Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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P

Pachyacanthus Brandt, 1873 ( 9 )
(Cetacea)
* 1873 Brandt, J.F. (n.gen.)
x 1875 Van Beneden, P.J. (specimens in Vienna; vertebrae & ribs thought to represent a sir.; 323-340.)
1877 Capellini, G.
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m377.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m224.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m481.)
* 1937 Pia, J.v.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (m150; in classification, 154-155.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyostosis; m364.)
Pachyacanthus suessii Brandt, 1873 ( 1 )
(Cetacea)
* 1873 Brandt, J.F. (n.sp.)
Pachyacanthus trachyspondylus Brandt, 1873 ( 3 )
(Cetacea)
* 1873 Brandt, J.F. (n.sp.)
x 1875 Van Beneden, P.J. (considered to be based on pathological specimens; 326, 339-340.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
Pacific Ocean ( 60 )
(SEE ALSO: East Indies; Palau; circumpacific regions)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (HG; distr.; 281.)
x * 1840 Baer, K.E.v. (HG; distr.; 53-80.)
x 1867a Brandt, J.F. (HG; distr.; 450-451.)
x 1884 Fischer, P. (DD; New Caledonia; barnacle Platylepas bissexlobata; 359.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. (HG; distr.; 136-137.)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (DD; distr.; 4221-4222.)
x 1947 Johnson, I. (DD; southwestern Pacific, locality unstated; 130, 143-144.)
x 1963 Berzin et al. (HG; possible survival; 73-75.)
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (desmostylians & sirs.; chronologic & geographic range; 3-16.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (desmostylians; distr.; 198.)
x D 1964 Nolan, T.B. (desmostylians; distr.; A136-A137.)
x D 1966 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (desmostylians & sirs.; faunal succession; 50, 53, 56-57, 59-60.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; New Caledonia; in capt.; 216.)
1967 Nishiwaki, M.
x 1971a Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; evolutionary history; 110-111.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; evolutionary history; 217-220.)
x D 1972a Domning, D.P. (sirs., Mioc., 146-149; desmostylians, Olig.-Mioc., 146, 149.)
x 1972b Domning, D.P. (HG; extermination & origin of North Pacific aboriginal whaling; 187-189.)
1972 Kent, J. (Solomon Islands)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr. & status; 309-310.)
x 1973 Scheffer, V.B. (HG; distr. & history; 65-66.)
x 1973 Vorontsov, N.N. (HG; distr. & extermination; 124.)
x D 1975 Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; ecology & evolution, Tertiary-Recent; 824.)
1975 Randall et al. (DD; Guam)
x D 1977b Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; ecology & evolution; 352-362.)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (DD; Indochina & New Caledonia; 290-291.)
x D * 1978b Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; 1-176.)
x 1979 Nishiwaki et al. (DD; distr.; 133-141.)
x 1981d Domning, D.P. (sirs. & marine plants; paleoecology; 419.)
x 1982 Montgomery et al. (TMM; potential entry via Panama Canal; 257-258.)
x 1983 Marsh, H. (DD; Vanuatu; 1-5.)
1985 Fordyce, R.E.
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (dugongids, Tertiary, East Pacific, 209-211; TMM, reported passage through Panama Canal, 209.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (sirs.; Late Olig.-Early Mioc., North Pacific; 273-274.)
x 1987a Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; evolution; pop. acc.; 64, 66-71.)
x D 1988 Estes & Steinberg (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; evolution of kelp; 21-22.)
x 1989 Chambers & Bani (DD; Vanuatu; status; 13-14.)
x D 1989a Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; evolution of kelp; 53-56.)
x D 1989 Estes & Steinberg (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; evolution of kelp; 57-60.)
1990 Furusawa, H. (sir. evolution in North Pacific)
1991 Eldredge, L.G. (DD; Micronesia)
x 1993 Loyer, B. (DD; Vanuatu; 54-55.)
x 1993 Vermeij, G.J. (HG; biogeography and extinction; 392-394.)
1994 Furusawa, H. (North Pacific sirs.; biogeography)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (DD; distr. & status; 161, 163.)
1994 Stinson, D.W. (DD; Mariana Islands)
* 1995 Domning & Furusawa (North Pacific sirs.; review; 506-512.)
1995 Jefferson & Leatherwood
1998 Belcher, A. A. (DD; Vanuatu; butting people)
x 2000 Barnes, L.G. (DD; Vanuatu; photo; 3.)
x 2003 Eldredge, L.G. (DD; Guam; 657.)
2005 Furusawa, H. (evolution of Hydrodamalinae)
2008 Garrigue et al. (DD; New Caledonia)
D 2009 Jacobs et al. (desmostylians; Olig.-Mioc., Alaska)
2010 Buden & Haglelgam (DD; Micronesia)
2012 Dobbs et al. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
2013 Furusawa, H. (Dusisiren, Hydrodamalis; climatic cooling, size increase, loss of teeth)
2021 Bullen et al. (HG; structuring of North Pacific kelp forests)
2022 Derville et al. (DD; New Caledonia; habitat use; satellite tracking)
* 2022 Guzman & Real (TMM; Panama; entry into Pacific Ocean)
Pakistan ( 8 )
x 1984 Raza et al. (indeterminate sir.; Mioc.; 585.)
x 1993 Thewissen, J. G. M. (indet. sir.; Eoc.; 125-127.)
* 1995 Gingerich et al. (Protosiren sattaensis, n.sp.; Middle Eoc.)
x 1997 Gingerich et al. (Protosiren sattaensis; Eoc.; 57, 69, 71, 75.)
1998 Gingerich et al. (Middle Eoc.)
1999 Welcomme et al. (Bugti Hills)
2001 Gingerich et al. (Protosiren sattaensis, Eoc.; 281, 318.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (Protosiren eothene, n.sp.; Middle Eoc.; 79-87.)
Palau ( 21 )
1788 Keates, A.
1821 Kotzebue, O.v. (DD)
1873 Semper, K.G. (DD)
1895 Kubary, J.S. (DD)
1929 Kramer, A. (DD)
* 1938 Asano, N. (DD)
1941 Yamaguti, S.
x 1955a Anon. (DD; 79.)
x 1955b Anon. (DD; 73-74.)
x 1956a Anon. (DD; 49.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD; 21-27.)
x 1956 Simpson, D.A. (DD; in capt., San Francisco; pop. acc.; 54.)
x 1957 Bayer & Harry-Rofen (DD; 502, pl. 20.)
1972a Johnson, S.P. (DD)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; status; 309.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (DD; parasitic flukes; 6, 15.)
x * 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; status; 19-42.)
x 1981 Johannes, R.E. (DD; hunting & sale; 25, 68, 73.)
x 1988 Rathbun et al. (DD; status; 265-270.)
1991 Eldredge, L.G. (DD)
x * 1995 Marsh et al. (DD; status; 85-89.)
Paleocene ( 1 )
x * 2018 Buffrénil, V. de (sir. rib fragment, Early Paleocene, Vigny, France)
Paleoecology and Taphonomy ( 128 )
1887 Studer, T. (Mioc., Switzerland)
1887 Roux, W. (Rhytina gigas; borings in bone)
x 1895 Depéret, C. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; associated fauna; 415.)
x D 1906 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus; 152.)
x D 1935 LaMotte, R.S. (Desmostylus sookensis; Late Olig., British Columbia; 51-56.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (Rytiodus; 154.)
x 1949 Thenius, E. (Thalattosiren; Mioc., Czechoslovakia; ?wind erosion of bones; 162.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (Haplosiren, etc.; Hungary; m439, m441.)
x 1955 Bernhauser, A. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi ; Early Mioc., Austria; borings in ribs made by algae cf. Gomontia polyrhiza; 168, 172, 185.)
x 1957 Kellogg & Whitmore (Miosiren, Metaxytherium, Hesperosiren; Mioc., Belgium, Maryland, Florida; 1021-1022.)
x D 1958 Floyd et al. (supposed Desmostylus; Texas; 160-161.)
x D 1961 Drewes et al. (Cornwallius; Late Olig., Unalaska Is., Alaska; 606-607, 667.)
x * 1962 Schäfer, W. (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany; taphonomy experiments; 53-56.)
x 1962 Wilhelm, W. (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany; 52-53.)
x D 1964 Mitchell & Lipps (desmostylians; Mioc., California; 214-215.)
x 1965 Savage & White (sirs.; Middle Eoc., Libya; headless carcasses; 91.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (Metaxytherium calvertense; Middle Mioc., Maryland; 66-67.)
D 1966a Shikama, T. (Paleoparadoxia, Desmostylus)
D 1966c Shikama, T. (Paleoparadoxia, Desmostylus)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (Sirenotherium; Early Mioc., Brazil; 354-356.)
1968 Selley, R.C. (sir. [Rytiodus heali]; Mioc., Jebel Zelten, Libya)
x 1969a Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Miodugong; Mioc., Sri Lanka; 99-102.)
x D 1970 Minch et al. (Desmostylus; Baja California; 3151-3153.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; North Pacific; 217-219.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., France; taphonomy; 189.)
x D 1972a Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; Mioc., North Pacific; 146-148.)
1973 Savage & Hamilton (Mioc., Libya)
x D 1975 Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; 824.)
1975 Ginsburg & Janvier (Metaxytherium medium; Mioc., Touraine & Anjou, France)
x 1976 Lipkin, Y. (angiosperms vs. algae in early sir. diet; 92-93.)
x D * 1977b Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; ecological model; 352-362.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; Pleist., Amchitka Is., Alaska; 5-8, 18.)
x D * 1978b Domning, D.P. (North Pacific sirs. & desmostylians; 2, 107-132, 139-146.)
1978 Simenstad et al. (HG; Aleutian Islands; former ecological role; m409.)
x 1981d Domning, D.P. (fossil sirs.; associations with marine plants; 417-420.)
x 1981 Webb et al. (Metaxytherium; Late Mioc., Love site, Florida; 517, 535.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (trichechids; South America; evolution & environmental changes; 607, 610-616.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium serresii; Mioc.-Plioc., Mediterranean; seagrasses & salinity crisis; shark predation; 29-31.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Eoc. sirs. & seagrasses; 61-63.)
x 1983 Bizzotto, B. (Prototherium intermedium; Late Eoc., Italy; 99.)
x 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Metaxytherium; Early Mioc., Florida; 20-23.)
D 1984 Akamatsu, M.
D 1984 Goto & Kuga
D * 1984 Inuzuka et al. (eds.)
D 1984 Itoigawa, J.
D 1984 Taguchi, E. (Paleoparadoxia)
D 1984 Takayasu & Nakamura
D 1984 Yamanoi, T.
D 1984 Yoshida, K. (Paleoparadoxia)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (halitheriine; Early Mioc., Oregon; climate; 273-274.)
x D 1986 Domning et al. (desmostylians; lifestyle; 47-48.)
x 1986 Rothausen, K. (Olig., Germany; 547-548, 551.)
D 1986a Suzuki et al. (Paleoparadoxia; Japan)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium serresii; Plioc., Libya; taphonomy, 209; paleoecology of post-Messinian Mediterranean, 229-230.)
x 1987a Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; pop. acc.; 64, 66-71.)
D 1987 Ogasawara & Morita (Paleoparadoxia; Japan)
x D 1988 Estes & Steinberg (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; evolution of kelp; 21-22.)
1988 Gray, J.
D 1988e Inuzuka, N. (taphonomy)
x D 1989a Domning, D.P. (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; evolution of kelp; 53-56.)
x 1989b Domning, D.P. (sirs.; Mioc., Suwannee R., Florida; 55-56, 59.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (rytiodontines; use of tusks; 426.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (rytiodontines; use of tusks; 435-436.)
x D 1989 Estes & Steinberg (sirs. & desmostylians; North Pacific; evolution of kelp; 57-60.)
x 1989 Morgan, G.S. (sirs.; Early Mioc., Suwannee R., Florida; 33-34.)
x D 1990 Aranda-Manteca, F.J. (Metaxytherium, Desmostylus; Mioc., Baja California; 100, 103-104, 108, 111, pl. 3.)
x 1990a Domning, D.P. (rhizivory experiments; 34-36.)
x 1990 Donovan et al. (Prorastomus sirenoides; Middle Eoc., Jamaica; 661-662.)
x * 1990 Ivany et al. (Protosiren; Middle Eoc., Florida; seagrass community; 244-258.)
x D 1990 Ogasawara & Morita (Paleoparadoxia; Japan; 29-30.)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard (Paleoparadoxia; Mioc., California; 199-203.)
x 1991a Pervesler & Roetzel (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Mioc., Austria; 97-98.)
x 1991b Pervesler & Roetzel (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; 156-157.)
x * 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Eoc. & Olig., Egypt; 35, 63, 67, 76-77, 79.)
x 1994a Domning, D.P. (Caribbean sirs. & seagrasses; pop. acc.; 72-73.)
x D 1994 Shimada & Inuzuka (Paleoparadoxia, Desmostylus; Mioc., Japan; taphonomy & shark faunas; 572-574.)
x 1995a Anderson, P.K. (HG; kelp-sea urchin-sea otter relationship; 391-394.)
x 1995 Papastavrou, V. (HG; kelp-sea urchin-sea otter relationship; pop. acc.; 26.)
* 1995 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Mioc., Austria; taphonomy)
1996 Lecuyer et al. (Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., France; paleotemperatures & paleosalinity)
x 1996 Miller & Donovan (Early Eoc., Jamaica; 46.)
1996 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Mioc., Austria; taphonomy)
x 1996 Pervesler, P. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; construction of museum display; 75-80.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (Potamosiren magdalenensis; Mioc., Colombia; 390-391.)
x 1998 Estevens, M. (Portugal; Mioc.; A162.)
x * 1998 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Mioc., Austria; 87-103.)
x 2000 Estevens, M. (Portugal; Mioc.; 329-330.)
D 2000 Igarashi et al.
D 2000 Ogasawara, K.
x 2000 Pervesler et al. (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria; 213-215.)
x 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (TML; usually float belly-up when dead; 50.)
D 2000 Yahata & Kimura
D 2000 Yahata, M.
2001 Pfretzschner, H.U.
x 2001 Böhme, M. (Halitherium; Early Olig., Germany; ribs, sedimentological context in storm deposit; 76-79.)
2001 Domning & Pervesler (Metaxytherium krahuletzi; Early Mioc., Austria)
2002 Jousse et al. (DD; Akab Island, United Arab Emirates; archaeological site)
2003 Clementz et al. (DD, Dusisiren jordani; calcium isotope values)
2004 MacFadden et al. (diets, stable isotopes, & niche differentiation)
2005 Furusawa, H. (Hydrodamalinae; North Pacific Ocean)
2005 Astibia et al. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Eocene, Navarre, Spain)
2005 Cahuzac & Audouin (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., France)
2006 Clementz et al. (Eoc. sirs.; stable isotopes)
* 2007 Carone & Domning (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Calabria, Italy; paleoecology)
2007 Floquet et al. (Halitherium taulannense; Late Eoc.; Taulanne, France; taphonomy)
2008 Diedrich, C.G. (Anomotherium, Halitherium; Olig., Germany)
* 2008 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium spp.; Mioc.-Plioc.; peri-Messinian dwarfing)
2009 Clementz et al. (Tethys-Mediterranean sirs.; Eoc.-Plioc.; diets, salinity; stable isotopes)
x 2009 Peters et al. (dugongids; Late Eoc., Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt; taphonomy & preservation; 294, 296-7, 299-301.)
D * 2010 Newsome et al. (sirs. & desmostylians; use of stable isotope biogeochemistry to study ecology; review)
2010 Diedrich, C.G. (sir. diets comp. w/ placodontids)
x 2010 Micklich & Hildebrandt (Halitherium schinzii; Early Olig., Germany; paleoenvironment & associated fauna; 3-21.)
2011 Guido et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Late Mioc., Cessaniti, Italy; micromorphology, geochemistry, & diagenesis of ribs)
* 2011 Clementz & Sewall (Eocene sirs.; stable isotopes; global climate)
* 2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al. (multispecies fossil sir. communities)
2012 Sorbi et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Plioc., Italy & Spain)
2013 Furusawa, H. (Dusisiren, Hydrodamalis; climatic cooling, size increase, loss of teeth)
D 2013 Inuzuka, N. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; osteology, paleoecological restoration)
2014 Pyenson et al. (macroevolution of marine tetrapods)
2014 Vélez-Juarbe, J. (use of sirs. as proxy for seagrass distribution)
* 2014 Crerar et al. (HG; St. Lawrence Is., Alaska; stable isotopes; extinction)
* 2014 Boessenecker et al. (Purisima Fm.; Santa Cruz County, California; Late Mioc.)
* 2015 Reich et al. (Sirs. as indirect paleo-seagrass indicators)
D 2015 Matsui & Kawabe (Paleoparadoxia sp.; early Mioc., Chikubetsu, Hokkaido, Japan)
D * 2017 Matsui et al. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; habitat preferences)
* 2018 Domning, D.P. (?microbial bioerosion of sir. bones; Mioc. Chesapeake Group, USA; 252, 256, 258, 261, 263.)
x * 2018 Dominici et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum, Plioc., Italy, 7-8, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24.)
* 2021 Bullen et al. (HG; structuring of North Pacific kelp forests)
Paleoparadoxia media Inuzuka, 2005 ( 4 )
(= Paleoparadoxia tabatai)
D * 2005 Inuzuka, N. (n.sp.)
D 2009 Fujiwara et al. (scapular position & strength of rib cage)
D 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D 2013 Inuzuka, N. (osteology, paleoecological restoration)
Paleoparadoxia Reinhart, 1959 ( 59 )
x D v 1951 DEREC ("Desmostylus"; Izumi, Japan; discovery & collection; 414.)
x D v 1952 DEREC ("Desmostylus"; Izumi, Japan; locality recollected; 144.)
D * 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (n.gen.)
