Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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S

Sakhalin ( 9 )
x 1870 Adams, A. (specimen of ?DD; 198.)
x 1923 Sowerby, A. de C. ("dugong" of Adams [1870] probably Hydrodamalis; 136-137.)
D 1928 Anon.
x D * 1937a Nagao, T. (Desmostylus minor, n.sp.; Mioc.; 46-49.)
x D 1937c Nagao, T. (Desmostylus spp.; 110-113.)
x D 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (Desmostylus; 10, 15.)
D 1966a Shikama, T.
D 1969 Mel'nikov & Shustov
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (specimen of Adams [1870] probably DD; 136, 138.)
Salinity Tolerance ( 57 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Ingestive)
1703-05 Dampier, W. (Trichechus; need fresh water)
1826 Humboldt, A.v. (TMM; Bahia de Jagua, Cuba; use of freshwater springs at sea)
x 1843 Backhouse, J. (DD; Australia; ascend "narrow creeks"; 368-369.)
x 1861a Du Chaillu, P.B. (TS; prefer fresh water; 367.)
x 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; like fresh water; 197.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; 49-50.)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; ?prefer brackish water; 229.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (Trichechus; in capt.; 129.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; Central America; dislike salt water; 216.)
x 1942 Morison, S.E. (TMM; Cuba; use of freshwater springs; 459.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; ?unable to enter fresh water if born in salt water; migration affected by salinity; drinking fresh water; 188.)
x 1951 Bourlière, F. (TM euryhalic; 194.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; dispersal down Keys ?limited by lack of fresh water; 5.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida Everglades; 25-26.)
x 1956 Tomkins, I.R. (TML in salt water; 289.)
x * 1958 Leakey, L.S.B. (DD; East Africa; in rivers; 19-20.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; m2.)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; m115-116.)
x 1965 Lluch B., D. (TMM; not affected by salinity; 411-412.)
x 1966 Kinzer, J. (salinity of West African coastal lagoons; 47.)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; in capt., India; kept in brackish water; 81.)
x * 1967 Aung, S.H. (DD; Burma; 221.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; India; 217.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (Trichechus; m293.)
x * 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; ?need fresh water; 37-41.)
x 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TML; Florida; distr. in fresh & salt water; 615-616.)
x 1978 Mitchell, J. (DD; seasonal salinity changes & tooth banding; 342.)
x 1978 Odell et al. (TM; Bahamas; ?restricted by fresh water availability; 293.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; no need for fresh water, 132; calving in hypersaline areas, 133; tolerances, 133-134.)
x 1979 Bengtson & Magor (TMM; Belize; 230-232.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; habitat preferences, 38-39; ?need fresh water, 58-59.)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (TMM; Dominican Republic; near freshwater upwellings; 317.)
x * 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; possible concentrating of urine; 3.)
x 1981 Powell et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; occurrence in & drinking of fresh water; 642, 644.)
x 1982 Irvine et al. (TML; western Florida; distr. with respect to salinity; 626, 628-629.)
x 1982 Medway, Bruss et al. (TML; Florida; blood serum osmolality; 231-232.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; northeastern Florida; distr. with respect to salinity; 44.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TML; Florida; drinking fresh water; 43-44.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; ?water-balance stress of lactation; 783.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TML; northwestern Florida; ?need fresh water; 23-24.)
x * 1984 Reynolds & Ferguson (TM; implications of occurrence in Dry Tortugas; 187-189.)
x 1984 Snipes, R.L. (TM; suggests large intestine important in water balance; m76.)
x 1989 Hill & Reynolds (TML; kidney structure & osmoregulatory ability; 53-56.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TM; effects on biogeography; 590-591.)
x 1989 Maluf, N.S.R. (TML; kidney structure & osmoregulatory ability; 282, 284.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; 118, 121, 127.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (TML; possible gastrointestinal adaptations; 553-554.)
x 1998 Axis-A. et al. (TMM; Mexico; moderate effect of salinity on distr.; 801.)
x * 1998 Ortiz et al. (TML, TMM; osmoregulation; 449-457.)
x * 1999 Ortiz et al. (TM; water turnover rates; 33-38.)
2001 Ortiz, R.M. (osmoregulation)
x D 2003 Clementz et al. (Desmostylus; habitat inferred from stable isotopes; 506-519.)
2006 Lanyon, Newgrain & Alli (DD; in capt., Indonesia; water turnover rate)
2006 Clementz et al. (Eoc. sirs.; stable isotopes)
2008 Bianucci et al. (Metaxytherium spp.; Mioc.-Plioc.; peri-Messinian dwarfing)
2009 Clementz et al. (Tethys-Mediterranean sirs.; Eoc.-Plioc.; diets, salinity; stable isotopes)
2020 Smoll et al. (DD; osmoregulation & electrolyte balance)
Satellite Tracking: SEE Tagging Methods and Recognition ( 0 )
Sense Organs ( 110 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Investigative, and Sense Perception; Brain and Nervous System; Digestive System; Skeleton; Sound Production)
x * 1809a Cuvier, G. (Trichechus; ear bones; 287-289, pl. 19.)
x 1820a Home, E. (DD; ear apparatus; 149-153.)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; tongue, 316; olfactory nerve, eye, 321.)
1845 Hyrtl, J. (ear)
x 1857 Rapp, W.v. (TML; ear ossicles, 96-97, pl. 3; eye, 97-98.)
x * 1867 Claudius, M. (HG, etc.; ear region; 1-14, pls. 1-2.)
1868 Claudius, M. (ear)
1868 Owen, R. (smell)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; nasal region, 186-187; eye, 187-188; ear, 188.)
1878 Doran, A.H.G. (ear)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; eye; 24-25.)
x * 1884 Doran, A.H.G. (ear ossicles; 366-370.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (ear ossicles; 461-462.)
x * 1892 Tuckerman, F. (Trichechus; tongue; 77.)
x 1897 Broom, R. (Jacobson's organ & sir. affinities; m252.)
x 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; eyes, ears; 187, 199.)
* 1902 Pütter, A. (eye)
1903 Schoenichen, W. (eye)
x 1906 Annandale, N. (dugong tears; 241.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, Trichechus; taste, 59; smell, 59-60; eyes, 60-64; ears, 64.)
1908 Beyer, H. (ear)
x 1908b Gudernatsch, J.F. (TML; eye; protective secretion, reflex; 227-228.)
x 1912a Matthes, E. (ear apparatus; 597-599.)
x 1915 Broom, R. (Jacobson's organ & sir. affinities; m162.)
x 1915 Seale, A. (DD; eyes "turning to flesh" when exposed to air; 215.)
x 1922 Sonntag, C.F. (tongue; 646-647, 654-655.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (dugong tears; 77.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (possible chemical-sensory fields, 219-220; appearance of eye, 220.)
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (dugong tears; 94-95.)
x * 1929 Petit & Rochon-Duvigneaud (DD; eye, 129-138; hearing, smell, taste, touch, 130-132.)
1931 Klaauw, C.J. van der (ear)
1931-34 Schneider, K.M. (Flehmen)
* 1934 Genschow, J. (olfactory organs)
1942 Walls, G.L. (eye)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TML; eye weight; 194.)
x 1955a Anon. (dugong tears; 79.)
x 1956 Harry, R.R. (dugong tears; 27.)
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; snout bristles; 12-15.)
x 1963 Fenart, R. (DD; ear vestibules & ossicles; 92-94.)
1964 Harrison & Tomlinson (TM; auditory meatus)
x 1964 Norris, K.S. (Trichechus; possible use of mandibular canal as wave guide in echolocation; 334.)
x * 1965 Robineau, D. (HG, etc.; ear ossicles; 412-424.)
x 1967a Jones, S. (dugong tears; 218.)
1968 Giraud-Sauveur & Miloche (TS; ear ossicles)
x * 1969 Robineau, D. (ear apparatus; 2, 8-13, 15-20, 22-31.)
x * 1971 Fleischer, G. (DD; ear apparatus; 351-359.)
x 1972 Verhaart, W.J.C. (Trichechus; development of brain sensory regions; 288-289.)
