Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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R

Radiotracking: SEE Tagging Methods and Recognition ( 0 )
Red Sea ( 45 )
(SEE ALSO: Africa; Asia)
* 1828-99 Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Halicora Hemprichii & H. Lottum, n.spp.)
x * 1834 Rüppell, E. (Halicore tabernaculi, n.sp.; anatomy & natural history; 99-114, pl. 6.)
1871 Klunzinger, C.B.
1878 Klunzinger, C.B.
x 1895 Yerbury & Thomas (DD; Aden; 555.)
1902 Anderson & De Winton
x 1905 Linstow, O.v. (DD; Assab, Eritrea; nematode Ascaris halicoris; m258.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; 50, 66.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; color; 568.)
x 1912 Issel, A. (DD; Assab, Eritrea; 121.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; 77, 83.)
x 1926 Cheesman, R.E. (DD; 348, m350.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; 84, pl. 1.)
x 1930 Aharoni, J. (DD; dispersal through Suez Canal; 330.)
1939 Budker, P.
1943 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD)
1944 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD)
x * 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; distr., 4-5, 40, 42; anatomy, natural history, taxonomy, 6-49.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD)
x 1968 Gewalt, W. (attempted rescue of supposed "shipwrecked sailors" [dugongs]; 123.)
x 1971 Hellwing & Steinitz (DD sightings & skull; Gulf of Elat; 11-12.)
x 1972 Por, F.D. (DD; El Hamira Bay, Gulf of Aqaba; 12.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr.; 306-307.)
1976 Berhanu, A. (DD; Dahlac Islands)
x 1976 Ilani, G. (DD; Gulf of Aqaba; 161.)
x * 1976 Lipkin, Y. (DD; stomach contents & feeding; 81-96.)
1976 Moore & Balzarotti (DD; Suakin Archipelago)
1976 Ormond, R.F.G. (DD)
x 1976 Paz & Ilani (DD; sightings & captures; 73-74.)
1978 Ormond, R.F.G. (DD)
x 1979 Hilmy et al. (DD; hematology; 197-203.)
x 1980 Blair, D. (DD; trematode Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus; 512-513.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (DD; parasitic flukes; 15.)
x * 1982 Robineau & Rose (DD; Djibouti; 233-238.)
1987 Frazier et al. (DD)
1987 Vine & Schmid (DD)
x 1988 Fouda, M.M. (DD; 503.)
x 1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (DD; Djibouti; pachyostosis; 2108.)
x * 1989 Preen et al. (DD; conservation; 1-15, 20, 22.)
x * 1989a Preen, A. (DD; status & conservation; 1-13, 17-18, 30-31, 36-40, 57, 59-60, 94-115, 117-118, 121-122, 128-131, 133-134, 136-137, 176, 195-200.)
1996 Vincent, T. (DD; Hurghada; 179-183.)
2008 Diedrich, C.G. (DD)
x 2015 Cole, B. (DD; Egypt; gen. acc.; 2-4.)
* 2019 Nasr et al. (DD; status)
x * n.d. Bible, The (?DD.)
Rehabilitation: SEE Captivity, Sirenians in; Pathology ( 0 )
Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance ( 121 )
(SEE ALSO: Economic Use; Mermaid Legend)
x 1796 Stedman, J.G. (Suriname; "Watra Mama"; 178.)
x 1805 Pitou, L.-A. (TMM; French Guiana; vernacular names & spiritual attributes; 2: 260.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; Malays; considered a "royal fish", 180; tears, 181.)
x 1831 Spix & Martius (Indians, Brazil; ?intercourse with manatees; 1123.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; rosaries made of tusks & their use as charms, 113; hide used for the Tabernacle, 99, 113.)
1836 Smyth & Lowe (Sencis Indians, Peru; constellation Scorpio identified as manatee; 229.)
x 1838 Humboldt, A.v. (TMM; Orinoco R.; meat avoided, 9; ear bones used in magic, 9-10.)
1848 Squier & Davis (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
x 1857 Baikie, B. (TS; lower Niger R.; bones & other ?hunting trophies; 31.)
1866 Duff, R. (TMM; Guyana)
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (South America; use of manatee hide in funeral; 1: 671-672.)
1873 Semper, C.G. (Palau; dugong-atlas bracelets)
x 1875 Hartt, C.F. (Indians, Brazil; area of sky near Orion identified as manatee; legend; 39.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (South America; use of manatee hide in funeral; 2: 42.)
1876 Gill, W.W. (DD; Torres Strait)
x * 1881 Flower, W.H. (West Africa; manatee-catching society; 454-455.)
x 1881a Nordenskiöld, A.E. (HG; Bering Is.; carving of ribs; m280.)
1882 Barber, E.A. (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
1882 Barber, E.A. (mound pipes, ?manatee effigies)
* 1883 Henshaw, H.W. (supposed manatee effigies among stone tobacco pipes; Mississippi Valley)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (TMM; Mexico; bones used as charms against spells; 357-358.)
x 1888 Hart, H.C. (DD; Hebrews; use of hide in Tabernacle; 26-27.)
1890 Haddon, A.C. (DD; Torres Strait; scarification with dugong totems)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (DD; Sri Lanka; treasure in stomach; 98-99.)
x 1901 Anon. (DD; Torres Strait; 21238-21239.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; Malays; tears, ritual killing; 241.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; Malays; tears; 63-64.)
1912 Rodway, J. (TMM; Guyana)
x 1913 Frobenius, L. (TS; Yoruba; myths & hunting rituals; 1: 199.)
1915 Roth, W.E.
x 1916 Lucas, F.A. (DD & Tabernacle, 315-316; Trichechus meat deemed to be fish by Catholics, 316.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (DD; Malays; tears; 344.)
x 1917 Rodway, J. (TMM; Guyana; 491-499.)
x 1920 Schoff, W.H. (DD; Biblical references to use of hide; 10-11, 51-53, 77, 140.)
x 1922 Swanton, J.R. (TML; Florida; bones in graves; 389.)
x * 1923a Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar, tears, 77, myth, 78-82, ritual, 80-82; Tabernacle, 82; charms, Philippine dugong-bone society, Torres Strait, 83; Trichechus, 79, 81.)
x * 1924 Dandouau, A. (DD; Madagascar; hunting rituals; 152-153.)
