Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia  


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T

Tagging Methods and Recognition ( 67 )
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; scars; 121.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; scars; 2-5, 22.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (tagging)
x 1964a Bertram & Bertram (TMM; Guyana; tagging; 117-118.)
x 1964 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; scars; 7-8.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; recognition; 345-346.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (paint; m329.)
1976g Anon. (TML; Florida; sonar tags)
x 1978 Harper, H. (TML; Florida; radiotagging; m12.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; scars, belts; 12-14.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TML; Florida; freezebranding; m122-123.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (TML; Florida; freezebranding; 111, 118.)
x 1981b Hudson, B.E.T. (DD; Papua New Guinea; spaghetti tags, tailstock belts; 135-136, 140-141.)
x 1981 Montgomery et al. (TI; Brazil; freezebranding & radiotagging; 81-85.)
x 1982b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Australia; scars, Paintstick; 86, 89, 92-93.)
x 1982 Eberhardt, L.L. (TML; Florida; techniques; 11-13, 15-16.)
x * 1982 Michelson, R.C. (TML; Florida; automated radiotracking; 79-85.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (TML; Florida; scars; 2, 6, 8-11, 25-63.)
x 1983 Packard & Nichols (TML; Florida; sample sizes required for mark-recovery studies; 1-14.)
x 1983 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; radiotagging, 4-8; vinyl flags, 5, 8.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; scars & natural marks; 6.)
x * 1984 Irvine & Scott (TML; Florida; development of marking techniques; 12-26.)
x * 1984b Packard, J.M. (TM; review of techniques; 1-29.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TML; Florida; scars, radiotags; 4-5, 13-14.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida; radiotracking; 5, 10, 12-16.)
x 1985 Packard, Summers & Barnes (TML; Florida; radiotagging; 347-351.)
1986 Mate et al. (TML; Florida)
1986 Mate, B.R. (satellite tracking)
1987 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; satellite tracking)
1987 Rathbun, Reid & Bourassa (TML; Florida)
1987 Rathbun, Reid & Tas'an (DD)
x 1988 Doig & Dyson (DD; Australia; satellite tracking; 438-439.)
x 1988a Marsh, H. (DD; Australia; radiotracking; 12-14.)
1988 Sleeper, B. (TML; Florida; pop. acc.)
1988 Wilhelm et al. (TML; Florida; scar patterns)
x 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; visibility of radio-tagged manatees; 695-699.)
x 1989 Preen et al. (DD; Arabian region; radiotagging; 25-26, 56.)
x * 1989 Reid & O'Shea (TML; Florida & Georgia; satellite transmitters; 217-232.)
x * 1990 Marsh & Rathbun (DD; Queensland; radio & satellite tracking; 83-100.)
x 1990 Rathbun et al. (TML; Florida; scar patterns, radiotracking; 2-4.)
x 1991 Reid et al. (TML; Florida; scar patterns; 180-190.)
x * 1995b Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay; scarring & photoidentification; 205-211.)
1995 Beck & Reid (TML; Florida; photo-ID catalog)
x 1995 O'Shea & Langtimm (TML; Florida; estimation of survival; 198-208.)
x 1996 Koelsch, J.K. (TML; Sarasota Co., Florida; photoidentification studies; gen. acc.; 8-9.)
x * 1996 Reid, J.P. (TML; individual radio-tracked to Rhode Island; 13.)
x 1997 Reid, J.P. (TMM; Puerto Rico; radiotracking; 22-23.)
x * 1998 Deutsch et al. (TM; Florida, Georgia, Puerto Rico; radio-tracking; 18-29.)
x 1998 Langtimm et al. (TML; Florida; photo-identification in mark-recapture analysis; 982, 984-985, 994-995.)
x * 1998 Wright et al. (TML; Florida; PIT tags; 641-645.)
2001 Weigle et al. (TML; west coast of Florida, 1991-96; movements)
2002 Lanyon et al. (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; mark-recapture program)
2002 Nowacek et al. (TMM; Belize; digital acoustic logger tagging)
2005 Flamm et al. (TML; movement corridors; telemetry)
2010 Lanyon et al. (DD; Queensland, Australia; molecular characterization of populations; skin sampling)
x 2012 Beck & Clark (Discusses scars, tags, freeze-branding, and genetic analysis; 133-138.)
2012 Deutsch & Reynolds (Florida; photo-identification partnership; 32.)
2012 Kendall et al. (estimating parameters of hidden Markov models)
* 2012 Marmontel, Reid, et al. (tagging techniques & movement of sirs.)
* 2012 Moraes-Arraut et al. (Habitat assessment using GIS, satellites, videography, & modeling)
2013 Fuentes et al. (DD; Torres Strait; capture for tagging by harpoon and dermal holdfast)
2015 Aven et al. (TML)
2017 Slone et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuge use; GPS telemetry)
2017 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; movements & habitat use; satellite telemetry)
2019 Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (TMM; Caribbean region; monitoring methods)
* 2020 Landeo-Yauri et al. (TML; Belize; photo-identification by drones)
2022 Derville et al. (DD; New Caledonia; habitat use; satellite tracking)
Taiwan ( 4 )
x * 1932 Hirasaka, K. (DD; 1-4, pl. 1.)
x 1934 Hirasaka, K. (DD; 4221-4222.)
x 1993 Wang, P. (DD; 275, 278.)
x 1996 Yu, M.-J. (DD; m122.)
Taphonomy: SEE Paleoecology and Taphonomy ( 0 )
Temperature, Effects of ( 114 )
(SEE ALSO: Behavior, Shelter-seeking or Escape; Migration & Movements; Natural Death or Injury; Pollution, Effects of; Thermoregulation)
x 1872a Murie, J. (TMM; in capt., London; death from cold; 192-193.)
x 1873 Conklin, W.A. (Trichechus; in capt., New York; 166.)
x 1876 Chapman, H.C. (TMM; in capt., Philadelphia; 460-461.)
x 1878 Brown, A.E. (TMM; in capt., Philadelphia; 296-297.)
x 1880 Murie, J. (TMM; in capt., London; death from cold; 23.)
x 1881 Crane, A. (?TI; in capt., Brighton; 460.)
x 1893 Goeldi, E.A. (TMM; in capt.; m121.)
x * 1895 Bangs, O. (TML; Florida; 784-785.)
x 1897 Anon. (Trichechus; in capt., England; 36.)
x 1898 Kirke, H. (TMM from Guyana; in capt., England; 135.)
x 1905 Townsend, C.H. (TML; death in capt., New York; 97.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, Trichechus; 58.)
x 1909 Graham, S.C. (TML; Florida; mortality, 1894-95; m413.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt., Hamburg; 65-66, 113, 115, 128-131.)
x * 1930 Vosseler, J. (TI; in capt., Hamburg; 362-364.)
x 1931 Brimley, H.H. (TML; in capt., North Carolina; 321.)
x 1935 Sowerby, A. de C. (DD; China; m82.)
x 1940 Cahn, A.R. (TML; Florida; 222-223.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (TML; Florida; 64.)
x 1941b Gunter, G. (TM; Texas & Louisiana; m13.)
x 1941 Hamilton, W.J., Jr. (TML; Florida; winter mortality; 690-691.)
x 1942 Gunter, G. (TML; Florida; 89.)
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (TML; Florida; 272-273.)
x 1948 Cahalane, V.H. (TML; Florida Everglades; 258.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; effects on movements & behavior; 11-12, 14-15.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; use of warm-water sources, 25; winter mortality, 34-35.)
x * 1953 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; 120-121, 156.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (TML; Florida; 403.)
x 1955 Severin, K. (TML; Florida; m148-149.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (TML; Florida; 2, 5-6, 10.)
x 1961 Jonklaas, R. (DD; Sri Lanka; temperature tolerance; 2.)
x 1962 Marlow, B.J. (DD; New South Wales; 433.)
x * 1965 Layne, J.N. (TML; Florida; 166-168.)
x * 1967 Browder, J. (TML; Florida; weed control; warming stations; 4.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Trichechus; Panama; m392.)
x 1971b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; North Pacific; evolution; 218.)
x 1972a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 21-22.)
x 1974 Addicott & Greene (Hydrodamalis; paleoclimatic significance; 251-252.)
x * 1974a Dekker, D. (TMM; shipboard transport; 68-69.)
x * 1974a Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; movements & use of warm-water refugia; 9-30, 63-201, 221.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (effects on North Pacific sir. evolution; 352-362.)
x 1978 Irvine & Campbell (TML; Florida; use of warm-water sources; 615-616.)
x 1979 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; natural thermal refugia; 133.)
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; use of warm-water refugia, 17-27; effect on respiration rate, 82; mortality, 123.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (TML; Florida; weight loss & gain in capt.; 7-8.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (TML; in capt., Florida; decline in food consumption; 124.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (Trichechus; effects on digestion rate; 21.)
x 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (TML; Florida; review; 8-9.)
x * 1981 Campbell & Irvine (TML; Florida; winter mortality, 1976-77; 86-91.)
x 1981 Irvine, Odell, & Campbell (TML; Florida; winter mortality, 1974-77; 69-70.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (TML; Blue Spring, Florida; 41-46.)
x 1981 Rose, P.M. (TML; Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1977-78; 22-24.)
x 1982a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; seasonal movements; 80, 82.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (TML; St. Johns R., Florida; movements; 4668.)
x 1982 Rathbun et al. (TML; Georgia; use of warm-water effluent; 153-154, 164.)
x * 1983 Gallivan et al. (TI; thermoregulation; 255-262.)
x * 1983 Irvine, A.B. (TML; Florida; metabolism & distr.; 315-334.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (TML; Florida; use of power-plant effluents; 1-24.)
x 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; Florida; effects on distr.; 9-10, 13, 16, 25, 29, 34, 40, 48.)
x 1983 Kochman et al. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; seasonal use; 108-110, 116-121.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TML; Florida; use of warm-water sources; pop. acc.; 40-44.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (TML; Turkey Creek, Florida; 3-7.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (TML; Florida; necropsy findings, winter kills; 1332-1334.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (DD; seasonal breeding; 781-782.)
x 1984 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida; use of power-plant effluent; 24-31, 42-46.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (TML; Florida; use of power-plant effluents; 180-187.)
x 1985 Kochman et al. (TML; Crystal R., Florida; temporal & spatial distr.; 921-924.)
x * 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (TML; Florida; winter mortality due to hypothermia; 3-7.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida; use of power-plant effluent; 1-20.)
x 1985 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1982-83; 413-422.)
x 1986a Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; seasonal movements; 476, 480-489.)
x 1986 Kinnaird, M.F. (TML; South Carolina; winter kill; 6.)
x 1986 Packard et al. (TML; Ft. Myers, Florida; use of power-plant effluent; 265-275.)
x 1986 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1984-85; 103-113.)
x 1987 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power-plant refugia; pop. acc.; 263-269.)
x 1989 Baugh et al. (TML; Cumberland Sound, Florida & Georgia; use of warm-water refugia; 88-89.)
x 1989 Lefebvre et al. (TM; effects on biogeography; 590-591.)
x * 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; response to interruption of thermal effluent; 692-700.)
x 1989 Palmer, D. (TML; Georgia; construction of artificial warm-water refugium; 7.)
x 1989a Preen, A. (DD; Arabian region; 119-121.)
x 1993 Savinetsky, A.B. (HG; Bering Is.; effects on population size; 403-405.)