* 1973 Fleischer, G. (ear)
x * 1976 Fleischer, G. (anchoring of stapes; 304-317.)
x 1977a Domning, D.P. (DD; external ear muscles; 26-27.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; ear adaptations; 132.)
1978 Fleischer, G. (middle ear)
x 1980 Arvy, L. (HG; supposed near-blindness; 312.)
x 1980 Bullock et al. (TI; auditory evoked potentials & hearing organs; ?role of zygomatic process; 130-133.)
x 1980 Lowell & Flanigan (chemoreception; 56-57.)
x 1981 Kamiya & Yamasaki (DD; sinus hair; 193-197.)
x 1981 Yamasaki et al. (DD; taste buds; 185-187, 190-191.)
x 1982 Bullock et al. (TML; auditory evoked potentials; 547-554.)
x * 1982 Cohen et al. (TML; photoreceptors; 197-202.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (HG, DD, TM; ear bones; 399-403.)
x * 1983 Piggins et al. (TI; eye morphology & vision; 111-129.)
x 1985 Mackay-Sim et al. (TML lacks vomeronasal organ but has olfactory epithelium; 186-194.)
x 1985 Pirlot & Kamiya (DD; importance of sinus hairs; 154.)
1986 Andreev, F.V. (TM; eye)
x * 1988 Fischer, M.S. (TM; ear; 365-379.)
x 1989a Marsh, H. (dugong tears; 79.)
x 1990 Court, N. (Prorastomus; ear; 175-179.)
x 1991 Court & Jaeger (Prorastomus, Trichechus; inner ear; 559-565.)
1991 Fischer, M.S. (ear)
1991 West et al. (TM; eye)
x * 1992 Ketten et al. (TML; ear, 77-95; chorda tympani, 84, 92.)
x 1993 Fischer & Tassy (Trichechus; ear, perilymphatic foramen; 225-227.)
1994 Court, N. (ear)
x 1995 Marshall & Reep (TML; functions of cerebral cortical areas; 17-18.)
x 1996 Griebel & Schmid (TMM; eye & color vision; 2747.)
x 1997 Mass et al. (TML; eye; retinal topography; 392-394.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (TML; facial bristles & hairs; 274-289.)
x * 1998 Reep et al. (TML; facial bristles & hairs; 257-273.)
x * 1999 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (TMM; facial bristles & hairs; 61-69.)
x 2002 Spoor et al. (DD; curvature of semicircular canals; 163-164.)
x 2002 Ames et al. (TML; zygomatic process of squamosal; lipid content & sound conduction; 625-634.)
2003 Marshall et al. (DD, TI, TMM, TS; orofacial morphology & feeding)
2003 Hatfield et al. (TM; iridocorneal angle of eye)
2005 Harper et al. (TML; vascularization of cornea)
2005 Natiello et al. (TM; ciliary body)
2005 Natiello & Samuelson (TM; ciliary body)
2006 Newman & Robinson (TM; visual pigments)
* 2007 Chapla et al. (TML; head & ear bones; CT scans)
2007 Sarko, Reep et al. (TML; follicle-sinus complexes)
2008 Johnson & Reep (vibrissae)
2009 Hunt et al. (visual photopigments)
2009 Knight, K. (hearing)
2011 Sarko et al. (tactile hairs)
2011 Reep et al. (tactile hairs)
2012 Davies et al. (visual photopigments)
2012 Knight, K. (hearing)
2012 Kikuchi et al. (TI; turning behavior; vision and tactile hairs)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
2012 Mass et al. (TML; retina)
2013 Marriott et al. (Sirs.; somatosensation, hearing, olfaction)
* 2013 Benoit et al. (new primitive sir.; Eoc., Tunisia; CT scans of ear region, comp. w/ Prorastomus sirenoides)
* 2017 Gaspard et al. (TML; sensory hairs on body)
* 2018 Bauer et al. (review; 2-8.)
2019 Garcés-Cuartas et al. (TMM; in capt.; vibrissae growth rate)
* 2020 Barboza & Larkin (TML; nasal cavity, turbinates, olfaction, & olfactory epithelium)
2020 Barboza & Larkin (TML; taste buds)
2021 Meshida et al. (TML; oblique muscles of eyeball)
2021 Kerber & Moraes-Santos (Dioplotherium cf. allisoni; endocranial morphology; olfactory, optic, & trigeminal structures)
2022 Cabrias-C. et al. (TMM; Puerto Rico; perinatal bilateral exophthalmia & secondary corneal ulcers)
2022 Meshida et al. (TML; rectus extraocular muscles; comp. w/ cetaceans.)
Sense Perception: SEE Behavior, Investigative, and Sense Perception; Sense Organs ( 0 )
Seuku Beatty and Cockburn, 2015 ( 1 )
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (n.gen.; Olig., Oregon)
Seuku emlongi (Domning, Ray, and McKenna, 1986) Beatty and Cockburn, 2015 ( 1 )
D * 2015 Beatty & Cockburn (n.comb.)
Siren bartholini Oesterdam, 1766 ( 2 )
(= Trichechus manatus manatus)
* 1766 Oesterdam, A. (name coined)
x * 1991 Dubois, A. (origin & history of name; 109, 114, 117.)
Sirenavus hungaricus Kretzoi, 1941 ( 7 )
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (n.gen.n.sp.; 146-149, 156, pl. 6.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (m439, m441.)
x 1953 Kretzoi, M. (m273, 274.)
x 1977 Kordos, L. (ribs of holotype lost; 365.)
x 1980 Kordos, L. (comp. w/ Hungarian Eotheroides; 385, 387-389, 396-397.)
* 1981 Kordos, L.
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ other Eoc. sirs.; 5, 35, 55, 61.)
Sirenavus Kretzoi, 1941 ( 8 )
x * 1941 Kretzoi, M. (n.gen.; 146-149, 151, 153-154.)
1944 Mottl, M.
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m209, 211.)
x 1970 Fuchs, H. (comp. w/ Halitherium; 1187.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 574, 579.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378.)
x 1982 Sereno, P.C. (m7-8.)
1983 Kordos, L.
Sirene borealis (Gmelin, 1788) Link, 1794 ( 3 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1794-95 Link, H.F. (n.comb.)
x 1925 ICZN (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 38.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
Sirene Link, 1794 ( 2 )
(= Hydrodamalis)
* 1794-95 Link, H.F. (n.gen.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 75.)
Sirenia Illiger, 1811 ( 3 )
(proposed as family; raised to ordinal rank by Goldfuss, 1820?)
x * 1811 Illiger, C. (name introduced, at family rank; in classification; 140.)
* 1820 Goldfuss, G.A.
x 1872b Gill, T. (diagnosis; 300-301.)
Sireniformes Kinman, 1994 ( 1 )
(order; = Sirenia)
* 1994 Kinman, K.E. (new ordinal name for Sirenia; 38.)
Sireniformia Burmeister, 1837 ( 1 )
(family; = Sirenia)
x * 1837 Burmeister, H. (n.fam.; in classification; 792.)
Sirenoidea Van Beneden, 1855? ( 0 )
(= Sirenia)
Sirenotherium de Paula Couto, 1967 ( 3 )
x * 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (n.gen.; Early Mioc., Brazil; 346-356.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (in phylogeny; 579.)
x 1980 McKenna, M.C. (comp. w/ Florentinoameghinia; 66.)
Sirenotherium pirabense de Paula Couto, 1967 ( 8 )
x * 1967b Paula Couto, C. de ("S. pirabensis", n.gen.n.sp.; Early Mioc., Brazil; 346-356.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (referred to Trichechidae or Dugongidae incertae sedis; 600, 606, 612.)
x 1986 Frailey, C.D. (comp. w/ Ribodon; 34.)
1989 Lima, M.R. de (considered Sirenia incertae sedis)
x * 1989 Toledo, P.M. de (new specimens referred; 5-10.)
x 1991 Toledo & Domning (considered nomen dubium; 120-121.)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (review; 325.)
x 2000 Henriques et al. (holotype listed; 19.)