1927 Landtman, G. (DD; New Guinea; hunting rituals)
x * 1927b Petit, G. (DD; Madagascar; hunting rituals; 246-250.)
x * 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; Madagascar, rites, 87; rosaries, 88; treasure in stomach, 88-89; tears, 95; myths, 96-97.)
x 1929 Petit & Rochon-Duvigneaud (DD; Madagascar & Java; tears; 132.)
x 1931 Meek, C.K. (TS; Nigeria; myths & taboos, 76-78; virility charm, 304.)
* 1932 Haddon, A.C. (DD; Torres Strait)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (dugong-atlas bracelets; 4222.)
x * 1934 Thomson, D.F. (DD; Cape York, Australia; hunting magic & ritual; 240-241, 250-255.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (Nicaragua; manatee-stapes charms; 218.)
1935 Strong, W.D. (TMM; Honduras; depicted on pottery)
x 1937 Orico, O. (Amazonia; manatee legends; 190-191.)
x 1937 Woods, F.J. (TS; Nigeria; superstitions & butchering rituals; 28.)
x 1939 Wavrin, M. de (Trichechus; South America; meat thought to cause indigestion & erysipelas; 196.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (Urubú R., Brazil; veneration of stone in shape of manatee; 54.)
x 1946 Swanton, J.R. (TML; Florida; bones ["tusks"] in graves; 250, 282.)
1948 Berndt, R.M.
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; Senegal; fear of water exhaled by wounded manatee; hunting rituals; legendary origin of manatee-hunting taboo among Peulhs; 189.)
1948 Rouse, I. (TM: West Indies)
x 1951 Aragon, F. (dugong-atlas bracelets; 267-268.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (DD; East Indies; tears; m27.)
1956 Mountford, C.P.
1958 Cruls, G. (Brazil; intercourse with manatees)
x 1958 Savory, B. (DD; Tabernacle, witchcraft on Socotra, 257; fishing, m258.)
x 1960 Williams, J.H. (DD; Persian Gulf; thought to foretell storms; 9.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD)
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; Indonesia; tears, tusks; 150.)
1964 Berndt, R.M.
x 1964 Cansdale, G. (TS; Ghana; ritual hunting; m171.)
1964 Mountford, C.P.
x 1967 Feriz, H. (Brazil; clay model of manatee head; 373-374.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; meat, tears; 218.)
x 1967 Pereira, M.N. (Brazil; Indian legend of origin of manatee; 467.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; taboo for women to see a dead dugong; 2: 240-241.)
1970 Wilbert, J. (TMM; Venezuela)
x 1971 Almeida, A. de (DD; Timor; legends, 209, 211-212, 220; amulets & elixirs, 212.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; origin legend, intercourse with dugongs by fishermen; 398.)
1972 Kent, J.
x 1972 Lawrie, M.E. (DD; Torres Strait; folktales; 3-6, 22-28.)
x 1974 Sikes, S. (TS; head & teeth as luck charms; m466.)
1975 Oakley, K.P. (fossils)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; tears as aphrodisiac; 35.)
x * 1976 Loveland, F.O. (TMM; Nicaragua; symbolic significance, myths, rituals; 70-81.)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; popular misconceptions; 210-214.)
x 1977 Nietschmann, B. (Torres Strait; "calling" dugongs; 14.)
x 1978 Marshall, A.J. (DD; Australia; Aboriginal story of dugong; 80-84.)
x 1978 Taylor, D. (DD; Sumatra; tears as aphrodisiac; 205-213.)
x 1979 Cascudo, L. da C. (Trichechus; Brazil & West Africa; pop. acc.; 28.)
x 1979 Hoch, E. (DD apparently not venerated; United Arab Emirates, 3rd millennium B.C.; m606.)
1979 Pendergast, D.M.
1980e Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; myths & hunting rituals)
x 1981 Chase, A. (DD; Australia; traditional use & beliefs; 112-122.)
x 1981 Hendrokusumo et al. (DD; Indonesia; taboo on hunting; 10.)
x 1981 Nietschmann & Nietschmann (DD; Torres Strait; hunting rituals; 61.)
x 1982 Michelson, R.C. (Mexico; Olmec sculpture of manatee; 79, 83.)
x 1983 Bradley et al. (TMM; hypothetical use by Olmecs; 1-82.)
1984b Anon. (DD; tears)
x 1985 McKillop, H.I. (TMM; Belize; bone used for carvings, 342-345, 348; ear bones used as charms, 345.)
x 1985 Said, R.J. (Kenya; legends of origin of dugong; 34.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (TM; Mexico; bones used for jewelry, 1010; meat accorded religious value, m1011.)
* 1986c Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; hunting traditions)
x * 1988 O'Shea et al. (TMM; Venezuela; bones kept for luck in hunting, ear bones used as amulets, 293-294; Warauno folklore, 294.)
x 1988 Reeves et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; hunting beliefs; m78.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; tusks used in sword handles, 51, 114; meat ?prohibited to Shia Muslims, 52; genitals of captured dugongs kept covered, 97, 99; ritual slaughter & acceptability to Muslims as food, 99, 115.)
x * 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Australia; hunting rules, 94-101, 107; Dugong Dreaming sites, 102-103.)
1992 Correa-Viana & O'Shea (TMM; Venezuela)
x 1993 Healy, P. (TM; Honduras; supposed manatee effigies on prehistoric pottery; 202-203.)
x 1995 Smith et al. (DD; Vietnam; in whale temples; 163-164, 170.)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (TS; Sierra Leone; ear bones; m138.)
x 1998 Liu, Z. (DD; China; considered a "holy fish" before 1950s; m209.)
x 2000 Mayor, A. ("Halitherium"; France; as ?inspiration of folklore; 145, 259, 325.)
* 2003 McNiven & Feldman (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; hunting magic)
x 2003 Kendall, S. (TI; Colombia; legend of manatee origin; 14-15.)