1993 Steele & Kuhl (DD; Moreton Bay, Australia; warm-water refugia)
x 1994 Anderson, P.K. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; distr. in winter; 381-388.)
x 1994 Garrott et al. (TML, Florida; use of power plants, 1977-1992; 642-654.)
x 1994 Marsh et al. (DD; Shark Bay, Australia; seasonal differences in distr.; 149-161.)
x 1995 Preen & Marsh (DD; New South Wales, Australia; deaths from cold; 513-514.)
x 1997 Preen et al. (DD; Western Australia; 191, 193, 195, 201-202.)
x 1998 Axis-A. et al. (TMM; Mexico; slight effect of temperature on distr.; 801.)
* 2002 Wright et al. (TML; Tampa Bay, Florida; 1987-94; 259-274.)
2003 Bossart, Meisner et al. (TML; cold stress syndrome)
x * 2004 Ortiz & Worthy (TM; body fat & cold susceptibility of calves; 176-183.)
2005a Laist & Reynolds (TML; Florida; effects of warm-water refuges)
* 2005b Laist & Reynolds (TML; Florida; future of warm-water refuges)
2005 Lanyon, Johns & Sneath (DD; Queensland)
2010 Alvarez-A. et al. (TML; Cuba; use of power plant)
2010 Swain & Decker (TM; simulating coastal wetland temperature)
2011 Gramling, C. (Eoc. sea temperatures reflected in sir. teeth)
* 2011 Slone, D. (TML; Florida; inverted haloclines as warm-water refugia)
2011 Stith et al. (TML; southwest Florida; warm-water refugia; temperature-inverted haloclines)
2011 Donà et al. (TML; papillomatosis)
2012 Gerlach et al. (TML; cold stress lesions)
* 2012 Bonde, Mignucci-Giannoni, & Bossart (pathology & mortality assessment)
2012 Reynolds & Marshall (physical traits, life history, & vulnerability of sirs.)
2013 Edwards, H. H. (TML; potential impacts of climate change)
* 2013 Laist et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuges & cold stress)
2014 Kleen & Breland (TML; Citrus County & Kings Bay, Florida; seasonal use of warm-water refuge)
2017 Slone et al. (TML; Florida; warm-water refuge use; GPS telemetry)
* 2017 Gaudry et al. (HG & other sirs.; lack of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis)
2018 Carr& Milstein (TML; Florida; power plants as thermal refuges)
* 2019 Hardy et al. (TML; Florida; cold-related mortality)
2019 Littles et al. (TML; Florida; movements in and out of winter refuge)
* 2019 Martony et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome)
2019 Martony, Isaza et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome; measurement of core body temperature)
* 2020 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
Teratology ( 2 )
x 1919 Anon. (TI; supposed possession of "two distinct stomachs"; 46.)
x 1986 Watson & Bonde (TML; ectrodactyly & cleft hand; 294-301.)
Texas ( 27 )
x 1884b True, F.W. ("South American manatee"; 115.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (TM; 61-64.)
x 1941b Gunter, G. (TML; 12-13.)
x 1942 Gunter, G. (TM; 89.)
x 1943 Lowery, G.H., Jr. (TML; 253-254.)
x D 1944 Stenzel & Turner (?Desmostylus; 289.)
D 1944 Stenzel et al.
x 1949 Sprunt, A., Jr. (TM; 288.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (TMM; subspecific identity, movements; 12, 16, 18.)
x D 1958 Floyd et al. (?Desmostylus; 160-161.)
x D 1963 Mitchell & Repenning (?Desmostylus; 10.)
1966 Pearsall, J.
D * 1976 Reinhart, R.H. ("Desmostylus" probably proboscidean; 286-287.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (indeterminate sir.; Eoc., Zapata Co.; 4, 6, 8.)
x 1984 Powell & Rathbun (TM; 2, 6, 18.)
x 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (TM; 187, 199.)
x 1990 Fernandez & Jones (TM; 103.)
1990 Westgate, J.W. (Middle Eoc., Webb Co.)
x 1995 Schiro & Fertl (TM; Galveston Bay; 4-5.)
x 1996 Russel, M. (TM; Houston; rescue; 18-19.)
x 1996 Schiro et al. (TM; 28-29.)
x 1997 Jefferson & Baumgardner (TM; specimens in Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection; 106.)
x 2000 Cowan, D.F. (TM; Calhoun Co.; stranding; 5.)
x 2001 Baumgardner & Brooks (TM; Aransas Co.; 292-294.)
x 2005 Brant, Joel G.; Jones, Clyde (?TMM; 3.)
* 2005 Fertl et al. (TM)
* 2020 Bell et al. (TM & TM bakerorum; Pleist.)
Thalattosiren petersi (Abel, 1904) Sickenberg, 1928 ( 12 )
(= Metaxytherium medium)
* 1928 Sickenberg, O. (n.comb.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (comp. w/ other sirs.; 424, 427, 431-433, 441, 443-445, 451, 456, 468, 475-479, 495, 499.)
x 1949 Thenius, E. (Czechoslovakia; in faunal list; m162-163.)
x * 1952 Thenius, E. (Czechoslovakia; new material, nomenclature; 33-36, 109-113.)
x 1953 Zapfe, H. (m14.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 68.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 73, 78, 83.)
x 1974 Fondi & Pacini (m47.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs.; 9.)
x 1991 Piller & Vávra ("Thalatosiren"; Middle Mioc., Austria; m189.)
x 1996 Piller et al. ("Thalatosiren"; Middle Mioc., Austria; m16.)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (syn. of Metaxytherium medium; Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
Thalattosiren Sickenberg, 1928 ( 12 )
(= Metaxytherium)
* 1928 Sickenberg, O. (n.gen.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 152-154, pl. 6.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135, 251.)
x 1951 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Haplosiren; 438-441.)
x 1971 Ginsburg & Janvier (comp. w/ Metaxytherium medium; 184.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 577-579.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m378-380.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (comp. w/ Haplosiren, 208; w/ Metaxytherium, 223.)
x 1987b Domning, D.P. (possibly synonymous with Halianassa Studer; 123.)
x 1991 Czyzewska & Radwanski (Middle Mioc., Poland; 184-185, 188.)
1992 Wolsan, M. (Middle Mioc., Poland)
* 2013 Domning & Pervesler (syn. of Metaxytherium; Middle Mioc., Central Europe)
Thalattosiren studeri (von Meyer, 1838) Thenius, 1952 ( 2 )
(= Metaxytherium krahuletzi)
x * 1952 Thenius, E. (n.comb.; 111, 113.)
x 1987 Domning & Thomas (m208.)
Thelriope capgrandi (Lartet, 1866) Pilleri, 1987 ( 1 )
(= Rytiodus capgrandi)
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (n.comb.)
Thelriope Pilleri, 1987 ( 2 )
(= Rytiodus)
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (n.gen.; replacement name for Rytiodus)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Rytiodus; 417.)
Thelriopiinae Pilleri, 1987 ( 2 )
(subfamily; = Dugonginae)
* 1987 Pilleri, G. (new subfamily; replacement name for Rytiodontinae)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (syn. of Rytiodontinae; 417.)
Thermoregulation ( 24 )
(SEE ALSO: Temperature, Effects of)
x * 1906b Dexler & Freund (DD, Trichechus; 58.)
x 1939 Coates, C.W. (TI; in capt., New York; preference for warm water; 143.)
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (TML; Florida; 272-273.)
x 1951b Moore, J.C. (TML; ?sunbathing at surface; 32.)
x * 1952 Dekeyser, P.L. (TS; rectal temperatures; 243-246.)
* 1969 Elsner, R.
1973 Irving, L.
x * 1976 Allen et al. (DD; rectal temperatures; 38.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; evolution; 355-359.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (hydrodamalines; 131-132, 141-142.)
x 1979a Farmer et al. (TI; rectal temperatures; 232-233, 235.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (TML; Florida; 23-25, 40-41.)
x 1979 Tas'an et al. (DD; rectal temperatures; 10, 23, 27.)
x * 1983 Gallivan et al. (TI; measurements of core temperature; 255-262.)
x * 1983 Irvine, A.B. (TML; metabolism & distr. in Florida; 315-334.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (TML; Florida; use of warm-water sources & ?sunbathing at surface; pop. acc.; 40-44.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (TML; Florida; ?sunbathing; 17.)
x 1987 Whittow, G.C. (TI; 222, 224, 226-228, 230, 237.)
x 1989 Packard et al. (TML; Florida; ?basking in sun; 699.)
* 2001 Rommel et al. (TML; veins of reproductive system)
2003 Rommel & Caplan (TML; tail; vascular adaptations for heat conservation)
* 2017 Gaudry et al. (HG & other sirs.; lack of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis)
2019 Martony, Isaza et al. (TML; cold-stress syndrome; measurement of core body temperature)
* 2020 Haase et al. (TML; Florida; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
Tooth Replacement ( 50 )
x 1820a Home, E. (DD; tusks, 146-149, 153, pls. 12-14; lower incisors, 153-154, pl. 14.)
x 1820b Home, E. (DD; 315-316.)
x 1838a Owen, R. (DD; 42-44.)
1852 Owen, R.
x 1857 Jäger, G. (TM; Suriname; 92-94.)
1862a Krauss, C.F.F.
x 1875b Owen, R. (Prorastomus; 566.)
* 1886a Hartlaub, C. (Trichechus)
x 1893 Howes & Harrison (DD, Trichechus; 790.)
x * 1896 Kükenthal, W. (TM; embryonic dentition; 513-526.)
* 1897 Thomas & Lydekker (Trichechus)
x 1898 Thomas & Lydekker (Trichechus; 814.)
x 1904 Thomas, O. (Trichechus; comp. w/ Peradorcas; 226-227.)
x * 1906 Abel, O. (fossil sirs. & DD; 50-52, 59-60.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (Halitherium antillense, etc.; 28-29.)
* 1918b Aichel, O.
x * 1921a Marcus, H. (TS; 574-586, pls. 18-19.)
x 1921b Marcus, H. (TI, TS; number of teeth; 154-156.)
x 1924 Andrews, C.W. (sir.-proboscidean similarities; 305-308.)
x D 1924 Hay, O.P. (Desmostylus, Cornwallius; 1-8.)
x 1926 Aichel, O. (Trichechus; 43.)
x 1927 Brash, J.C. (TM; evidence of alveolar septal reworking; 19-20.)
x 1931 Sickenberg, O. (suppression of premolars; 428-431.)
1936 Colyer, F.
x 1941 Hamilton, W.J., Jr. (TML; Florida; 691.)
x * 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (Trichechus; 1-15.)
x * 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (DD; 1-8.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (evolution; 4-7, 12.)
x 1948 Bessac & Villiers (TS; said to be "completely toothless" in old age; 188.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (Trichechus, Potamosiren; 206-207.)
x 1951 Wegner, R.N. (role of dental capsule; 76-81.)
x * 1953 Brash, J.C. (TS, ?TM, DD; alveolar septal reworking; 462-476.)
x * 1953 Fernand, V.S.V. (DD; Sri Lanka; 139-147, pls. 28-30.)
x 1953 Pascual, R. (Ribodon; 175-177.)
x * 1955 Dekeyser, P.L. (TS; 921-925.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L.