Skeleton ( 300 )
(SEE ALSO: Age Determination; Embryology and Ontogeny; Histology; Myology; Sense Organs; Tooth Replacement; and under species)
x 1770 Alston, C. (Trichechus; petrous bones; medicinal use; 537-538.)
x 1804 G.L.D. (DD; ivory "homogeneous"; m165.)
x 1804 Wiedemann, C.R.W. (TM; skull; 67-76.)
x * 1809a Cuvier, G. (TI, 285-293, pl. 19; TS, 295-296, pl. 19; fossil sirs., 305-308, pl. 19.)
x 1820a Home, E. (DD; tusks, 146-149, 153, pls. 12-14; ear, 149-153; lower incisors, 153-154, pl. 14.)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; cribriform plate, 321; postcranial skeleton, 321-322, pl. 31.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; teeth, 175-176; bones, 178-179.)
x 1821a Home, E. (DD; Sumatra; 268-270, pl. 20.)
x 1821b Home, E. (TMM; Jamaica; 390-391, pl. 27.)
1829 Knox, R. (DD)
1831 Knox, R. (DD)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; gen. acc.; 104, 107-112, pl. 6.)
1836a Robert, C. (TS; skeleton)
x 1836b Robert, C. (TS; 363.)
x * 1838a Owen, R. (DD; ossification of throat cartilages, m37; bones, 40-41; teeth, 41-44.)
x * 1847 Bischoff, T.L.W. (DD; teeth, 2; postcranial skeleton, 2-3; hyoid, 3-6, pl. 1.))
x 1847 Brandt, J.F. (HG; new material, comp. w/ living sirs.; 47-48.)
1847 Owen, R. (DD; skeleton)
1847 Turner, H.N. (vertebrae)
x 1849 Owen, R. ("Halicore indicus"; forelimb adapted as fin; m5-6.)
x 1850 Kneeland, S., Jr. (Trichechus; affinities; 42-47.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (TS; skull; 46-47.)
x 1855a Gervais, P. (TI; gen. acc.; 114-115.)
x 1857 Jäger, G. (TMM, Suriname, skull & skeleton, 91-98, pl. 6; DD, skull, 98-99, pl. 6.)
1858 Kaup, J.J. (Halitherium schinzii; pelvis, femur)
1858b Krauss, C.F.F. (Halitherium; skull)
x 1861 Möbius, K. (TMM; Belize; masticating pads, 148-156, pl. 7; skull measurements, 154-155.)
1862a Brandt, J.F.
1862b Brandt, J.F.
1862d Brandt, J.F.
1862 Bronn, H.G. (Halitherium)
x 1862 Goebel, A. (HG; chemical analysis of bone; 188-193.)
* 1862a Krauss, C.F.F. (Trichechus; osteology)
* 1862a Nordmann, A.v. (HG; skeleton)
1862b Nordmann, A.v. (HG)
1863a Brandt, J.F.
1863b Brandt, J.F.
1863 Cleland, J. (vomer, ethmoid, premaxilla)
x 1863 McBain, J. (TS, TMM; skulls; 261-267.)
1864 Flower, W.H. (cervical vertebrae)
x 1865 Gray, J.E. (TS, TM; 130-138.)
x 1867c Brandt, J.F. (HG, DD, TM; endocranial casts; 269-270.)
x * 1867 Claudius, M. (HG, etc.; ear region; 6-14, pls. 1-2.)
* 1870 Krauss, C.F.F. (DD)
1872 Krauss, C.F.F. (TMM; pelvis)
x * 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; bones & ligaments; 135-143, 179, 186-188.)
1875 Weyhe (pelvis)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; cervical vertebrae; m453.)
x 1879 Yarnall, E.H. (HG; Nordenskiöld's collection; m793.)
x 1880 Cope, E.D. (DD, Trichechus; squamosal foramina; 456.)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; sternum; 44, pl. 8.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (TMM; development in young specimen; 459.)
1883 Albrecht, P. (vertebral epiphyses)
x 1883 Anon. (HG; Stejneger's collection of 11 skulls; m93.)
x 1883 Dybowski, B. (HG; skull; sexual variation; 73.)
x * 1883 Stejneger, L. (HG; collection, 59, 61-62; sexual variation, 78-83; tail, 86; specimens at Irkutsk destroyed, 84.)
x * 1884 Doran, A.H.G. (ear ossicles; 366-370.)
x 1884b Stejneger, L. (HG; collecting of 12 skulls & other bones; 107-108.)
x 1885b Nordenskiöld, A.E. (HG bones in various museums; 284-285.)
x 1885 Stejneger, L. (HG; excavation of weathered skeleton; 256-257.)
x * 1885a Woodward, H. (HG; 457-464.)
* 1886a Hartlaub, C. (Trichechus; variation)
x 1887b Baur, G. (hyperphalangy; 840.)
x 1887 Ward, H.L. (DD; vertebrae & pelvis; 536.)
1888 Slade, D.D. (cranial vacuities)
x 1889 Clark, J.W. (HG; skeleton at Harvard; 342.)
1889a Cope, E.D.
1889b Leboucq, H. (manus)
1891a Kükenthal, W. (fusion of epiphyses; hyperphalangy)
1892 Dollo, L. (ribs)
x 1893 Holder, C.F. (HG; skeleton at California Academy of Science; m236.)
x 1893 Howes & Harrison (DD; vertebrae, phalanges, teeth; 790.)
x 1894 Miller, W.D. (TS; dental caries; 15-18.)
x 1894 Zaaijer, T. (DD; cranial sutures; m340.)
x 1896 Kükenthal, W. (TM; embryonic dentition; 513-526.)
x 1896 Leboucq, H. (hyperphalangy; m174.)
1897 Sabatier, A. (chevron bones)
* 1897 Thomas & Lydekker (Trichechus; dentition)
1897 Tredgold, A.F. (ribs)
x 1898 Thomas & Lydekker (Trichechus; dentition; 814.)
1898 Anderson, R.J. (DD, Trichechus; manus; 765-767.)
x * 1899 Steller, G.W. (HG; 188, 190, 195-196.)
x 1901 Broom, R. (Trichechus; ossification of caudal vertebrae; m739.)
1902 Anderson, R.J. (premaxilla)
1902 Sabatier, A. (vertebrae, sternum)
1902 Stromer, E.
1903 Van Oort, E.D. (Halitherium)
x 1904 Eggeling, H. (DD, Trichechus; sternum; 99.)
x * 1904 Freund, L. (DD, etc.; manus; 363, 397, pls. 14-15.)
x * 1904a Lorenz, L.v. (Recent sirs.; pelvis; 1-11, pl. 1.)
1905 Freund, L. (DD; sternum)
x 1905 Knauff (pelvis; 306, 309.)
x 1905 Toldt, C. (angular process of mandible; 337.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD; tusks, 56, 65; exethmoids, 59-60.)
1907c Abel, O. (pelvis)
x 1907 Annandale, N. (DD; pelvis, 79; manus, 79-80.)
x 1908 Anderson, R.J. (DD, Trichechus; parietal; 547.)
* 1908a Freund, L. (DD; skull)
x 1908b Freund, L. (DD; nasal region, bones & cartilages; 254-256.)
x 1908 Fuchs, H. (vertebral epiphyses; m353.)
x 1909 Anderson, R.J. (Trichechus; maxillae; 745.)
x 1911 Anon. (HG; photo of skull; 37.)
1911 Lefeuvre (Halitherium)
x D 1911 Merriam, J.C. (Desmostylus; 407-412.)
1911 Schmidtgen, O. (Halitherium schinzii; scapula)
x 1912b Dexler, H. (DD; braincase; 100.)
1912b Matthes, E. (TML; ethmoid region)
1912 Schmidtgen, O. (Halitherium schinzii; hindlimb)
1912 Stapley, W. (cervical ribs)
1912 Turner, W.
x * 1914a Freund, L. (embryology; 354-386, pl. 16.)
