; bone scarred by ?shark tooth; 50-51, pl. 46.)
x 1975a Husar, S.L. (DD; Australia; carcasses not molested by sharks; m18.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM, sharks; TI, jaguars, caimans, anacondas; 226.)
x 1978 Anderson & Heinsohn (DD; Australia; sharks, crocodiles, "porpoises", stingrays, stonefish; 19-20.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; possible predators; 115-116.)
x 1978 Stanbury, P.J. (DD; Australia; shark, fide Dampier; 18.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; blood clotting & "skin hardening" as ?anti-predator adaptations, 127; scar from shark attack, 128, 131; sharks, ?crocodiles, ?killer whales, ?stonefish, 135.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Trichechus; South America; piranhas; m123.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TMM; Dominican Republic; sharks; 317-319.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; sharks; 103, 107.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; carcasses scavenged by crocodiles; 34-35.)
* 1982 Rancurel & Intes (DD; New Caledonia; remains in tiger shark stomachs)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; association of sharks with groups of dugongs; 78, 82-83.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; sharks; 519.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (TMM; Brazil; ?shark bites; 45.)
x 1982 Boaz & Cramer (Metaxytherium; Plioc., Libya; sharks; pop. acc.; 37, 40-41.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium serresii; Plioc., Libya; bones scarred by shark Carcharodon megalodon; 29, 32.)
x 1982 Ridgway, B. (cf. Halianassa; Mioc., Florida; bones scarred by sharks; 13, 15.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Australia; attack by tiger shark; 788.)
x * 1985 Anderson & Prince (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; attacks by killer whales; 554-556.)
x 1986c Anderson, P.K. (DD; pop. acc.; sharks, 162-165; dolphin harassing dugongs, 166.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium serresii; Plioc., Libya; bones scarred by sharks; 209.)
x 1988 Reddacliff, G. (DD; Australia; cookie-cutter shark [Isistius]; 133-134.)
x 1989 Morgan, G.S. (Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., Florida; sharks; 33, 37-38.)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard (Paleoparadoxia; Mioc., California; sharks; 199-201.)
x 1993 Loyer, B. (DD; Vanuatu; wounds from sharks; attempts to ?drown turtles; 55.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM; Costa Rica; sharks; m195.)
2001 Heithaus, M.R. (tiger sharks; Shark Bay, Australia)
* 2001 Simpfendorfer et al. (DD; Western Australia; remains found in tiger shark stomachs)
2001 Heithaus, M.R. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; tiger sharks)
x * 2001 Taylor, G. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; sharks; 36-37, 41.)
x * 2003 Falcón et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; shark; 6-11.)
x 2004 Aguilera & De Aguilera (early Mioc., Venezuela; scars of shark bites on sir. bones; 376-378.)
2004 Aguilera & Rodrigues (indeterminate dugongids; Mioc., Venezuela; shark predation)
* 2007b Wirsing et al. (DD; tiger sharks)
2007a Wirsing et al. (DD; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2007c Wirsing et al. (DD; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2008 Wirsing et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; foraging tactics & shark avoidance)
2008 Garrigue et al. (DD; New Caledonia; sharks; 86.)
2009 Rateau et al. (sharks; Metaxytherium medium, Mioc., Channay-sur-Lathan, France.)
2011 Wirsing & Ripple (DD; responses to tiger sharks)
2011 Wirsing et al. (DD; feeding and diving mode in presence of tiger sharks)
2012 Luiselli et al. (TS; Nigeria; habitat overlap with crocodiles)
2013a Diedrich, C.G. (Halitherium schinzii; Germany; shark predation)
2013b Diedrich, C.G. (Halitherium; Olig., Germany; shark predation)
* 2020 Reeves & Gillett-Kaufman (TML; Florida; bitten by mosquitoes [Aedes, Anopheles, & Culex])
* 2021 Nowicki et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; tiger sharks; effects of apex predator removal and extreme climatic events)
* 2021 Feichtinger et al. (Metaxytherium cf. medium; middle Mioc., Styria, Austria; tiger shark (Galeocerdo aduncus))
Nemodermus Rafinesque, 1815 ( 2 )
(nomen nudum; = Trichechus)
x * 1815 Rafinesque, C.S. (n.gen.; nomen nudum; in classification; 60.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Trichechus; m578.)
Neodesmostylus Khomenko, 1928 ( 3 )
(Proboscidea; = Mammuthus)
x D * 1928a Khomenko, J.P. (n.gen.; Pleist., Siberia; 519-520.)
x D 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153, 155.)
x D 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (not considered a desmostylian; m4.)
Neodesmostylus primigenius Khomenko, 1928 ( 2 )
(Proboscidea; = Mammuthus)
x D * 1928a Khomenko, J.P. (n.gen.n.sp.; Pleist., Siberia; 519-520.)
D 1966c Shikama, T.
Neoparadoxia Barnes, 2013 ( 2 )
D 2011 Harris, J.M. (ed.) (nomen nudum; 23.)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (new genus)
Neoparadoxia cecilialina Barnes, 2013 ( 3 )
D 2011 Harris, J.M. (ed.) (nomen nudum; 23.)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (n.gen.n.sp.; Late Mioc., Orange Co., California)
D 2015 Thomas & Barnes (Late Mioc., California; osteochondrosis; 28-31.)
Neoparadoxia repenningi (Domning and Barnes, 2007) Barnes, 2013 ( 1 )
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (n.comb.)
Nepus Fischer von Waldheim, 1814 ( 5 )
(= Hydrodamalis)
* 1813-14 Fischer v. Waldheim, G. (n.gen.)
x 1840 Baer, K.E.v. (syn. of Rytina; m53.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (syn. of Rhytina; m92.)