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (fossil & Recent sirs.; 81-82.)
x 1970 Scheffer, V.B. (DD; 187.)
x 1977 Domning & Magor (TI; rates & patterns; 435-438.)
x 1980 Miller et al. (TML; role of transseptal periodontal fibers; 128.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (trichechids, diet & evolution, 601, 603, 607-611, 613-616; Trichechus, cheek-tooth homologies, 607-608.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (Trichechus; pop. acc.; 8, 10-11.)
x * 1984 Domning & Hayek (TI; rates, patterns, causes; 105-127.)
x 1985 Fortelius, M. (Trichechus; functional significance; 11, 65.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (evolution in trichechids; 389-391.)
x 1999 Walker & Macko (TM; implications for sampling isotopes in teeth; 326-327.)
2004 MacFadden et al. (TML; in capt.; shed teeth collected)
* 2008 Asher & Lehmann (dental eruption in afrotheres)
x 2011 Gomes R. et al. (TM, TS; horizontal tooth replacement; 1-5.)
2012 Beatty et al. (osteology and tooth development)
Toxodon Owen, 1840 ( 1 )
(Notoungulata)
x 1847b Gervais, F.L.P. (referred to the Sirenia; 218-219, 221.)
Trachypleurotherium Dilg, 1909 ( 4 )
(nomen nudum)
* 1909 Dilg, C. (n.gen.; Par , Brazil; nomen nudum; m84, 90, pl. 12.)
x 1967a Paula Couto, C. de (probable horizon; considered nomen nudum; 16.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (probable horizon; considered nomen nudum; 345.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (probable horizon; considered nomen nudum; 600.)
Trachytherium Gervais, 1849 ( 5 )
(= Halitherium)
* 1849-50 Gervais, F.L.P. (n.gen.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 92.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (?syn. of Rytiodus; m224.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m481.)
2014 Voss, M.
Trachytherium raulinii Gervais, 1849 ( 3 )
(= Halitherium schinzii)
* 1849-50 Gervais, F.L.P. (n.gen.n.sp.)
x 1866 Lartet, E. (m684.)
x 1885a Woodward, H. (m470.)
Traditional Significance: SEE Economic Uses; Hunting and Capture; Medicinal Applications; Religious, Superstitious, or Ornamental Use or Observance ( 0 )
Trichechidae Gill, 1872 (1821) ( 13 )
(family)
x * 1872a Gill, T. (n.fam.; in classification; 14, 91.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 272-273.)
x 1884a True, F.W. (in classification; 588.)
x 1932c Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 281.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 155.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 136, 251.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (phylogeny; 203, 208-211.)
x 1955 Miller & Kellogg (in classification; 790.)
1959 Reinhart, R.H. (phylogeny)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (in classification; 6.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (origin & evolution; 599-619.)
* 2021 Souza et al. (mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
Trichechiformes Hay, 1923 ( 6 )
(suborder; = Sirenia)
x * 1923a Hay, O.P. (new suborder; 109.)
x 1924 Hay, O.P. (m7.)
x 1932c Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 281.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (in classification; 154.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 135.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (in classification; 378-379.)
Trichechinae (Gill, 1872 [1821]) Domning, 1994 ( 4 )
(subfamily)
* 1994b Domning, D.P. (new rank)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (fossil record & evolution; 383-391.)
2016 Antoine et al. (Peru; early Mioc.)
* 2021 Souza et al. (mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
Trichechoidea Gill, 1872 ( 3 )
(superfamily; = Trichechidae)
x * 1872a Gill, T. (new superfamily; in classification; 91.)
x 1872b Gill, T. (m301.)
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 273.)
Trichechus aequatorialis (Lacépède, 1799) Hatt, 1934 ( 2 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (n.comb. [lapsus?]; syn. of T. senegalensis; 537.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of T. senegalensis; 382.)
Trichechus amazonius Shaw, 1800 ( 5 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1800 Shaw, G. (n.sp.)
1818 Olfers, I.
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. m. manatus; type locality restricted; 536.)
x 1959 Hershkovitz, P. (syn. of T. m. manatus; 342.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of T. inunguis in part, 309; of T. m. manatus in part, 310.)
Trichechus americanus Link, 1795 ( 4 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1794-95 Link, H.F. (n.sp.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. m. manatus; type locality restricted; 535-536.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of T. inunguis in part, 309; of T. m. manatus in part, 310.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of T. manatus; 381.)
Trichechus antillarum Link, 1795 ( 4 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1794-95 Link, H.F. (n.sp.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. m. manatus; 535.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of T. m. manatus; 310.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (m125.)
Trichechus antiquus (Leidy, 1856) Hay, 1902 ( 6 )
(nomen dubium)
x * 1902 Hay, O.P. (n.comb.; 583.)
x 1919 Hay, O.P. (Pleist., Florida; 109-110, pl. 26.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m232.)
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (referred to Halitherium; 455.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (m421.)
x 1982b Domning, D.P. (specimen of Hay [1919] considered Subrecent TM; 604-605.)
Trichechus australis (Gmelin, 1788) Shaw, 1800 ( 6 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis, in part; Trichechus manatus, in part)
* 1800 Shaw, G. (n.comb.)
x 1838 Diesing, C.M. (parasites Lobocephalus heterolobus & Amphistoma fabaceum; m189.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (syn. of Manatus Senegalensis; m45.)
1894b Rhoads, S.N. ([= TM])
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. senegalensis; 537.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m208.)
Trichechus australis Retzius, 1794 ( 1 )
(= Dugong dugon)
* 1794 Retzius, A.J. (n.sp.)
Trichechus borealis (Gmelin, 1788) Shaw, 1800 ( 4 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1800 Shaw, G. (n.comb.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m279.)
x 1883 Stejneger, L. (syn. of Rytina gigas; m78.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 75, 93.)
Trichechus clusii (Pennant, 1793) Shaw, 1800 ( 5 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1800 Shaw, G. (n.sp.)
1818 Olfers, I.
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. manatus; 536.)
x 1959 Hershkovitz, P. (syn. of T. m. manatus; 342.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of T. m. manatus; 310.)
Trichechus dugon Müller, 1776 ( 11 )
(= Dugong dugon)
x * 1776 Müller, P.L.S. ("Trichecus dugon"; n.sp.; 21-22.)
x 1780 Zimmermann, E.A.W. ("Trichechus (Dugung)"; diagnosis & distr.; 425.)
1795 Forster, J.R.
1798? Cuvier, G.
x 1808 Tiedemann, F. ("T. dugong"; syn. of Dugungus indicus; m554.)
x 1820 Diard & Duvaucel ("trichecus dugong"; anatomy; 159-160.)
x 1821 Gray, J.E. ("T. dugong"; in classification; 309.)
1824 Desmoulins, A.
x 1964 Johnson, D.H. (syn. of Dugong dugon; 506.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (m578.)
x 1981 Strahan, R. (Malay and Latin names; 33.)
Trichechus exunguis (Natterer in Diesing, 1839) Stunkard, 1929 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus inunguis)
x * 1929 Stunkard, H.W. (n.comb.; trematodes; 254.)
x * 1981c Domning, D.P. (suppression of name proposed; 130-132.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (syn. of T. inunguis; nomen oblitum; m305.)
Trichechus giganteus (DeKay, 1842) Case, 1904 ( 2 )
(Cetacea)
x * 1904 Case, E.C. (n.comb.; Mioc., Maryland; 56-57, pl. 26.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (review, 66; m83.)
Trichechus hesperamazonicus Perini et al., 2020 ( 1 )
* 2020 Perini et al. (n.sp.; Pleist., Brazil)
Trichechus hydropithecus Shaw, 1800 ( 1 )
(Steller's "sea-ape"; nomen nudum)
* 1800 Shaw, G. (n.sp.; nomen nudum)
Trichechus inornatus (Leidy, 1873) Hay, 1902 ( 3 )
(nomen dubium)
x * 1902 Hay, O.P. (n.comb.; 584.)
x * 1926 Allen, G.M. (synonymized with Halitherium antiquum; 455.)
x 1989c Domning, D.P. (considered nomen dubium; 416.)
Trichechus inunguis (Natterer in von Pelzeln, 1883) Thomas and Lydekker, 1897 ( 284 )
1541 SEE Carvajal, G. de, 1934.
1768 SEE Noronha, J.M. de, 1856.
1786 SEE Rodriguez Ferreira, A., 1903.
x v * 1809a Cuvier, G. (French Guiana; external morphology, 283-285; skeleton, 285-293, pl. 19.)
x v 1813 Ulloa, A. de (Marañon R.; 513.)
x v 1829 Maw, H.L. (Peru/Brazil border; 237-239.)
x v 1836 Smyth & Lowe (Sarayacu, Peru; 197, 242-243.)
x v 1847 Edwards, W.H. (Amazonia; 187-188.)
x v 1850 Sampaio, F.X.R. de (Rio Branco, Brazil; m259.)
x v 1851 Warren, J.E. (Brazil; 149.)
x v 1853 Herndon, W.L. (Peru, 158, 163-164, 200; Brazil, 300, 319, 365.)
x v 1853 Wallace, A.R. (Amazonia; 185-187, 458-461.)
x v 1854 Gibbon, L. (Madeira R., Brazil; "few" taken; m309.)
x v 1863 Bates, H.W. (Amazonia; 2: 165.)
x v 1869 Marcoy, P. (Amazonia; hunting, etc.; 1: 671-673, 2: 149-157, 202-204.)
x v 1872 Kingston, W.H.G. (Amazonia; predation by jaguar; 184-190.)
x v 1874 Heriarte, M. de (Gurup  & Trombetas R., Brazil; ca. 1662; 29-30, 39.)
x v 1875 Marcoy, P. (Amazonia; hunting, etc.; 2: 42, 45, 187-194, 235-237.)
x v 1875 Wilder, B.G. (Peru; fetus; 105-106, 108-109, 112-114.)
x v 1876 Orton, J. (Amazonia; 215, 299, 477.)
x v 1878 Brown & Lidstone (Brazil; Jamaraqua, 175-176; in capt., Manaus, 395-396.)
* 1897 Thomas & Lydekker (n.comb.)
x v 1900 Anchieta, J. de ("Trichechus, manatus borealis"; Brazil; gen. acc.; 11-12.)