1914b Freund, L. (embryology)
1914 Goodrich, E.S. (vertebrae)
x 1919 Hanson, F.B. (Trichechus; ontogeny & phylogeny of sternum; 81, 111.)
1919 Hogben, L.T. (jugal)
x 1921a Marcus, H. (TS; jaws, teeth, tooth replacement; 574-586, pls. 18-19.)
1921b Matthes, E. (skull)
1921c Matthes, E. (DD; skull)
1921d Matthes, E. (DD; skull)
1921a Stromer, E. (hip region)
1921b Stromer, E. (hip region)
1923 Loth, E. (cervicals; vertebral canals)
x * 1923 Nopcsa, F.v. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis; 353-359.)
1923 Stromer, E. (pachyostosis)
x D 1924 Hay, O.P. (Desmostylus hesperus; skull; 7-8.)
1924 Vialleton, L. (limbs & girdles)
x 1925 Troxell, E.L. (chevron bones; m613.)
1928a Petit, G. (cervical vertebrae)
x 1928b Petit, G. (TS, fusion of cervical vertebrae, 429-431; Halitherium schinzii, m431.)
x 1929 Birulia, A. (HG; pelvis; 87-90.)
1930 Pales, L. (pathology)
D 1930 Salomon, M.I. (lacrimal)
1931 Loth, E. (fractures)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (pachyostosis & osteosclerosis, 407-412; epiphyseal fusion, 412-417; other changes, 427-431.)
x 1932 Korschelt, E. (DD, rib fractures, 450; Trichechus, lesion on radius, 451.)
1932 Kuntze, R. (HG; skeleton at Lvov)
* 1933 Bahrdt, H.J.
1934 Frechkop, S. (DD; skull & dentition)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (Trichechus; variation; 539-554, 561.)
1934 Nopcsa & Heidsieck (pachyostotic rib)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; cartilaginous ?"baculum"; 219.)
1936 Hirschfelder, H. (Trichechus; cranial ontogeny)
1936 Neumann, D. (Halitherium schinzii; manus)
1937 De Beer, G.R. (skull development)
1938 Rueger, J. (cervical vertebrae 1-2)
x 1938 Todd & Todd (Trichechus spp., DD; epiphyseal union sequence; 4-5, 31-35.)
x 1939 Lyman, C.P. (DD; vestigial lower incisor; 229-231.)
1940 Loth, E. (fractures)
x * 1940 Pocock, R.I. (DD; tusks, teeth, skulls, scapulae; 329-345.)
x * 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (Trichechus; dentition; 1-15.)
D 1941 Nagao, T. (Desmostylus)
x * 1942b Fawcett, D.W. (Trichechus; pachyostosis; histology & hypothyroidism; 271-285, 287-303, 308-309.)
x 1942a Kaltenmark, J. (TS, etc.; 56-64.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (evolution of dentition; 4-13.)
x 1943 Kaltenmark, J. (fronto-nasal relationship; 14-24.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; skull & dentition; vestigial incisors; 42-43.)
x 1946 Slijper, E.J. (spinal column; 42-43, 72, 78, 111-112, 114, tabs. 3, 5.)
1947 Amprino & Godina (histology)
x * 1951 Kleinschmidt, A. (HG; extant skeletons, bone measurements, body reconstruction; 294-312.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML, TMM; proportions of foramen magnum; 17-18.)
x 1951 Wegner, R.N. (mandibular dental capsule; 76-81.)
x * 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; teeth; 139-147, pls. 28-30.)
x 1953 Quiring & Harlan (TML; gen. acc.; 194-200.)
1955 Tucker, R.
x 1957 Gohar, H.A.F. (DD; mandibular symphysis & vestigial lower incisor alveoli; 20-23, 38-39.)
D 1961 Ijiri & Kamei (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; skulls)
x 1962 Schäfer, W. (decay & disintegration; 53-56.)
x 1963 Fenart, R. (DD; vestibulary orientation of skull; 92-98.)
x D 1963 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (desmostylians; pachyostosis; 196-197.)
x * 1964 Johnson, D.H. (DD; Arnhem Land, Australia; skull measurements; 507.)
x D 1964 Mitchell, E.D., Jr. (desmostylians; pachyostosis; 214.)
D * 1966c Shikama, T.
1967 Poole, D.F.G. (dental tissues)
x 1968a Kaiser, H.E. (occipital region; gross morphology; 478.)
x D 1968 Shikama, T. (Paleoparadoxia; 21-26, pls. 3-6.)
x 1969 Chelnokov, F.G. (HG; bones; 72-73.)
x * 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal & ear region; 2-31.)
x 1970 Scheffer, V.B. (DD; teeth; growth layers; 187-190.)
x 1971 Fleischer, G. (DD; ear apparatus; 351-353, 355-359.)
x 1972 Scheffer, V.B. (HG; body size & weight; 912-913.)
1973 Fleischer, G.
D 1973 Kobayashi & Kamei
x * 1973 Mitchell, J. (DD; skull & teeth; age determination, 1-23; sexual dimorphism, 14, 16-21.)
x * 1974 James, P.S.B.R. (DD; India; variation; 173-184.)
* 1974 Kaiser, H.E. (macroscopic & x-ray atlas)
x * 1974 Spain & Heinsohn (DD; cranial allometry; 249-257.)
x 1975 Domning & Frye (Metaxytherium jordani, Hydrodamalis cuestae; pathology; 1-4, pls. 1-2.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; Sulawesi; 18-19 ribs, 41; tusks, 44; skeletal weight, 46.)
x 1976 Fleischer, G. (anchoring of stapes; 304-317.)
x 1976 Mitchell, J. (DD; growth layers in tusks; 25-28.)
1976 Reinhart, R.H. (DD; incisor anomalies)
x * 1976 Spain et al. (DD; Australia; cranial variation; 491-497.)
x 1977 Versaggi, C.S. (bone structure & function; m305.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (HG; illustrations & measurements; 9-18, pls. 1-8.)
x 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; Suriname; skull measurements; 337-338.)
x 1978 Kasuya & Nishiwaki (DD; tusks & age determination; 301-310, 4 pls.)
x 1978 Lande, R. (evolutionary rate of limb loss; 74.)
x * 1978 Mitchell, J. (DD; dentition & age determination; 317-348.)
x 1979 Cave, A.J.E. (DD, Trichechus; pterygoid hamulus; 530-531.)
x 1980 Arvy, L. (osteopetrosis; 309, 312,)
x * 1980 Marsh, H. (DD; dentition & age determination; 181-201.)
x 1980 Domning & Myrick (TI; tetracycline marking of rib; 203-207.)
x 1981 Marsh & Kasuya (DD; tusks from lower latitudes have more accessory growth layers; 357-361.)
x 1981 Mitchell, J. (DD; Queensland; growth layers in tusks; 99-109.)
x 1981a Spain & Marsh (DD; Australia; cranial variation; 143-161.)
x * 1981b Spain & Marsh (DD; standard skull measurements; 286-301.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (HG, etc.; in collections, 368-370; proportions, 375; bone density, 387-389; pelvis, 390-392; skull, 392-403.)
x 1982 Olsen, S.J. (TM; identification in archeological sites; 8, 41-42, 54, 56-57, 62, 66, 70, 75, 90.)
x 1983 Kleinschmidt, A. (HG; in collections; 763.)
x 1983 Rich, V. (HG; Bering Is.; discovery of skeleton; 415.)
x 1984 Currey, J. (pachyostosis; m227-228, 263-264.)
x 1984a Domning, D.P. (HG; comment on V. Rich [1983]; 500.)
x 1984b Kozawa, Y. (tooth enamel prisms; 438-440.)
1984 Manzij & Piliptshuk (TM)
x D 1985 Fortelius, M. (functional anatomy of cheek teeth; Trichechus, 11, 52-53, 65, 73; DD, 11; Desmostylus, 57.)
x 1985 Mackay-Sim et al. (TML; absence of nasopalatine ducts; 187-189.)
x 1985 Thewissen, J.G.M. (cranial foramina; 268-269, 271-273, 279.)
x 1986 Bazzini et al. (TML; amedullary bones & sites of hemopoiesis; 150-152.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (Trichechus; variation; 87-144.)