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (chronologic & geographic range; 3-4, 11-16.)
x D * 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (Mioc., San Clemente Is., California; 192-199.)
x D v 1964 Mitchell & Lipps (Mioc., San Clemente Is., California; 214-215.)
x D 1964 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (pachyostosis; 214.)
x D 1964 Nolan, T.B. (distr.; A137.)
x D 1965a Anon. (Stanford specimen, California; pop. acc.; 49, 53.)
D 1965b Anon.
x D 1965 Mitchell & Lipps (Mioc., San Clemente Is., California; 4-6.)
x D 1965 Repenning, C.A. (Stanford skeleton; drawing; 1, 3.)
x D 1966 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (artist's reconstruction; 57.)
D 1966c Shikama, T.
D 1967 Kamei, T.
x D 1968 Romer, A.S. (skeleton; m200-201.)
x D 1970a Reinhart, R.H. (m243.)
x D 1970 Zuidema, H.P. (pop. acc.; 20-24.)
x D 1972 Barnes, L.G. (Mioc., California; 141-142.)
x D 1972a Domning, D.P. (distr.; 146, 149.)
D 1972 Hasegawa, U.
x D 1975 Reinhart, R.H. (validity of genus reasserted; 826.)
x D 1977 Hasegawa, Y. (artists' reconstructions; pop. acc.; 90-91.)
x D 1978b Domning, D.P. (?competition w/ sirs., 113-115; Mioc., California, 150-151.)
D 1978 Fujimoto & Sakamoto (Japan)
D 1978 Kamei, T.
x D 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-379.)
D 1984 Kamei, T.
x D 1984 Raschke, R.E. (Middle Mioc., California; m64.)
D 1986 Hasegawa, Y. (Yanagawa, Japan)
D 1986 Inuzuka & Karasawa
D * 1986a Suzuki et al. (Japan)
D * 1986b Suzuki et al. (Japan)
x D 1986 Takahashi et al. (Mioc., Japan; "Dugong" of Inuzuka et al. [1980] possibly a tooth of Paleoparadoxia; 317.)
D 1987 Ogasawara & Morita (Japan; paleoecology)
D 1987 Suzuki & Wako
D 1988b Kamiya, H. (tooth cementum)
D 1989d Inuzuka, N. (Tsuyama, Japan)
x D 1990 Ogasawara & Morita (Japan; paleoecology; 29-30.)
D 1992 Kamiya, T.
D 1993 Hasegawa et al. (Yanagawa, Japan)
x D 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure; 354, 357.)
x D 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m179.)
D 1998 Kimura et al. (Akan-cho, Hokkaido, Japan)
D * 1998 Panofsky, A.I. (mounting of Stanford skeleton)
D * 2000 Taketani, Y.
D 2000 Takaizumi & Sato (Mioc., Japan)
D 2002 Saegusa, H. (San-yama)
D 2006 Inuzuka et al. ("P. tabatai"; Mioc., Akita Prefecture, Japan)
D 2006 Hasegawa et al. (Paleoparadoxia sp.; Middle Mioc., Gunma, Japan; forelimb)
D 2008 Hasegawa & Kimura (Paleoparadoxia sp., Kurosawa & Nakajima specimens; Middle Mioc., Gunma, Japan)
D 2013 Hayashi et al. (bone histology & aquatic adaptation)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D 2014 Hasegawa et al. (Paleoparadoxia sp.; Early Mioc., Hokkaido, Japan)
D 2014 Cooper et al.
D 2015 Matsui & Kawabe (early Mioc., Chikubetsu, Hokkaido, Japan)
D 2015 Houssaye et al. (osteosclerosis)
D * 2017 Matsui et al. (habitat preferences)
D 2018 Matsui et al. (femur; Mioc., Fukushima, Japan)
Paleoparadoxia repenningi Domning & Barnes, 2007 ( 4 )
(= Neoparadoxia repenningi)
D 2007 Domning & Barnes (n.sp.)
D 2009 Fujiwara, S. (Ashoroa, Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi, P. tabatai; olecranon orientation, elbow joint angle, & forelimb posture)
D 2012 Fujiwara & Hutchinson (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi; elbow adductor moment arm & forelimb posture)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (referred to Neoparadoxia)
Paleoparadoxia tabatai (Tokunaga, 1939) Reinhart, 1959 ( 48 )
D * 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (n.comb.)
D * 1961 Ijiri & Kamei (skull)
x D * 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (chronologic & geographic range; 11-12.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (teeth; 194, 198.)
D 1966a Shikama, T.
D * 1966c Shikama, T.
x D * 1968 Shikama, T. (skeleton; 21-26, pls. 3-6.)
x D * 1972 Ikebe et al. (Japan; stratigraphic range; 47, 65-66.)
D 1973 Kobayashi & Kamei
x D 1973 Shikama et al. (Japan; stratigraphic range; 138, 140-141.)
D 1974 Kamei & Okazaki
D 1977 Inuzuka, N.
x D 1977 Kamei & Okazaki (stratigraphic range Middle-Late Mioc.; 354.)
D 1977 Sato & Ijiri
x D 1978 Susuki & Stadum (Mioc., San Clemente Is., California; 5, 21.)
D 1978 Tsunoda et al. (Mioc., Japan)
D 1980 Inuzuka & Murai
D 1980 Okubo et al.
x D 1981 Clark, J.C. (Late Mioc., Santa Cruz, California; 27.)
D 1981 Hirota, K.
x D 1982 Reinhart, R.H. (review; comp. w/ other desmostylians; 552-554.)
D 1983 Sakamoto, O.
D 1985 Kamiya et al. (brain)
D 1985 Ono & Uyeno
x D 1986 Domning et al. (classification & affinities, 5, 36-38, 45; comp. w/ Behemotops, 15-17, 20-24, 29-30; paleoecology, 47-48.)
D 1988a Kamiya, H. (enamel histology)
D * 1989 Kamei et al. (Tsuyama, Japan)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard ("P. tabati"; California [Stanford specimen]; taphonomy, pathology, locomotion; 199-203.)
x D 1991 Clark, J.M. (comp. w/ P. weltoni; 490-505.)
D 1992 Kaneko & Goto (Japan)
D 1992 Kaneko & Inuzuka (Japan)
x D 1992 Thewissen & Domning (m495.)
D 1994 Hasegawa & Taketani (Yanagawa, Japan)
x D 1994 Shimada & Inuzuka (Mioc., Japan; 553-577.)
D 1995 Hasegawa et al. (sexual dimorphism)
D 1996 Inuzuka, N. (body size & mass estimates)
D 2000 Taru, H. (mastication)
x D 2001d Domning, D.P. (tibia; 25.)
D 2002 Yoshida & Kimura (Mioc., Akan, Hokkaido)
D 2002 Watanabe & Kimura (Mioc., Akan, Hokkaido)
D 2002 Kimura, M. (Mioc., Akan, Hokkaido)
D 2002 Sato & Kimura (Mioc., Akan, Hokkaido)
D * 2002b Domning, D.P. (terrestrial posture)
D * 2007 Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Kohno, Naoki (neotype designation)
x D * 2009 ICZN (proposed designation of a neotype not accepted; 295-296.)
D 2009 Fujiwara, S. (Ashoroa, Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi, P. tabatai; olecranon orientation, elbow joint angle, & forelimb posture)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G.
D 2013 Inuzuka, N. (sensu = P. repenningi; osteology, paleoecological restoration)
Paleoparadoxia weltoni Clark, 1991 ( 5 )
(= Archaeoparadoxia weltoni)
x D v 1976 Phillips et al. ("Paleoparadoxia"; Late Olig. [actually Early Mioc.?], Point Arena, California; 152.)
x D * 1991 Clark, J.M. (n.sp.; ?Early Mioc., California; 490-508.)
x D 1994 Shimada & Inuzuka (comp. w/ Japanese Paleoparadoxia; 556, 567-568, 571.)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (referred to Archaeoparadoxia)
D 2014 Hasegawa et al. (comp. w/ Paleoparadoxia sp. from Early Mioc., Hokkaido, Japan)
Paleoparadoxiidae Reinhart, 1959 ( 6 )
(family)
D 1953 Reinhart, R.H. ("Family Paleoparadoxia"; nomen nudum)
D * 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (n.fam.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (history of name; 193.)
x D 1986 Domning et al. (history of name; 5.)
D 2008 Domning & Pyenson ("snagging" teeth & premolar homologies)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G.
Paleoparadoxiinae (Reinhart, 1959) Barnes, 2013 ( 1 )
(subfamily)
D * 2013 Barnes, L.G. (new subfamily)
Pan-Sirenia O'Leary et al., 2013? ( 2 )
* 2013 O'Leary et al. (new taxon; in supplemental material, p. 101, tab. S4.)
2019 Vélez-Juarbe & Wood
Panama ( 20 )
(SEE ALSO: Central America)
x * 1920 Goldman, E.A. (TMM; 68-71.)
1937 Lothrop, S.K.
1964 Ladd, J.
x 1964 Lapham,L.H. (TMM from Guyana; weed control; m39.)
x * 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (TMM, TI; weed & insect control; 387-393.)
1968 Klinge, P.
1970 Mendez, E.
1980 Wing, E.S. (TMM)
x 1981 Schad et al. (TMM; Panama Canal & Gatun Lake; 1-4.)
x * 1982 Montgomery et al. (TMM; Panama Canal; possible entry of Pacific; 257-258.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (TMM; entry of Pacific reported; 209.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 583-584, 607.)
* 1990 Mou Sue et al. (TMM; distr. & status)
2009 Muschett et al. (TM; fecal sampling for DNA analysis)
2010 Uhen et al. (Dugongidae indet.; Early Mioc., Panama Canal)
2011 Cramer, K. L. (Caribbean coral reef communities)
2015 Rivera-C. et al. (TMM; hearing & vocalizations)
2017 Diaz-Ferguson et al. (TMM; genetics)
* 2019 Vélez-Juarbe & Wood (Culebratherium alemani, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc.)
* 2022 Guzman & Real (TMM; entry into Pacific Ocean)
Papua New Guinea ( 58 )
(SEE ALSO: Ri)
1875 Moresby, J. (DD; Torres Strait; captures in 1873)
1899 Guise, R.E.
1900 Etheridge, R., Jr. (H. dugong, ?Pleist., Woodlark Is.)
x * 1901 Anon. (DD; Torres Strait; hunting; 21238-21239.)
1901a Finsch, O. (DD; hunting)
x * 1905 De Vis, C.W. (Halicore brevirostris, n.sp.; ?subfossil, Woodlark Is.; 27-30.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; New Guinea, 82; Torres Strait, 83.)
1927 Landtman, G. (DD; hunting rituals)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr. & status; 309.)
1977a Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; conservation)
1977b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
x 1977 Ligon & Hudson (DD; aerial survey; 1-5.)
1978 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; pop. acc.)
1979 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
1979 Parker, F. (DD)
x 1980 Blair, D. (DD; trematode Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus; 512-513.)
1980 Carrier & Carrier (DD)
x * 1980a Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; conservation; 1-102.)
1980b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
1980c Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
1980d Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
1980e Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
1980 Johnstone & Hudson (DD)
1980 Olewale & Sedu (DD; Western Province)
x 1980 Sander, H.E. (DD; Manus Province; feeding habitats; 1-31.)
1981 Anon. (DD)
x 1981a Blair, D. (DD; parasitic flukes; 2.)
1981a Hudson, B.E.T. (DD)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; conservation & public education; 123-141.)
x 1981 Johnstone & Hudson (DD; mouth samples of diet; 681-690.)
x 1981 Maynes & Hudson (DD; on postage stamp; 4-6.)
x 1982 Marsh & Heinsohn (DD; conservation; 5.)
x 1982 Molnar, R.E. (Halicore brevirostre [sic], ?Pleist., Woodlark Is., 676, 679; H. dugong, ?Pleist., Woodlark Is., 680.)
x 1982 Wagner, R. (New Ireland; "ri" not a dugong; 33-39.)
x 1983 Mead, J.G. (New Ireland; "ri" not a porpoise, possibly a dugong; 161-162.)
x 1983 Sibert, J.R. (New Ireland; "ri" probably a marine mammal; 159-161.)
x 1983 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; hunting & conservation; 14-15.)
x 1983 Wagner et al. (New Ireland; "ri" not a dugong; 113-125.)
x 1984 Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; hunting; pop. acc.; 298-301.)
x 1985 Beckjord, J.-E. (New Ireland; "ri" a dugong; 154-155.)
x 1985 Greenwell, J.R. (New Ireland; "ri" not a dugong; 151-154.)
x 1985 Sibert, J.R. (New Ireland; "ri" possibly a dugong; 144-145.)
x 1985 Wagner, R. (New Ireland; "ri" not a dugong; 149-151, 156.)
1986c Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; traditional hunting & conservation)
x 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; status; 53-76.)
x 1986 Tisdell, C.A. (DD; conservation; 102-103.)
x * 1986 Williams, T.R. (New Ireland; "ri" definitely a dugong; 61-68.)
1987 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD)
x * 1987 Greenwell, J.R. (New Ireland; "ri"; history of study; 140-144.)
x 1988 Sehm, G.G. (New Ireland; "ri" not a dugong; 145-149.)
x 1988 Williams, T.R. (New Ireland; "ri" a dugong; 149-151.)
x 1989 Bay & Demoulin (DD; Hansa Bay; m12.)
x 1992 Blair & Hudson (DD; trematode Lankatrematoides gardneri; 1077.)
1995 Karre, B.D. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1997 Marsh, Harris & Lawler (DD; Torres Strait; sustainability of fishery; 1375-1386.)
2007 Crouch et al. (DD; Torres Strait; dugong bone mounds)
2012 Dobbs et al. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
* 2013 Fitzgerald et al. (Sirenia indet.; Mioc.)
Paraliosiren Abel, 1906 ( 5 )
(= Prototherium)
x * 1906 Abel, O. (n.gen.; Late Eoc., Italy; 59.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m471, 473.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Prototherium; m135.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Prototherium; 378-379.)
Paraliosiren suessi Abel, 1906 ( 2 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
x * 1906 Abel, O. (n.gen.n.sp.; Late Eoc., Italy; 59.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (nature of type material; 387.)
Paralitherium Kordos, 1977 ( 1 )
x * 1977 Kordos, L. (n.gen.; Late Eoc., Hungary; 349-367.)
Paralitherium tarkanyense Kordos, 1977 ( 4 )
x * 1977 Kordos, L. (n.gen.n.sp.; Late Eoc., Hungary; 349-367.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 385, 387-389, 396-397.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 39, 58.)
1985b Kordos, L.
Parasites: ( 0 )
(NOTE: In the following citations of references to species of parasites, where a sirenian taxon is not specified, reference is to the sirenian species native to the geographic area(s) mentioned.)
Parasites: Amphistoma fabaceum Diesing, 1839 ( 10 )
(Trematoda)
x 1838 Diesing, C.M. (nomen nudum; m189.)
x * 1839 Diesing, C.M. (n.gen.n.sp.; Manatus exunguis, intestine; 236.)
1850-51 Diesing, C.M.
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. ("Amphistomum"; m456.)
1889 Stedman, J.M.
x 1891 Leidy, J. ("Amphistomum"; Trichechus; intestine & nasal passages; 413-414.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund ("Amphistomum"; m70.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. ("?Amphistomum fabaceum"; TM; organs, brain; 227, 232.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Chiorchis fabaceus; 2, 12-13.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (m131.)
Parasites: Anoplocephala Blanchard, 1848 ( 1 )
(Cestoda)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (Florida; 629, 632-633.)
Parasites: Ascaris dugonis Diesing, 1851 ( 5 )
(Nematoda; = Paradujardinia halicoris)
x * 1851 Diesing, C.M. (n.sp.; 191, 502.)
x 1859 Baird, W. (synonymy; 149.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (synonymy; 147, 149.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (m70.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Paradujardinia halicoris; 319.)
Parasites: Ascaris halichoris Owen, 1833 ( 10 )
(Nematoda; = Paradujardinia halicoris)
* 1833 Owen, R. (n.sp.)
x * 1859 Baird, W. (Red Sea; history of study, redescription; 148-149, pl. 56.)
1861 Diesing, C.M.
1889 Parona, C.
x * 1899 Stiles & Hassall ("A. halicoris"; review; 108, 147-151, 169.)
1903 Linstow, O.v. (Red Sea)
x * 1905 Linstow, O.v. ("A. halicoris"; DD; anatomy & nomenclature; 258-260, pl. 11.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund ("A. halicoris"; Australia; 70.)
1906 Linstow, O.v.
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Paradujardinia halicoris; 312, 319.)
Parasites: Ascaris Linnaeus, 1758 ( 2 )
(Nematoda)
x 1838a Owen, R. (DD; cardiac gland; 30.)
x * 1859 Baird, W. (DD, HG; 148-149, pl. 56.)
Parasites: Ascaris rytinae Diesing, 1851 ( 6 )
(Nematoda; nomen dubium)
x * 1851 Diesing, C.M. (n.sp.; HG; 190, 502.)
1878 Linstow, O.v.
x v * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG, stomach & duodenum; 191.)
x * 1899 Stiles & Hassall (HG; review; 100, 108, 163-164, 169.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; review; 115.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (m319.)
Parasites: Babesia ( 1 )
(Protozoa)
2020 Satyaningtijas et al. (DD; Indonesia)
Parasites: Bacteria: SEE Bacteriology ( 0 )
Parasites: Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortíz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) ( 2 )
(Copepoda)
2010 Aznar et al.
x 2010 Suárez-M. et al. (TMM; Mexico; 847-859.)
Parasites: Balanus Bruguière, 1789 ( 2 )
(Cirripedia)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; 69.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; 569.)
Parasites: Balanus trigonus Darwin ( 1 )
(Cirripedia)
x 1965 Stubbings, H.G. (Senegal; 891.)