1904-05 Trouessart, E.-L.
x v 1907 Wilder, B.G. (fetus; 663.)
x v 1908 Wilder, B.G. (fetus; 825.)
x v 1914 Fountain, P. (Amazonia; 303-304.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (m339.)
x * 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (in capt.; historical records, 60-63, 130; in Hamburg, 63-67, 113-133, 167-180, 213-230.)
x v 1926 MacCreagh, G. (Uaupés R. area, Brazil; 277, facing 309, 313, 323-324.)
x v 1926 Schurz, W.L. (Brazil; 2 photos of carcasses; 449-450.)
x 1930 Vosseler, J. (in capt., Hamburg; 362-364.)
x v 1931 Moraes, R. (mixira; 67.)
x v 1933 Rusby, H.H. (Madeira R., Brazil; 324-325.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (distr., 538; skeleton, 539-554, 560-561.)
x v 1937 Orico, O. (Brazil; legends; 190-191.)
x 1938 Oldham et al. (in capt., Chicago, m27; hypophysis, 27-32.)
x * 1939 Coates, C.W. (in capt., New York; 141-148.)
x v 1939 Wavrin, M. de (Amazonia; hunting; 194-196.)
x 1940 Coates, C.W. (in capt., New York; 99-100.)
x v 1940 Machado, F. de P. (Brazil; use of meat & hide; conservation; breeding in winter; 246.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. ("Texas"; m61.)
x 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 3.)
x 1941b Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 1-2, 8.)
x v 1941-43 Pereira, M.N. (Brazil; econ. use; 100-102, 153-154, 218, 65.)
x v 1943 Jobim, J. (Brazil; use for tinted hides; 178.)
x v 1944 Morais Rêgo, A.R. de (natural history, hunting, econ. use; 10-12.)
x * 1944 Pereira, M.N. ("T. manatus"; natural history; 21-94.)
x v 1945 Paiva, M. (pop. acc.; 35-36.)
x 1945 Santos, E. (Brazil; hunting, econ. use; 155-159.)
x 1946 Slijper, E.J. (spinal column & muscles; 42-43, 47, 53, 73-78, tabs. 3, 5, 6.)
x 1948 Mendes, A. ("T. manatus"; Brazil; hunting, econ. use; 325-327.)
x 1949 Vieira, C.O.C. (Juru  R., Brazil; 241, 268-269.)
x 1951 Fernand, V.S.V. (pituitary, comp. w/ DD; 58-59.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m208.)
x v 1954 Aragão, A. de ("Manatus"; Brazil; hunting; 54-56.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (m544.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (m402.)
x v 1954 Pereira, M.N. (conservation; m269, m271.)
x 1956 Moore, J.C. (hunting, m1-2; floating, m17-18.)
x v 1956 Pereira, M.N. (Marajó, Brazil; 68.)
x v 1957 Meggers & Evans (hunting & trading by Amazonian Indians; m570.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (synonymy; 309-310.)
x 1962 Bertram & Bertram (Amazon basin; status; 1329.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (Takatu R., Guyana)
1963 Freundt de Castro, E.
x 1965 Ruschi, A. (supposed occurrence in Espirito Santo, Brazil; 30.)
1967 Ihering, R. von (Brazil; hunting, vernacular names.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
x 1967 Carvalho, J.C. de M. (Brazil; exploitation; 25-27, 31, 33.)
x 1967 Feriz, H. (clay model, Brazil; 373-374.)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (from Peru; used for weed control in Panama; 388.)
x v 1967 Pereira, M.N. (Rio Branco, Brazil, 23; Indian legend, 467.)
x v 1967 Salles, W.B. de (pop. acc.; 124-127.)
x v 1968b Anon. (in capt., San Francisco; 2-3.)
1968 Garibaldi, L.
x 1968 Grimwood, I.R. (Peru; status & exploitation; 418.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr.; 6.)
x 1969 Carvalho & Toccheton (Brazil; 224.)
x * 1969 Frye & Herald (in capt., San Francisco; treatment for osteomyelitis; 1073-1076.)
x 1969 Grimwood, I.R. (Peru; status & exploitation; 61.)
x v 1969 Herald, E.S. (in capt., San Francisco & Pittsburgh; 29-30.)
x * 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal & ear region; 3, 14-16.)
x * 1970 Evans & Herald (in capt., San Francisco; vocalizations; 820-823.)
x * 1970 Loughman et al. (chromosomes; 151-152, pl. 49.)
x v 1970 Schreider & Schreider (in capt., Leticia, Colombia; 142.)
x 1971 Jones, M.L. (in capt.; 85.)
x v 1971 Lima, D.C. (Itacoatiara, Brazil; meat exported, 1968; 7.)
x 1972 Blessing et al. ("T. manatus inunguis"; spleen; 166-171, 173-178, 182-188, 190, 193, 195-203.)
x 1972 Blessing, M.H. ("T. manatus inunguis"; myoglobin concentrations; 475-479.)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (Brazil; status; 82-87.)
1972 Mittermeier, R.A.
x 1973a Anon. (Guyana; weed control; 5.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (distr. & status, 317-318; econ. use, 322-324.)
x 1973 Lewis & Wilson (plasma fibrinogen; 421-422.)
1973 Mossman & Duke (ovary)
x 1973 Pine, R.H. (Belém, Brazil; 74.)
x * 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (vocalizations; 19-24.)
x 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (conservation; 7, 14, 19.)
x 1974 Hawrylyshyn, G. (Brazil; 20.)
x 1974 Mondolfi, E. (Venezuela; probably absent from lower Orinoco R.; 5-6, 15.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (in capt., Brazil; 223-226.)
1976 Miranda Neto, M. J. (Brazil, Ilha do Marajó.)
x 1976 Boever et al. (Mycobacterium infection; 927-929.)
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (gen. acc.; 1, 7.)
x 1976 Mármol B., A.E. (Peru; food plants; 31-32.)
x 1976 Neville et al. (Samiria R. area, Peru; 155.)
x 1977 Boever et al. (in capt.; trematode Chiorchis; 5-6.)
x 1977 Domning & Magor (tooth replacement; 435-438.)
x 1977a Domning, D.P. (myology, comp. w/ DD; 10-14, 17, 25-26, 29.)
x 1977c Domning, D.P. (in capt., Manaus, Brazil; sold as pets to private owners; 3.)
x 1977 Farmer & Bonaventura (hemoglobin; 916.)
x 1977 Lovisek, J. (conservation; pop. acc.; 62-64.)
x v 1977 Meggers, B.J. (raising for meat proposed; 49.)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (Ucayali R., Peru; 292.)
x * 1977 Whitehead, P.J.P. (?earliest account that of Carvajal; 169-170.)
1978 Boever, W.J. (Mycobacterium infections)
x * 1978a Domning, D.P. (myology; 1-81.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (m30.)
x 1979 Best & Silva (Brazil; research; pop. acc.; 26-27, 29.)
x * 1979a Farmer et al. (hemoglobin & whole blood properties; 231-238.)
x 1979 Hartman, D.S. (in capt., San Francisco; food consumption; 54.)
x 1979 Mok & Best (skin fungus; 79-82.)
x 1980 Ayres & Best (Brazil; conservation; 83-85, 90-92.)
x 1980 Banks da Rocha, N. (in key; 147-148.)
x 1980 Bullock et al. (hearing; evoked brain potentials; 130-133.)
x 1980 De Jong & Zweers (eye-lens proteins & phylogeny; 897-202.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (food position preference; 544-547.)
x * 1980 Gallivan & Best (metabolism & respiration; 245-253.)
x * 1980 Gallivan, G.J. (respiratory control; 254-261.)
x 1980 Domning & Myrick (tetracycline marking of rib; 203-207.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (diet & nutrition; 3-4, 7-13, 15, 18-24.)
x * 1981a Domning, D.P. (distr. near mouth of Amazon R.; hunting; 85-97.)
x 1981b Domning, D.P. (Brazil; research; pop. acc.; 18-23.)
x * 1981c Domning, D.P. (suppression of synonym T. exunguis proposed; 130-132.)
x * 1981 Montgomery et al. (Brazil; radiotracking & habitat use; 81-85.)
x 1981 Simpson & Paula Couto (Pleist., Brazil; 48-49, 69.)
x 1981a Smith, N.J.H. (Brazil; econ. use; 184-186.)
x 1981b Smith, N.J.H. (Itacoatiara, Brazil; 95-96.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (nematode Heterocheilus; 310, 312.)
1982 Sokolov, V.E. (skin)
x * 1982a Best, R.C. (seasonal breeding; 76-78.)
1982b Best, R.C.
x 1982 Best, Ribeiro et al. (feeding with artificial formula; 263-267.)
x 1982 Bullock et al. (auditory evoked potentials & ultrasonic vocalizations, comp. w/ TML; 548, 552.)
x 1982 De Jong & Goodman (eye-lens proteins & phylogeny; 261-269, 273.)
x * 1982a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; commercial exploitation; 101-126.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (evolution; 600, 603-613, 615-616.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (distr. & status; 305-306.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (distr., 372, 380, 382; tail shape, 408.)
x 1982 Montgomery et al. (introduction of one individual into Panama Canal; m257.)
x * 1983 Best, R.C. (dry-season fasting; 61-64.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (tooth replacement; pop. acc.; 8, 10-11.)
x * 1983 Gallivan et al. (thermoregulation; 255-262.)
x 1983 Irvine, A.B. (metabolism & body temperature range; 327-328.)
x 1983 Lainson et al. (protozoan Eimeria trichechi; 287-289.)
x * 1983 Piggins et al. (eye & vision; 111-129.)
x 1984a Best, R.C. (pop. acc.; 66-73.)
x 1984b Best, R.C. (gen. acc.; 371-377.)
x * 1984 Domning & Hayek (tooth replacement; 105-127.)
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (seasonal calving, comp. w/ DD; 781, 783.)
x 1984 Rainey et al. (molecular systematics; 586-587.)
x 1985 Morales et al. (in capt., San Francisco; Mycobacterium infection; 1230-1231.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (m209.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (morphological variation; 87-144.)
x * 1986 Gallivan & Best (feeding, fasting, metabolism, ventilation; 552-557.)
x * 1986 Gallivan et al. (heart rates & gas exchange in diving; 415-423.)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (Brazil; specimens in Carnegie Museum; 293.)
x 1986 Miyamoto & Goodman (protein sequences & phylogeny; 230-240.)
x 1986 Morales, P. (in capt., San Francisco; food, pathology; 43-48.)
x 1986 Timm et al. (Ecuador; ecology, distr., status; 150-156.)
1987 Piggins, D. (eyesight; pop. acc.)
x 1987 Colares & Colares (seasonal variation in food-plant abundance; 42-44.)
x 1987 Colares & Ferreira (intestinal blockage by polyp; pathological & normal blood values; 39.)
x 1987 Colares et al. (artificial milk formulas; 40-41.)
x 1987 Whittow, G.C. (thermoregulation; 222, 224, 226-228, 230, 237.)
x 1988 Assis et al. (cytogenetics; 41-50.)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (tympanic cavity, comp. w/ TM; 370.)
x 1988 Kleinschmidt et al. (hemoglobin; 507-512.)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (absent from Venezuela, 282, 288; comp. w/ TM, 298.)
x 1989 Timm et al. (Ecuador; hunting techniques of Siona Indians; 1-7.)
1990 Bernardes et al. (considered endangered in Brazil)
x 1990 Colares et al. (Manaus; care in capt.; 43-47.)
1990 Klishin et al. (hearing)
x v 1991b Anon. (Brazil; conservation; 221.)
x * 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (location of centers of gravity & buoyancy; hydrostatic adaptations; cross-sectional anatomy; 339-340, 347-350, 352-356, 359-360, 362-363, 366-368.)
x 1991 Frey, R. ("Triechus"; skeleton & locomotor muscles; 279-282.)
1991 Rosas et al. (Brazil)
1991 Rosas, F.C.W. (Brazil)
1992 Rodrigues, R. M. (Brazil.)
1992 Colares & Colares (in capt.; food preferences)
1992 Colares et al. (blood chemistry)
x 1992 Ketten et al. (ear & hearing, comp. w/ TML; 83, 89-91.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (reproductive biology; 295-312.)