1986 Sukhanov & Manzij (TM)
1986 Sukhanov et al. (TM; forelimb)
x 1986 Watson & Bonde (TM; ectrodactyly & cleft hand; 294-301.)
x 1988 Flannery, T. (HG; skeleton in Australian Museum, Sydney; 462.)
x 1988 Nojima, T. (DD, Trichechus; bony falx cerebri; 315, 320.)
* 1988d Pilleri, G.
x * 1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (DD; pachyostosis; 2107-2119.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian Gulf; skull measurements; 54, 70-71, 172-174.)
x 1990 Buffrénil et al. (pachyostosis, comp. w/ archaeocetes; 455, 463-465.)
x 1990 O'Shea & Reep (TML; body size & fusion of cranial sutures; 539-540.)
1990 Fischer, M.S. (TM; ear region; affinities with elephants)
x D 1991 Barriel & Tassy (Desmostylus; skull comp. w/ proboscideans; m18-19.)
x * 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (distr. of mass; hydrostatic adaptations; 331-368.)
x 1991a Domning, D.P. (DD; pelvic bones; sexual & ontogenetic variation; 311-316.)
x 1991 Frazier & Mundkur (DD; number of phalanges; 373-374.)
x 1991 Frey, R. (axial skeleton; locomotor aspects; 279-283.)
x 1991 Joeckel, R.M. (TM; mandibular proportions; 463.)
x 1992 Ketten et al. (TML; ear region; 77-95.)
1992 Miyake et al. (rostral cartilages)
x 1992 Roth, V.L. (TI; variation in tooth size, comp. w/ elephants; 194-195, 197.)
x 1993 Cave, A.J.E. (TM; absence of pituitary fossa & dorsum sellae; 256-258.)
x 1995 Ricqlès & Buffrénil (HG; pachyosteosclerosis; 47-53.)
1995 Domning, D.P. (DD; evolution; dental morphology & possible neoteny; feeding ecology, ballast, & deep diving)
x * 1996 Giffin & Gillett (TM; homologies of cervical nerves & vertebrae; 214-218.)
x D 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure in sirs. & desmostylians; 353-357.)
x 1996 Marmontel et al. (TML, TMM; growth layers in bone; 54-88.)
1998 Kobayashi & Nagasawa (Dusisiren dewana & other hydrodamalines; thoracic skeleton)
x 1998 Kondrashov, P.E. (TM; cranial & mandibular characters & phylogeny; 418-428.)
x 1999 Galis, F. (reduced number of cervical vertebrae ?related to Hox genes & metabolic rate; 19-20, 23.)
1999 Klima, M.
1999 Marchand, D. (supraoccipital bone)
x 2000 Fagone et al. (TML; pelvic bones; sexual & ontogenetic variation; 177-181.)
x D 2001d Domning, D.P. (desmostylian tibia; 23-26.)
D 2001 Sawamura, H. (Keton Desmostylus; vertebral formula; 27-32.)
D * 2002b Domning, D.P. (terrestrial posture of desmostylians)
x 2002 Ames et al. (TML; zygomatic process of squamosal; lipid content & sound conduction; 625-634.)
2004 D'Anastasio, R. (hyperostosis of ribs)
x 2004 Uhen, M.D. (sirs. comp. w/ Dorudon; TM, vertebrae, 147-152; ribs & buoyancy, 158-159.)
* 2006b Yan, Clifton et al. (TML; fracture toughness of rib)
2006 Shapiro et al. (Trichechus; pelvic reduction; genetic origins)
D * 2006 Inuzuka, N.
2006a Lanyon & Sanson (DD; degenerate dentition & tooth wear)
* 2006 Mattioli & Domning (HG; Commander Islands; skeletal material in museums; history of collecting)
2006a Yan, Clifton et al. (TML; rib bone; fracture mechanics)
D 2006 Hasegawa et al. (Paleoparadoxia sp.; Middle Mioc., Gunma, Japan; forelimb)
x 2007 Ewan & Ewan (DD; reproduction of earliest illustrations of skull; 1038.)
* 2007 Buchholtz et al. (TML; vertebral column)
* 2007 Domning & Beatty (tusks)
2007 Sanchez-V. et al. (vertebral number; synapomorphy of Afrotheria)
* 2008b Clifton et al. (TML; rib bone; quantitative fractography)
D 2008 Domning & Pyenson (Paleoparadoxiidae; "snagging" teeth & premolar homologies)
* 2008a Clifton et al. (TML; mechanical properties of rib bone)
D * 2009 Inuzuka, N. (Desmostylus hesperus; Utanobori, Japan; postcranial skeleton)
x 2009 Meredith et al. (DD; enamelin gene not degenerate; 3.)
* 2009 Houssaye, A. (review of "pachyostosis")
D 2009 Fujiwara et al. (Paleoparadoxia media; scapular position & strength of rib cage)
D 2009 Fujiwara, S. (Ashoroa, Desmostylus hesperus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi, P. tabatai; olecranon orientation, elbow joint angle, & forelimb posture)
* 2010 Buffrénil et al. (evolution of pachyosteosclerosis)
x 2010 Hautier et al. (Trichechus; 7th vertebra predicted to be developmentally cervical; 18906.)
2010 Lacreta et al. (TI; radius fracture)
2010 Bizzarini & Reggiani (Halitherium schinzii; Olig., France; skull & dentition; reconstructed skeleton exhibited in Venice)
x D 2011 Koenigswald, W.v. (Desmostylus hesperus; hypsodonty; 70, 79, 94.)
2011 Thula et al. (mineralization of collagen)
2011 Varela-L. et al. (cervical vertebrae, homeotic mutations)
* 2012 Hoson et al. (Trichechus; fusion sequence of cranial sutures)
* 2012 Beatty et al. (osteology and tooth development; CT scans of TS & Miosiren kocki)
2012 Buchholtz et al. (differentiation of cervical vertebrae & muscularization of diaphragm)
D 2012 Fujiwara & Hutchinson (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia repenningi; elbow adductor moment arm & forelimb posture)
D 2013 Hayashi et al. (desmostylians; bone histology & aquatic adaptation)
D 2013 Inuzuka, N. (Desmostylus, Paleoparadoxia; osteology, paleoecological restoration)
* 2013 Dumont et al. (DD, HG, TS; vertebral centra architecture)
x 2013 Senter & Snow (forelimb skeleton of Bartholin's (1654) "merman" identified as Trichechus sp.; Brazil; 257-262.)
D 2015 Thomas & Barnes (Neoparadoxia cecilialina; Late Mioc., California; osteochondrosis; 28-31.)
D 2015 Houssaye et al. (osteosclerosis)
2016 Canoville et al. (DD; rib microanatomy)
2017 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; Andaman Sea & Gulf of Thailand)
D * 2018 Matsui et al. (Paleoparadoxia, Mioc., Fukushima, Japan; diagnosis of femoral morphologies for the Desmostylia.)
2019 Lonati et al. (TML; periotic bones; age determination)
* 2020 Nganvongpanit et al. (DD; pelvis; morphometric analysis)
2020 Barboza & Larkin (TML; nasal cavity & turbinates)
2021 Kerber & Moraes-Santos (Dioplotherium cf. allisoni; endocranial morphology; encephalization)
Sobrarbesiren cardieli Diaz-Berenguer et al., 2018 ( 2 )
* 2018 Diaz-Berenguer et al. (Sobrarbesiren cardieli, n.gen. n.sp.; Eoc., Spain)
* 2020 Díaz-Berenguer et al. (Eoc.; Spain; hind limbs)
Sobrarbesiren Diaz-Berenguer et al., 2018 ( 2 )
* 2018 Diaz-Berenguer et al. (n.gen.; Eoc., Spain)
2021 Averianov & Zvonok (comp. w/ indet. sir.; Middle Eoc., Crimea)
Sonar or Radar Detection of Sirenians ( 14 )
x 1982 Fletemeyer, J. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 296-299.)
x * 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Florida; experiments; 9-12.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (TS; Guinea-Bissau; 402-405, 407-408.)