Parasites: Cardicola dhangali Hutson, Vaughan, and Blair, 2019 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
* 2019 Hutson et al. (DD; n.sp.)
Parasites: Chelonibia Leach, 1817 ( 3 )
(Cirripedia)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund ("Chelonobia"; DD; 69.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund ("Chelonobia"; DD; 569.)
2011 Nifong & Frick (TML; Chelonibia testudinaria)
Parasites: Chelonibia manati Gruvel, 1903 ( 4 )
(Cirripedia)
x * 1903 Gruvel, A. ("Chelonobia manati", n.sp.; Congo; 116-120, pls. 2, 4.)
x 1916 Pilsbry, H.A. (Congo; review; 265.)
x 1965 Stubbings, H.G. (Senegal; 876, 893-899.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 633.)
Parasites: Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818) ( 1 )
(Cirripedia)
x 1965 Stubbings, H.G. (Senegal; 893.)
Parasites: Chiorchis fabaceus (Diesing, 1838) Fischoeder, 1901 ( 22 )
(Trematoda)
* 1901 Fischoeder, F.
1902 Fischoeder, F.
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (Congo; 30.)
x * 1929 Stunkard, H.W. (history of study, & Belgian Congo; 254-258, 282-283.)
1932 Price, E.W. (Africa)
1934 Canavan, W.P.N.
1934 Travassos, L.P.
x 1936 Baylis, H.A. (Nigeria & elsewhere; 257.)
x 1960 Hutton & Sogandares (Florida; m290.)
1964 Hutton, R.F.
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TM, small intestine; Mexico; 418.)
1969 Travassos et al.
x 1970 Radhakrishnan & Bradley (TML, cecum & colon; Florida; 59.)
1973 Bravo-Hollis & Caballero D.
x * 1975 Forrester et al. (TM, distr. in intestine; Florida; 567-568.)
x 1979 Forrester et al. (TM, intestines & cecum; Florida; 5.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (m2, m13.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (zoogeographic significance; 613.)
x * 1988 Beck & Forrester (Florida; 628-633, 635.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (Florida; 542.)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; Colombia)
Parasites: Chiorchis Fischoeder, 1901 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x 1977 Boever et al. (TI, large intestine; in capt.; 5-6.)
Parasites: Chiorchis groschafti Coy Otero, 1989 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
* 1989 Coy Otero, A. (n.sp.; TM; Cuba)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
Parasites: Cochleotrema cochleotrema Travassos and Vogelsang, 1931 ( 6 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1931 Travassos & Vogelsang (n.gen.n.sp.; TM, stomach; in capt.; 143-147.)
x 1932 Sokoloff & Caballero (m167.)
1969 Travassos et al.
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 11-13, 15-16, 42.)
x * 1988 Beck & Forrester (Florida; 628-633, 635.)
x 2003 Falcón et al. (Puerto Rico; 8.)
Parasites: Cochleotrema indicum (Sharma & Gupta, 1971) Blair, 1981 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.comb.; revision; 11-12, 15-17, 19, 30, 34, 42, 45, 51-53.)
x 1986 Blair, D. (photo; S21.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Cochleotrema Travassos and Vogelsang, 1931 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1931 Travassos & Vogelsang (n.gen.; 143-147.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 4-6, 10-12, 19, 21.)
Parasites: Cryptosporidium ( 9 )
(Protozoa)
1997 Hill et al. (DD)
* 2000 Fayer et al. (epidemiology)
2002 Morgan-Ryan et al.
* 2007b Borges et al. (TMM; in capt., Brazil)
* 2007a Borges et al. (TI)
2009 Borges et al. (TMM; Cryptosporidium infection)
2011 Borges et al. (TI, TMM; Brazil)
2017 Borges, Lima, et al. (TI; Brazil)
2018 Borges et al. (TI; diagnosis)
Parasites: Cutidiplogaster manati v. Lieven et al., 2011 ( 2 )
(Nematoda)
* 2011 Lieven et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; TM, skin; in capt., Okinawa)
* 2021 Gonzalez et al. (TML; Florida; nematode C. manati and others)
Parasites: Cyamus rhytinae Brandt, 1846 ( 7 )
(= Cyamus ovalis?)
* 1846b Brandt, J.F. (n.sp.)
1871a Brandt, A.
x * 1873 Lütken, C.F. (syn. of C. ovalis; 270-274, pl. 2.)
x v * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; 201.)
x * 1967 Leung, Y.-M. (syn. of C. ovalis; 279-280, 287.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; review; 115.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m405.)
Parasites: Dujardinascaris halicoris (Owen, 1833) Baylis, 1947 ( 1 )
(Nematoda; = Paradujardinia halicoris)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Paradujardinia halicoris; 312, 319.)
Parasites: Dujardinia halicoris (Owen, 1833) Baylis, 1920 ( 3 )
(Nematoda; = Paradujardinia halicoris)
x 1941 Johnston & Mawson (Australia; 432.)
1941 Yamaguti, S. (Palau)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Paradujardinia halicoris; 312, 319.)
Parasites: Eimeria manatus Upton, Odell, Bossart, and Walsh, 1989 ( 3 )
(Protozoa)
x * 1989 Upton et al. (n.sp.; Florida; 87-90.)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; Colombia)
Parasites: Eimeria nodulosa Upton, Odell, Bossart, and Walsh, 1989 ( 3 )
(Protozoa)
x * 1989 Upton et al. (n.sp.; Florida; 87-90.)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; Colombia)
Parasites: Eimeria trichechi Lainson, Naiff, Best, and Shaw, 1983 ( 3 )
(Protozoa)
x * 1983 Lainson et al. (n.sp.; TI; Brazil; 287-289.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 633.)
x 1989 Upton et al. (comp. w/ Eimeria spp. from Florida; 88.)
Parasites: Entamoeba ( 1 )
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; Colombia)
Parasites: Entozoa dugonis Diesing, 1851 ( 1 )
(Nematoda; = Paradujardinia halicoris)
x * 1851 Diesing, C.M. (name published as syn. of Ascaris Dugonis; 191.)
Parasites: Faredifex Blair, 1981 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.; 40-41, 44.)
Parasites: Faredifex clavata Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.n.sp.; 26, 40-41, 43, 45, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Folitrema Blair, 1981 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.; 31.)
Parasites: Folitrema jecoris Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.n.sp.; 18, 31-32, 34, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Giardia ( 3 )
2017 Borges, Lima, et al. (TI; Brazil)
2018 Borges et al. (TI; diagnosis)
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; Colombia)
Parasites: Haerator Blair, 1981 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.; 41, 43-44.)
Parasites: Haerator caperatus Blair, 1981 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.n.sp.; 22, 38, 43-47, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; intestine; India; 375.)
Parasites: Harpactichechus manatorum Ortíz, Lalana & Torres, 1992 ( 1 )
(Copepoda; = Balaenophilus manatorum)
x * 1992 Ortiz et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; TMM; Cuba; 117-127.)
Parasites: Harpactichechus Ortíz, Lalana & Torres, 1992 ( 1 )
(Copepoda; = Balaenophilus)
x * 1992 Ortiz et al. (n.gen.; TMM; Cuba; 118.)
Parasites: Harpacticus pulex Humes, 1964 ( 3 )
(Copepoda)
x * 1964 Humes, A.G. (n.sp.; TM; Florida; in capt.; 517-528.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TM; Florida; in capt.; 107-108.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (m633.)
Parasites: Heterocheilus Diesing, 1839 ( 4 )
(Nematoda)
x * 1839 Diesing, C.M. (n.gen.; TI; Brazil; 229-232, pls. 15, 19.)
1965 Chabaud & Bain
x 1977 Petter, A.J. (evolution, in relation to origin of sirs.; 153.)
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (redescription; 310-311.)
Parasites: Heterocheilus domningi Sprent, 1983 ( 2 )
(Nematoda)
x * 1983 Sprent, J.F.A. (n.sp.; TS; Zaire; 69-76.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 633.)
Parasites: Heterocheilus tunicatus Diesing, 1839 ( 11 )
(Nematoda)
x * 1839 Diesing, C.M. (n.gen.n.sp.; TI; Brazil; 230-232, pls. 15, 19.)
x 1851 Diesing, C.M. (TI; Brazil; 209, 502.)
1884 Drasche, R.v. (redescription)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (m107, m170.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (m70.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (m131.)
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (redescription; 309-315, 322-325, pls. 1-2.)
x * 1983 Sprent, J.F.A. (comp. w/ H. domningi, 69, 73-75; TM, 69, 73-74.)
x * 1988 Beck & Forrester (Florida; 628-635.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (Florida; 541.)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
Parasites: Hexapleomera ( 1 )
2012 Bamber, R.N.
Parasites: Indosolenorchis Crusz, 1951 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1951 Crusz, H. (n.gen.; DD, cecum; Sri Lanka; 135-141, pls. 17-20.)
1958 Mackerras, M.J.
x 1980 Sey, O. (syn. of Solenorchis; 223-228.)
Parasites: Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus Crusz, 1951 ( 8 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1951 Crusz, H. (n.gen.n.sp.; DD, cecum; Sri Lanka; 135-141, pls. 17-20.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (Sri Lanka; 499, 503.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD, cecum; Sulawesi; 41.)
x * 1980 Blair, D. (DD, cecum & large intestine; Indopacific; 511-525.)
x 1980 Sey, O. (syn. of Solenorchis travassosi; 223-228.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; intestine; India; 375.)
Parasites: Labicola Blair, 1979 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1979 Blair, D. (n.gen.; DD, upper lips; Australia; 519-526.)
Parasites: Labicola elongata Blair, 1979 ( 5 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1979 Blair, D. (n.gen.n.sp.; DD, upper lips; Australia; 519-526.)
x 1981b Blair, D. (m46.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (technique for collection, 276; in checklist, 281.)
x 1986 Blair, D. (photo of flukes in section of DD lip; S21.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Lankatrema Crusz and Fernand, 1954 ( 6 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1954 Crusz & Fernand (n.gen.; DD, stomach; Sri Lanka; 501.)
x 1977 Blair, D. (DD; Australia; 64.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (DD, stomach; Australia; 286-287, 291.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 19-20, 28-29.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (technique for collection, 277, 280; in checklist, 281.)
x 1988 Dailey et al. (comp. w/ Moniligerum; 160, 162.)
Parasites: Lankatrema macrocotyle Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.sp.; 14, 20-21, 23, 27-28, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Lankatrema mannarense Crusz and Fernand, 1954 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1954 Crusz & Fernand (n.gen.n.sp.; Sri Lanka; 499-501, 503, 506-507.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 20-21, 23-24.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Lankatrema microcotyle Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.sp.; 14, 20-21, 23-25, 27-28, 34, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Lankatrema minutum Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.sp.; 14, 20-21, 23-24, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Lankatrematoides Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.; 28-29.)
x 1988 Dailey et al. (comp. w/ Moniligerum; 162.)
Parasites: Lankatrematoides gardneri Blair, 1981 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.gen.n.sp.; 18, 28-29, 31, 34, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
x * 1992 Blair & Hudson (DD, pancreas; Papua New Guinea; population structure; 1077-1079.)
Parasites: Leeches ( 1 )
x 1920 Beebe, W. (Guyana; m731.)
Parasites: Leptomera Latreille, 1817 ( 2 )
(Amphipoda)
x 1873 Lütken, C.F. (suggested as parasite of HG; 272.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (?HG; review; 115.)
Parasites: Lobocephalus heterolobus Diesing, 1838 ( 3 )
(Nematoda; = Heterocheilus tunicatus; nomen nudum)
x * 1838 Diesing, C.M. (n.gen.n.sp.; nomen nudum; 189.)
x 1851 Diesing, C.M. (syn. of Heterocheilus tunicatus; 209.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Heterocheilus tunicatus; 311.)
Parasites: Melanothamnus maniticola Woodworth et al., 2019 ( 1 )
(Rhodophyta)
* 2019 Woodworth et al. (n.sp.; TML; Florida; skin.)
Parasites: Moniligerum blairi Dailey, Vogelbein, and Forrester, 1988 ( 4 )
(Trematoda)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (Florida; 629-630, 632-633.)
x * 1988 Dailey et al. (n.gen.n.sp.; TM; Florida; 160-162.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (Florida; 541-542, 550.)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
Parasites: Moniligerum Dailey, Vogelbein, and Forrester, 1988 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1988 Dailey et al. (n.gen.; TM; Florida; 160.)
Parasites: Monostomum dujonis Leuckart, 1875 ( 3 )
(Trematoda; = Opisthotrema dujonis)
* 1875 Leuckart, R. (n.sp.; DD; Philippines)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (m69.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Opisthotrema dujonis; 6, 8.)
Parasites: Neospora caninum ( 1 )
(Protozoa)
2019 Wong et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia)
Parasites: Nudacotyle undicola Dailey, Vogelbein, and Forrester, 1988 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1988 Beck & Forrester (Florida; 629-631, 633.)
x * 1988 Dailey et al. (n.sp.; TM; Florida; 161-163.)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
Parasites: Opisthotrema australe Blair, 1981 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (n.sp.; 5-10, 30, 42, 51-53.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Opisthotrema cochleare Fischer, 1884 ( 3 )
(Trematoda; = Opisthotrema dujonis)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (Australia; 69.)
x 1931 Travassos & Vogelsang (comp. w/ Cochleotrema; 143-144.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of O. dujonis; 6, 8, 13, 15.)
Parasites: Opisthotrema cochleotrema (Travassos & Vogelsang, 1931) Price, 1932 ( 3 )
(Trematoda; = Cochleotrema cochleotrema)
x 1979 Budiarso et al. (DD, nasal passages; Sulawesi; 568.)
x 1979 Forrester et al. (TM, nasal passages; Florida; 5.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Cochleotrema cochleotrema; 13, 15, 17.)
Parasites: Opisthotrema dujonis (Leuckart, 1875) Price, 1932 ( 7 )
(Trematoda)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (m503.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD, eustachian tube; Sulawesi; 41.)
x 1977 Blair, D. (DD; Australia; 64.)
x 1979 Budiarso et al. (DD, eustachian tubes; Sulawesi; 568.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 5-10, 19, 30, 42, 45, 51-53.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Opisthotrema Fischer, 1883 ( 1 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 4-6, 10, 12, 21.)
Parasites: Opisthotrema nasalis Budiarso et al., 1979 ( 2 )
(Trematoda; nomen nudum, = Cochleotrema indicum)
x 1979 Budiarso et al. (n.sp.; nomen nudum; DD, nasal passages; Sulawesi; 568.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Cochleotrema indicum; 17.)
Parasites: Opisthotrema pulmonale von Linstow, 1904 ( 2 )
(Trematoda; = Pulmonicola pulmonalis)
* 1904 Linstow, O.v. (n.sp.; DD, lungs; Torres Strait)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Pulmonicola pulmonalis; 5-6, 17, 19.)
Parasites: Paracochleotrema indicum Sharma and Gupta, 1971 ( 3 )
(Trematoda; = Cochleotrema indicum)
x * 1971 Sharma & Gupta (n.gen.n.sp.; DD, nasal passages; 285-288.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Cochleotrema indicum; 15.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (technique for collection, 276, 280; in checklist, 281.)
Parasites: Paracochleotrema Sharma & Gupta, 1971 ( 2 )
(Trematoda; = Cochleotrema)
x * 1971 Sharma & Gupta (n.gen.; DD, nasal passages; 285.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (syn. of Cochleotrema; 10, 12.)
Parasites: Paradujardinia halicoris (Owen, 1833) Travassos, 1933 ( 14 )
(Nematoda)
x v 1834 Rüppell, E. (Red Sea; 106.)
* 1933 Travassos, L.P.
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD, stomach; Sri Lanka; 499.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD, stomach; Red Sea; 43-46, pl. 3.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD, stomach; Queensland; 312.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD, stomach; Australia; 41.)
x 1977 Jueco, N.L. (DD, stomach & small intestine; Philippines; 257-262.)
x * 1977 Marsh et al. ("P. halichoris"; DD, stomach; Australia; 286, 291.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1981 Campbell & Ladds (DD, stomach; Queensland; 179.)
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (redescription; 309-310, 312, 314-325, pls. 2-3.)
x 1983 Sprent, J.F.A. (comp. w/ Heterocheilus; 75.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
x 1988 Hasegawa, H. (DD, stomach & small intestine; Okinawa; 23-25.)
Parasites: Paradujardinia Travassos, 1933 ( 3 )
(Nematoda)
* 1933 Travassos, L.P. (n.gen.)
x 1977 Petter, A.J. (evolution, in relation to origin of sirs.; 153-155.)
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (redescription; 312, 319.)
Parasites: Platylepas bissexlobata de Blainville ( 2 )
(Cirripedia)
1854 Darwin, C.
x 1884 Fischer, P. (DD; New Caledonia; 359.)
Parasites: Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798) ( 5 )
(Cirripedia)
1854 Darwin, C.
x 1916 Pilsbry, H.A. (DD & Trichechus; 284-286.)
x 1962 Marlow, B.J. ("P. hexastylus"; DD; New South Wales; 433.)
x 1965 Stubbings, H.G. (TS; 876, 891, 894, 899-902.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 633-634.)
Parasites: Plicatolabia hagenbecki (Khalil and Vogelsang, 1932) Mosgovoy, 1951 ( 4 )
(Nematoda; = Heterocheilus tunicatus)
x 1970 Radhakrishnan & Bradley (TML, stomach; Florida; 59.)
x 1979 Forrester et al. (TM, stomach; Florida; 5.)
x 1981a Beusse et al. ("Plicatolabia sp."; TM, stomach & intestines; Florida; 98.)
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Heterocheilus tunicatus; 310-311.)
Parasites: Proto Leach, 1814 ( 2 )
(Amphipoda)
x 1873 Lütken, C.F. (suggested as parasite of HG; 272.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (?HG; review; 115.)