2003 Blaszkiewitz, B. (sir. representations in zoos)
2006 David et al. (DD; Torres Strait, Australia; dugong bone mounds & rituals)
* 2008 McNiven & Bedingfield (DD; Torres Strait; archaeological sites; hunting rates)
* 2009 Méry et al. (DD; Akab, United Arab Emirates; Neolithic ritual site)
2010 Calvimontes & Marmontel (TI; Brazil; ethnobiology)
2010 Jamieson, M.
2012 Muir & Kiszka (DD; East Africa)
* 2013 McNiven, I. (DD; Australia; ritualization of middens)
2015 Nontji, A. (DD; Indonesia; "dugong princess" legends)
* 2017 Moore et al. (DD; Indonesia; conservation & folklore)
* 2021 Forth, G. (DD; Flores Island, East Indies; myths & superstitions)
x * n.d. Bible, The (?DD; Hebrews; use of hide in Tabernacle, etc.)
Reproduction: SEE Birth and Breeding ( 0 )
Respiration and Diving ( 136 )
(SEE ALSO: Locomotion)
x 1821a Home, E. (DD; hydrostasis; 269-270.)
x 1862 Phillippo (Trichechus; heart adaptations; 685.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; in capt., New York; 166.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; 461.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (TMM; in capt., Philadelphia; 296.)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; in capt., London; breathing intervals; 25.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (Trichechus, in capt., Brighton, 457; effects of injury, 459.)
x 1884a Stejneger, L. (HG; inability to dive; 188.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; hydrostasis; m462-463.)
x 1896 Marshall, W. (role of skeletal weight in aiding submergence; m46.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 198-199.)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (DD; netted at 10-12 fathoms; 242.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; 50-55, 60.)
x 1906c Dexler & Freund (DD; caudal fin; 580.)
x 1907 Pick, F.K. (DD; lung adaptations; 269-271.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; in capt., New York; breathing; 229, 232.)
x * 1922 Golder, F.A. (HG; exposure of back above water; 238.)
x * 1922 Parker, G.H. (TML, 128-135; DD, m134.)
x * 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (respiration, diving, & pachyostosis; 353-359.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; 76-77.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt., Hamburg; lengthening of respiratory interval with age, 221; breathing while asleep, 224.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (effects on endocrine function; 433-439.)
1934 Genschow, J. (closing of nasal passages)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; Central America; diving time, 217; breathing, 218.)
x * 1935a Wislocki, G.B. (TML; lung adaptations; 395.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI calf; in capt., New York; diving times [up to 14 min.], 145; "snapping" nostrils shut, 146.)
x 1941 Irving et al. (TML; m151, m158, 166.)
x * 1941 Scholander & Irving (TML; 169-191.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; opening breathing holes in floating meadows, 57; respiratory disease, 65.)
x 1945 Santos, E. (TI; sliding backwards on submergence; 158.)
x 1948 Mendes, A. (TI; sliding backwards on submergence; 326.)
x 1951 Bourlière, F. (TML; maximum submergence 16 min.; 21.)
x * 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; teaching young to breathe, 27; diving times, 29-31; raising head in rough water, 29.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (hydrostatic function of pachyostosis; 276-277.)
x 1954 Aragão, A. de (TI; sliding backwards on submergence; 55.)
x 1955 MacMillan, L. (DD; Australia; 18.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (TML; hydrostasis; 17-18.)
x 1958 Loftin, H. (Trichechus; teaching young to breathe; pop. acc.; 256.)
x 1959 Jones, S. (DD; in capt.; 199.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 5-6.)
x 1961 Slijper, E.J. (foramen ovale & ductus arteriosus; 544, 548-549.)
x 1963 Tenney & Remmers (Trichechus, DD; quantitative lung morphology; 54-55.)
x * 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; 116-118; vertical movement, 117-118.)
1964 Harrison & Tomlinson (DD)
x 1965a Kaiser, H.E. (functional anatomy; 229.)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; in capt., Mexico; approximate diving times; 418.)
x * 1966 Jarman, P.J. (DD; Kenya; 84.)
x * 1966a Kaiser, H.E. (functional anatomy & hydrostasis; 59, 61-69.)
x 1966b Kaiser, H.E. (functional anatomy; 426.)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (TS, in capt., Abidjan; breathing; 51.)
x * 1967 Kenny, R. (DD; 372-373.)
x 1968 Van den Bergh, H. (TS, TML; longest dives; 449-451.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TML; 349-350.)
x 1969 Strauss, M.B. (Trichechus; m2, m5, m10.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (HG; inability to dive; 218-219.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; while feeding; 395.)
x 1972 Blessing, M.H. (Trichechus; myoglobin concentration; 475-479.)
1973 Kooyman, G.L.
x 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (TMM, TI; average respiration times; 19.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (TMM; difficulty breathing out of water due to body weight; 225.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta; 38.)
1976 Harrison & Ridgway
x 1976 White et al. (TML; oxyhemoglobin dissociation; 415-416.)
x 1977 Farmer & Bonaventura (TI; hemoglobin properties; 916.)
1977 Versaggi, C.S. (bone physiology)
x * 1978 Anderson & Birtles (DD; Queensland; surfacing modes & diving times; 6-8, 10-11, 13, 17-19.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; use of neck, 122-123; buoyancy, 129-132, 141-143.)
x 1978 Marsh et al. (DD; review of respiratory physiology; 164-165.)
x 1978 McCabe et al. (DD; oxygen affinity of hemoglobin; 19-22.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; exhalation directed forward, 117; respiratory behavior, 125-126.)
x 1979 Best & Silva (TI; in capt.; respiration & heart rate; 29.)
x * 1979a Farmer et al. (TI; hemoglobin & whole blood properties; 231-238.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; deepest dive to 8 m, 38; surfacing under vegetation mats, 41; surfacing behavior & diving times, 72-82, 86, 113, 119, 128; resting, 82-84; sneezing, 92; ?bloat, 124-125.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; in capt., Jakarta; breathing intervals; 10, 23.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (newborn TMM; in capt., Amsterdam; 22-24.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (TI calves; pathological floating; m544.)
x * 1980 Gallivan & Best (TI; metabolism & respiration; 245-253.)
x * 1980 Gallivan, G.J. (TI; respiratory control by carbon dioxide; 254-261.)
x 1980 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt., Toba, Japan; range of breathing times; 270.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (DD; diving times & behavior; 642-643.)
x 1981 Elliott et al. (DD calf; pathological floating; 204.)
x 1981 Kataoka & Asano (DD; in capt., Toba, Japan; range of breathing times; 202.)
x 1981 Marsh et al. (DD; pregnant females surface & sink at steeper angles; 261, 265.)
x * 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; diving times; 237, 241.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; synchronous breathing; 440, 444.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (DD; Sri Lanka; dives of 15-20 min.; 4.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; diving times & modes of surfacing when disturbed & undisturbed, 88-89, 91, 93; relationship to feeding, lactating, etc., 97.)
x 1982 Barnett & Johns (DD; Queensland; 522.)