2006 Tsutsumi et al. (DD; feeding; passive acoustical monitoring)
2007 Muanke & Niezrecki (passive acoustic localization)
* 2007 Jaffe et al. (TML)
2008 Rodas-Trejo et al. (TMM; Chiapas, Mexico)
2009 Gonzalez-S. et al. (TML, TMM; Florida & Mexico; detection by side-scan sonar)
2012 Gonzalez & Olivera (TM; side-scan sonar)
* 2012 Tinelli et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Plioc., Italy; ground-penetrating radar)
2012 Gonzalez-S. & Olivera-G.
2012b Aragones et al. (side-scan sonar surveys of distribution)
2019 McLarty et al. (TMM; Cuba; habitat characterization using side-scan sonar)
2020 Corona-Figueroa et al. (TMM; Hondo River, Belize & Mexico; habitat use)
Sound Production ( 77 )
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; laryngeal cartilages; 319.)
x 1820 Raffles, T.S. (DD; 181.)
x 1834 Rüppell, E. (DD; Red Sea; 113.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; in capt.; 166.)
x 1889 Scammon, C.M. (TML; in capt.; 581-582.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (Trichechus; in capt.; no sounds produced; 219.)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, 54, 58-59; HG, Trichechus, 59.)
x 1923a Petit, G. (DD; 76.)
x 1935 Barrett, O.W. (TMM; Central America; grazing, 217; breathing, 218.)
x 1936 Lopes, A.P. (DD; Mozambique; said to "cry out"; 30, 35.)
x * 1937 Barbour, T. (TML; Florida; in late pregnancy; 107.)
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (TI; in late pregnancy; 60.)
x 1947 Harwood, K. (TM; in capt.; "bellow" when hungry; 50.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (TML; Florida; 545.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.; 403.)
x * 1955 Kellogg, W.N. (TML; Florida; phonograph record of vocalizations.)
x 1956b Anon. (TMM; Puerto Rico; 39.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; 6.)
1963 Brandt, O.
1963 Busnel, R.
x 1963 Pfeffer, P. (DD; 149.)
1963 Tembrock, G.
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; 118.)
x * 1965 Schevill & Watkins (TML; Florida; 373-374.)
1967 Evans, W.E. (TML; vocalizations)
x 1967a Jones, S. (DD; no sounds produced; 219.)
x 1967 Welsby, T. (female DD; Moreton Bay, Queensland; 2: 235.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (Trichechus; m294.)
1969 Evans & Bastian
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 346, 348, 350.)
x 1969 Herald, E.S. (TI; in capt.; sounds different from those of TML; m30.)
x * 1970 Evans & Herald (TI; in capt.; 820-823.)
x 1971 Kingdon, J. (DD; East Africa; "whistling"; 397.)
x * 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (TMM, TI; in capt.; vocalizations; 19-24.)
x 1976 Allen et al. (DD; in capt.; 39.)
x * 1977 Nair & Lal Mohan (DD; India; sound recordings; 277-278.)
x 1978 Marsh et al. (DD; vocalizations; 166, 168.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; ?use of nasal passages; 119.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 85-86, 92, 96, 98-100, 105, 108, 113-114, 116, 130, 135-136.)
x 1980 Bullock et al. (TI; sound frequencies comp. w/ hearing sensitivity; 130-133.)
x 1981b Anderson, P.K. (DD; in capt.; correlation of sounds with movements of facial skin; 94.)
x 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (TML; Florida; female-calf vocalizations, 442-443, 446-447; vocalizations during "body-surfing", m444, m447; vocalizations in general, 447.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; 93-95.)
x 1982 Bullock et al. (TI, TML; ultrasonic vocalizations; 548, 552.)
x 1982 Steel & Morris (TML; vocalizations; 925.)
x 1983 Steel, C. (TML; vocalizations; gen. acc.; 3160-3161.)
x 1984 Nietschmann, B. (DD; Torres Strait; 640.)
x * 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (TML; Florida; social functions; 816-819.)
x 1993 Loyer, B. (DD; Vanuatu; "chirps" and associated nasal movements; 55.)
x * 1995 Anderson & Barclay (DD; Australia; acoustic signals; 1226-1237.)
x 1997 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; acoustic signals; 443, 456-457.)
2002 Rountree et al.
2002 Rountree et al. (TM)
* 2002 Sousa-Lima et al. (TI)
2003 Niezrecki et al.
2003 Nowacek et al. (TM)
2004 Phillips et al. (TM; vocalizations)
2005 Yan et al.
* 2006 Mann et al. (TML, TMM; nonlinear dynamics in vocalizations)
2006 Ichikawa et al. (DD; vocalizations)
2006 O'Shea & Poche (TML; underwater sound communication)
2006 Yan, Niezrecki et al. (TML; background noise cancellation of vocalizations)
2007 Gur & Niezrecki (TM; denoising of vocalizations)
* 2008 Sousa-Lima et al. (TMM; in capt., Brazil; vocalizations)
2009 Miksis-Olds & Tyack (TM; noise levels & vocalizations)
2009 Gur & Niezrecki (TML; acoustic enhancement of vocalizations)
2011 Ichikawa et al. (DD; response to calls)
2011 Grossman et al. (TML; modeling respiratory tract)
2011 Gur & Niezrecki (algorithm for enhancing manatee vocalizations)
2013 Parsons et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; vocalizations)
2017 Tanaka et al. (DD; Thailand; vocalisation patterns)
2017 Umeed et al. (TMM; vocalizations)
* 2020 Yamato et al. (DD; automatic detection of feeding sounds)
* 2020 Ramos et al. (TMM; Belize; ultrasonic vocalizations)
* 2021 Tanaka et al. (DD; classification of calls)
* 2021 Rycyk et al. (TS; vocalizations & passive acoustic monitoring)
* 2021 Brady et al. (TML; vocalizations related to behavior)
South America ( 50 )
(SEE ALSO under countries)
1641 Acuña, C. d'
x 1666 La Barre, A. (TMM; Guianas; meat obtained by French, English, & Dutch; 14, m31.)
1746 Barbot, J.
1749 Condamine, C.M. de la
x 1763 Bellin, S. (TMM; Guianas; gen. acc.; 65-66, pl. 5.)
1779 Caulín, A. (TMM)
x 1809a Cuvier, G. (Trichechus, distr., 282; TMM, Cayenne, 283.)
x 1813 Ulloa, A. de (TI; R. Marañon; 513.)
1835-36 Poeppig, E.F.
x 1869 Marcoy, P. (TI; Amazonia; hunting, etc.; 1: 671-673, 2: 149-157, 202-204.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; econ. use; pop. acc.; 166.)
x 1875 Marcoy, P. (TI; Amazonia; 2: 42, 45, 187-194, 235-237.)
x 1876 Orton, J. (TI; Amazonia; 215, 299, 477.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. ("dugong" reported from Pacific coast; m293.)
1879-82 Alston, E.R.
1879 Mathews, E.D.
x 1884b True, F.W. (Trichechus; distr.; 115-116, 123.)
x 1914 Fountain, P. (TI; Amazonia; 303-304.)
x 1931 Tate, G.H.H. (Trichechus; hunting; 253.)
1933 Bueno, R.
x 1939 Wavrin, M. de (Trichechus; northern coast & Amazonia; hunting; 194-196.)
x 1946 Baughman, J.L. (Trichechus; early accounts; 235-237.)
x 1957 Meggers & Evans (TMM; hunting & trading by Indians; m570.)
x 1960 Vúletin, A. (TMM; Chile [!]; m124.)
x 1962 Bertram & Bertram (Trichechus; Guyana, Suriname, Amazon basin; 1329.)
1965 Crowe, P.K.
1971 Meggers, B.J. (Amazonia)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (TI, TMM; distr. & status; 317-321.)
1973 Sterling, T. (Amazon R.; pop. acc.)
x 1974 Savage, J.M. (Trichechus; zoogeography; 15, 20, 26, 29.)