Parasites: Pulmonicola pulmonalis (von Linstow, 1904) Poche, 1926 ( 7 )
(Trematoda)
x 1931 Travassos & Vogelsang (comp. w/ Cochleotrema; 143.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (m503.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 17, 19.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
2009 Carvalho et al. (TMM; Brazil; "Pulmonicola cochleotrema")
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; "Pulmonicola cochleotrema")
Parasites: Rhabdiopoeus Johnston, 1913 ( 2 )
(Trematoda)
x 1977 Blair, D. (DD; Australia; 64.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 33, 35, 41, 44.)
Parasites: Rhabdiopoeus taylori Johnston, 1913 ( 6 )
(Trematoda)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD, intestine; m503.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. ("Rhabdiopaeus"; DD, cecum; Red Sea; 45-46.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 22, 35-37, 45, 51-53.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; intestine; India; 375.)
Parasites: Schizamphistoma manati Sokoloff and Caballero, 1932 ( 1 )
(Trematoda; = Chiorchis ?)
x * 1932 Sokoloff & Caballero (n.sp.; 163-167.)
Parasites: Sirenocyamus Brandt, 1846 ( 3 )
(= Cyamus)
x * 1846b Brandt, J.F. (n.gen.; name proposed for animal described by Steller; 189-192.)
x * 1967 Leung, Y.-M. (syn. of Cyamus; 279-280, 287.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; review; 115.)
Parasites: Sirenocyamus rhytinae Brandt, 1846 ( 7 )
(= Cyamus ovalis?)
x * 1846b Brandt, J.F. (n.gen.n.sp.; name proposed for animal described by Steller; 189-192.)
x * 1873 Lütken, C.F. (syn. of Cyamus ovalis; 270-274, pl. 2.)
x 1893 Lütken, C.F. (m433.)
x v * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; Bering Is.; 201.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall (m163.)
x * 1967 Leung, Y.-M. (syn. of Cyamus ovalis; 279-280, 287.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; review; 115.)
Parasites: Solenorchis baeri Hilmy, 1949 ( 7 )
(Trematoda; = Solenorchis travassosi)
* 1949 Hilmy, I.S. (n.sp.)
x 1951 Crusz, H. (m140.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (m503.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD, cecum; Red Sea; 45-46, 48.)
x * 1980 Sey, O. (synonymized with S. travassosi; 223-228.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Solenorchis gohari Hilmy, 1949 ( 6 )
(Trematoda; = Solenorchis travassosi)
* 1949 Hilmy, I.S. (n.sp.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (m503.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD, cecum; Red Sea; 45-46, 48.)
x * 1980 Sey, O. (synonymized with S. travassosi; 223-228.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Solenorchis Hilmy, 1949 ( 5 )
(Trematoda)
* 1949 Hilmy, I.S. (n.gen.; DD; Red Sea)
x 1951 Crusz, H. (comp. w/ Indosolenorchis; 139-140.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD, cecum; Red Sea; 44-46, 48.)
x 1980 Blair, D. (comp. w/ Indosolenorchis; 523-524.)
x * 1980 Sey, O. (revision; 223-228.)
Parasites: Solenorchis naguibmahfouzi Hilmy, 1949 ( 6 )
(Trematoda; = Solenorchis travassosi)
* 1949 Hilmy, I.S. (n.sp.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD, cecum; m503.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD, cecum; Red Sea; 45-46, 48.)
x * 1980 Sey, O. (synonymized with S. travassosi; 223-228.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Solenorchis travassosi Hilmy, 1949 ( 7 )
(Trematoda)
* 1949 Hilmy, I.S. (n.sp.)
x 1951 Crusz, H. (m140.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD, intestine; m503.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD, cecum; Red Sea; 45-46, 48.)
x * 1980 Sey, O. (revision & synonymy; 223-228.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Taprobanella bicaudata Crusz and Fernand, 1954 ( 4 )
(Trematoda)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (n.gen.n.sp.; DD, stomach; Sri Lanka; 499, 501-503, 506-507.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 26, 37-40, 42, 51-53.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasites: Taprobanella Crusz & Fernand, 1954 ( 3 )
(Trematoda)
x * 1954 Crusz & Fernand (n.gen.; DD, stomach; Sri Lanka; 501-503.)
x 1977 Blair, D. (DD; Australia; 64.)
x * 1981a Blair, D. (revision; 37, 41, 44.)
Parasites: Toxoplasma gondii ( 9 )
(Protozoa)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (Florida; 1294-1296.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 633.)
2012 Alvarado-Esquivel et al. (TMM; in capt., Mexico)
2012 Mathews, Da Silva et al. (TI; Brazil; antibodies)
2012 Sulzner et al. (Belize)
* 2012 Bossart et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; Toxoplasma gondii; gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, myocarditis)
* 2017 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; Florida, Puerto Rico)
* 2017 Wyrosdick, Gerhold et al. (TML, TMM; Florida, Puerto Rico)
2019 Wong et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia)
Parasites: Typhlophorus hagenbecki Khalil and Vogelsang, 1932 ( 2 )
(Nematoda; = Heterocheilus tunicatus)
* 1932 Khalil & Vogelsang (n.sp.; TM; in capt.)
x * 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (syn. of Heterocheilus tunicatus; 310-311.)
Parasites: Zygocotyle Stunkard, 1916 ( 7 )
(Trematoda)
1950 Dollfus, R.P. (Djibouti)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (m503.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (distinct from Solenorchis; m48.)
x 1980 Blair, D. (comp. w/ Indosolenorchis; 523-524.)
x * 1980 Sey, O. (Z. sp. of Dollfus [1950] referred to Solenorchis travassosi; 223-228.)
x 1981c Blair, D. (in checklist; 281.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (in checklist; 634.)
Parasitology ( 63 )
(SEE ALSO: Bacteriology; Community Ecology; Parasites)
x 1846b Brandt, J.F. (HG; skin & intestinal parasites; 189-192.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; large intestine; m456.)
1878 Linstow, O.v.
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TML; in capt., New York; "flatworms" in brain & other organs; 97.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, 69-70; HG, Trichechus, 70.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; 569.)
1913 Johnston, S.J. (DD; Queensland)
1923 Baylis & Daubney (DD; India)
1924 Broch, H.
1931 Travassos & Vogelsang
1932 Price, E.W.
x 1932 Sokoloff & Caballero (TMM; 163, 167.)
1940 Nigrelli, R.F.
x 1941 Johnston & Mawson (DD; Australia; Dujardinia; 432.)
1950 Dollfus, R.P.
1950 Mohr, E. (HG; skin)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; algae, barnacles; 26.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TML; Florida; barnacles; 194.)
x * 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD; 499-507.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD; algae; 26.)
x 1956 Tomkins, I.R. (TML; barnacles; 289.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; in capt., India; algae; 199.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; algae; 3.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (HG; skin)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; barnacles; 1: 104, 2: 234.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (microbiological digestion; 504-514.)
1972 Dailey & Brownell
x 1972 Phillips, C. (TML; in capt., Florida; use of mullet to control algae; 37.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; unidentified parasites; 41.)
x 1977 Petter, A.J. (radiation of Ascaridoidea in sirs.; 151, 153-155.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; crustaceans, nematodes; 115.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; remoras; 135-136.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; nematode eggs, algae, diatoms, barnacles, remoras, arthropods, etc.; 23, 62-64, 88.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; Indonesia; laryngitis caused by flukes; 27-29.)
x 1981b Blair, D. (DD; gen. acc.; 46.)
x * 1981c Blair, D. (DD; techniques for helminth collection; 275-285.)
x 1981 Brownell, Anderson et al. (DD; Palau; remoras; 32-33.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (invasion of sirs. by ascaridoids; 309, 324-325.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; in capt., Florida; Harpacticus ectoparasites, 107-108; use of mullet & copper sulfate to control algae, 108.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; remoras; 522.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (DD; ovarian parasites; 745-747, 761-762.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; barnacles; 772.)
x 1986 Blair, D. (DD; gen. acc.; S21-S22.)
1987 Geraci & St. Aubin
x * 1988 Beck & Forrester (TML & other sirs.; summary of parasites; 628-637.)
1992 Forrester, D.J.
x 1992 Ortiz et al. (TM; Cuba; copepod Harpactichechus manatorum & peritrichid protozoan; 117-119.)
1997 Raga, J.A.
x 1997 Whiting, S.D. (DD; Australia; remoras; 19.)
2006 Bledsoe et al. (TML; biofouling organisms)
2008 Morales-V. et al. (TMM; crustacean epibiont Hexapleomera robusta)
2009 Colon-Llavina et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands; parasites)
2010 Gibbs et al. (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; disturbance by invasive catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus)
2012 Morales-Serna et al. (TMM; Mexico; parasitic copepods)
2012 Oppenheimer & BenDor (TML; management of biofouling)
* 2012 Bonde, Mignucci-Giannoni, & Bossart (pathology & mortality assessment)
x 2015 Cole, B. (DD; Red Sea, Egypt; photo w/ remoras; 2-4.)
2016 Violante & Suárez (TMM; copepod Metis holothuriae)
2017 Borges, Lima, et al. (TI; Brazil; Cryptosporidium, Giardia)
* 2018 Frankovich et al. (TML; diatoms (Tursiocola spp.))
2018 Borges et al. (TI; diagnosis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia)
* 2018 Wyrosdick et al. (TML, TMM; internal parasites)
2019 Vélez et al. (TMM; Colombia)
Pathology ( 175 )
(SEE ALSO: Bacteriology; Biochemistry; Natural Death or Injury; Parasites; Parasitology; Pollution, Effects of; Temperature, Effects of; Teratology; Virology)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; in capt., Philadelphia; pericardial inflammation, constipation; 460-461.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (TMM; in capt., Philadelphia; constipation, 296; fat deposits around heart, 297.)
1879 Murie, J. (TMM; wasting, peritonitis)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; wasting, peritonitis; 23-24.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (?TI; in capt., Brighton; intestinal inflammation, m456; broken humerus & spinal injury, 459.)
x 1894 Miller, W.D. (TS; tooth caries; 15-18.)
x 1897 Beddard, F.E. (TI; pleurisy; 47.)
x 1904 Freund, L. (DD; metacarpus; 375, pl. 15.)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TML; in capt., New York; pneumonia, parasites; 97.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; in capt., New York; pneumonia, parasites, wounds, 227, 232; liver & kidney disease, 235.)
x 1919 Anon. (TI; in capt., New York; supposedly with "two distinct stomachs"; 46.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt., Hamburg; ?bloat, 131-132, 177; slow healing of wounds, 132.)
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (TS; acute enteritis; 25.)
x 1928b Petit, G. (TS, Halitherium schinzii; fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 & 3; 429-431.)
1930 Pales, L. (HG)
x * 1930 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt., Hamburg; enteritis & fungal infection; 362-364.)
x 1932 Korschelt, E. (DD, rib fractures, 450; TML, lesion on radius, 451.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (Trichechus; skeletal anomalies; 540.)
1936 Slijper, E.J. (HG; spondylitis deformans; 488.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; in capt., New York; "ulcers" in back muscles; 148.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; Brazil; respiratory infection, skin disease; 65.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; boils, treated with mercurochrome & penicillin; 189.)
x 1954 Anon. (TS; in capt., Antwerp; photos of healing wounds; 78.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD; parasites; 503-505.)
x 1955 Severin, K. (TML; pneumonia; 148.)
x 1956a Anon. (DD; wounds, pneumonia; 49.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD; wounds, pneumonia; 27.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; Red Sea; nematode infestation; 43-44, pl. 3.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; in capt., India; abrasions, 198; scabies from dirt, 199.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; wounds; 3.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (Trichechus; fungal infection)
x 1963 Hofmeister, Max (TMM from Guyana; in capt., Ohio; rope lacerations, loose bowels, edema; 12.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; fungal infection; 117-118.)
x 1964 Humes, A.G. (TML; in capt., Florida; infection & parasites; 517-518, 528.)
x 1964 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; healing of injury to tail; 7-8.)
1965 Dilbone, R.P. (mycosis)
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; Florida; propeller wounds, 166-167; red tide, 167.)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; Mexico; healing of wounds; death from harpoon wound in lung; 417.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; in capt., India; pneumonia, m216; blisters, infected stingray wound, inflamed testes, 219.)
x 1967 Oke, V.R. (DD; in capt., Australia; copper sulfate poisoning; 221.)
x 1968b Anon. (TI; in capt., San Francisco; wound infection; 2.)
x * 1969 Frye & Herald (TI, DD; wound infection & osteomyelitis; 1073-1076.)
x 1969 Herald, E.S. (TI; wound infection & osteomyelitis; m29.)
1972 Bartmann, W. (TM; in capt., Duisburg, Germany; skin disease)
x 1972 Blessing et al. (TI; in capt.; 168.)
x 1972 Boorer, M.K. (TM; in capt.; clockwise swimming & possible asymmetrical muscle development; m165.)
1973 Lewis & Wilson
x 1974 Bartmann, W. (TM; in capt., Germany; furuncular dermatitis; 13-16.)
x 1974a Dekker, D. (TMM from Suriname; in capt., Amsterdam; bruises, saliva in bronchi; 68.)
x 1974b Dekker, D. (TMM; Suriname; thinness; 3.)
1974 Mawdesley, T.L.E. (neoplasia)
x 1974 Tabuchi et al. (TM; skin fungus; 127-134.)
x 1975c Anon. (TML; Florida; ?bloat; 5.)
x 1975 Domning & Frye (Metaxytherium jordani, Hydrodamalis n.sp.; fractures, osteomyelitis, ossifying spondylosis; ?osteitis deformans or ?osteitis fibrosa; 1-4, pls. 1-2.)
x 1975 Forrester et al. (TML; Florida; intussusception, pesticides, parasites; 566-568.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM; in capt., Brazil; deaths attributed to chlorinated water; 224.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta; malnutrition, gastrointestinal pathology, 36, 38, 40-41, 46; parasites, 41.)
x 1976 Boever et al. (TI; in capt., St. Louis, Missouri; Mycobacterium infection; 927-929.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (Dusisiren jordani, 68-69; Hydrodamalis cuestae, 90-91, 123-124; HG, 100.)
1978 Fowler, M.F.
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; "sunburn" scars; 131, 133.)
x 1979 Budiarso et al. (DD; Sulawesi; parasitic nasal lesions; 568.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; ?bloat; 124-125.)
1979 Lowry, B.H. (TML)
x 1979 Mok & Best (TI; in capt., Manaus; skin fungus; 79-82.)
1979 Neal et al. (TM)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta & Okinawa; intestinal impaction, hepatic dysfunction, gastric hemorrhage, pancreatitis, hydropericardium, laryngitis, colitis; 19, 27-29.)
x 1980 Arvy, L. (high bone density in sirs. considered pathological; 312.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI calves; in capt., Manaus; floating; 544.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; Florida; skin, lung, & lymph node lesions; 3-5.)
x 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; edematous fat & muscle; 188.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; capture myopathy; 645-646.)
1981 Bergin, T.J.
x 1981 Best, R.C. (cutaneous infections caused by malnutrition; 21.)
x 1981a Beusse et al. (TML; Florida; septicemia, pneumonia; 98-101.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TML; Florida; injuries, septicemia, hematology; 111-120.)
x 1981 Campbell & Ladds (DD; Queensland; various diseases; 176-181.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (TML; Florida; pneumonia, infections; 144.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD; in capt., Cairns, Australia; salmonellosis; 203-208.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (TML; in capt., St. Augustine, Florida; development of dermatitis in fresh water; 129.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TML; effect of pneumonia on lung weights; 57.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (TML; in capt., Miami, Florida; intestinal impaction from eating palm fronds; ectoparasitic lesions; 107-108.)
x * 1983 Bonde et al. (TM; salvage & necropsy manual; i-v, 1-175.)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (TML; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; 1294-1296.)
x 1983 Gallivan et al. (TML; risk of epidemics at warm-water refugia; 261.)
x 1983 Marsh & Anderson (DD; capture myopathy; 1-3.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (TML; Florida; necropsy findings; various natural & accidental causes of death; 1331-1334.)
x 1984 Buergelt, C.D. (TML; Florida; summary of necropsy findings, 1980-83; encephalitis; 28-29.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (DD; ovarian cysts, metritis; 749, 762, 764.)
1985 Lauckner, G.
x 1985 Morales et al. (TI; in capt.; systemic Mycobacterium infection, harpoon wound, skin lesions, etc.; 1230-1231.)
1985 Morales et al. (TI; Mycobacterium marinum infection)
x 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (TML; Florida; cachexia, etc.; 4-6.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Rathbun et al. (TML; no evidence of capture myopathy; 335-349.)
x 1985 Qiu, Y.-X. (TM; in capt., Beijing; infections; 36.)
1986 Medway & Geraci
x 1986 Morales, P. (TI; in capt., San Francisco; systemic Mycobacterium infection, harpoon wound, skin lesions, etc.; 43-48.)
x 1987b Anon. (TML; intestinal blockage; m225.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (TI; in capt., Manaus; floating, constipation, anemia, benign intestinal polyp; 39.)
x 1987 Walsh et al. (TML; Florida; omphalitis & peritonitis; 702-704.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (TML; Florida; pathologies associated with parasitic infestations; 630.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium floridanum; fractures; 415.)
1988b Pilleri, G. (Metaxytherium sp.)
x 1990 Buergelt et al. (TML; thickened heart valves; 220-227.)
x 1990 Colares et al. (TI; in capt., Manaus; treatments for infections, conjunctivitis, enteritis; 44-45.)
x D 1990 Repenning & Packard (Paleoparadoxia [Stanford specimen]; fractures; 199-203.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (TI, TML, floating, 359-360; pachyosteosclerosis not pathological, 335-336, 363-364.)
x * 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; mortality from red tide; 165-179.)