1992 Mukhametov et al. (sleep)
x 1992 Roth, V.L. (variation in tooth size, comp. w/ elephants; 194-195, 197.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (status & conservation; 160.)
1994 Montenegro-P., M.I.
x * 1994 Rosas, F.C.W. (review of biology, conservation, & status; 49-59.)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (hearing & vocalizations, comp. w/ DD; 1234-1235.)
x 1995 Lanyon & Marsh (digesta passage times, comp. w/DD; 124-125.)
x 1996 Reeves et al. (Peru; distr. & status; 246-254.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (gastrointestinal tract, comp. w/ TML; 553-556.)
1997 Friaes, P. (Brazil; hunting)
1999 Rodriguez et al. (artificial milk formula)
1999 Kendall, S. (Colombia; environmental education)
x 1999 Gerstein et al. (hearing, comp. w/ TML; 3580.)
x 1999 Rosas et al. (blood parameters & nutrition, wild & captive; 37-42.)
2000 Colares et al. (seasonal variations in blood parameters)
2000 Colares et al. (blood parameters)
2001 IBAMA (Brazil; conservation action plan)
x 2002 Colares & Colares (Brazil; food plants; 67-72.)
2003 Marshall et al. (orofacial morphology & feeding)
2003 Kendall & Orozco (Colombia)
x 2003 Caldas, S.T. (Brazil; pop. acc.; 56.)
x 2003 Kendall, S. (Colombia; rehabilitation of calf; pop. acc.; 1-24.)
2004 Kendall et al. (gen. acc.)
2005 Vergara-Parente, J.E. (Brazil; rescue, rehabilitation, release)
x 2005 Siciliano & Franco (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; 35-36.)
2005 Cantanhede et al. (phylogeography & population genetics)
2006 D'Affonseca Neto & Vergara-P. (veterinary medicine)
2007a Borges et al. (Cryptosporidium)
2007 Castelblanco-M. et al. (Rio Madeira, Brazil)
2008 Rodrigues et al. (female reproductive anatomy)
2008 Guterres et al. (potential food plants; identification manual)
2009 Calvimontes, J. (Brazil; econ. use & conservation)
x 2009 Grandin, G. (Rio Tapajós, Brazil; 283.)
2009 Amaral et al. (androgens)
2010 Calvimontes & Marmontel (Brazil; ethnobiology)
x 2010b Vergara-P. et al. (Brazil; length of "palmo", unit used by Amazonian hunters to measure manatee body lengths; 37-43.)
2010 Denkinger, J. (Cuyabeno Reserve, Ecuador; status)
* 2010 Pantoja et al. (urinary reference values)
2010a Vergara-P. et al. (Brazil; growth rates)
2010 Lacreta et al. (radius fracture)
2010 Arraut et al. (western Amazon, Brazil; seasonal migrations)
2010 Amaral et al. (spermatozoa)
2010 Amaral, Silva, & Rosas (morphometrics & body size estimation)
2011 Emin-Lima et al. (Brazil; 52-53.)
2011 Silva et al. (in capt., Brazil; skin lesions)
2011 Ferreira et al. (forensic genetics)
2011 Amaral et al. (in capt.; salivary testosterone concentrations)
2011 Borges et al. (Brazil; Cryptosporidium)
2011 Drummond et al. (in capt.; serum biochemical analytes)
2012 Hoson et al. (fusion sequence of cranial sutures)
2012 Satizabal et al. (TI, TMM; South America; phylogeography)
2012 Guterres-Pazin et al. (ingestion of invertebrates, seeds, and plastic)
2012 Kikuchi et al. (turning behavior; vision and tactile hairs)
2012 Marmontel et al. (South America; distribution, status, & conservation)
x 2012 Appeltans et al. (distribution near Amazon River mouths; Table S2)
2012 Perea-S. et al. (in capt., Peru; management & rehabilitation)
2012 Domning, D.P. (in capt., INPA, Manaus, Brazil; history of project)
2013 Amaral et al. (in capt.; endocrine monitoring of ovarian cycle)
2013 Kendall, S. (Colombia; natural history, conservation)
* 2013 Franzini et al. (TI; Urucú region, Brazil; traditional knowledge)
2013 Barbosa et al. (in capt.; passage time of digesta)
2013 Carmo et al. (changes in blood parameters after transport)
2013 Kikuchi et al. (in capt., Brazil; behavior; acceleration data loggers)
2013 Sousa et al. (TI, TMM; Marajó Island, Brazil; ecological knowledge of fishermen)
2013 Benoit et al. (endocranial morphology)
x 2013 Senter & Snow (comp. w/ forelimb skeleton of Bartholin's (1654) "merman"; Brazil; 257-262.)
2013 Guterres-P. et al. (toxic plants in diet)
2014 Guterres-P. et al. (Brazil; feeding ecology)
2015 Van Roosmalen, M.G.M. (comp. w/ Trichechus pygmaeus, n.sp.)
2015 Castelblanco et al. (Colombia; conservation)
2016 Arévalo-Sandi & Castelblanco-Martínez (Peru; interactions among calves in captivity)
* 2016 Antunes et al. (Brazil; commercial exploitation, 1904-1969)
2016 Guerra et al. (acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis)
2016 Cosentino & Fisher (as bushmeat)
2017 Carvalho et al. (mating herd)
2017 Landeo et al. (Peru; captivity & release; behavior)
2017 Arraut et al. (Brazil; migration routes & hydroelectric dams)
2018 Hunter et al. (environmental DNA)
* 2019 Silva et al. (manatee research project at INPA, Manaus, Brazil)
* 2019 Lima et al. (TI x TM hybrid zone near Amazon River mouth)
2019 Vilaça et al. (TI x TM hybridization; French Guiana)
* 2019 Crema et al. (Brazil; stable isotopes in bones, teeth, & milk; movements between habitats and water types)
2020 Bonvicino et al. (South America; distribution)
* 2020 Kendall, S.
* 2020 Perini et al. (comp. w/Trichechus hesperamazonicus)
2021 Brum et al. (conservation; Amazonia)
2021 Souza et al. (Central Amazon, Brazil; estimating occupancy and detection probability)
2021 Valdevino et al. (estimating body length from bone measurements)
2021 Souza et al. (mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
* 2021 Luna et al. (Brazil; genetics, population biology)
Trichechus inunguis koellikeri (Kükenthal, 1897) Derscheid, 1926 ( 1 )
(= Trichechus manatus manatus)
* 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (n.comb.)
Trichechus koellikeri (Kükenthal, 1897) Trouessart, 1905 ( 1 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
* 1904-05 Trouessart, E.-L. (n.comb.)
Trichechus latirostris (Harlan, 1824) True, 1884 ( 41 )
(= Trichechus manatus)
1873 Jordan, T.
x * 1884a True, F.W. (n.comb.; in classification; 588.)
x * 1884b True, F.W. (gen. acc.; 114-128.)
x 1895 Bangs, O. (Florida; 783-787.)
x 1900 Evermann, B.W. (Puerto Rico; m25.)
1916 Nelson, E.W. (Florida)
x 1916 Stone & Cram (gen. acc.; 26-27.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (Florida; possible commercial exploitation for meat; 339.)
x 1919 Safford, W.E. (Miami, Florida; 423-424.)
x 1922 Parker, G.H. (respiration & diving; 128-135.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (in capt., historical records, 59-65, 130; body size, 167.)
x 1925 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium jordani; 62, 64-65, 67-69.)
x 1929 Stunkard, H.W. (trematodes; m255.)
x 1935a Wislocki, G.B. (lungs; 385-396, pls. 1-2.)
x * 1935b Wislocki, G.B. (placentation; 159-178, pls. 1-7.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (Texas; 61.)
x 1941 Hamilton, W.J., Jr. (Florida; winter mortality; migration; tooth replacement; 687, 690-691.)
x 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 4.)
x * 1941b Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 2, 4-8.)
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (dentition, comp. w/ DD; 10.)
x 1941 Irving et al. (respiration; m151, m158, 166.)
x 1941 Scholander & Irving (respiration & diving; 169-191.)
x 1942a Fawcett, D.W. (blood-vascular bundles; 105-133.)
x 1942b Fawcett, D.W. (pachyostosis & hypothyroidism; 271-309.)
x 1942 Heuvelmans, B. (comp. w/ Prorastoma veronense; 5.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 8-10.)
x 1948 Cahalane, V.H. (Florida Everglades; 258.)
x 1951 Bourlière, F. (submergence of 16 min.; 21.)
x 1951 Fernand, V.S.V. (pituitary, comp. w/ DD; 57-59.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m204, 207.)
x * 1953 Quiring & Harlan (anatomy; 192-203.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (m543.)
x 1955 Dekeyser, P.L. (teeth; 292.)
x 1955 Miller & Kellogg (syn. of T. manatus latirostris; 791.)
x 1955 Severin, K. (in capt.; pop. acc.; 147-149.)
x * 1958 Tenney, S.M. (heart & electrocardiogram; 933-938.)
x 1963 Boyde & Stewart (tooth enamel; 1102-1103.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (syn. of T. manatus; 12.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. ("T. (manatus) latirostris"; weed control; 344-350.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (syn. of T. manatus; m306.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (in capt.; 412.)
Trichechus Linnaeus, 1758 ( 141 )
* 1738 Artedi, P.
x * 1758 Linnaeus, C. (n.gen.; 34.)
x 1770 Alston, C. (petrous bones; medicinal use; 537-538.)
x v * 1782 Duhamel du Monceau, H.L. (stranded at Dieppe, France, 56-57; Brazil, Central America, & Antilles, hunting & econ. use, 56-59, pl. 13; ?Canada, 59.)
x v * 1809a Cuvier, G. (history of study, 273-278; names, 278-280 ["trichecus", 279]; as "mermaids", 280-281; anatomy, 281-293, pl. 19; fetus, 284; Buffon's species, 293-294; comp. w/ HG, 296-299; w/ DD, 300-302; fossil "lamantins", 303, 305-310, pl. 19.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m275; m278 [= Hydrodamalis].)
x v 1837 Robert, C. (affinities w/ Deinotherium; m471.)
x v * 1838 Humboldt, A.v. (Orinoco R.; 3-10.)
x v 1839a Owen, R. (teeth, comp. w/ Basilosaurus; 35.)
x v 1849 Agassiz, L. (affinities; 209.)
x v 1862 Phillippo (heart; 684-685.)
x v 1866 Lartet, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus, m680; w/ unnamed sir., 683.)
x 1872a Gill, T. (in classification; 91.)
1872 Peters, W.
x 1873 Gill, T. (phylogeny; 272.)