1977 Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I.
x 1977 Lovisek, J. (TMM, TI; distr. & conservation; pop. acc.; 62-64.)
x 1981d Domning, D.P. (sir. & aquatic plant paleoecology; 419.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (role in trichechid evolution, 599, 605-607, 610-613, 616; evolution of floating meadows & changes in Amazonian drainage pattern, 610-613.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (manatee evolution & ecology; pop. acc.; 10-11.)
x 1984b Best, R.C. (TI; Amazonia; gen. acc.; 371-377.)
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 567-570, 584-591, 599, 607-609.)
1991 Pinto de Lima & Borobia (TMM; South America)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (distr. & status; TMM, 158; TI, 160.)
x * 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (fossil sirs.; review; 322, 325-328.)
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; status & biogeography)
2006 Bianucci et al. (Late Mioc., Chile)
2011 Cione et al. (Metaxytherium, Dioplotherium; Mioc.)
2012 Satizabal et al. (TI, TMM; South America; phylogeography)
2012 Rosa de Oliveira et al. (South America; conservation, genetics, phylogeography)
* 2012 Marmontel et al. (TI; distribution, status, & conservation)
2016 Cosentino & Fisher (TI, TM; as bushmeat)
* 2019 Lima et al. (TI x TM hybrid zone near Amazon River mouth)
2020 Bonvicino et al. (TM, TI; South America; distribution)
* 2021 Souza et al. (Trichechidae; mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
South Carolina ( 34 )
x 1844 Smith, J.L. (fossil ?Manatus; 116-117.)
1848 Tuomey, M.
x 1849 Gibbes, R.W. (Manatus; "Eoc."; 193.)
x 1850 Gibbes, R.W. (Manatus; "Eoc."; 67-68.)
x * 1856b Leidy, J. (Manatus antiquus, n.sp.; 165.)
x * 1873 Leidy, J. (Manatus inornatus, n.sp.; 336-337, pl. 37.)
1876 Anon.
x 1876 Leidy, J. ("manatee"; Ashley phosphate beds; m570.)
x 1877 Leidy, J. (Manatus antiquus; m211, 214.)
x * 1883a Cope, E.D. (Dioplotherium manigaulti, n.gen.n.sp., Mioc., 52-54; cf. Halitherium, 54.)
x 1886 Manigault, G. (Dioplotherium; discovery; 91-92.)
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (Halitherium, Metaxytherium; 455-459, pls. 2-3.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (review of fossil sirs.; 443-445.)
x 1959 Malde, H.E. (indeterminate sir.; Olig.; 19, 21.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (Mioc. sirs.; 78, 91-92.)
x * 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; 47-53.)
x 1974 Sanders, A.E. (Eoc.; m8.)
x 1975 Wray, P. (TML; pop. acc.; 21-22.)
1980 Roth & Laerm (TM; Pleist., Edisto)
x 1980 Sanders, A.E. (Halitherium, Metaxytherium; Olig.; 612.)
x 1981 Brownell & Ralls (TML; carcass salvaged; 153.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Eoc. sirs.; 4, 6, 12-13.)
x * 1982 Rathbun et al. (TML; 154, 156-157, 160-163.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (Trichechus; Pleist.; m136.)
x 1986 Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; pop. acc.; 6-10.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TML; 198-199.)
x * 1989c Domning, D.P. (Dioplotherium manigaulti; ?Mioc.; 415-418.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (Crenatosiren olseni; Late Oligocene, Charleston area; 397-399.)
* 2005 Domning, D.P. (Trichechus manatus bakerorum, n.subsp.)
2010 Beatty & Geisler (Protosiren sp.; Middle Eoc.)
* 2014a Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (Metaxytherium albifontanum, n.sp.; Late Olig.)
* 2014b Vélez-Juarbe & Domning (Priscosiren atlantica, n.gen.n.sp.; Early Olig., Puerto Rico & South Carolina)
* 2019 Domning & Beatty (Stegosiren macei n.gen.n.sp.; Olig.)
* 2019 Albright et al. (Sir. fossil record summarized)
Spain ( 52 )
1881 Maureta & Thos (Metaxytherium; Mioc.)
1896 Almera, D.J.
1897 Almera, D.J.
1898 Almera, D.J.
1899a Almera, D.J.
1899b Almera, D.J.
x 1906 Almera, D.J. ("Halitherium sp."; Middle Eoc.; 379.)
1911 Douvillé, H.
1918 Bataller, J.R.
x 1919 Gómez Llueca, F. (Metaxytherium Cuvieri; Mioc., Mallorca; 54-59, 61, 64.)
1926 Carbonell & Trillo-Figueroa
1926 Font i Sagué, N.
x 1946 Bauzá, J. (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Mioc., Mallorca; 376, pl. 18.)
x 1949 Colom & Bauzá (Metaxytherium cuvieri; Mioc., Mallorca; 91-92, pl. 7.)
1950 Via, L.
x 1952 Cañigueral, J. (Metaxytherium; Mioc., Mallorca; 387-390.)
x 1956 Bataller, J.R. (Metaxytherium cuvieri, Mioc., 24-25, pls. 6-8; Halitherium, Eoc., 25.)
1956 Marcet-Riba, J. (Eoc.)
1959 Crusafont-Pairó, M.
1959 Farrés & Ramirez (Eoc.)
1961 Farrés, F. (Eoc.)
1962 Farrés, F. (Eoc.)
1967 Reguant, S. (Eoc.)
1969 Calzada, S. (Metaxytherium; Mioc.)
x * 1973 Crusafont-Pairó, M. (list & bibliography of sir. occurrences in Spain & Mallorca; 96-98.)
1975 Crusafont-Pairó & Golpe Posse (Halianassa cuvieri)
1988b Pilleri, G. (Metaxytherium; Mioc.; pathology)
* 1989 Pilleri et al. (Catalonia)
1989 Pilleri, G. (Metaxytherium; Mioc., Cerro Gordo; endocranial cast)
1992 Galobart et al.
1994 Aragonés i Valls, E. (discovery of Metaxytherium catalaunicum in 1869)
1997 Montoya, P.
x 1997 Gómez-Alba R., J. (specimens in Barcelona; Metaxytherium, Mioc., 23, 45, 57, 61, 171-172, 174-175, 227; Prototherium, Eoc., 114.)
1998 Gómez, G.
1998 Sendra, J.R. (Mioc.; Crevillente)
1998 Sendra et al. (Plioc.; Almería)
1998 Gómez, G. (Eoc.)
1999 Sendra et al. (Metaxytherium serresii; Plioc.; Pilar de la Horadada)
1999 Astibia et al. (Eoc.)
x 2001 Bernal, F. (Metaxytherium; Upper Mioc., Mazarrón, Murcia; pop.acc.; 3.)
2005 Astibia et al. (indeterminate sirs.; Middle Eocene, Navarre; taphonomy)
2006 Astibia et al. (indeterminate dugongids; Middle Eoc., Navarre)
2008 Buffrénil et al. (Prototherium monserratense & undetermined dugongids; Eoc.; pachyosteosclerosis)
2010 Astibia et al. (indeterminate dugongids; early Middle Eoc., Navarre)
2010 Balaguer, J. (middle Eoc.; Tona, Spain)
* 2012 Sorbi et al. (Metaxytherium subapenninum; Plioc.)
2016 Fuentes-Buxó & Fuentes-Buxó (Girona; Middle Eoc.)
* 2016 Balaguer & Alba (Prototherium ausetanum, n.sp.; Middle Eoc., Catalonia)
2016 Gagnaison et al. (?dugongid; early Middle Eocene, Aragon)
* 2018 Diaz-Berenguer et al. (Sobrarbesiren cardieli, n.gen. n.sp.; Eoc., Huesca)
2019 Voss et al. (Girona; Middle Eoc.)
2020 Díaz-Berenguer et al. (Sobrarbesiren cardieli; Eoc.; hind limbs)
Sri Lanka ( 51 )
(formerly Ceylon)
1852-53 Kelaart, E.F. (DD)
1859 Tennent, J.E. (DD)
1861 Tennent, J.E.
x * 1877 Megasthenes (DD; early 3rd century B.C.E.; 55.)