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (TI calves; pathological floating; 264.)
x 1983 Irvine, A.B. (TML; metabolic rate & oxygen consumption; 317-327.)
x 1983 Wall, W.P. (TM; bone density as diving adaptation; 197, 201-204.)
x 1984c Anderson, P.K. (DD; Queensland; diving times & modes of surfacing; 39-40.)
x * 1984 Galantsev & Mukhametov (TM; respiratory & heart rates; 201-205.)
x 1984 Irvine & Scott (TML; Florida; diving times; 19, 22-24.)
x 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (TML; Florida; vocalizations & synchronous respiration; 817.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; feeding at depths of 8.5 m or more; 483.)
x 1986 Gallivan & Best (TI; feeding, metabolism, & ventilation; 552-557.)
x * 1986 Gallivan et al. (TI; heart rates & gas exchange in diving; 415-423.)
x 1986 Williams, T.R. (DD; Papua New Guinea; average diving times ca. 10 min., and body flexure extreme, when diving in 40-50 feet of water; 68.)
x 1987 Bergey & Baier (TML; lung mechanical properties; 63-75.)
x 1988a Marsh, H. (DD; deepest dive to 20 m; 15.)
x 1989 Anderson, P.K. (DD; dive times while foraging on macroinvertebrates; 6.)
x 1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (hydrostasis; 2118.)
x 1990 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; Queensland; breathing intervals; 92.)
x 1991 Bradley, J.J. (DD; Australia; pregnant females dive quicker and at sharper angle; 96.)
x * 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (hydrostasis; 331-368.)
1993 Lee Long et al. (DD; Queensland; feeding trails to 23 m deep)
x 1994 Anderson, P.K. (DD; feeding in deep water; 386-387.)
x 1994 Taylor, M.A. (buoyancy control in sirs.; 157, 160-161.)
x 1994 Tschada, P. (TMM; in capt., Nuremberg; developmental changes in calf; 48-49.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (TS; Guinea-Bissau; maximum submergence 25 min.; 403.)
1995 Domning, D.P. (DD; evolution; feeding ecology & deep diving)
1996 Lee Long et al. (DD; northeastern Australia; feeding at depths of at least 23 m)
x 1997 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; dive times while lekking; 441-442, 447, 449.)
x 1997 De Iongh et al. (DD; Indonesia; diving times & behavior; 74-76.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (TMM; Costa Rica; use of "blowing holes" in rivers; 269-271.)
x 2000 Domning, D.P. (Eoc. sirs.; locomotor & diving adaptations; 115-119.)
x 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (TML; diaphragm & buoyancy control; 50-51.)
2000 Williams et al.
x 2001 Blaszkiewitz, B. (TMM; newborn with partly-uninflated lung & oblique posture in water; 427.)
x 2001 Taylor, G. (DD; Australia; bloat; 41.)
2002a Whiting, S.D. (DD; Northern Territory, Australia; dive times)
x 2002 Ames et al. (TML; dodecanoic acid in fat ?useful for buoyancy; m632-633.)
* 2002 Kipps et al. (TML; skin density & buoyancy)
2003 Rommel et al.
x 2003 Falcón et al. (TMM; intestinal impaction, respiratory distress, & lack of buoyancy control; 7-9.)
2004 Chilvers et al. (DD; diving behavior)
2009 Mortola & Seguin (end-tidal CO2)
2009 Houssaye, A. (review of "pachyostosis")
2011 Wirsing et al. (DD; feeding and diving mode in presence of tiger sharks)
2011 Hagihara et al. (DD; analysis of shallow-dive recordings)
2012 Castellini, M. (diving physiology; sirs. comp. w/other species)
2012 Wong et al. (TML, TMM; respiration rate, blood chemistry)
2013 Kikuchi et al. (TI; in capt., Brazil; acceleration data loggers)
2014 Hagihara et al. (DD; Australia; aerial surveys; correction factors for surfacing times)
2016 Edwards et al. (TML; Florida; diving & risk of boat collisions)
Respiratory System ( 41 )
x * 1820b Home, E. (DD; 319, pl. 29.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; 178.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; diaphragm, lungs, trachea; 106.)
x * 1838a Owen, R. (DD; 36-39.)
x 1847 Bischoff, T.L.W. (DD; hyoid; 3-6, pl. 1.)
x 1851 Gosse & Hill (TMM; nostrils; 342-343.)
x 1857 Rapp, W.v. (TML; larynx, trachea, lungs; 89-92, pl. 3.)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; 178-180.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; 457, 461.)
x 1886 Waldeyer, W. (Trichechus; pharynx; 245-246, 248.)
1887 Leche, W.
x 1897 Beddard, F.E. (TI; pleurisy; 47.)
1898 Müller, O.
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 193-194.)
1905 Oppel, A.
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (Trichechus, 54; DD, 54, 60.)
x * 1907 Pick, F.K. (DD; lung anatomy & histology; 245-272.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (adaptations of thorax & lungs; 438-439.)
* 1934 Genschow, J. (nasal passages)
x * 1935a Wislocki, G.B. (TML; 385-396, 2 pls.)