1925 ICZN (syn. of Hydrodamalis; m38.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 75.)
Nepus stelleri (Retzius, 1794) Fischer von Waldheim, 1814 ( 2 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1813-14 Fischer v. Waldheim, G. (n.comb.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 75, 93.)
Nervous System: SEE Brain and Nervous System ( 0 )
Netherlands, The ( 4 )
1975 Bosch et al. ("Halitherium" [actually Metaxytherium])
x 1977 Hooijer, D.A. (Metaxytherium cf. medium; Mioc., Eibergen: 2, 12.)
x 1982 Hooijer, D.A. (indeterminate sir.; Western Scheldt; 261-262, pl. 1.)
x 1999 Erdbrink & Van Bree (indeterminate sir.; Western Schelde; 17-20.)
New Jersey ( 4 )
x 1856b Leidy, J. (Manatus antiquus; 165.)
x 1981 Miller, R.R. (TML; Long Beach Is.; netting; m53.)
x * 1989 Gallagher et al. (Trichechus sp.; ?Pleist.; 107-108.)
2018 Domning, D.P. (cf. Metaxytherium, Mioc.; Trichechus sp., ?Pleist.; 246.)
Nicaragua ( 17 )
(SEE ALSO: Central America)
1847 Young, T. (TMM)
x 1910 Allen, J.A. (TMM; m89, m94.)
x 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TMM; 69.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; 216-219.)
x 1965 Jones, J.K., Jr. (TMM; Indian name; 354.)
1973 Nietschmann, B. (TMM)
x * 1976 Loveland, F.O. (TMM; hunting, ritual & myth; 70-82.)
1978 Magnus, R.W. (TMM)
x 1982 Wing & Reitz (TMM; at archeological sites; m16.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 582-583, 606.)
1994 Carr, T. (TMM; distr., Miskito Coast)
* 2000 Jiménez P., I. (TMM)
2002 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; poaching)
* 2003 Jiménez P., I. (TMM)
2005 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; Costa Rica & Nicaragua; habitat use)
2010 Jamieson, M.
2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (TM; status & conservation)
Norosiren Samonds, Ernat, Andrianavalona, and Domning, 2019 ( 1 )
* 2019 Samonds et al. (n.gen.; Mioc., Madagascar)
Norosiren zazavavindrano Samonds, Ernat, Andrianavalona, and Domning, 2019 ( 1 )
* 2019 Samonds et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Madagascar)
North America ( 18 )
(SEE ALSO under countries and states)
x 1837 Richardson, J. (Manatus americanus, M. latirostris, Rytina borealis; m162.)
x 1856a Leidy, J. (Ischyrotherium, supposed sir. from Nebraska; 89.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (TML; distr.; 60-64.)
x 1942 Gunter, G. (TML; distr.; 89-90.)
x 1942 Simpson, G.G. (fossil sirs. on Atlantic coast; m177.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (TM; distr.; 543-544.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (fossil sirs.; southeastern U.S.A.; pop. acc.; 7-9.)
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TM; distr., status, & biogeography; 576-580, 589-591, 599, 603-605.)
x * 1996 Reid, J.P. (TML; Rhode Island; northernmost recorded occurrence in North America; 13.)
2001 Valentine & Heck (Thalassia testudinum; NE Gulf of Mexico)
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (TML, TMM; status & biogeography)
2003 Deutsch et al. (TML; movements & site fidelity along Atlantic coast of USA)
* 2003 Deutsch et al. (TML; Atlantic coast of USA; migration & site fidelity)
x * 2004 Williams & Domning (TM; ?Pleist., Arkansas, Ohio; 167-176.)
* 2005 Fertl et al. (TM; northern Gulf of Mexico)
* 2008b Domning, D.P. (sir. fossil record)
D * 2008c Domning, D.P. (desmostylian fossil record)
x 2011 Jackson & Thorpe (TML; Memphis, Tennessee; children's book; 1-26.)
North Carolina ( 22 )
1858 Emmons, E.
1860 Emmons, E.
x 1875 Cope, E.D. (Ontocetus emmonsii referred to Sirenia [actually Odobenidae]; 51.)
1908 Brimley, C.S. (TM)
x 1919 Stiles, C.W. (TML; in capt.; 658.)
x 1931 Brimley, H.H. (TML; captured, 1919; 320-321.)
1946 Brimley, H.H. (TML)
x 1960 Funderburg, J.B. (TML; Pleist. & Recent records; 521.)
1960 Smith et al. (TM)
1965 Caldwell & Golley
1976 Lee, D.S.
x 1977 Browne & Lee (TML; abstract of interview survey; 40.)
x 1977 Campbell, H.W. (TML; gen. acc.; 396-397.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Ribodon sp., ?Plioc., 604; Trichechus sp., Pleist., 605.)
x * 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Eoc. sirs.; 4, 6, 13-17, 39.)
x * 1982 Rathbun et al. (TML; 153-154, 156, 160-163.)
x 1984b Domning, D.P. (fossil sirs.; pop. acc.; 5.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; 187, 198-199.)
1989 Lee & Socci
x * 1995 Schwartz, F.J. (TM; 1919-1994; 53-60.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (cf. Crenatosiren; Late Oligocene, Onslow Beach; 399.)
2018 Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium crataegense, Nanosiren sp., aff. Corystosiren sp.; Mioc., Lee Creek Mine; 245.)
Nutrition: SEE Digestive System; Food; Milk ( 0 )

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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