1875 Wyman, J. (Florida; shell mounds)
x v 1880 Delfortrie, E. (comp. w/ Rytiodus; 135-139, 141.)
x v 1884 De Vis, C.W. (comp. w/ Chronozoon; 394.)
x v 1885a Woodward, H. (use of forelimbs in feeding, m458; ear ossicles, m462.)
x 1891 Flower & Lydekker (synonymy; m215.)
x v 1893 Anon. (in capt., London; pop. acc.; 799-800.)
x v 1893 Ober, F.A. (West Indies; sighted by Columbus; 236.)
x v 1894 Dawson, G.M. (m156-157.)
x v 1897 Anon. (attempts to import live specimens to England; 36.)
x v 1898 Anderson, R.J. (manus; 766-767.)
x v 1898 Thomas & Lydekker (tooth replacement; 814.)
x 1899 Palmer, T.S. (priority over Manatus; m494.)
x v 1901 Broom, R. (ossification of caudal vertebrae; m739.)
x 1904 Case, E.C. ("Mioc." [actually Pleist.], Maryland; 57, pl. 26.)
x 1904 Thomas, O. (tooth replacement, comp. w/ Peradorcas; 226-227.)
x v 1906b Dexler & Freund (behavior & physiology; comp. w/ DD; 54-55, 57-62, 67-70.)
x v 1908 Anderson, R.J. (parietal; 547.)
x v 1908 Humphreys, J. (dentine; m8.)
x v 1912 Rodway, J. (Guyana; superstition; 84.)
x D 1915 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ Desmostylus; 384-389.)
x v 1916 Lucas, F.A. (pop. acc.; 315-316, 318.)
x 1916a Matthew, W.D. (comp. w/ Halitherium antillense; 24.)
x 1916 Miller, G.S., Jr. (Santo Domingo; at archeological site; 9.)
x v 1917b Anon. (raising for market; 454.)
x 1923a Allen, G.M. (m232.)
x v 1924 Andrews, C.W. (dentition; 306-307.)
x 1924 Thomas et al. (syn. of Manatus; 347.)
x 1925 ICZN (priority over Manatus; 38.)
x * 1929 ICZN (priority over Manatus; 19.)
x 1929a Simpson, G.G. (Pleist., Florida; 564.)
x 1931 Tate, G.H.H. (South America; hunting; 253.)
x 1932a Simpson, G.G. (Pleist.-Rec., Florida, 419-424, 470; comp. w/ other sirs., 427, 431, 460, 463, 478, 482, 488-492, 495-499.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (synonymy; West Africa; 533-566.)
x v 1934a Mortensen, T. (supposed occurrence at St. Helena; 417.)
x v 1936 Kitching, G.C. (supposed occurrence at St. Helena; 33-34.)
x 1939 Gut, H.J. (Pleist., Florida; 50-53.)
x 1940 Pocock, R.I. (scapula, comp. w/ DD; 341, 343-345.)
x * 1941a Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 1-15.)
x * 1941b Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 1-11.)
x 1941c Heuvelmans, B. (dentition, comp. w/ DD; 10-11, 13-14.)
x 1941 Kretzoi, M. (comp. w/ Sirenavus, 149; in classification, 154-155.)
x 1941a Simpson, G.G. (etymology of word "manatee"; 14.)
x v 1942b Kaltenmark, J. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium sp.; 106-108, 111-113.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (evolution of dentition; 4, 6-11.)
x 1945 Simpson, G.G. (in classification; 136, 190.)
xv 1949 Negus, V. E. (larynx; 77.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (ancestry; 203-211.)
x * 1952 Hemming, F. (priority over Manatus; 159-160.)
x 1953 Pascual, R. (comp. w/ Ribodon; 170-174.)
x 1955 Dekeyser, P.L. (teeth of embryo; 922.)
x 1956 Paula Couto, C. de (?Pleist., Brazil; 5, 79, 95, 107.)
x v 1958 Knoll, W. (blood cells; 332-333.)
x v 1960b Anon. (weed control; 5.)
x v 1960c Anon. (weed control; 70.)
x v 1960 Rood, R.N. (pop. acc.; 133-136.)
x 1961 Dill, W.A. (weed control; 1-6.)
x 1962 Wilhelm, W. (m51.)
x v 1963 Tenney & Remmers (quantitative lung morphology; 54-55.)
x 1964 Norris, K.S. (possible use of mandibular canal as wave guide in echolocation; 334.)
x 1965 Kilmer, F.H. (comp. w/ Halianassa allisoni; 60, 62-63.)
x 1965 Robineau, D. (ear ossicles, comp. w/ HG; 420-424.)
x v 1966b Bertram & Bertram (status; weed control; 214, 216-217.)
x v 1966d Bertram & Bertram (pop. acc.; 180-184.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 77, 81.)
D 1966c Shikama, T.
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (comp. w/ Sirenotherium; 346-347, 349-356.)
x 1968a Anon. (pop. acc.; 3-6.)
x 1968a Bertram & Bertram (ecology & econ.use; 388-390, 393.)
x 1968b Bertram & Bertram (gen. acc.; 423-426.)
x 1968a Kaiser, H.E. (occipital region; 478.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr.; 6.)
x 1968 Romer, A.S. (name Manatus preferred; 200.)
x * 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal & ear region; 3, 14-20, 23-31.)
1970a Eichler & Albrecht
x 1972 Varona, L.S. (Cuba; supposed fossil occurrences; m5.)
x 1972 Verhaart, W.J.C. (brain; 271-292.)
x 1974 Domning, D.P. (Pleist., Florida & North Carolina; m8.)
x v 1974b Vietmeyer, N.D. (gen. acc.; weed control; 60-65.)
x v 1975 Vietmeyer, N.D. (eating water hyacinth; 71-73.)
x 1976 Webb, S.D. (Pleist. immigration to Florida; 221, 223, 226.)
x v 1977f Anon. (weed control; pop. acc.; 80.)
x 1977 Bertram & Bertram (need for captive breeding; Guyana project; 106-108.)
x 1977b Domning, D.P. (rostral deflection & feeding niche; 353.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (phyletic position; 573, 575, 578-579.)
x 1979 Cave, A.J.E. (pterygoid hamulus; 530-531.)
x 1980 McKenna, M.C. (comp. w/ Florentinoameghinia; 66.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (origin & evolution; 599-619.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (comp. w/ Eoc. sirs.; 18, 30, 39.)
x v 1983 Morgan & Pratt (Pleist., Florida; 24.)
x 1985 Fortelius, M. (functional anatomy of cheek teeth; 11, 52-53, 65, 73.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (morphological variation, 87-144; Pleist., South Carolina, 136.)
x 1988 Nojima, T. (bony falx cerebri; 315, 320.)
x * 1989 Gallagher et al. (?Pleist., New Jersey; 107-108.)
x 1991 Court & Jaeger (inner ear; comp. w/ proboscideans; 559-565.)
x v 1991c Domning, D.P. (justifications for conservation; 167-173.)
x 1992 McKenna, M.C. (eye-lens proteins; phylogeny & affinities; 350, 354-355, 357.))
x 1992 Thewissen & Domning (character states; 502.)
x 1996 Cozzuol, M.A. (comp. w/ Ribodon; 328.)
x 1996 Kozawa et al. (enamel structure; 354, 356.)
x 1997a Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Potamosiren magdalenensis; 389-390.)
x D 1997 Pauls, E.B. (tooth microwear; comp. w/ Desmostylus; 69A.)
v 1999 Valentine & Heck (seagrass herbivory; review)
x 1999 Galis, F. (reduced number of cervical vertebrae ?related to Hox genes & metabolic rate; 19, 23.)
x 2000 Domning, D.P. (locomotor & diving adaptations; 116-118.)
2001 Feeney, K. (children's book)
2002 Hermandez et al.
x v 2003 Clementz et al. (carbon & oxygen stable isotopes; 509.)
2006 Pingry, P.A. (children's book)
2006 Kalman & Dyer (children's book)
2007 Marston, H.I. (young children's book)
2008 Arnosky, J. (children's book)
2008 Asher & Lehmann (dental eruption)
2010 Coleman, M. (children's book)
2010 Swinburne, S.R. (children's book)
2010 Wicker, J.L. (children's book)
2010 Williams, G.T. (children's book)
2010 Luna & Passavante (Brazil; history of conservation by Instituto Chico Mendes)
x v 2010 Hautier et al. (7th vertebra predicted to be developmentally cervical; 18906.)
2012 King, Z. (children's book)
* 2015 Springer et al. (molecular & morphological phylogeny)
* 2016 Barros et al. (Trichechus spp.; cranial & chromosomal geographic variation)
2018 Domning, Daryl Paul (Trichechus sp. radius-ulna; ?Pleist.; dredged off New Jersey; m246.)
* 2018 Brito, C. (history of the manatee-mermaid connection in European natural history)
* 2019 Vilaça & Santos (mitochondrial genome)
2021 Siciliano et al. (Trichechus spp.; Brazil; hunting & capture; historical records)
x v n.d. Berovides, V. (economic uses; pop. acc.; 13.)
Trichechus manatus australis Gmelin, 1788 ( 8 )
(= Trichechus manatus, in part; Trichechus senegalensis, in part)
* 1788 Gmelin, J.F. (new subspecies)
x 1801 Stewart, C. ("Trichecus"; m85.)
x 1817 Stewart, C. ("Trichecus"; m125.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (syn. of Manatus australis; m356.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. senegalensis in part; 535, 537.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (syn. of T. m. manatus in part; 310.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (m138.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of T. senegalensis; 382.)
Trichechus manatus bakerorum Domning, 2005 ( 2 )
* 2005 Domning, D.P. (n.subsp.; Late Pleist., Florida & South Carolina)
* 2020 Bell et al. (Pleist., Texas)
Trichechus manatus borealis Gmelin, 1788 ( 10 )
(= Hydrodamalis gigas)
* 1788 Gmelin, J.F. (new subspecies)
x 1794 Link, H.F. (in classification; 40-41.)
x 1801 Stewart, C. ("Trichecus"; m85.)
x 1817 Stewart, C. ("Trichecus"; m125.)
x 1825a Harlan, R. (m279.)
x 1900 Anchieta, J. de (used as name of TM & TI [lapsus for T. m. australis]; Brazil; gen. acc.; 11-12.)
x 1925 ICZN (syn. of Hydrodamalis [gigas]; 38.)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of Rhytina borealis; m535.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (syn. of Hydrodamalis gigas; 75, 92, 138.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of Rhytina gigas; 383.)
Trichechus manatus koellikeri (Kükenthal, 1897) Kleinschmidt, 1982 ( 2 )
(= Trichechus manatus manatus)
x * 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (n.comb.; distr., 381; tail shape, 407-408.)
x 1986 Domning & Hayek (syn. of T. m. manatus; 89.)
Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824) Hatt, 1934 ( 483 )
1575 SEE Fontaneda, H., 1854.
v 1791 Bartram, W.
x v 1869 Brinton, D.G. (Indian R., Florida; 50-51.)
x v 1874a Anon. (St. Augustine, Florida; 276.)
x v 1874b Anon. (escape behavior; 446.)
x v 1889 Scammon, C.M. (in capt., Key West; pop. acc.; 581-582.)
x v 1891 Stuart, H.V. (meat sold as beef; 137.)