1940 Bélanger, L.F.
x 1949 Negus, V. E. (DD, Trichechus; larynx; 77.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TM; diaphragm, trachea, lungs; 194, 202.)
x 1959a Engel, S. (DD; lung anatomy & histology; 102-104, 106, 111-114.)
x * 1959b Engel, S. (DD; lung anatomy & histology; 90-100.)
x * 1962 Engel, S. (DD; lung air-passages; 95-107.)
x 1963 Tenney & Remmers (Trichechus, DD; quantitative lung morphology; 54-55.)
x 1965b Kaiser, H.E. (horizontal diaphragm & body-cavity nomenclature; 425-428.)
x * 1966a Kaiser, H.E. (horizontal diaphragm & body-cavity nomenclature; 59, 61-69.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; larynx, trachea, diaphragm, lungs; 41, 46.)
x 1976 Boever et al. (TI; lung abscesses; 928.)
x 1978a Domning, D.P. (TI; functional anatomy of nostrils; 57.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TM; lung lesions; 4-5.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (TML; lung weights; 54-58.)
x 1985 Mackay-Sim et al. (TM; serial sections of nasal cavity; 188-189.)
x * 1987 Bergey & Baier (TML; lung mechanical properties; 63-75.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (position & structure of lungs & diaphragm; role in hydrostasis; 332-334, 350-357, 359.)
1992 Dong et al. (DD; China; larynx, trachea, lungs)
x * 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (TML; diaphragm; 41-51.)
2011 Grossman et al. (TML; modeling respiratory tract)
2012 Buchholtz et al. (differentiation of cervical vertebrae & muscularization of diaphragm)
Reviews of Published Material ( 1 )
(for books, SEE in Bibliography under work reviewed)
x 1981 Purse, B. (of film on hunting of Australian dugongs; 199-200.)
Rhyt-: SEE ALSO Ryt- ( 0 )
Rhytine Burmeister, 1837 ( 2 )
(= Hydrodamalis)
x * 1837 Burmeister, H. (n.gen.; in classification; 793.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 75.)
Rhytine stelleri (Retzius, 1794) Burmeister, 1837 ( 2 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
x * 1837 Burmeister, H. (n.comb.; in classification; 793.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 75, 93.)
Rhytinea Brandt, 1846 ( 2 )
(tribe or family; = Hydrodamalinae)
* 1846c Brandt, J.F.
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalinae; m13.)
Rhytinida Haeckel, 1866 ( 1 )
(family; = Hydrodamalinae)
* 1866 Haeckel, E.
Ri (marine animal of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea) ( 12 )
x * 1982 Wagner, R. (not a dugong; 33-39.)
x 1983 Mead, J.G. (not a porpoise, possibly a dugong; 161-162.)
x 1983 Sibert, J.R. (probably a marine mammal; 159-161.)
x * 1983 Wagner et al. (not a dugong; 113-125.)
x 1985 Beckjord, J.-E. (probably a dugong; 154-155.)
x 1985 Greenwell, J.R. (not a dugong; 151-154.)
x 1985 Sibert, J.R. (possibly a dugong; 144-145.)
x 1985 Wagner, R. (not a dugong; 149-151, 156.)
x * 1986 Williams, T.R. (definitely a dugong; 61-68.)
x 1987 Greenwell, J.R. (history of study; 140-144.)
x 1988 Sehm, G.G. (not a dugong; 145-149.)
x 1988 Williams, T.R. (definitely a dugong; 149-151.)
Ribodon Ameghino, 1883 ( 16 )
x * 1883 Ameghino, F. (n.gen.; 112-113.)
x 1886 Ameghino, F. (diagnosis; 147.)
1891 Ameghino, F.
1893 Ameghino, F.
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
x * 1953 Pascual, R. (review; 163-181, 2 pls.)
x 1974 Savage, J.M. (significance for manatee zoogeography; 20.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; m575, 579.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (?Plioc., North Carolina; 604.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-379.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (pop. acc.; 10-11.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (in cladistic analysis of trichechids; 132-133.)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (?Ribodon; ?Late Mioc., Peru-Brazil; 5, 34-35.)
2004 Linares, O.J. (?Ribodon; Late Mioc.; Urumaco, Venezuela)
x 2011 Gomes R. et al. (horizontal tooth replacement; m4.)
2021 Souza et al. (evolutionary history)
Ribodon limbatus Ameghino, 1883 ( 13 )
x * 1883 Ameghino, F. ("R. limbato", n.gen.n.sp.; 112-113.)
x 1885 Ameghino, F. (Argentina; 100-105.)
x 1886 Ameghino, F. (Argentina; 147-151.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. ("R. limbato"; m422.)
x * 1953 Pascual, R. (review; 163-181, 2 pls.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (comp. w/ Sirenotherium; 346-348, 350, 355-356.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (review; 279-280.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (new material & phyletic position; 602-604, 606, 609, 611-613, 616.)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (comp. w/ ?Ribodon from Peru-Brazil; 34.)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (review; 328.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren magdalenensis; 385, 388-390.)
2000 Cione et al. (Late Mioc., Argentina)
x 2004 Williams & Domning (m167.)
Ribodon magdalenensis (Reinhart, 1951) Marshall, Hoffstetter, & Pascual, 1983 ( 2 )
(= Potamosiren magdalenensis)
* 1983 Marshall et al. (n.comb.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (syn. of Potamosiren magdalenensis; 384.)
Romania ( 16 )
1871 Pávay, E.
1886 Koch, A.
1894 Koch, A.
x 1931 Simionescu, I. (Manatus maeoticus; Mioc., Balcic; 146, 155.)
1934b Sickenberg, O.
1944 Tulogdy, J.
1959 Fuchs, H.
1967 Grigorescu, D. (cf. Halitherium; Eoc.)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (?Halitherium sp.; Eoc., Cluj; 1185.)
1971 Fuchs, H.
x 1973 Fuchs, H. (indeterminate sir.; Late Eoc., Cluj; 71.)
1975 Fuchs, H.
1978 Macarovici, N.
1984 Nicorici & Popovici
1988 Fuchs, H.
1990 Fuchs, H.
Rosmarus indicus Boddaert, 1785 ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1785 Boddaert, P. (n.sp.)
Russia ( 8 )
(SEE ALSO: Arctic Region; Bering Sea; Bessarabia; Sakhalin)
x 1875 Rogovich, A. S. (Halicore maximovitschii, nomen nudum; Cetacea; Ukraine; 37.)