1992 Forrester, D.J.
x 1992 Simmons, N. (TML; use of flotation gear in rehabilitation; pop. acc.; 9.)
x 1994 Rosas, F.C.W. (TI; in capt., Manaus; sunburn; 55.)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (DD; "whistles" ?due to respiratory abnormality; 1234.)
1995 Duignan et al. (TML; morbilliviruses; 441-451.)
1997? Young, A. (TML; Tampa, Florida; rehabilitation from red tide; pop. acc.)
x * 1998 Bossart et al. (TML; brevetoxicosis; 276-282.)
1998 LaBonne, D.L.
1999 Walsh et al. (TM; pneumotosis intestinalis)
1999 Trainer & Baden (red tide neurotoxins)
x 1999 Uchida et al. (TMM; in capt., Okinawa; 131-133.)
1999 Walsh & Bossart (TML)
x 2000 Cowan, D.F. (TM; Texas; starvation & cold; 5.)
x 2001 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; congenital partly-uninflated lung; 427.)
* 2001 Bossart, G.D. (manatee medicine)
2001 Pimentel, T.L. (sir. medicine)
x 2001 Taylor, G. (DD; Australia; bloat; 41.)
2002 Bossart, Baden, et al. (TML; brevetoxicosis)
2002 Bossart, Ewing et al. (TML; viral papillomatosis)
2002 Bossart, Ewing et al. (TML; viral papillomatosis; 37-48.)
2002 Barrett & Rima (morbillivirus)
2003 Bossart, Meisner et al. (TML; cold stress syndrome)
2003 Bossart, Meisner et al. (TML; cold stress syndrome; 9-17.)
x 2003 Falcón et al. (TMM; intestinal impaction, respiratory distress, shark bite; 7-9.)
x * 2003 Falcón et al. (TMM; intestinal impaction, respiratory distress, shark bite; 7-9.)
2003b Vergara-Parente et al. (TMM; salmonellosis; 131-136.)
2003 Leistra et al.
2003 Sato et al. (TML; in capt.; mycobacteriosis)
* 2004 Bossart et al. (TML)
2005 Woodruff et al. (TML; papilloma virus; cutaneous lesions)
2006 Bledsoe et al. (TML; biofouling organisms)
2006 Harr et al. (TML; generalized inflammatory disease)
2006 D'Affonseca Neto & Vergara-P. (TI, TMM; veterinary medicine)
2006 Lightsey et al. (TML; watercraft-related mortality; necropsy methods)
2007 Bossart, G.D. (TM; emerging diseases)
2008 Moore et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; cardiac failure)
2010 Sas & Baatz (TML; Karenia brevis; brevetoxin-2)
2010 Lacreta et al. (TI; radius fracture)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; physiological response to capture for health assessment)
2011 Silva et al. (TI; in capt., Brazil; skin lesions)
2011 Gillespie et al. (DD; small intestinal volvulus)
2011 Harr et al. (TML; infection; Pasteurella multocida; polycystic kidneys)
2011 Donà et al. (TML, Florida; TMM, Belize; seroepidemiology of papillomavirus)
2012 Owen et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; postmortem findings)
2012 Gerlach et al. (TML; diaphragmatic hernia, heart enlargement, cold stress lesions)
* 2012 Stamper & Bonde (TM; health assessment techniques)
* 2012 Bonde, Mignucci-Giannoni, & Bossart (pathology & mortality assessment)
2012 Sulzner et al. (TMM; Belize; hematology, immunology, pathogens)
2012 Bossart et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; Toxoplasma gondii; gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, myocarditis)
2013 Bonde et al. (TML; Crystal River, Florida; health assessments)
* 2014 Lazzarini et al. (TI, TMM; medical care)
D 2015 Thomas & Barnes (Neoparadoxia cecilialina; Late Mioc., California; osteochondrosis; 28-31.)
2015 Mathews et al. (TI; Peru; Leptospira infection)
2015 Sidrim et al. (TI, TMM; in capt.; Brazil; yeast microbiota)
2016 Guerra et al. (TI; acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis)
2016 Sidrim et al. (TI, TM; in capt.; Candida spp. antifungal resistance & virulence)
2018 Harvey et al. (TML; serum proteins)
* 2018 Davis & Walsh (medical care of sirs.)
2018 Reisfeld et al. (TI, in capt.; cutaneous mycobacteriosis)
* 2019 Martony et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome)
2019 Martony, Isaza et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome; measurement of core body temperature)
2019 Harvey et al. (TML; serum iron analytes)
2019 Carvalho et al. (TM; Brazil; cerebral & cardiac congenital malformations in neonates)
2020 Harvey et al. (TML; serum iron analytes)
2021 Correa Neto et al. (TI; salmonellosis)
2022 Cabrias-C. et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; perinatal bilateral exophthalmia & secondary corneal ulcers)
2022 Mignucci-G. et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; genital papillomatosis)
Peru ( 25 )
1571 SEE Salinas Loyola, J. de, 1897.
x 1836 Smyth & Lowe (TI; 197, 229, 242-243.)
x 1853 Herndon, W.L. (TI; econ. use; 158, 163-164, 200.)
x 1875 Wilder, B.G. (TI; Marañon R., at Pebos; 105.)
1897 Salinas Loyola, J. de (TI; R. Ucayali, 1571)
x 1914 Woodroffe, J.F. (TI; 243-244.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (TI; ?from Iquitos; m388.)
x 1968 Grimwood, I.R. (TI; status & exploitation; 418.)
x 1969 Grimwood, I.R. (TI; distr.; 61.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (TI; food plants; 31-32.)
x 1976 Neville et al. (TI; Samiria R. area; 155.)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (TI; Ucayali R.; 292.)
x 1985 Muizon & De Vries (Metaxytherium calvertense; Mioc.; m560.)
x * 1985 Muizon & Domning (Metaxytherium calvertense, Mioc., 189-206, 209-213; indeterminate sir., Plioc., 206-210.)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (?Ribodon; ?Late Mioc., Acre R.; 34.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (TI; hunting; 151-152, 154-155.)
x * 1996 Reeves et al. (TI; distr. & status; 246-254.)
2012 Perea-S. et al. (TI; in capt.; management & rehabilitation)
x 2013 Lambert & Muizon (cf. Nanosiren sp.; Late Mioc., Sacaco Basin; m719.)
x 2015 Amson et al. (supposed dugongine rib reidentified as the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus; Late Mioc., Pisco Fm.; 1-4.)
2015 Mathews et al. (TI; Leptospira infection)
2015 Silva, Montes & Elias (TI; Río Ucayali; conservation)
2016 Antoine et al. (Trichechinae; early Mioc.)
2016 Arévalo-Sandi & Castelblanco-Martínez (TI; interactions among calves in captivity)
2017 Landeo et al. (TI; captivity & release; behavior)
Pezosiren Domning, 2001 ( 4 )
x * 2001c Domning, D.P. (n.gen.; Middle Eoc., Jamaica; 625.)
x 2008 Prothero, D. (pop. acc.; 41.)
2013 Domning, D.P. (reconstruction of skeleton; 201.)
x 2017 Chatterjee et al. (brief summ. of Eoc. record; m92.)
Pezosiren portelli Domning, 2001 ( 9 )
x v 2000 Domning, D.P. (locomotor & diving adaptations; 115-116.)
x * 2001c Domning, D.P. (n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Jamaica; 625-627.)
x v 2001d Domning, D.P. ("Prorastomidae n.gen.n.sp."; tibia; 25.)
x 2001 Reed, C. (gen. acc; 8.)
2004 D'Anastasio, R. (hyperostosis of ribs)
2007 Donovan et al. (Eoc.; Jamaica)
2010 Buffrénil et al. (pachyosteosclerosis)
2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (hindlimb bones comp. w/ Eotheroides sandersi, Eosiren libyca, Protosiren smithae)
2015 Prothero, D.R. (gen. acc.)
Philippine Islands ( 41 )
1668 Alzina: SEE Higueras & Martin-Meras, 1974.
1706 Camelli, G.J.
1792 SEE Aragón, F., 1951.
1869 Semper, K.G.
1875 Leuckart, R. (DD; trematode Monostomum dujonis, n.sp.)
1895 Jordana y Morera, R.
1895 Elera, C. de (DD)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; parasites; 69.)
1912 Hollister, N.
1915 Elera, C. de (DD)
x 1915 Seale, A. (DD; Luzon; 215-217, 1 pl.)
x 1923a Petit, G. ("dugong-bone society"; 83.)
1928 Dickerson et al. (DD)
1934 Taylor, E.H. (DD)
x 1939 Lyman, C.P. (DD; Tagbac Bay; vestigial incisor; 229.)
1950 Blair & Robertson (DD)
x * 1951 Aragon, F. (DD; early accounts; 265-268.)
1970 Fox, R.B. (DD; at archeol. site, Palawan)
1974 Higueras & Martin-Meras (DD; account of Alzina, 1668)
x 1977 Jueco, N.L. (DD; nematode Paradujardinia; 257-262.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; Luzon; 301-302.)
x 1979 Kamiya et al. (DD; Luzon; organ weights; 129-131.)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD from Luzon; in capt., Japan; m269.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (DD; parasitic flukes; 15.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD from Luzon; in capt., Japan; m199.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (DD; nematode Paradujardinia; 310.)
1985 Jamir, N.C. (DD; southern Mindanao)
1990 Bautista, A.P. (DD; at archeol. site, Agusan del Norte)
1992 Leatherwood et al. (DD; Palawan)
x * 1994 Aragones, L.V. (DD; Calauit, Is., Palawan; use of seagrass beds; 709-717.)
1994 Fournier, R.C. (DD; pop. acc.)
* 1995 Kataoka et al. (DD)
1997 Alava & Yaptinchay (DD)
1998 Eduardo et al. (DD; parasites)
x 1998 Heaney, L.R. (DD; distr. & status; 53.)
2010 Aragones et al. (DD; strandings, 1998-2009)
2012 Aquino et al. (DD; Red List status; 144-150.)
2012 Cayaban & Harrison (DD; Palawan)
* 2012a Hines, E. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
* 2013 Fanti & Forti (indet. sir.; Oligo-Miocene, Palawan)
2017 Mizuno et al. (DD; feeding trails)
Phoca manatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Brisson, 1762 ( 2 )
(= Trichechus manatus, in part; T. senegalensis, in part; T. inunguis, in part; Dugong dugon, in part; Hydrodamalis gigas, in part)
* 1756 Brisson, M.J. (n.comb.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Trichechus senegalensis in part; 537.)
Phycoceta Haeckel, 1866 ( 1 )
(suborder within Cetacea; = Sirenia)
* 1866 Haeckel, E.
Phylogeny and Affinities of the Sirenia and/or Desmostylia ( 199 )
(SEE ALSO under species)
x * 1809a Cuvier, G. (history of opinions on sir. affinities; 274-278.)
x 1816 Blainville, H.M.D. de (sirs. classified as ungulates; "109" = 117.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (sirs. considered cetaceans; 274-275.)
1836 Blainville, H.M.D. de
x 1837 Robert, C. (Trichechus related to Deinotherium; m471.)
x 1838a Owen, R. (sirs. considered not cetaceans but closer to pachyderms; 44-45.)
x 1846 Gervais, F.L.P. (sirs. considered ungulates & related to proboscideans; 250-251.)
x 1849 Agassiz, L. (sirs. considered pachyderms; 209.)
x 1850 Kneeland, S., Jr. (sirs. considered pachyderms; 42-47.)
x 1864 Dana, J.D. (sirs. considered a separate group; 160-161, 163, 168-169, 175, 183.)
* 1868a Brandt, J.F.
x 1872a Murie, J. (sirs. intermediate between cetaceans & proboscideans; 189-191.)
x * 1873 Gill, T. (sirs. considered close to Cetacea; 262-273.)
x 1875b Owen, R. (sirs. considered related to ungulates; 566-567.)
x * 1875 Wilder, B.G. (review; sirs. considered ungulates; 107-113.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (sirs. considered a separate order; 452.)
1882 Lepsius, G.R.
x 1884 Flower, W.H. (sirs. considered an isolated order; 181.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (supposed descent of Recent sirs. from Olig. forms; 136-138.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. (supposed descent of all Recent sirs. from Belgian Olig. forms; 199-200.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (sirs. derived from artiodactyls; 82.)
1895 Haeckel, E.
x 1897 Broom, R. (organ of Jacobson & sir. classification; m252.)
1897 Sclater, P.L. (continental drift & manatees)
x D 1902a Osborn, H.F. (Desmostylus considered either proboscidean or sir.; 713.)
x 1902b Osborn, H.F. (Eosiren; 715.)
x D 1902 Yoshiwara & Iwasaki (Desmostylus considered a proboscidean; 1-13.)
x 1905 Mitchell, P.C. (intestinal tract; sirs. considered linked to hyraces & proboscideans only by primitive characters; 533.)
x D 1906 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus considered a sir.; 152.)
x 1910 Woodward, A.S. (sir. evolution; 470.)
x D 1911 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus considered a sir.; 412.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (Felsinotherium; 1860-1862.)
x 1915 Broom, R. (organ of Jacobson & sir. classification; m162.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (Desmostylus placed in separate family of sirs.; 384-385.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (Moeritherium & proboscideans; sir. lineages; 26-27.)
1917 Kaudern, W.
1918b Aichel, O.
x D 1923a Hay, O.P. (Desmostylus placed in separate suborder of sirs.; 107-109.)
x D 1924 Andrews, C.W. (desmostylians considered sirs. & close to proboscideans; 304-309.)
D 1924 Kishida, K.
D 1924 Winge, H.
D 1927 Honda, A. (Desmostylus considered a monotreme)
x D 1929b Simpson, G.G. (Desmostylus not considered a monotreme; 12-13.)
x * 1932a Simpson, G.G. (phylogeny of sirs., 470-492; affinities of sirs., history of study, 492-496.)
x D 1932c Simpson, G.G. (classification of sirs., 281-282; Desmostylus, m292.)
D 1933 Kishida, K. (Desmostylus considered a multituberculate)
x 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (placentation; sirs. considered related to proboscideans & hyraces; 173-177.)
1936 Kellogg, R.
x D 1939c Ijiri, S. (Desmostylus considered an ungulate sensu lato; 138.)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (sir. classification & evolution; 149-156, pl. 6.)
x 1941 Pycraft, W.P. (Sirenia; pop. acc.; 328.)
x 1941a VanderHoof, V.L. (Metaxytherium, Hydrodamalis; 1985.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (sirs. considered related to proboscideans & hippos; 12-13.)
x D * 1945 Simpson, G.G. (classification of sirs. & desmostylians; 135-136, 214, 240, 251-252.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (Trichechidae; 209-211.)
x 1953 Pascual, R. (Ribodon; 168-170, 177-180.)
D 1954 Sera, G.L.
x 1959a Engel, S. (dugong lung structure considered most primitive among mammals; 102-104, 106, 111-114.)
D * 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (Sirenia & Desmostylia)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (Halianassa allisoni; 69-70, 72.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (digestive organs; relationships to proboscideans, 496-497, 511, 513-514; relationships of manatees & dugongs, 515-516.)
x D 1968 Romer, A.S. (ordinal status of Desmostylia; 201.)
x * 1970 Loughman et al. (chromosomes; sirs. considered distantly related to elephants; 152.)
1971 Tobien, H.
x 1973 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (subungulates derived from periptychid condylarths; 131-140.)
D 1974 Gabuniya & Vekua
1974 Perry, J.S.
* 1975 McKenna, M.C. (cladistic classification of Mammalia)
x D 1976 Minkoff, E.A. (desmostylians considered amblypods, not paenungulates; 151-154.)
x 1977 Petter, A.J. (origin & radiation of ascaridoid nematodes in sirs.; 151, 153-155.)
x 1977 Sarich, V.M. (manatee considered related to elephant & hyrax; 100.)
* 1977 Savage, R.J.G. (cladistic analysis of Sirenia)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (N. Pacific sirs.; 1-5, 11-12, 72-74, 100-101, 139-146.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (sir. phylogeny; 573-581.)
x 1978 Shoshani et al. (Paenungulata; cladistic analysis; 601.)
x 1979 Tassy, P. (Moeritherium considered closer to Proboscidea than to Sirenia; 85-88.)
x 1980 De Jong & Zweers (eye-lens proteins; TI considered close to Proboscidea & Hyracoidea; 897-902.)
1980 De Jong, W.W.
x 1980 Sahni & Kumar (Ishatherium considered close to Moeritherium; 132-135.)
x 1980 West, R.M. (Anthracobune comp. w/ primitive sirs.; 520.)
1981 De Jong et al.
1981 Hoffstetter, R.
1981 Lowenstein et al. (albumin systematics)
1981 Shoshani et al.
x 1982 De Jong & Goodman (eye-lens proteins; TI considered close to Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, & Tubulidentata; 261-269, 273.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (dental formulae; sirs. & other eutherians; 59-60.)
x 1982 Novacek, M.J. (sirs. considered closest to proboscideans & hyraces; 13, 25-28, 35.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Channells (reproductive biology of sirs. similar to proboscideans; 764.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Glover (position of testicles, etc., of sirs. similar to proboscideans & hyraces; 738-740.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (trichechid-dugongid separation ?30 million years old; 781.)
x * 1984 Rainey et al. (molecular systematics of sirs.; 586-588.)
x 1985a Domning, D.P. (European Halitherium & Metaxytherium; biochronological utility; 183.)
x 1985 Lowenstein, J.M. (immunological distances; sir. & paenungulate phylogenies; 543-544.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (tubulidentates not considered close to sirs. or other ungulates; 278-280.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (Trichechidae; cladistic analysis; 132-136.)
x D * 1986 Domning et al. (Behemotops & other Tethytheria; 31-47.)