1892 Munroe, K. (Florida; children's book)
x v 1892 Wright, J.McN. (Santa Lucia R., Florida; pop. acc.; 291-296.)
x v 1898 Anon. (Florida; hunting by Seminole Indians; 102.)
x v 1905 Townsend, C.H. (in capt., New York; 91, 94, 97.)
x v 1907 Dimock, A.W. (Florida; capture; 848-853.)
x v 1907 Townsend, C.H. (in capt., New York; 86.)
x v 1908a Anon. (Ocean View, Virginia; 532.)
x v 1908b Anon. (in capt., New York; 427.)
x v 1908 Duncan, J.F. (Ocean View, Virginia; 611-612.)
x v 1909 Dimock & Dimock (Florida; capture for New York Aquarium; 39-59.)
x v 1909 Graham, S.C. (in capt., Indian R., Florida; 413.)
x v 1910 Packard, W. (St. Lucie & Indian Rs., Florida; 144-145.)
x v 1922 Swanton, J.R. (Florida; hunting by Indians; 389.)
x v 1931 Brimley, H.H. (North Carolina; 320-321.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (new rank; distr., 538; skeleton, 539-554, 560-561.)
x v * 1937 Barbour, T. (birth in capt., Miami; 106-107.)
x v 1940 Cahn, A.R. (Florida; winter mortality; 222-223.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (distr.; 60-64.)
x 1941b Gunter, G. (Mexico, Texas, Louisiana; 12-13.)
x 1942 Gunter, G. (distr.; 89-90.)
x 1943 Krumholz, L.A. (Florida; 272-273.)
x 1943 Lowery, G.H., Jr. (Louisiana; 253-254.)
x v 1944 Barbour, T. (Miami area, Florida; 98-99, 166-167.)
x 1946 Moore, J.C. (Putnam Co., Florida; 58.)
x v 1946 Swanton, J.R. (Florida; hunting by Indians; 250, 282, 297-298, 329.)
x v 1949 Sprunt, A., Jr. (pop. acc.; 286-288, 337.)
x v 1949 Trumbull, S. (Florida; pop. acc.; 337.)
x 1949 Vieira, C.O.C. (m268.)
x v * 1950 McAtee, W.L. (Virginia; 98-99.)
x * 1951a Moore, J.C. (Florida, distr., 1-15; distinguishing characters, 16-18.)
x * 1951b Moore, J.C. (Florida Everglades; natural history; 22-36.)
x 1952 Anon. (in capt., Florida; pop. acc.; 129-130.)
x 1953 Moore, J.C. (distr. & behavior; 120-122, 153, 156.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (pop. acc.; 401-404.)
1954 Moore, J.C.
x 1955 Miller & Kellogg (synonymy; 791.)
x v 1956 Loftin, H. (pop. acc.; 350.)
x * 1956 Moore, J.C. (behavior; 1-23.)
x 1956 Tomkins, I.R. (Georgia; 288-289.)
x v 1957 Burton, M. (summary of Moore [1956]; 272.)
x 1957 Moore, J.C. (birth in capt.; 137-138.)
x v 1958 Fichter, G.S. (pop. acc.; 31-35.)
x v 1958 Loftin, H. (respiration; pop. acc.; 256.)
x v 1958 Savory, B. (in capt., London; m257.)
x 1960 Funderburg, J.B. (Pleist. & Recent, North Carolina; 521.)
x 1960 Hutton & Sogandares (trematode Chiorchis fabaceus; m290.)
x 1963 Alvarez, T. (Tamaulipas, Mexico; "probably extirpated"; 465.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L.
x v 1964a Anon. (Florida; weed control; 29-30.)
x 1964 Humes, A.G. (parasite Harpacticus pulex; 517-518, 528.)
x v 1964 Lapham, L.H. (Florida; weed control; 38-39.)
x v 1964 Moore, J.C. (behavior; 7-8.)
1965 Hanström, B.
x 1965 Layne, J.N. (Florida; 131, 133, 166-168.)
x 1965 Schevill & Watkins (vocalizations; 373-374.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 88.)
x v 1967 Anon. (Florida; weed control; pop. acc.; 33-35.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (conservation; weed control; 3-5, 34.)
x v 1967 Truslow & Vosburgh (Florida Everglades; 537-538.)
x v 1968 Betz, J.J. (Florida; captive breeding scheme, ca. 1893; 204-209.)
1968 Blackburn & Andres
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr.; 6.)
x v 1968 Van den Bergh, H. (longest dive 16 min. 20 sec.; m451.)
x 1969 Hartman, D.S. (behavior; gen. acc.; 342-353.)
x 1970 Evans & Herald (vocalizations, comp. w/ TI; 820, 822-823.)
1970 Kaiser & Schröpfer
x 1970 Radhakrishnan & Bradley (in capt., Tampa, Florida; parasites Chiorchis fabaceus & Plicatolabia hagenbecki; 59.)
x 1971b Banks da Rocha, N. (Brazil [!]; 133.)
x v 1971a Barada, B. (Crystal R., Florida; pop. acc.; 18-23.)
1971 Hartman, D.S.
x 1971 Jones, M.L. (in capt.; 85.)
x v 1972a Anon. (Florida; "played with" by porpoises; 4.)
x v 1972 Caldwell & Caldwell (mating, 446-448; play, 450; diet in capt., 454.)
x v 1972a Hartman, D.S. (Florida; status & behavior; 20-22.)
v 1972b Hartman, D.S.
x 1974a Anon. (Blue Spring, Florida; refuge established; 10.)
1974 Shawver, L.J.
x v 1975c Anon. (Florida Everglades; "bloated" manatees; 5.)
x 1975 Forrester et al. (intussusception, pesticides, parasites; 566-568.)
x v 1975 Lynd, W. (Miami, Florida; rescue & rehabilitation; 28-29.)
x v 1975 Weber, T., Jr. (Florida; harpooning from bridges; 66-67.)
x v 1975 Wray, P. (South Carolina; pop. acc.; 21-22.)
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (m1.)
x 1976 Reed, J. (Florida; in artificial lake; m12.)
x * 1976 White et al. (blood chemistry, karyotype; 413-417.)
x 1977 O'Keefe, M.T. (Florida; pop. acc.; 65, 67.)
1977 White et al. (chromosomes)
x v 1978 Harper, H. (Florida; release of captives; 12.)
x 1978 Stewart, D. (conservation; pop. acc.; 113-118.)
x 1979 Bachman & Irvine (milk composition; 873-878.)
x 1979a Farmer et al. (blood chemistry, comp. w/ TI; 231, 234-235, 237.)
x 1979 Forrester et al. (parasites; 5.)
x v 1979 Harper, H. (Blue Spring, Florida; news reporting; 16.)
x v 1980 Abrahamson, D. (Crystal R., Florida; pop. acc.; 92-94, 96, 98-99, 104.)
x v 1980a Anon. (conservation; pop. acc.; 49.)
x v 1980b Anon. (Florida; pop. acc.; 97-98, 100.)
x 1980 Banks da Rocha, N. (in key; thought to occur in Brazil; 147-148.)
x v 1980 Burton, B. (Chesapeake Bay; possible sighting; 19, 40-41.)
x 1980 Cumbaa, S.L. (Florida; archeological sites; 6, 8-9.)
x 1980 Domning, D.P. (food position preference; 544-547.)
x v 1981 Bingham, B. (Florida; drinking fresh water; pop. acc.; 90-91.)
x 1981 Gunter & Corcoran (subspecific distinctness unlikely; 97-98.)
x v 1981 Miller, R.R. (New Jersey; netting; m53.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (nematode Heterocheilus; 312.)
x v 1982 Bradford, D. (Florida; conservation; public opinion survey; 9.)
1982 Colmenero-R., L. (gen. acc.)
x v 1982 Dick, T.M. (Florida; pop. acc.; 19-22.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (distr., 372, 380-381; tail shape, 408.)
x * 1982 Medway, Bruss et al. (blood chemistry; 229-234.)
x 1982 Medway, Dodds et al. (blood coagulation; 120-127.)
x v 1982 Milne & Milne (breeding & care of young; pop. acc.; 154-158.)
x v 1982 Thiel, R. (Florida; pop. acc.; 4-7.)
x v 1982 Watterlond, M. (Florida; use of power-plant effluents; pop. acc.; 94, 96.)
x 1983 Piggins et al. (eyes & vision, comp. w/ TI; 112, 122-126.)
x v 1983 Rathbun, F. (Florida; museum exhibit; pop. acc.; 6-10.)
x v 1985b Anon. (Florida; pop. acc.; 16, 18.)
x v 1985 Walters, M.J. (Florida; pop. acc.; 171-172, 175-176.)
x v 1986 Lew et al. (soluble class I molecule absent from serum; 279-280.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexican manatees ?intermediate between TMM & TML; 968.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (morphological variation; taxon considered valid; 89, 112-126, 130.)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (Florida; specimens in Carnegie Museum; 293-296.)
x 1986a Pervaiz & Brew (milk proteins; 846-854.)
x 1986b Pervaiz & Brew (milk composition; 357-360.)
1986 Teunissen & Altman (Florida; pop. acc.)
x v 1987b Anon. (bottle-feeding of orphan; 225.)
x 1988 Beck & Forrester (parasites; 628-637.)
x 1988 Hurst & Beck (Florida; techniques for dietary analysis; 1, 114-115.)
x 1988 Kuroki et al. (gallbladder bile salts; 509-522.)
x * 1988 McClenaghan & O'Shea (genetic variability; 481-488.)
x * 1988a O'Shea, T.J. (southeastern USA; review of past & present distr., abundance, & mortality, & future prospects; 184-204.)
1988b O'Shea, T.J. (east coast of Florida; research efforts)
1988b Reynolds & Wilcox (Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1977-1986)
1989 Horn, G. (underwater photos)
x v 1989a Anon. (Florida; drinking from hose; 187.)
x 1989 Baugh et al. (Florida & Georgia; feeding on Spartina; 88-90.)
x 1989d Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Xenosiren yucateca; 430.)
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (distr., status, biogeography; 568, 576-579, 590-591, 599, 603-604.)
x v 1989 Lewis, T.A. (Florida; boat mortality; pop. acc.; 42-49.)
x 1989 Packard et al. (Florida; response to interruption of thermal effluent; 692-700.)
v 1989 Patton et al. (Port of the Islands, Florida)
1989 Reep et al. (cerebral cortex)
x 1989 Reid & O'Shea (Florida & Georgia; satellite transmitters; 217-232.)
x 1989 Upton et al. (Florida; protozoans Eimeria spp.; 87-90.)
x v 1989 Walsh, K. (Florida; children's article; 2-9.)
x 1989 Yoshii et al. (bile alcohol; 1852.)
x 1990 Buergelt et al. (TML; thickened heart valves; 220-227.)
v 1990 Clark, M.G. (Florida; children's book)
x v 1990a Domning, D.P. (Florida; feeding on seagrass rhizomes; 34-36.)
v 1990 Gannon, F. (Florida; pop. acc.)
1990 Gilbrook, M.J. (Florida; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Houhoulis, P. (Florida; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Kautz, R.S. (Florida; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1990 Marmontel et al. (age determination)
1990 O'Shea & Kochman (Florida; distr. & ecology in relation to Geogr. Information Systems)
1990 Osborn, R.G. (Florida; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
* 1990 Reynolds & Haddad (Florida; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems Workshop)
1990 Weigle & Haddad (Florida; conservation; Geogr. Information Systems applications)
1991 Zoodsma et al. (Georgia)
x v 1991c Anon. (brain; pop. acc.; 8.)
x 1991 Beck & Barros (Florida; impact of debris; 508-510.)
x 1991 Domning & de Buffrénil (distr. of skeletal mass, 336-347, 362-363; pathological floating, 360.)
v 1991 Kiely, J. (Florida; pop. acc.)
x v 1991 Loerzel & Reep (Rindenkerne in cerebral cortex; 166-171.)
x 1991 O'Shea et al. (mortality from red tide; 165-179.)