1950 Gromova, V.I.
D * 1957 Pronina, I.G. (Kronokotherium brevimaxillare, n.gen.n.sp.; Kamchatka)
1977 Malukovich, V. (HG; Kamchatka; supposed sighting in 1976)
D 1985 Sinel'nikova et al. (Desmostylus; Kamchatka)
* 1999 Gibson, J.R. (HG; role in Russian expansion)
x 2006 Averianov & Yarkov (enigmatic tooth from Eoc. of Volgograd Province)
* 2021 Averianov & Zvonok (indet. sir.; Middle Eoc., Crimea)
Rytina borealis (Gmelin, 1788) Illiger, 1815 ( 16 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
1802 Tilesius, W.G.
* 1815 Illiger, C. (n.comb.; 64, 75.)
* 1836 Cuvier, F.
x 1837 Richardson, J. (m162.)
x 1846b Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; parasites; 189-192.)
x 1847 Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; new material, comp. w/ Recent sirs.; 46-48.)
x 1859 Baird, W. ("Rhytina"; nematode Ascaris; 148-149.)
1866b Brandt, J.F.
x 1867a Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; distr. & extermination; 445-451.)
x 1873 Lütken, C.F. ("Rhytina"; parasites & skin fragment; 270-274, pl. 2.)
x 1878 Anon. ("Rhytina"; 9 skulls at St. Petersburg; m321.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 298.)
x 1893 Schweder, G. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 52-55.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. ("Rhytina"; m535.)
x 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. ("Rhytina"; syn. of R. gigas; m292.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93, 163.)
Rytina cetacea Illiger, 1815 ( 2 )
(nomen nudum)
* 1815 Illiger, C. (n.sp.; nomen nudum)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
Rytina gigas (Zimmermann, 1780) Gray, 1850 ( 40 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1850 Gray, J.E. (n.comb.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. ("Rhytina"; syn. of R. stelleri; 76.)
x * 1883 Stejneger, L. (collection of specimens, 59, 61-62; sexual variation, 78-83; date of extermination, 83-84; distr., 84; specimens at Irkutsk destroyed, 84; vernacular name, 85; tail shape & sketches, 85-86.)
x * 1884a Stejneger, L. (invalidity of post-1768 sighting reports; 181-189.)
x 1884b Stejneger, L. (collection of 12 skulls & other bones; 107-108.)
x * 1884b True, F.W. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 128-136.)
x * 1885a Woodward, H. ("Rhytina"; skeleton; 457-470.)
x * 1886 Stejneger, L. (invalidity of post-1768 sighting reports; 317-328.)
x 1887 Flot, L. ("Rhytina"; m137.)
x * 1887 Stejneger, L. (invalidity of post-1768 sighting reports; statistics on extermination; 1047-1054.)
1887 Roux, W. (Rhytina gigas; borings in bone)
x 1889 Clark, J.W. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc., 340-342; skeleton at Harvard, 342.)
* 1891 Büchner, E.
x 1891 Lucas, F.A. (extermination & collection of specimens; 623-627, pl. 99.)
x 1893 Evermann, B.W. (collecting of skeletons for U.S. National Museum; 59.)
x 1893 Schweder, G. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 52-55.)
x 1893 Stejneger, L. (material in various museums; 81.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. ("Rhytina"; m5.)
x 1902 Allen, J.A. ("Rhytina"; syn. of Manati gigas; 22.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. ("Rhytina"; pelvis; 7-9, pl. 1.)
x 1905 Toldt, C. ("Rhytina"; angular process of mandible; m337.)
x 1922 Evermann, B.W. (extermination; 15-16.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 135-137.)
x 1925 Steller, G.W. ("Rhytina"; syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; m139.)
x 1931 Read, B.E. ("Rhytina"; ?econ. use in China; 16.)
x 1935 Sowerby, A. de C. ("Rhytina"; ?econ. use in China; 82.)
x 1937 Murie, O.J. ("Rhytina"; ?in Eskimo tradition, St. Lawrence Is.; 345.)
x 1950 Mohr, E. ("Rhytina"; skin fragment, Hamburg; 181-185.)
x * 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. ("Rhytina"; reconstruction of skeleton & body; 292-314.)
x * 1965 Robineau, D. ("Rhytina"; ear ossicles; 412-424.)
1966 Friedrich, H. (skin fragments, Bremen)
1966 Friedrich, H. ("Rhytina"; supposed skin fragments, Bremen)
1967 Rothausen, K.
x * 1969 Robineau, D. ("Rhytina"; temporal & ear region; 3, 20-31.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
x * 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. ("Rhytina"; specimens in museums, 367-370; body proportions, 375; reconstruction, 383-387, 393-394, 406-409; bone density, 388-389; pelvis, 390-392; skull, 392-403.)
x 1983 Kleinschmidt, A. ("Rhytina"; specimens in museums; 763.)
x 1991 Frey, R. ("Rhytina"; lumbar vertebrae; m279.)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello ("Rhytina"; syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; m14.)
x * 2008 Turner, L.M. (Attu; behavior, hunting; 106-107.)
Rytina Illiger, 1811 ( 60 )
(= Hydrodamalis. Spelled Rhytina by Berthold, 1827, and most later authors; this is an unjustified emendation.)
1758 Müller, G.F.
1790 Beniowski, M.A.v.
x * 1811 Illiger, C. (n.gen.; in classification; 141.)
x 1824 Harlan, R. (m390.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m278.)
x 1827 Berthold, A.A. (first use of emended spelling "Rhytina"; in classification; 62.)
x 1828 Billberg, G.J. (?syn. of Haligyna; tab. A, 33.)
1829 Lesson, R.-P.
x 1835b Duvernoy, G.L. (in classification; tab. 4.)