1986 Fischer, M.S.
1986 Kleinschmidt et al. (hemoglobin sequences)
x 1986 Miyamoto & Goodman (protein sequences; sirs. considered closest to Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, & Tubulidentata; 230-240.)
D 1986a Novacek & Wyss
1986b Novacek & Wyss
1986 Novacek, M.J.
x 1986 Shoshani et al. (immunology; TM considered close to proboscideans; 431-436.)
x D 1986 Shoshani, J. (cladistic analysis; Sirenia & Desmostylia considered sister groups; 222-242.)
x D 1987 McKenna, M.C. (tethytheres considered a natural group, possibly a Cretaceous branch of Eutheria; 61-63, 70-71, 79-82.)
D 1987 Novacek & Wyss
x 1987 Wyss et al. (sirs. considered close to Hyracoidea & Proboscidea; 104-107, 113.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium; 417-418.)
x D 1988 Janis, C.M. (tethytherian phylogeny; 292-295.)
x 1988 Kleinschmidt et al. (hemoglobin; Sirenia, Proboscidea, & Hyracoidea considered to form a monophyletic clade; 509, 511.)
1988 Novacek et al.
1988 Tassy & Shoshani
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (Rytiodontinae; cladistic analysis; 424-426.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (Rytiodontinae; 435.)
1989 Novacek, M.J.
x 1990 Court, N. (periotic characters in tethytheres; 170-182.)
1990 Czelusniak et al.
x D 1990 Gingerich et al. (astragalar characters in Proboscidea & Desmostylia; 76.)
1990 Novacek, M.J.
1990 Fischer, M.S. (TM; ear region; affinities with elephants)
x D * 1991 Clark, J.M. (Paleoparadoxia weltoni & other desmostylians; cladistic analysis; 490-494, 502-505.)
x 1991 Court & Jaeger (periotic characters in Proboscidea & Sirenia; 559-565.)
1991 Fischer, M.S.
x D 1991 Kumar, K. (anthracobunids comp. w/ sirs. & desmostylians; 234-238.)
1991 Ohnishi, K. (sirs. related to proboscideans, hyracoids, & tubulidentates)
x 1992 McKenna, M.C. (eye-lens proteins; sirs. closest to hyracoids, tubulidentates, & proboscideans; 350, 354-355, 357.))
x D 1992 Novacek, M.J. (Tethytheria a well-supported group; 59-69.)
x D 1992 Thewissen & Domning (Sirenia & Desmostylia included in Pantomesaxonia = sister group of phenacodontids; 494-504.)
1993 Barriel et al.
x 1993 Bradley et al. (TML; cytochrome b DNA sequence; similarities to elephant; 197-202.)
x D 1993 Fischer & Tassy (Desmostylia considered sister-group of Sirenia + Proboscidea + Embrithopoda; 217-234.)
x 1993 Shoshani, J. (myology supports monophyly of Tethytheria and Paenungulata; 235-256.)
1993 Springer & Kirsch (mtDNA sequences; paenungulate monophyly supported)
1993 Springer & Kirsch
1994 Court, N.
* 1994b Domning, D.P. (cladistic analysis of Sirenia)
1994 Irwin & Arnason (mtDNA sequences & tethythere phylogeny)
x 1994 Johnson et al. (brain traits; 319-347.)
x 1996 Lavergne et al. (mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences; paenungulate monophyly supported; 245-258.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (gastrointestinal tract; sirs. considered similar to proboscideans & hyracoids; 556-557.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (Dugonginae; cladistic analysis; 224-226.)
1997 Dermastia, M.
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (Dugonginae; cladistic analysis; 409-411.)
1997 Graur et al.
x 1997 Ozawa et al. (mtDNA sequences & tethythere phylogeny; 406-413.)
x 1997 Springer et al. (DNA sequences; paenungulate monophyly supported; 61-64.)
x 1998 De Jong, W.W. (molecular evidence; paenungulate monophyly supported; 270-275.)
x D 1998 Kondrashov, P.E. (cranial & mandibular characters; paenungulate monophyly supported; 418-428.)
1998 Shoshani & McKenna
1998 Stanhope et al.
1999 Amrine & Springer
1999 Gaeth et al.
1999 Liu & Miyamoto
2000 Gregor et al. (deinotheres considered closely related to sirs.)
D 2000e Inuzuka, N. (Desmostylia used to demonstrate simple cladistic analysis)
2001 Langer, P.
2001 Greenwood et al..
2001 Greenwood et al. (endogenous retrovirus-like elements)
2001 Langer, P. (digestive tract)
2002 Malia et al.
2002 Corneli, P.S. (DD; mitochondrial genome; Afrotheria not supported)
2002 Malia et al. (growth hormone receptor gene)
2003 Joger et al. (genetics, comp. w/ Mammuthus)
2003 Nikaido et al.
2003 Asher et al. (Afrotheria relationships)
2004 Springer et al.
D * 2005 Gheerbrant et al. (relationships of Paenungulata)
2007 Pardini et al. (chromosome painting; support for Paenungulata but not Tethytheria)
* 2007 Bininda-Emonds et al. (Estimated time of origin of Sirenia.)
D 2007 Hasegawa, Y. (studies of desmostylian evolution & locomotion)
2007 Tabuce et al. (Phylogeny of Afrotheria clade)
2007 Kellogg et al. (TML; chromosome painting supports Afrotheria & Paenungulata)
2007 Seiffert, E.R.
2007 Sanchez-V. et al. (vertebral number; synapomorphy of Afrotheria)
2008 Asher & Lehmann
x 2009 Meredith et al. (DD; enamelin gene not degenerate; 3.)
2010 Poulakakis & Stamatakis (Afrotheria; genes & rare genomic changes)
2010 Hagey et al. (bile salts support Paenungulata)
* 2010 Asher & Seiffert (Afrotherian relationships)
2011 Kuntner et al. (Afrotheria; phylogeny & conservation)
2012 Svartman & Stanyon (chromosomes of Afrotheria)
* 2012 Vélez-Juarbe et al. (cladistic analysis)
* 2013 O'Leary et al. (Sirenia placed in context of other placental orders; 663-664 + supplemental material.)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (cladogram of 8 fossil & Recent sir. taxa, based on endocranial morphology.)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (new primitive sir.; Eoc., Tunisia; ear region, comp. w/ Prorastomus sirenoides)
2013a Diedrich, C.G. (?polyphyly of sirs.)
D 2014 Cooper et al.
x 2014-15 Winsor, M.P. (in imaginary dialogue between Strickland and Darwin on affinity; m75-76, m125, m181.)
D * 2015 Chiba et al. (Desmostylidae: Ounalashkastylus tomidai, n.gen.n.sp., Olig.-Mioc., Alaska; cf. Vanderhoofius sp., Middle Mioc., Hokkaido)
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (Behemotopsidae)
* 2015 Springer et al. (molecular & morphological phylogeny)
* 2019 Plön et al. (DD, HG; mtDNA phylogeography & sir. phylogeny)
2019 Sharko et al. (HG; molecular phylogeny; mitochondrial genome)
* 2019 Lima et al. (TI x TM hybridization)
* 2019 Vilaça & Santos (TML, comp. w/other Trichechus; mitochondrial genome)
* 2021 Souza et al. (Trichechidae; mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
D 2021 Avilla & Mothé (in phylogenetic analysis of Afrotheria)
2021 Sharko et al. (HG; nuclear genome)
* 2022 Heritage & Seiffert (Total evidence time-scaled phylogenetic and biogeographic models for sir. evolution)
Physiology: SEE Biochemistry; Endocrinology; Respiration and Diving; Thermoregulation; and under organ systems ( 1 )
* 2020 Maduro et al. (TI, in capt.; fed with mothers' milk; metabolism)
Phytophaga "F. Cuvier" [Todd], 1836 ( 2 )
(tribe; = Sirenia)
* 1835-36 Cuvier, F. (new tribe [= Sirenia], presumably authored by editor Robert B. Todd and not Cuvier)
1998 Rice, D.W. (m127.)
Platystomus dugong (Gmelin, 1788) Fischer von Waldheim, 1803 ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1803 Fischer v. Waldheim, G. (n.comb.)
Platystomus Fischer von Waldheim, 1803 (non Platystoma Meigen, 1803 [Insecta]) ( 3 )
(= Dugong)
* 1803 Fischer v. Waldheim, G. (n.gen.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (syn. of Halicore; m92.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Dugong; m578.)
Pleistocene ( 52 )
x 1833 Shepard, C.U. (Trichechus; ?Pleist., Florida; 164.)
x 1846 Allen, J.H. (Manatus; ?Pleist., Florida; 41.)
x 1868 Cope, E.D. (Manatus; "postpliocene", Maryland; m138.)
x 1884 De Vis, C.W. (Chronozoon Australe, n.gen.n.sp.; ?Plio-Pleist., Queensland; 395.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; Bering Is.; 457-458.)
x 1897 Etheridge et al. (DD; ?Pleist., Sydney, Australia; 170-174, 178-180, pls. 8-11.)
x 1916 Sellards, E.H. (TM; Florida; 104.)
x 1919 Hay, O.P. ("Trichechus antiquus?"; Florida; 109.)
x D 1927 Pfizenmayer, E.W. (Desmostylus Wollosowitschi, n.sp.; ?Pleist., New Siberian Islands; 492-496.)
x 1929a Simpson, G.G. (Trichechus; Florida; 564.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (Trichechus; Florida; 419-424, 470.)
x 1939 Gut, H.J. (Trichechus; Florida; 50-53.)
x 1956 Paula Couto, C. de (Trichechus sp.; ?Pleist., Acre, Brazil; 5, 79, 95, 107.)
x 1960 Funderburg, J.B. (Trichechus; North Carolina; 521.)
x 1965 Long, A. (HG; Monterey Bay, California; carbon-14 date; 254.)
x 1967 Jones, R.E. (HG; Monterey Bay, California; carbon-14 date; 143.)
x 1967a Paula Couto, C. de (sirs.; ?Pleist., Acre, Brazil; m22, m26.)
x 1971 Gard & Szabo (HG; Amchitka Is., Alaska; 577.)
x 1972 Gard et al. (HG; Amchitka Is., Alaska; 867-868.)
x 1974 Addicott & Greene (HG; Monterey Bay, California; zoogeographic significance; 251-252.)
x 1974 Webb, S.D. (TM; Florida; 18.)
x * 1975 Szabo & Gard (HG; Amchitka Is., Alaska; uranium-series dates; 457-459.)
x 1976 Webb, S.D. (Trichechus; Florida; 221, 223, 226.)
x * 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; Amchitka Is., Alaska; 1-8, 18.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (HG; N. Pacific; 102-106, 161-162.)
x 1980 Kurtén & Anderson (HG, TM; North America; 340-342.)
1980 Roth & Laerm (South Carolina)
x 1981 Simpson & Paula Couto (Trichechus; Acre, Brazil; 48-49, 69.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Trichechus sp.; Brazil, 603-604; Florida, 604-605; Louisiana, 605.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (TM; Waccasassa R., Florida; m18.)
x 1982 Molnar, R.E. (Halicore brevirostre; ?Pleist., Papua New Guinea; 676, 679.)
x 1983 Kimura et al. (Hydrodamalis sp.; Hokkaido, Japan; 162-177, pls. 1-4.)
x 1983 Wilkins, K.T. (TM; Florida; 70, 76-77, 79.)
1984 Anderson, E.
x 1984b Domning, D.P. (Trichechus; Maryland; 5.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (Trichechus; South Carolina; m136.)
x 1988 Boekschoten & Best (Trichechus; dispersal to Africa; 110-111.)
x 1989 Gallagher et al. (Trichechus sp.; New Jersey; 107-108.)
x 1989 Hulbert & Morgan (TM; Early Pleist., Florida; 11.)
x 1992 Jefferson et al. (Hydrodamalis sp.; Late Pleist., California; 29.)
1992 Pirika Sirenia Research Group (Hydrodamalis sp.; Pleist., Hokkaido)
x 1992 Whybrow, P. (indeterminate sir.; ?Pleist., Abu Dhabi; 20.)
1994 Furusawa & Kohno (HG; Middle Pleist., Japan)
1995 Furusawa & Kimura (Hydrodamalis sp.; Early Pleist., Hokkaido)
1999 Nojo et al. (Hydrodamalis ?gigas; Hokkaido, Japan)
x 2004 Williams & Domning (TM; ?Pleist., Arkansas, Ohio; 167-176.)
* 2005 Domning, D.P. (Trichechus manatus bakerorum, n.subsp.)
2007 Kohno et al. (Hydrodamalis sp.; Lower Pleist.; Tokyo, Japan)
2018 Domning, D.P. (TM; Calvert Cliffs, Maryland; 242, 260.)
* 2020 Perini et al. (Trichechus hesperamazonicus, n.sp.; Brazil)
* 2020 Bell et al. (TM & TM bakerorum; Texas)
2022 Pyenson et al. (cf. DD; Qatar)
Pliocene ( 50 )
x 1838 Serres, M. de (Manatus, Halicore medius; Montpellier, France; 285-286.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (Halitherium serresii; France; 209-211, 221.)
x 1877 Lawley, R. (Felsinotherium Forestii; Italy; 341-342.)
x 1883 Ameghino, F. (Ribodon limbato, n.gen.n.sp.; Argentina; 112-113.)
x 1884 De Vis, C.W. (Chronozoon Australe, n.gen.n.sp.; ?Plio-Pleist., Queensland; 395.)
x 1886 Portis, E. (Felsinotherium subappeninum, F. Gastaldii; Italy; 356-360.)
x D 1888 Marsh, O.C. (Desmostylus hesperus, n.gen.n.sp.; [actually Mioc.] California; 94-96.)
x 1912 Issel, A. (Felsinotherium subapenninum; Italy; 119.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (Felsinotherium Serresi; Montpellier, France; 1858-1862.)
x 1922a Hay, O.P. (Metaxytherium floridanum, n.sp.; ?Plioc. [actually Mioc.], Florida; 3.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (Metaxytherium floridanum; ?Plioc. [actually Mioc.], Florida; 231-238.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (Felsinotherium ossivallense; [actually Mioc.] Florida; 445-446, 469, 499.)
x 1953 Pascual, R. (Ribodon; Mioc.-Plioc., Argentina; 163-167.)
x 1954 Ennouchi, E. (Felsinotherium cf. serresi; Morocco; 77.)
x 1970 Shikama & Domning (Hydrodamalis sp.; Late Plioc., Honshu, Japan; 390-396.)
x 1971a Domning, D.P. (sirs. & stratigraphic correlation; western North America; 110-111.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamaline evolution; 217-220.)
x 1973 Tekkaya, I. ("Halitherium (Metaxytherium) sp."; Upper Mioc. or Lower Plioc., Turkey; m118.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (Metaxytherium forestii; Italy; 37, 47.)
1974 James & Slaughter (indeterminate sir.; Egypt)
x * 1978b Domning, D.P. (Dusisiren sp., Hydrodamalis cuestae, n.gen.n.sp.; N. Pacific; 102-107, 157-161.)
x 1979 Boaz et al. (Metaxytherium; Libya; 137-139.)
x 1982 Azzaroli et al. (Felsinotherium gervaisi; Italy; 56, 58.)
x 1982 Boaz & Cramer (Metaxytherium; Sahabi, Libya; pop. acc.; 37, 40-41.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (Ribodon, North Carolina; Trichechus, Florida; 604.)
x 1982c Domning, D.P. (Metaxytherium serresii; Sahabi, Libya; 29-32.)
x 1984 Domning & Deméré (Hydrodamalis cuestae; California; 169-188.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (indeterminate sir.; Peru; 206-207, 210.)
x 1987 Canocchi, D. (Metaxytherium gervaisi; Early Plioc., Italy; 497-513.)
x * 1987 Domning & Thomas (Metaxytherium forestii, Italy, 208, 220-221; M. serresii, Libya & France, 209-230.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (Xenosiren yucateca, n.gen.n.sp.; ?Plioc., Mexico; 430.)
x 1990b Domning, D.P. (Corystosiren varguezi, n.gen.n.sp.; Mexico, Florida; 362.)
x 1992 Pledge, N. (?Dugong; Early Plioc., South Australia; 6.)
x 1993 Deméré, T.A. (indet. sir.; Late Mioc.-Early Plioc., California; 84.)
1995 Furusawa & Kimura (Hydrodamalis spissa; Early Plioc., Hokkaido)
x 1996 Morgan & Portell (indeterminate sirs.; Brevard County, Florida; ?Late Plioc.; m11.)
1998 Nagasawa & Kobayashi (Hydrodamalis sp.; Yamagata Prefecture, Japan)
1998 Sendra et al. (Almería, Spain)
x 1998 Estevens, M. (Portugal; geographic & stratigraphic distr.; A161-A164.)
1999 Sendra et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Spain)
2001 Bianucci et al. (Val di Pugna, Italy)
x 2004 Missimer & Tobias. (cf. Dugongidae; Late Plioc., Florida; m62.)
x * 2006 Pledge, N.S. ("Dugonginae incertae sedis"; Early Plioc., South Australia; 295-305.)
2007 Sorbi & Vaiani (Metaxytherium cf. subapenninum; Early Plioc.; Italy)
* 2008a Domning & Aguilera (Nanosiren garciae, n.gen.n.sp., Early Plioc., Florida)
2008 Myoken Research Group (Hydrodamalis sp.; Late Plioc.; Nagaoka, Japan)
* 2012 Sorbi et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Italy & Spain)
2012 Tinelli et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Italy; ground-penetrating radar)
x 2018 Dominici et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum, Italy, taphonomy, 7-8, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24.)
x 2019 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; lower Pliocene, Italy; 2, 6-8.)