1883 Haley, A. (DD)
1885 Nevill, H. (DD)
x 1895 Thurston, E. (DD; 98-99.)
x 1905 Linstow, O.v. (DD; nematode Ascaris halicoris; Gulf of Mannar; m258.)
1905 Wiley, A. (DD)
1914 Millett, M.W.
1926 Rasanayagam & Mudaliyar (DD)
1927 Phillips, W.W.A.
x 1928 Prater, S.H. (DD; 85-86.)
1933 Deraniyagala, P.E.P.
x 1951 Crusz, H. (DD; trematode Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus; 135.)
x 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; dentition; 139.)
x 1954 Crusz & Fernand (DD; trematodes; 499-502.)
1959c Anon. (DD; Gulf of Mannar; killed with dynamite)
x 1959 De Silva, J.A. (DD; conservation; 173-174.)
x 1959 Spittel, R.L. (DD; captures; 174-175.)
x 1960b Anon. (Trichechus; proposed use for weed control; m5.)
x 1960c Anon. (Trichechus; proposed use for weed control; m70.)
x 1960 Crusz, H. (DD; pop. acc.; 300-302.)
x 1960 Jonklaas, R. (DD; status; 302-304.)
x * 1960 Norris, C.E. (DD; distr.; 296-300.)
x 1960 Spittel, R.L. (DD; sanctuary proposed; 304-305.)
xx 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; distr. & conservation; 1, 7-8.)
x 1961 Santapau & Abdulali (DD; m796.)
1963 Kulatunge, D.
1965b Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (DD)
x 1966 Thomas, D. (DD; meat imported from India; 80-81.)
x * 1969a Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Miodugong brevicranius; Mioc.; 97.)
x 1969b Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Miodugong brevicranius; Mioc.; 235-237.)
* 1969c Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (Miodugong brevicranius, n.gen.n.sp.; Mioc.)
x 1970a Bertram & Bertram (DD; 53-55.)
x 1970b Bertram & Bertram (DD; 362-364.)
x 1970 Howes & Bamber (DD; teeth; 327.)
x 1971 Hoffmann, T.W. (DD; protective legislation; m182.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (DD; distr. & status; 308, 315-316.)
* 1980 Jones, S.
1980 Lal Mohan, R.S.
x 1981 Jones, S. (DD; distr. & status; 45-52.)
x 1981 Santiapillai, C. (DD; ecology & conservation; 2-6.)
1983 Jones, S.
1984 Leatherwood et al. (DD)
1987 Bertram, G.C.L. (DD)
x * 1989 Leatherwood & Reeves (DD; status, distr., catch, conservation; 4-5, 7, 61, 64, 80, 82-91, 105, 129-132.)
2008 Ilangakoon et al. (DD; Gulf of Mannar)
* 2012a Hines, E. (DD; distribution, status, & conservation)
* 2013 Yapa & Ratnavira (DD)
* 2019 Martenstyn, H.
St. Helena ( 10 )
1679 SEE Kitching, G.C., 1936.
1703-05 Dampier, W.
1817 Leech, T.
1843 Henry, W.
1880 Janisch
1899 Lydekker, R.
1933a Mortensen, T.
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (occurrence of "manatees"; 560.)
x 1934a Mortensen, T. ("manatee" a sea lion; 417.)
x * 1936 Kitching, G.C. (early records of "manatees"; 33-34.)
Stamps, Sirenians on Postage ( 13 )
(SEE ALSO Appendix 3)
1962b Anon.
1977c Anon. (DD; Kenya)
1979b Anon.
x 1979 Nishiwaki et al. (DD; Ryukyus & Tanzania; 141.)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; 131.)
x 1981 Maynes & Hudson (DD; Papua New Guinea; 4-6.)
x 1982 Riemer, D.N. (lists 11 stamps; 19-23.)
x 1983 Gomez, E.D. (lists 28 stamps; 121.)
x 1983 Marsh, H. (DD stamp proposed; Vanuatu; 4.)
x 1991b Kamiya, T. (DD; Ryukyus; 428-429.)
1995 Kataoka et al. (DD cancellation, 1989; Philippines; 59.)
x 1996a Domning, D.P. (lists 47 stamps & 2 coins; 372-374.)
1996 Kirk, G. (TS, Niger, 1962; 8-9.)
Stegosiren Domning & Beatty, 2019 ( 1 )
* 2019 Domning & Beatty (n.gen.; Olig., South Carolina)
Stegosiren macei Domning & Beatty, 2019 ( 1 )
* 2019 Domning & Beatty (n.gen.n.sp.; Olig., South Carolina)
Stellera, Bowdich, 1821 ( 4 )
(intended only as vernacular name; = Hydrodamalis)
* 1821 Bowdich, T.E.
x 1840 Baer, K.E.v. ("Stellere, G. Cuvier"; syn. of Rytina; m53.)
x 1925 ICZN (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 38.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 75.)
Steller's Sea Cow: SEE Hydrodamalis gigas and synonyms ( 0 )
Stellerus borealis (Gmelin, 1788) Desmarest, 1822 ( 6 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1822 Desmarest, A.G. (n.comb.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m279.)
x 1835b Duvernoy, G.L. (in classification; tab. 4.)
x 1837 Richardson, J. (m162.)
x 1838a Owen, R. (cecum, m32; lack of gall bladder, m34; heart, m35; lungs, m36; kidney, m39.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 93.)
Stellerus Desmarest, 1822 ( 7 )
(= Hydrodamalis)
* 1822 Desmarest, A.G. (n.gen.)
x 1825 Gray, J.E. (in classification; m341.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m278.)
1839 Desmarest, E.? ("Stellurus"?)
x 1840 Baer, K.E.v. (syn. of Rytina; m53.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (syn. of Rhytina; m92.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis; 75.)
Superstition: SEE Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance ( 0 )
Suriname ( 31 )
1613 Harcourt, R.
1667 Warren, G.
1695 Berkel, A. van
1718 Herlein, J.D.
x 1796 Stedman, J.G. (TMM, 1: 221, 2: 175-176; "mermaid", 2: 176-178.)
1807 Quandt, C.
1810 Sack, A.v.
x 1857 Jäger, G. (TMM; skulls; 91, 97.)
x 1857 Rapp, W.v. (TMM; anatomy; 88.)
1862a Krauss, C.F.F. (TMM; osteology)
1872 Krauss, C.F.F. (TMM; pelvis)
x 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; in capt.; 192-193.)
1887 Jentink, F.A.
1887 Kappler, A. (TMM; in capt.)
x 1887 Martin, J.K. (TMM; 27.)
x 1897b Kükenthal, W. (Manatus Köllikeri, n.sp.; 40.)
x 1949 Sanderson, I.T. (TMM; 781.)
1961 De Jong, C.
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; status; 90-91.)
1966 Vermeulen, J.
* 1967a Dekker, D. (TMM)
1971 De Jong, C. (TMM; exploitation)
1973 Husson, A.M.
x 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (TMM; 2 captured; 19.)
x 1974a Dekker, D. (TMM; 4 captured; 68.)
x 1974b Dekker, D. (TMM; gen. acc.; 1-3.)
x 1977 Bertram & Bertram (TMM; use for weed control; 107.)
x * 1978 Husson, A.M. (TMM; distr. & natural history; 334-339.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (TMM; possible morphological distinctiveness of Suriname population; 125-126.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TMM; distr., status, & biogeography; 587, 608.)
1993 Mohadin, K.
Switzerland ( 4 )
x 1837 Meyer, H.v. (Manatus Studeri, n.sp. [nomen nudum]; Mioc., Mäggenwyl; 677.)
x 1847 Meyer, H.v. (?Metaxytherium; Otmarsingen; 189-190.)
1887 Studer, T. (Halianassa studeri)
* 1987 Pilleri, G.

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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