1838b Baer, K.E.v.
x * 1840 Baer, K.E.v. (distr. & extinction; 53-80.)
x 1846a Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; discusses his study of masticating pads; 92-94.)
x 1861 Strauss-Durckheim, H. (Hudson's Bay; 514.)
x 1863a Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; distr. & extermination; 558-564.)
x 1864 Dana, J.D. (in classification; m169.)
x 1866a Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; extermination; 279-282.)
x 1867c Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; brain, comp. w/ DD & Trichechus; 269-270.)
x 1872a Gill, T. ("Rhytina"; in classification; 92.)
x 1873 Gill, T. ("Rhytina"; phylogeny; m272.)
x 1874 Flower, W.H. ("Rhytina"; m5.)
x 1875a Owen, R. ("Rhytina"; brain proportions; 102, m105.)
x 1875b Owen, R. ("Rhytina"; comp. w/ Prorastomus; 559-560, 563, 566.)
x 1875 Wilder, B.G. ("Rhytina"; m111.)
x 1883a Cope, E.D. ("Rhytina"; m54.)
x 1884 Gaudry, A. ("Rhytine"; comp. w/ Halitherium Chouqueti; 375.)
x * 1885b Nordenskiöld, A.E. ("Rhytina"; defense of post-1768 sighting reports, 280-284; distribution of specimens to museums, 284-285.)
x 1889b Dollo, L. ("Rhytina"; comp. w/ Miosiren; 416, 418-419, 421.)
x 1889 Lefèvre, T. ("Rhytina"; descent from Crassitherium of Belgian Olig., m198, m200.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 213, 221-222.)
1892 Hutchinson, H.N.
x 1893 Holder, C.F. ("Rhytina"; skeleton at California Academy of Science; 236.)
x 1895 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 449.)
x 1899 Palmer, T.S. ("Rhytina"; syn. of Hydrodamalis; m494.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. ("Rhytinas"; m5.)
x 1904 Freund, L. ("Rhytina"; manus, comp. w/ DD; m368, 394.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. ("Rhytina"; pelvis; 1-2, 7-9, pl. 1.)
x v 1906b Dexler & Freund ("rhytina"; m59, m68, m70.)
x 1912 Issel, A. ("Rhytina"; comp. w/ Felsinotherium subappeninum; m121.)
x 1914a Freund, L. ("Rhytina"; scapula, comp. w/ DD embryo; m375.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. ("Rhytina"; comp. w/ Desmostylus; m386.)
x 1916 Lucas, F.A. (pop. acc.; 316-317.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. ("Rhytina"; m27.)
x 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. ("Rhytina"; pachyostosis; m357.)
x 1924 Thomas et al. ("Rhytina"; name preferred to Hydrodamalis; 347.)
x 1925 ICZN (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 34, 38-40.)
x 1926 Sverdrup, H.U. ("Rhytina"; Cape Chaplin, Siberia, ca. 1911-1913; 205.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. ("Rhytina"; diet & mastication; 251, 254.)
x 1927 Pfizenmayer, E.W. ("Rhytina"; m494.)
1930a Simpson, G.G.
x 1930 Sverdrup, H.U. ("Rhitina"; Cape Chaplin, Siberia, ca. 1910; 248.)
1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 56-57, 61, 63.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; in classification; 136.)
x 1954b Friant, M. ("Rhytina"; brain; 129, 134-135.)
1957 Pronina, I.G.
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer ("Rhytina"; syn. of Hydrodamalis; 12.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 13, 74-75.)
x 1981c Domning, D.P. (synonymy with Hydrodamalis; 130.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; m305.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina; 383.)
Rytina stelleri (Retzius, 1794) Desmarest, 1819 ( 63 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1819 Desmarest, A.G. (n.comb.)
1820 Ranzani, C.
1833 Brandt, J.F.
1845a Brandt, J.F.
1845b Brandt, J.F.
x 1846b Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; parasites; 189-192.)
* 1846c Brandt, J.F.
x 1847 Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; new material, comp. w/ Recent sirs.; 46-48.)
x 1848 Gistel, J. (in classification; 83.)
x 1851 Diesing, C.M. (nematode Ascaris; 190, 502.)
x 1859 Baird, W. (nematode Ascaris; 148-149.)
x 1861 Möbius, K. (masticating pads, comp. w/ TM; 152-153.)
x 1861 Van Beneden, P.J. ("Rythina"; m461.)
x 1862a Van Beneden, P.J. ("Rhytina"; skeletons in Helsinki & Russia; 340-341.)
1862c Brandt, J.F.
1862d Brandt, J.F.
x 1862 Goebel, A. ("Rhytina"; analysis of bone; 188-193.)
1862a Nordmann, A.v.
1862b Nordmann, A.v.
1866a Brandt, J.F.
x 1867a Brandt, J.F. ("Rhytina"; syn. of R. borealis; m445.)
1867b Brandt, J.F.
x * 1867 Claudius, M. ("Rhytina"; ear region; 1, 6-14, pls. 1-2.)
* 1868a Brandt, J.F.
1868 Claudius, M.
x 1872a Murie, J. ("Rhytina"; anatomy, comp. w/ TMM; 131, 135, 137, 154, 165, 167, 169-171, 173, 190-191.)
x 1875 Anon. (pop. acc.; 295.)
x 1875a Owen, R. ("Rhytina"; m104.)
x 1876 Southwell, T. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 57, 76-77.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 298.)
x 1879 Yarnall, E.H. ("Rhytina"; Nordenskiöld's collection; m793.)
x 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; 136-137.)
x * 1881a Nordenskiöld, A.E. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc. & history of hunting, 272-276; post-1768 sighting reports, 276-278; collection of bones, 278, 280; food, m292.)