Pollution, Effects of ( 80 )
(SEE ALSO: Temperature, Effects of)
x 1972a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; industrial & pesticide pollution, dredging; 21.)
x 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 218-220.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (TMM; Venezuela; possible harmful effects; m17.)
x 1975 Forrester et al. (TML; Florida; pesticide residues; 567-568.)
x 1976 Gallagher, M.D. (DD; Bahrain; possible deaths from oil pollution, seismic surveys, etc.; 211.)
x 1976 Heinsohn & Wake (DD; Australia; sandmining; 15-18.)
x 1977 Heinsohn et al. (Australia; seagrass beds; 244-245.)
x 1977 O'Keefe, M.T. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; pop. acc.; pollution considered beneficial; 67.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; arsenic in tissues, 124; ?bloat, 124-125.)
x 1979 Miyazaki et al. (DD; Sulawesi; metals & organochlorines in tissues; 125-128.)
x * 1980 Denton et al. (DD; Queensland; heavy metal content of tissues; 201-219.)
x 1981 Denton & Breck (DD; Queensland; mercury in tissues; 119-120.)
x 1981a Denton, G.R.W. (DD; Queensland; diet & heavy metal status; 169-174.)
x 1981b Denton, G.R.W. (DD; tissue sampling procedures; 239.)
x 1983a Anon. (DD; Persian Gulf; oil spill; 180.)
x 1983 Begley et al. (DD; Persian Gulf; Nowruz oil spill; 79.)
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (TML; Florida; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis, possibly from sewer water; 1295.)
x 1983b Gluckman, D. (Florida; laws relevant to water quality; 253-273.)
x 1983 O'Shea, T.J. (potential hazards of 3 aquatic herbicides; 159-173.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; pesticide 2,4-D; 7.)
x * 1984 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; contaminant concentrations; 741-748.)
x 1986c Anon. (DD; Persian Gulf; not exterminated by oil spill; 25.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; water pollution; 970, 973.)
x 1988 Carowan, G. (TML; Florida; ?chemical burns; m5.)
1989 Lee & Socci (TML; North Carolina; potential oil spills)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; heavy metals in tissues; 82.)
x * 1989 Preen et al. (DD; Arabian region; recommendations regarding oil pollution; 1-13, 17-19, 25-27.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; oil, 6, 51, 53, 69, 83, 90, 119, 122-125; other pollutants, 125-126.)
* 1990 St. Aubin & Lounsbury (TM; risks from oil)
x 1991 Beck & Barros (TML; Florida; impact of debris; 508-510.)
1991a Kamiya, T. (DD; effects of Persian Gulf war)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (TML; southwestern Florida; heavy metals in tissues; 171-172.)
1994 Dight & Gladstone (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1994 Kemper et al. (DD; Australia; heavy metals, organochlorines; 129-139.)
x 1994 Rosas, F.C.W. (TI, Brazil; risk from mercury pollution; 56.)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (TMM, Costa Rica; pesticides, plastic bags, noise; 194.)
1995 Richardson et al. (noise)
x * 1996 Ames & Van Vleet (TML, Florida; organochlorine residues; 374-377.)
x 1996 Trocine & Trefry (Indian River Lagoon, Florida; metal concentrations; 754-759.)
x 1997 Edmonds et al. (DD; Western Australia; elemental composition of tusk; 203-214.)
1998 Muller et al. (Great Barrier Reef, Australia)
1998 Noreno-B. et al. (Chetumal Bay, Mexico)
1999 Haynes et al. (DD; Australia)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (TMM; Costa Rica; sedimentation, pesticides, gasoline, noise; 271-272.)
1999 O'Shea, T.J.
2000 Morgan et al. (DD; Australia; Cryptosporidium parvum from sewage)
2001 McLachlan et al. (DD; Australia; PCDDs)
2001 Gaus et al. (PCDDs)
2001 Kubota et al. (arsenic in liver tissue)
2001 Gaus et al. (PCDDs)
2001 Kubota et al. (arsenic, in liver)
2001 McLachlan et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; PCDDs; 129-134.)
2001 O'Shea & Aguilar (toxicology)
2001 Vetter et al. (northeastern Australia; organohalogens)
2002 Kubota et al. (arsenic)
2002 Schaffelke et al. (DD; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; water quality)
2002 Senthil-Kumar et al. (DD; Thailand; dioxins/furans & PCBs)
* 2003 O'Shea, T.J. (toxicology)
2003 Garcia-Rios & Gold-Bouchot (Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico; trace metals)
2003 Kumar et al. (DD; Thailand; dioxins/furans & PCBs)
2007 Harino et al. (DD; Thailand; organotin compounds)
2008 Hermanussen et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; PBDEs)
2008 Stavros et al. (TML; trace elements in blood & skin)
2008 Takahashi et al. (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; okadaic acid)
2010 Bouchon et al. (Guadeloupe; metallic trace elements and organic molecules in seagrass beds.)
2010 Wetzel et al. (TML; fatty acid biomarkers for brevetoxin exposure)
2011 Gaul et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; organobromine compounds)
* 2011 Campagna et al. (TM; Gulf of Mexico; oil spill)
2011 Auil Gomez, N. E. (TMM; Belize)
2012 Guterres-Pazin et al. (TI; ingestion of invertebrates, seeds, and plastic)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
* 2012 Wetzel et al. (Organic contaminants)
2013 Capper et al. (TML; Florida; algal bloom toxins)
2014 Mojica-F. et al. (TM; Santander, Colombia; water quality of preferred sites)
2016 Romero-Calderon et al. (TMM; Mexico; metals in bone tissue)
2016 Takeuchi et al. (TM; Florida, Belize; trace metals)
2016 Bouchon et al. (Guadeloupe; metallic trace elements & organic molecules in seagrass beds.)
2017 Owen et al. (marine debris & fisheries)
* 2019 Palmer et al. (TM; Florida, Puerto Rico; PFAS in plasma)
* 2021 De María et al. (TML; Florida; glyphosate)
Pontotherium Kaup, 1840 ( 5 )
(= Metaxytherium)
x * 1840 Kaup, J.J. (proposed as replacement name for Cheirotherium Bruno; 676.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m481.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Metaxytherium; m577.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (syn. of Metaxytherium; 208-209.)
Population Biology ( 85 )
(SEE ALSO: Aerial Surveys of Distribution; Age Determination; Birth and Breeding)
x 1974b Dekker, D. (TMM; Suriname; 14:1 sex ratio among 15 animals caught; 3.)
x 1978 Heinsohn et al. (DD; Australia; proportion of calves in local population; 91.)
x 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TML; Florida; proportion of young calves in population; 615-616.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; population size, composition, & reproduction, 15-17, 26; population dynamics, 120-125.)
x 1980 Lal Mohan, R.S. (DD; India; sex ratio; 392-397.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TML; Florida; review & research needs; 3-5.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Blue Lagoon, Miami, Florida; 435-436, 441-442.)
x 1982 Eberhardt, L.L. (TML; Florida; censusing methods; 1-18.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; northeastern Florida; proportion of calves in population & population size; 9, 11, 25, 27, 44-46, 49-50.)
x 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Florida; effect of boat kills; 33-35.)
x 1983 Packard & Nichols (TML; Florida; sample sizes required for mark-recovery studies; 1-14.)
x * 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; Australia; 767-788.)
x * 1984 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Florida; factors influencing indices of abundance; 1-63.)
x * 1985b Packard, J.M. (TML; population model; 1-19.)
x * 1986a Marsh, H. (DD; Torres Strait; population model; 64-73.)
x * 1986 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; use of replicate counts to improve indices of trends in abundance; 265-275.)
x * 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (review of population estimates & methods; 184-186, 188-191.)
x 1989 Bayliss & Freeland (DD; Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia; hunting & sustainable yield; 146-147.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; estimated sustainable mortality; 129-130, 134.)
x 1991 Lefebvre & Kochman (TML; Florida; evaluation of replicate count methodology; 298-309.)
x 1991 Marsh & Saalfeld (DD; Torres Strait; sustainability of catch, 191-192.)
* 1992 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; interim report of workshop)
x 1993 Savinetsky, A.B. (HG; Bering Is.; 403-405.)
x 1994 Garrott et al. (TML; Florida; trends at aggregation sites; 642-654.)
x 1994 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; declining proportion of calves; 169-171, 173-175.)
1995 Eberhardt & O'Shea (TML; Florida)
1995 Garrott et al. (TML; Florida; trends at aggregation sites; 34-55.)
1995b Marsh, H. (DD; life history & breeding pattern; 75-83.)
1995 O'Shea & Ackerman (TML; Florida; overview; 280-287.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Langtimm (TML; Florida; adult survival; 194-222.)
* 1995 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; workshop report with 18 papers; vi + 289.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; Queensland; projected population recovery after seagrass die-off; 518.)
1995 Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida)
1996 Miller et al. (TML; Florida; aerial survey & aerophotogrammetry)
x 1997 Craig et al. (TML; Atlantic coast, Florida; population trends, 1982-92; 524-541.)
x * 1997 Marmontel et al. (TML; Florida; population viability analysis, 1976-91; 467-481.)
x 1997 Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; gen. acc.; 50-57.)
x 1998 Langtimm et al. (TML; Florida; adult survival probabilities; 981-997.)
x 1999 Eberhardt et al. (TML; Florida; use of population trend indices; 766-767, 770-774, 781-783.)
1999 Bowen & Siniff
2000 Flamm et al. (TML; Florida; life-stage structure)
2001 Jackson et al. (DD, HG; overfishing)
x * 2001 O'Shea et al. (TML; Florida; primer on concepts & uncertainties; 36-41.)
2001 Marsh et al. (DD; Queensland; mortality in shark nets)
2003 Kendall et al. (multistate capture-recapture models)
* 2004 Kendall et al. (TML; Florida; estimating reproductive rates)
2004 Langtimm et al. (TML; Florida; survival estimates from photo-identification)
2004 Runge et al. (TML; Florida; stage-structured population model)
2004 Craig & Reynolds (TML; Atlantic coast of Florida; model of population trends)
2004 Goodman, D. (TML; population modeling methods)
2004 Marsh et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; fishery unsustainable)
* 2004 Heinsohn, R., et al. (DD; Torres Strait & Cape York, Australia; population viability analyses)
2005 Marsh et al. (DD; population estimates)
2005 Cantanhede et al. (TI; phylogeography & population genetics)
2005 Turvey & Risley (HG; modelling of extinction)
2007 Grech & Marsh (DD; Australia; conservation; population model)
2007a Runge et al. (TML; core stochastic population projection model)
2007b Runge et al. (TML; quantitative threats analysis)
* 2008 McNiven & Bedingfield (DD; Torres Strait; archaeological sites; hunting rates)
2009 Schwarz & Runge (TM; estimation of age; body length; Bayesian analysis)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; molecular characterization of populations; skin sampling)
* 2010 Hunter, Auil et al. (TMM; Belize; genetic diversity)
2011 Martin et al. (TML; estimating abundance with a Bayesian approach)
2011 Langtimm et al. (model to estimate manatee abundance)
* 2011 Nourisson et al. (TMM; Mexico; genetic diversity)
2012 Bonde et al. (TM; genetics; conservation)
2012 Satizabal et al. (TI, TMM; South America; phylogeography)
2012 Rosa de Oliveira et al. (South America; conservation, genetics, phylogeography)
2012 LaCommare et al. (TMM; Belize; population monitoring)
2012 Parr et al. (Sir. genetics & demography; population structure)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Nourisson, et al. (TMM; population viability)
2012 Tucker et al. (TML; Florida; low genetic diversity; population structure; conservation)
* 2012b Aragones et al. (boat- & land-based surveys of distribution)
2013 D'Souza et al. (DD; Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago; occupancy trends)
2014 Blair et al. (DD; Australia; Pleist. sea level & phylogeography)
* 2016 Barros et al. (Trichechus spp.; cranial & chromosomal geographic variation)
* 2017 Runge et al. (TML; status & threats analysis)
2018 Hostetler et al. (TML; Florida; statewide abundance estimate)
2019 Collazo et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; aerial surveys & population estimates)
* 2021 Souza et al. (TI; Central Amazon, Brazil; estimating occupancy and detection probability)
2021 Ruano et al. (TI; Ecuador; population estimates)
* 2021 Sharko et al. (HG; nuclear genome; pre-human impact)
* 2021 Luna et al. (TMM, TI; Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela; genetics)
* 2022 Le Duc et al. (HG; genetics, integument)
2022 Lin et al. (DD; considered functionally extinct in China)
Portugal ( 11 )
x 1944 Zbyszewski, G. (Metaxytherium petersi; Mioc., Lisbon; 69-70.)
1949 Zbyszewski, G. (Mioc., Lisbon)
1954 Zbyszewski, G. (Mioc., Lisbon)
x 1959 Telles-Antunes, M.C.F. (Halitherium sp.; Mioc., Lisbon; 129-137.)
1979 Telles-Antunes, M.C.F. (Metaxytherium medium)
1984 Telles-Antunes, M.C.F. (Mioc.)
x * 1998 Estevens, M. (Mioc.-Plioc.; geographic & stratigraphic distr.; A161-A164.)
x * 2000 Estevens, M. (Mioc.; geographic & stratigraphic distr.; 323-334.)
2003a Estevens, M. (Portugal; Mioc.)
2003b Estevens, M. (Mioc.)
2006 Estevens, M.
Potamosiren magdalenensis Reinhart, 1951 ( 9 )
x * 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., Colombia; 203-207.)
x 1953 Pascual, R. (comp. w/ Ribodon; 178-179.)
x 1953 Stirton, R.A. (in faunal list; 614.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m66, m92.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (comp. w/ Sirenotherium; 345-346, 350, 355-356.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 600-603, 606-607, 609, 611-613, 616.)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (comp. w/ ?Ribodon; 34.)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (m328.)
x * 1997a Domning, D.P. (revision & new material; 383-391.)
Potamosiren Reinhart, 1951 ( 10 )
x * 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (n.gen.; Mioc., Colombia; 203-211.)
x 1974 Savage, J.M. (significance for manatee zoogeography; 20, 26.)
1977 Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I.
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (in phylogeny; 579.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (Potamosiren sp.; Mioc., Colombia; 601-602, 606.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-379.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (in cladistic analysis of trichechids; 132-133.)
2004 Linares, O.J. (Middle Mioc.; Urumaco, Venezuela)
x 2011 Gomes R. et al. (tooth replacement; m4.)
2021 Souza et al. (evolutionary history)
Predators: SEE Natural Enemies ( 0 )
Priscosiren atlantica Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2014 ( 1 )
* 2014b Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (n.gen.n.sp.; Early Olig., Puerto Rico & South Carolina)
Priscosiren Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2014 ( 1 )
* 2014b Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (n.gen.; Early Olig., Puerto Rico & South Carolina)
Prohalicore dubaleni Flot, 1887 ( 2 )
x * 1887 Flot, L. (n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc., France; 11, 134-135, pl. 1.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (m23.)
Prohalicore Flot, 1887 ( 4 )
x * 1887 Flot, L. (n.gen.; Mioc., France; 11, 134-135, 137-138, pl. 1.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (m223.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 473, 481, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
Prorastoma Lydekker, 1892 ( 3 )
(= Prorastomus)
x * 1892 Lydekker, R. (unjustified emendation of Prorastomus Owen; 83.)
x 1942 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 1-5.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 6, 8-11.)
Prorastoma veronense (de Zigno, 1875) Lydekker, 1892 ( 6 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
x * 1892 Lydekker, R. (n.comb.; 77-83.)
1898 Trouessart, E.L. ("Prorastomus veronensis")
x 1906 Abel, O. (dentition; 52.)
x 1907b Arldt, T. ("P. veronensis"; biogeographic significance; 674.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. ("P. veronensis"; m232.)
x * 1942 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 1-5.)
Prorastomatidae Flower & Lydekker, 1891 ( 2 )
(family; = Prorastomidae)
x * 1891 Flower & Lydekker (unjustified emendation of Prorastomidae; 224.)
1998 Rice, D.W. (explanation of transliteration; 151.)
Prorastomidae Cope, 1889 ( 11 )
(family)
* 1889b Cope, E.D. (n.fam.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (m421.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker ("Prorastomatidae", unjustified emendation; m224.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. (teeth; m57.)
x 1932c Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 281.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154, pl. 6.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
1998 Rice, D.W. (explanation of transliteration; 151.)
x 1998 Goodwin et al. (?prorastomid; Middle Eoc., Israel; 813-815.)
2001 Portell et al. (Eoc., Jamaica)
* 2012 Hautier et al. (Prorastomidae indet.; Middle Eoc., Senegal)
Prorastominae (Cope, 1889) Reinhart, 1959 ( 1 )
(subfamily)
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (new subfamily; 5-6, 62-63.)
Prorastomus Owen, 1855 ( 43 )
x * 1855 Owen, R. (n.gen.; Eoc., Jamaica; 541-543, pl. 15.)
1869 Leidy, J.
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1883a Cope, E.D. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 52.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (teeth, 465; m472.)
x 1886b Hartlaub, C. (m376.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. (comp. w/ Miosiren; 416, 418-419, 421.)
x 1902 Yoshiwara & Iwasaki (comp. w/ ungulates; m12.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. (m57.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ Desmostylus; 384-385, 391.)
x 1924 Andrews, C.W. (dentition; m306.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. ("Porastomus"; m98.)
x 1930a Simpson, G.G. (pop. acc.; 44.)
x 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; m5, m8.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153-154, 156.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m104.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m208-209, 211.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m65.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
x 1968 Lemire, M. (m515.)
x 1969 Voorhies, M.R. (comp. w/ tooth from Georgia; m94.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (m7.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (dental formula; m4, 73.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 574-575, 579.)
x 1979 Tassy, P. (comp. w/ Moeritherium; 85-87.)
x 1980 West, R.M. (comp. w/ Anthracobune; 520, 531.)
x 1981d Domning, D.P. (probable seagrass diet; 418.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (comp. w/ Florentinoameghinia; 7-9.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (alisphenoid canal; m273.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (in cladistic analysis; 133.)
x 1986 Domning et al. (cladistic relationships; 36-37.)
x 1990 Court, N. (ear comp. w/ Arsinoitherium, etc.; 175-179.)
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (body size; 539.)
x 1991 Court & Jaeger (inner ear; 562, 564-565.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; m360.)
x 1996 Lavergne et al. (paenungulate relationships; m256.)
x 1997 Portell, R.W. (Jamaica; pop. acc.; 5-7.)
1998 Rice, D.W. (explanation of transliteration; 151.)
x 1998 Kondrashov, P.E. (cranial & mandibular characters & phylogeny; 422-423.)
x 2000 Domning, D.P. (m118.)
x 2006 Averianov & Yarkov (comp. w/ enigmatic tooth from Eoc. of Russia)
Prorastomus sirenoides Owen, 1855 ( 37 )
x * 1855 Owen, R. (n.gen.n.sp.; Eoc., Jamaica; 541-543, pl. 15.)
x 1869 Leidy, J. (in synopsis; 414.)
x * 1875b Owen, R. (redescription; 559-567, pls. 28-29.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 136.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 224.)
x 1892 Lydekker, R. (comp. w/ P. veronense; 82-83.)
x 1907b Arldt, T. (biogeographic significance; 674.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (comp. w/ Halitherium antillense; 23-24, 26, 28.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m232.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409, 411.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 422-423, 460, 470-472, 474, 491-492, 495-496, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Sirenavus, 146-149; in classification, 151, 154.)
1942 Kellogg, R.
x 1943 Kellogg, R. (m299.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review & measurements; 65.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (m346.)
x 1975 Savage, R.J.G. (restudy of holotype; 824.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
1977 Savage, R.J.G. (restudy of holotype)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 388-389, 396-397.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (not closely related to trichechids; 599.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 1-2, 4, 7, 35, 55, 59-63.)
x * 1990 Donovan et al. (Middle Eoc., Jamaica; new specimen; 660-662.)
x 1992 Thewissen & Domning (character states; 495, 502.)
x 1993 Domning & Clark (Jamaica; 414.)
1994 Court, N. (ear region)
* 1994 Savage et al. (redescr.)
x 1996 Miller & Donovan (?P. sirenoides; Early Eoc., Jamaica; 38.)
x 2001c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Pezosiren portelli; 625-627.)
x 2001 Reed, C. (m8.)
2013 O'Leary et al. (In phylogenetic context of other placental orders; in supplemental material.)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (evolution of brain morphology; CT reconstruction of endocranial cast.)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (ear region, CT scans; comp. w/ new primitive sir. from Eoc. of Tunisia)
D 2014 Cooper et al.
2015 Prothero, D.R. (gen. acc.)
Prorastomus veronensis: SEE Prorastoma veronense ( 0 )
Protosiren Abel, 1907 ( 33 )
x 1906 Abel, O. (nomen nudum; tooth replacement; 51, 59.)
* 1907a Abel, O. (n.gen.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (m27.)
1939 Edinger, T.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 151, 154, pl. 6.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 16-17, 21.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m209, 211.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m65.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 4, 16, 29.)
x 1979 Tassy, P. (comp. w/ Moeritherium; 87.)
1979 Webb, S.D. (Florida)
x 1980 Sahni & Kumar (comp. w/ Ishatherium; 134.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (?ancestral to trichechids; 599-600, 605, 615-616.)
x * 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Protosiren sp.; Middle Eoc., Florida & North Carolina, 4, 18-63; Late Eoc., Egypt, 55-56.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (comp. w/ Florentinoameghinia; 7-9.)
x 1983 Bizzotto, B. (comp. w/ Prototherium; 100, 110.)
x 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Eoc., Florida; 24.)
x 1983 Sahni et al. (pelvis comp. w/ Ishatherium; m81.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (skull foramina; 272-273.)
x 1986 Domning et al. (cladistic relationships; 36-37, 39, 45-46.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. ("Hippopotamus dubius" referable to Protosiren & not Halitherium; 124.)
1987 Pilleri, G.
x 1990 Ivany et al. (Middle Eoc., Florida; paleoecology; 250.)
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (brain; 536.)
1990 Oliver & Long
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Florida; in checklist; 28.)
x 2000 Domning, D.P. (locomotor & diving adaptations; 116-118.)
2010 Beatty & Geisler (Protosiren sp.; Middle Eoc., South Carolina)
2015 Prothero, D.R. (gen. acc.)
Protosiren dolloi Abel, 1904 ( 5 )
(= Prototherium veronense; nomen nudum)
* 1904a Abel, O. (n.sp.; nomen nudum)
x * 1906 Abel, O. (referred to Mesosiren; 52.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 471, 473, 481, 492, 495, 499.)
x 1976 Kordos, L. (m282.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Prototherium veronense; m575.)
Protosiren dubia (Cuvier, 1824) Sickenberg, 1934 ( 7 )
(= Protosiren minima)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (syn. of P.(?) minima; 113.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (m68-70.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (m575.)
x 1978 Kordos, L. (m282.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (nature of type material; 387.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (syn. of ?P. minima; m57.)
Protosiren eothene Zalmout, Haq, & Gingerich, 2003 ( 2 )
x * 2003 Zalmout et al. (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Pakistan; 79-87.)
x 2017 Chatterjee et al. (brief summ. of Eoc. record; m92.)
Protosiren fraasi Abel, 1907 ( 27 )
x 1906 Abel, O. (nomen nudum; dentiton; 51.)
* 1907a Abel, O. (n.gen.n.sp.)
1908 Priem, F. (Eoc., Egypt)
x 1924 Hay, O.P. (tooth formula; m3.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis, 409, 411, 414, 416; tooth replacement, 429; respiratory adaptations, 438.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1938 Zdansky, O. (comp. w/ Eotherium majus; 429, 431-433.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp.; 108.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 16, 18, 21, 23-24.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1973 Fuchs, H. ("Prototherium fraasi"; comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 75.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & occurrence in Africa; 574-575, 579.)
x 1978 Kordos, L. (P. cf. fraasi; Eoc., Hungary; 288-289, pl. 1.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (m385; nature of type material, 387.)
x 1980 West, R.M. (m510.)
x * 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 18, 30, 36-37, 39, 42-44, 55-57, 59.)
x 1985a Kordos, L. (Hungary; m314.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (in cladistic analysis; 132-134.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; 360-361.)
x 1992 Gingerich, P.D. (Egypt; stratigraphic horizon; 11, 71, 75-77.)
x 1992 Thewissen & Domning (character states; 495, 502-503.)
x 1993 Gingerich et al. (India; specimen of Sahni & Mishra, 1975, referred to Cetacea; 410-411.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (comp. w/Protosiren eothene; 80-85.)
x 2006 Averianov & Yarkov (comp. w/ enigmatic tooth from Eoc. of Russia)
2013 Benoit et al. (endocranial morphology)
2013a Diedrich, C.G. (Protosiren cf. fraasi; Middle Eoc., Germany; paleobiogeography)
2021 Avilla & Mothé (in phylogenetic analysis of Afrotheria)
Protosiren minima (Desmarest, 1822) Hooijer, 1952 ( 2 )
x * 1952 Hooijer, D.A. (n.comb.; senior synonym of P.(?) dubia; 113.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 37, 57.)
Protosiren sattaensis Gingerich, Arif, Bhatti, Raza and Raza, 1995 ( 5 )
* 1995 Gingerich et al. (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Pakistan)
x 1997 Gingerich et al. (Eoc., Pakistan; 57, 69, 71, 75.)
2001 Gingerich et al. (Protosiren sattaensis, Eoc., Pakistan; 281, 318.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (comp. w/Protosiren eothene; 80-83.)
2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (comp. w/ Protosiren smithae)
Protosiren smithae Domning and Gingerich, 1994 ( 7 )
* 1994 Domning & Gingerich (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Egypt; 69-87.)
x 1997 Gingerich et al. (comp. w/ P. sattaensis; 69, 75.)
x 2001c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Pezosiren portelli; 627.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (comp. w/Protosiren eothene; 80-84.)
* 2012 Zalmout & Gingerich (Late Eoc., Fayum, Egypt)
D 2014 Cooper et al.
x 2017 Chatterjee et al. (brief summ. of Eoc. record; m92.)
Protosiren veronense [sic] (de Zigno, 1875) Kaltenmark, 1942 ( 1 )
(= Prototherium veronense)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (n.comb.; ?lapsus for Prototherium veronense; comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp.; 108.)
Protosirenidae Sickenberg, 1934 ( 4 )
(family)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O. (n.fam.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154, pl. 6.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
2014 Gingerich & Cappetta (lower Middle Eoc., Togo)
Protosireninae (Sickenberg, 1934) Reinhart, 1959 ( 1 )
(subfamily)
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (new subfamily; 6, 62-63.)
Prototheriidae Kretzoi, 1941 ( 1 )
(family; = Halitheriinae)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (n.fam.; 155, pl. 6.)
Prototherium ausetanum Balaguer and Alba, 2016 ( 1 )
* 2016 Balaguer & Alba (n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Spain)
Prototherium de Zigno, 1887 ( 9 )
* 1887 Zigno, A. de (n.gen.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 153, 155, pl. 6.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 21.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1980 Sahni & Kumar (comp. w/ Ishatherium; 133-134.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (comp. w/ Florentinoameghinia; 7-8.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (pachyosteosclerosis; m361.)
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (Eoc., Spain; 114.)
Prototherium fraasi (Abel, 1907) Fuchs, 1973 ( 1 )
(= Protosiren fraasi)
x * 1973 Fuchs, H. (n.comb.; lapsus for Protosiren fraasi; comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 75.)
Prototherium intermedium Bizzotto, 1983 ( 4 )
x * 1983 Bizzotto, B. (n.sp.; Late Eoc., Italy; 95-116, 2 pls.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
* 1989 Pilleri et al.
* 2005 Bizzotto, B. (cranial structure)
Prototherium intermedium montserratense (Pilleri in Pilleri, Biosca, & Via, 1989) Bizzotto, 2005 ( 1 )
* 2005 Bizzotto, B. (new rank; 123.)
Prototherium intermedium solei (Pilleri in Pilleri, Biosca, & Via, 1989) Bizzotto, 2005 ( 1 )
* 2005 Bizzotto, B. (new rank; 123.)
Prototherium montserratense Pilleri in Pilleri, Biosca, & Via, 1989 ( 4 )
(= Prototherium intermedium)
* 1989 Pilleri et al. (n.sp.; Eoc., Spain)
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (syn. of "P." intermedium; 388.)
* 2005 Bizzotto, B. (reduced to a subspecies of P. intermedium; 123.)
2008 Buffrénil et al. (Eoc., Spain; pachyosteosclerosis)
Prototherium solei Pilleri in Pilleri, Biosca, & Via, 1989 ( 3 )
(= Prototherium intermedium)
* 1989 Pilleri et al. (n.sp.; Eoc., Spain)
x * 1996a Domning, D.P. (syn. of "P." intermedium; 388.)
* 2005 Bizzotto, B. (reduced to a subspecies of P. intermedium; 123.)
Prototherium veronense (de Zigno, 1875) de Zigno, 1887 ( 26 )
* 1887 Zigno, A. de (n.comb.)
x 1902 Andrews, C.W. (comp. w/ Eosiren libyca; 293-294.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis, 409, 411, 414; tooth replacement, 429.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 423, 444, 471-474, 476-478, 480.)
* 1934b Sickenberg, O.
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp.; 108.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (phylogeny; 17-19, 21, 23.)
x 1952a Koenigswald, G.H.R.v. (comp. w/ Indosiren; 611.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m274.)
x 1966 Piccoli, G. ("P. cf. veronense"; mandible in Priabonian stratotype, Italy; 349-353.)
1969 Bartolomei, G.
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Romanian sir.; 72, 76-77.)
x * 1977 Bizzarini et al. (Late Eoc., Italy; 1-15, pls. 1-2.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Paralitherium; 366.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 4, 12, 16.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 575-576, 579.)
1980 Altichieri, L.
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 387-389, 395-397.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (deciduous dentition, comp. w/ Trichechus; 608.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 38-39, 58-59.)
x * 1983 Bizzotto, B. (comp. w/ P. intermedium, etc.; 99-111.)
x 1986 Domning & Ray (comp. w/ Oregon halitheriine; 272.)
x 1986 Domning et al. (deciduous dentition; 46.)
x 1988 Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium floridanum; 409-410.)
2005 Bizzotto, B.
x 2006 Averianov & Yarkov (comp. w/ enigmatic tooth from Eoc. of Russia)
Puerto Rico ( 54 )
1534 SEE Guzm n, A.E. de, 1960.
1864 Latimer, G. (TMM)
x 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; in capt.; 191-192.)
1882 Stahl, A.
x 1900 Evermann, B.W. (TMM; m25.)
x 1904 Wilcox, W.A. (TMM; near Ceiba; netting; 387.)
x 1914 Rabell Cabrero, N. (indeterminate sirs.; Olig.; 66-69.)
x 1915 Anon. (TMM; in capt., New York; 1216.)
x * 1916a Matthew, W.D. (?Halitherium antillense, n.sp.; Olig.; 23-28.)
1916 Reeds, C.A.
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; 216, 218.)
x 1956b Anon. (TMM; sound production; 39.)
* 1959 Reinhart, R.H. (Caribosiren turneri, n.gen.n.sp.)
1960 Guzmán, A.E. de (TMM, 1534; 131.)
x 1970 Erdman, D.S. (TMM; 638.)
x 1980 Monroe, W.H. (indeterminate sirs.; Mioc.; 38, 78.)
x 1980 Ortiz Rivera, E.J. (numerous illustrations of sir. bones.)
x * 1981 Powell et al. (TMM; status; 642-646.)
1985 Rathbun, Carr et al. (TMM)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 571-572, 600.)
* 1990 Freeman & Quintero (TMM; distr.)
x * 1990 MacPhee & Wyss (Oligo-Mioc. sirs. & localities; 2, 14-17, 21-38, 41.)
1990 Mignucci, A.A. (TMM; mortality)
x 1995 MacPhee & Iturralde-V. (indet. sir.; Early Olig., Yauco; 15-16.)
x 1996 Boice, L.P. (TM; Roosevelt Roads; protective efforts by U.S. Navy; 4.)
x 1997 Mignucci G. et al. (TM; specimens in museum, Univ. of Puerto Rico; 288-292.)
x 1997 Reid, J.P. (TMM; Roosevelt Roads; radiotracking; 22-23.)
x 1998 Deutsch et al. (TMM; radio-tracking; 20-22, 24-26.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (TMM; diet; 394-397.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (TMM; in capt.; osmoregulation experiments; 450.)
1999 Mignucci G., Beck et al. (TMM; parasites & commensals)
x 2000 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; seagrass use; 289-297.)
2000 Mignucci et al. (TMM; mortality)
x 2003 Falcón et al. (TMM; shark attack; 6-11.)
x 2004 Carvajal, J. (ed.) (TMM; recipe; 100-101.)
2006 Reid, J.P. (TMM; research programs; gen. acc.)
2007 Lowry et al. (TMM; conservation status & history of U.S. listing)
2008 Moore et al. (TMM; cardiac failure)
2008 Di Carlo & Kenworthy (TMM; recovery of Thalassia from grazing)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (TMM; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
x * 2010 Mignucci-G., A.A. (TM; children's book; iv + 56.)
2012 Hunter et al. (TML, TMM; genetic distinction)
2012 Bossart et al. (TMM; Toxoplasma gondii; gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, myocarditis)
2012 Wong et al. (TMM; oral temperature, heart & respiration rate)
* 2014b Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (Priscosiren atlantica, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Olig., Puerto Rico & South Carolina)
* 2015 Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (Callistosiren boriquensis, n.gen.n.sp.; Late Olig.)
2017 Wyrosdick et al. (TMM; Toxoplasma gondii)
2017 Harms-Tuohy & Tuohy (TMM; aggression toward divers by mating herd)
2017 Wyrosdick, Gerhold et al. (TMM; Toxoplasma gondii)
2018 Mignucci, Iglesias et al. (TMM; helicopter surveys)
2019 Palmer et al. (TM; PFAS in plasma)
* 2019 Collazo et al. (TMM; aerial surveys & population estimates)
2022 Cabrias-C. et al. (TMM; perinatal bilateral exophthalmia & secondary corneal ulcers)
2022 Mignucci-G. et al. (TMM; new papillovirus; genital papillomatosis)
Pugmeodon Kaup, 1838 ( 11 )
(= Halitherium)
x * 1834b Kaup & Scholl (n.gen.; nomen nudum; 16.)
x * 1838a Kaup, J.J. (n.gen.; Middle Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany; 319, pl. 2.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (comp. w/ Manatus; 676.)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (syn. of Halitherium; 207, 220.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m481.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 151, 154.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (m103.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Halitherium; m576.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Halitherium; 122-125.)
* 2021 Domning, D.P. (nomenclature; syn. of Halitherium)
Pugmeodon schinzii Kaup, 1838 ( 9 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
x * 1834b Kaup & Scholl (n.gen.n.sp.; nomen nudum; 16.)
x * 1838a Kaup, J.J. (n.gen.n.sp.; Middle Olig., Mainz Basin, Germany; 319, pl. 2.)
x 1839b Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa Studeri; 77.)
x 1840 Kaup, J.J. (considered to include Manatus fossilis; 676.)
x 1846 Meyer, H.v. (syn. of Halianassa Collinii; 328.)
x * 1987b Domning, D.P. (proposed designation as type species of Halitherium & Halianassa; 122-125.)
x * 1989 ICZN (designated type species of Halitherium; 83-84.)
* 2014 Voss, M. (holotype redescribed & illustrated; considered non-diagnostic)
* 2021 Domning, D.P. (designation of neotype; syn. of Halitherium schinzii)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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