1882 Anon.
x 1883 Anon. ("Rhytina"; Stejneger's collection of 11 skulls; m93.)
x 1883 Dybowski, B. ("Rhytina"; sexual variation in skulls; 72-73.)
x 1883 Stejneger, L. ("Rhytina"; syn. of R. gigas; m78.)
x * 1884 Doran, A.H.G. ("Rhytina"; ear ossicles; 366-370.)
x 1884b Stejneger, L. (collection of 12 skulls & other bones; 107-108.)
x * 1885a Woodward, H. ("Rhytina"; skeleton; 457, 459, 470.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker ("Rhytina"; m214, 221-222.)
x 1894 Dawson, G.M. ("Rhytina"; history; 154-160.)
x 1899 Stiles & Hassall ("Rhytina"; parasites; 149, 151, 171.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. (comp. w/ Felsinotherium; 1859, 1861.)
x 1925 Steller, G.W. ("Rhytina"; syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; m139.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. ("Rhytina"; m86.)
x 1929 Birulia, A.A. (pelvis; 87-90.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. ("Rhytina"; pachyostosis & osteosclerosis, 410-411, 415; loss of teeth, 429.)
x 1934 Anon. ("Rhytina"; supposed carcass found, British Columbia; 1011.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. ("Rhytina"; gen. acc.; 56-57.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. ("Rhytina"; phylogeny; 20-21, 24.)
x 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. ("Rhytina"; syn. of R. gigas; m292.)
x 1957b Carrington, R. ("Rhytina"; m38.)
x * 1963 Berzin et al. ("Rhytina"; possible recent sighting; 73-75.)
1964 Kaźmierczak, T.
x 1969 Chelnokov, F.G. ("Rhytina"; new material, Bering Is.; 71-73.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
1981 Mattioli, S.
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. ("Rhytina"; m319.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. ("Rhytina"; syn. of R. gigas; 383.)
x 1983 Rich, V. ("Rhytina"; Bering Is.; discovery of skeleton; 415.)
x 1984a Domning, D.P. (comment on V. Rich [1983]; 500.)
x 2000 Maio & Picariello ("Rhytina"; syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; m14.)
Rytinadae Gray, 1843 ( 3 )
(family; = Hydrodamalinae)
* 1843 Gray, J.E. (n.fam.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (included in Dugongidae; in classification; 135.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalinae; m13.)
Rytineae Brandt, 1833 ( 2 )
(tribe; = Hydrodamalinae)
* 1833 Brandt, J.F. (new tribe)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalinae; m13.)
Rytinidae Girard, 1852 ( 6 )
(family; = Hydrodamalinae)
* 1852 Girard, C. (n.fam.)
x 1872a Gill, T. ("Rhytinidae"; in classification; 91-92.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 273.)
x 1895 Palmer, T.S. (syn. of Hydrodamalidae; 449-450.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalinae; m13.)
Rytiodinae Abel, 1914 ( 5 )
(subfamily; synonym of Rytiodontinae = Dugonginae. Based on an incorrect transliteration.)
* 1914 Abel, O. (new subfamily)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
1960 Kaiser, H.E.
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Rytiodontinae; 417.)
1998 Rice, D.W. (explanation of transliteration; 151-152.)
Rytiodontinae Abel, 1914 ( 4 )
(subfamily; justified emendation of Rytiodinae Abel; = Dugonginae)
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (emendation of Rytiodinae Abel; in classification; 155.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (considered "correct original spelling" of name; 417.)
* 1994b Domning, D.P. (included within Dugonginae)
1998 Rice, D.W. (explanation of transliteration; 151-152.)
Rytiodus capgrandi Lartet, 1866 ( 20 )
x * 1866 Lartet, E. (n.gen.n.sp.; 673-686, pl. 13.)
1873 Delfortrie, E. (Early Mioc., France)
x * 1880 Delfortrie, E. (skull; 131-144, pls. 5-8.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. ("Rhytiodus"; m470.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 60.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. ("Rhytiodus"; pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 409.)
x 1942b Kaltenmark, J. ("Rhytiodus"; m104-105.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. ("Rhytiodus"; m13.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. ("Rhytiodus"; m23.)
1944 Abel, O.
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Hemicaulodon, 78; w/ Dioplotherium, 91-92.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (m577.)
* 1987 Pilleri, G.
x 1990b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Corystosiren varguezi; 362, 367-369.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (comp. w/ cf. Rytiodus from Brazil; 122, 133.)
x 1997 Bajpai & Domning (comp. w/ other dugongines in cladistic analysis; 224, 226-227.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ other dugongines in cladistic analysis; 398, 409.)
2002a Rocher, P. (France)
2002b Rocher, P. (France)
x * 2015 Rocher et al. (France; rediscovery of lost skull; 13-18.)
Rytiodus heali Domning and Sorbi, 2011 ( 3 )
v 1968 Selley, R.C. ("Sirenian gen. nov."; Mioc., Jebel Zelten, Libya)
* 2011 Domning & Sorbi (n.sp.; Early Mioc., Jabal Zaltan, Libya)
* 2019 Samonds et al. (Mioc., Madagascar)
Rytiodus Lartet, 1866 ( 26 )
(Spelled Rhytiodus by Delfortrie, 1872, and many later authors; this is an unjustified emendation.)
x * 1866 Lartet, E. (n.gen.; 673-686, pl. 13.)
* 1872 Delfortrie, E. ("Rhytiodus")
x 1875 Delfortrie, E. ("Rythiodus"; France; cviii.)
x 1875a Owen, R. (m104.)
x 1875b Owen, R. (comp. w/ Prorastomus; m565.)
x 1878 Benoist, . ("Rhytiodus"; France; lxxxiii.)
x * 1880 Delfortrie, E. (skull; 131-144, pls. 5-8.)
x 1884 Gaudry, A. ("Rhytiodus"; comp. w/ Halitherium Chouqueti; 375.)
x 1887 Flot, L. (review; 137-138.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (anatomy; 223-224.)
x 1906 Abel, O. ("Rhytiodus"; dentition; 51-52.)
x 1914 Depéret, C. ("Rhytiodus"; m1859.)
x 1926 Sanielevici, H. ("Rhytiodus"; diet & tooth morphology; 254.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 423-424, 451, 480-481, 495, 499.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154-155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x v 1975 Savage, R.J.G. ("flat-tusked dugongid"; Libya; m824.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium & Dusisiren; 11-12, 14, 73.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position & occurrence in Africa; 574, 577, 579.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Dioplotherium; 417, 424-426.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Xenosiren yucateca; 434-436.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (cf. Rytiodus; Early Mioc., Brazil; 121-122, 130-137, 141-145.)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (South America; review; m326.)
x 1997c Domning, D.P. (biostratigraphic utility; m179.)
1998 Rice, D.W. (explanation of transliteration; 151-152.)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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