* 1991 Zoodsma, B.J. (Georgia; distr. & behavioral ecology)
1992 Kadel & Patton (Florida; aerial surveys, 1985-90)
x v 1992 Kadel, J. (Florida; "white" individual; 15-16.)
x 1992 Ketten et al. (ear & hearing, 77-95; taste, 84, 92.)
1992 O'Shea & Ludlow
* 1992 O'Shea et al. (Florida; population biology; interim report of workshop)
x v 1992 Simmons, N. (Florida; rehabilitation; pop. acc.; 9.)
x v 1993 Bonde, R.K. (Florida; gen. acc.; 16-18.)
x 1993 Bradley et al. (cytochrome b DNA sequence; 197-202.)
x 1993 O'Keefe, M.T. (Florida; pop. acc.; 1-127.)
1994 Vallee, J.D. (Florida; boat collisions)
x v 1994 Barry et al. (keratan sulfate domain of aggrecan gene; 323-328.)
x v 1994 Brooks, L.S. (Florida; pop. acc.; Manatee Information Radio established; 33.)
x 1994 Garrott et al. (Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1977-1992; 642-654.)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (status & conservation; 156, 158-160.)
x 1994 Reynolds & Wilcox (Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1982-1992; 163-177.)
x 1994 Tilmant et al. (south Florida; effects of 1992 hurricane; 236.)
x 1995 Ackerman et al. (Florida; mortality, 1974-1992; 223-258.)
x 1995 Kraus, J. (Florida; rehabilitation & soft release; 8-9.)
1995 Lefebvre & O'Shea
x 1995 Marshall & Reep (caudal cerebral cortex; 1-18.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Hartley (Blue Spring, Florida; reproduction & early-age survival; 157-170.)
x 1995 O'Shea & Langtimm (Florida; adult survival; 194-222.)
* 1995 O'Shea et al. (Florida; population biology)
x v 1995 O'Shea, T.J. (Florida; conflicts with waterborne recreation; 297-311.)
x 1995 Odell et al. (in capt.; reproduction; 192-193.)
x 1995 Rattner, R. (Florida; pop. acc.; 22-29.)
1996a Seifert, D.D. (Florida; conservation)
x 1996 Ames & Van Vleet (Florida; organochlorine residues; 374-377.)
1996 Ames et al. (diet determined by stable carbon isotope analysis)
x v 1996a Anon. (Florida; 1995 mortality; pop. acc.; 11.)
x v 1996c Anon. (study of effects of red tide toxins; pop. acc.; 11.)
x v 1996d Anon. (Florida; 1996 die-off ?due to red tide; 456-457.)
x v 1996 Arnold, D.W. (conservation efforts by State of Florida; 6-7.)
x v 1996 Behler, D.A. (Florida; adoption program; 1996 die-off; 16.)
x v 1996 Holden, C. (Florida; 1996 die-off due to red tide; 191.)
x v 1996 Koelsch, J.K. (Sarasota Co., Florida; research by Mote Marine Lab; 8-10.)
x * 1996 Marmontel et al. (Florida; age determination by growth layers in bone; 54-88.)
x 1996 Marshall, C.D. (Florida; gen.acc.; 6-10.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (gastrointestinal tract; 539-558.)
x v 1996 Russell, B.J. (in capt., Sarasota; pop. acc.; 5.)
1996 Miller et al. (Florida; aerial survey & aerophotogrammetry)
x 1996 Miller, J. (TML; pop. acc.; photograph exhibit; 6.)
x v 1997a Anon. (rehabilitation facilities needed outside Florida; 498.)
x 1997 Craig et al. (Atlantic coast, Florida; population trends, 1982-92; 524-541.)
x 1997b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ Crenatosiren olseni; 402, 410.)
x 1997 Jenkins, P.B. (Florida; children's book; 1-32.)
x 1997 Marmontel et al. (Florida; population viability analysis, 1976-91; 467-481.)
x 1997 Mass et al. (retinal topography & visual acuity; 392-394.)
1997? Young, A. (Tampa, Florida; rehabilitation from red tide; pop. acc.)
x 1998 Palazzo-Craig, J. (Florida; children's book; 1-47.)
x 1998 Bossart et al. (Florida; 1996 die-off due to red tide; pathology; 276-282.)
x 1998 Langtimm et al. (Florida; adult survival probabilities; 981-997.)
x 1998 Marsh et al. (Florida; fragment size of stomach contents, comp. w/ DD & TMM; 250-255.)
x 1998 Marshall et al. (perioral bristles & feeding; 274-289.)
x 1998 Marshall, Clark, & Reep (facial muscles & bristle use; 290-303.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (osmoregulation; 449-457.)
x 1998 Reep et al. (facial bristles & hairs; 257-273.)
x 1998 Salvesen, D. (Florida; pop. acc.; 17-23.)
x 1998 Wright et al. (Florida; use of PIT tags; 641-645.)
x v 1999 Abellera, B.J. (Florida; pop. acc.; 32.)
x 1999 Bossart, G.D. (Florida; gen. acc.; conservation; 1178-1183.)
x v 1999 Cohen, P. (hearing; pop. acc.; 20.)
1999 Colbert & Bauer (husbandry training)
x 1999 Eberhardt et al. (Florida; use of population trend indices; 766-767, 770-774, 781-783.)
x 1999 Gerstein et al. (underwater audiogram; 3575-3583.)
x v 1999 Koeppel, D. (Florida; pop. acc.; 66, 68-69.)
2000 Garcia-R. et al. (microsatellite DNA markers)
x v 2000 Adams, J.L., Jr. (doubts about the need for increased protection; 60.)
x v 2000 DiEdwardo, J.A. (Florida; pop. acc.; 22-25.)
x 2000 Fagone et al. (pelvic bones; sexual & ontogenetic variation; 177-181.)
2000 Flamm, Ward, & Weigle (Florida; relative abundance)
x 2000 Marshall et al. (experiments on ingestive behavior; 649-658.)
x 2000 Rathbun & Wallace (gen. acc.; conservation issues; 108-111.)
x 2000 Rommel & Reynolds (diaphragm; 41-51.)
2001 Colbert et al. (husbandry & research training)
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (status & biogeography)
x 2001 Allen & Carol (Florida; pop. acc.; 12-15.)
x 2001 O'Shea et al. (Florida; injury & suffering; population biology; 31-43.)
x v 2001 Reep et al. (microanatomy of vibrissae; 1-14.)
x v 2001 Zastrow & Jaquette (Florida; marina permitting; 23-27.)
2001 Rommel et al. (veins of reproductive system)
2002 Levin & Pfeiffer (tongue)
2002 Morgan et al. (Virginia)
2002 Penders, T. (Windover site, Florida)
2002 Gray et al. (cytogenetic ideogram)
2002 Bossart, Baden, et al. (brevetoxicosis)
2002 Bossart, Ewing et al. (viral papillomatosis)
x 2002 Ames et al. (zygomatic process of squamosal; lipid content & sound conduction; 625-634.)
x v 2002 Ashley, G. (Florida; boat collisions & regulations; 8.)
x 2002 Reep et al. (postcranial tactile hairs; 141-154.)
2002 Wright et al. (Tampa Bay, Florida; habitat use, 1987-94; 259-274.)
2002 Bradley & Reynolds (interleukin 2)
2003 Bossart, Meisner et al. (cold stress syndrome)
2003 Deutsch et al. (movements & site fidelity along Atlantic coast of USA)
2003 Rommel & Caplan (tail; vascular adaptations for heat conservation)
2003 Aipanjiguly et al. (Tampa Bay, Florida; attitudes of boaters)
2003 Langtimm & Beck (Florida; mortality from hurricanes)
x 2003 Grimes & Becnel (in capt., Bradenton, Florida; pop. acc.; 75-77.)
2003 Manire et al. (blood & urine parameters; rehabilitation & release)
2003 Sato et al. (in capt.; mycobacteriosis)
2003 Stith et al. (Everglades, Florida; response to restoration)
2003 Bauer et al. (underwater visual acuity)
2004 Hauxwell et al. (Kings Bay, Florida; feeding on Vallisneria americana)
2004 Smith & Mezich (Manatee Springs, Florida; effects of grazing)
2004 King & Heinen (Crystal & Homosassa Rivers, Florida; harassment by swimmers)
2004 Kendall et al. (Florida; estimating reproductive rates)
2004 Reynolds et al. (testicular weight & sperm competition)
2004 Langtimm et al. (Florida; survival estimates from photo-identification)
2004 Runge et al. (Florida; stage-structured population model)
2004 Craig & Reynolds (Atlantic coast of Florida; model of population trends)
2004 Goodman, D. (population modeling methods)
2004 Pittman, C. (Florida; controversies over conservation)
2004 Nowacek et al. (boat avoidance)
2004 Rector et al. (papillomavirus type 1)
2004 Bossart et al. (pathology)
2004 MacFadden et al. (in capt.; shed teeth collected)
2005 De Felice, C.C. (children's mystery novel)
2005 Keberle, K. (underwater photos)
2005 Oberheu, J.C. (children's book)
2005 Harper et al. (vascularization of cornea)
2005 Flamm et al. (movement corridors; telemetry)
2005 Mann et al. (temporal resolution of auditory system)
x 2005 Flewelling et al. (Florida; red tide, 2002: 755-756.)
2005a Laist & Reynolds (Florida; effects of warm-water refuges)
2005b Laist & Reynolds (Florida; future of warm-water refuges)
2005 Raloff, J. (red tide)
2005 Larkin et al. (fecal testosterone concentrations)
2005 Sweat et al. (surface interleukin-2 receptor expression; blood mononuclear cells)
2005 Woodruff et al. (papilloma virus)
2006b Yan, Clifton et al. (TML; fracture toughness of rib)
2006 Sorice et al. (management as tourism attraction)
2006 Mann et al. (nonlinear dynamics in vocalizations)
2006 Fellner et al. (ex-situ behavioral extinction)
2006 Laist & Shaw (Florida; boat speed restrictions and mortality)
* 2006 Reep & Bonde (biology & conservation)
2006 Leyden, B. (children's book)
2006 Bledsoe et al. (biofouling organisms)
2006 Harr et al. (generalized inflammatory disease)
2006 Horikoshi-Beckett & Schulte (in capt.; activity patterns)
2006 Miksis-Olds & Miller (TML habitats; sound transmission loss)
2006 Tomblin, M.S. (novel)
2006 Langtimm et al. (Florida; effects of hurricanes)
2006 O'Shea & Poche (underwater sound communication)
2006 Phillips et al. (detection ranges for acoustic-based manatee avoidance technology)
2006 Siegal-Willott et al. (electrocardiography)
2006a Yan, Clifton et al. (rib bone; fracture mechanics)
2006 Yan, Niezrecki et al. (background noise cancellation of vocalizations)
2006 Lightsey et al. (watercraft-related mortality; necropsy methods)
2006 Sarko & Reep (cerebral cortex)
2007 Lowry et al. (Florida; conservation status & history of U.S. listing)
2007 Anderson, L.H. (children's novel)
2007 Calleson & Frohlich
2007 Larkin et al. (digesta passage rates)
2007 Marshall et al. (facial motor nucleus)
2007 Miksis-Olds et al. (boat avoidance)
2007 Rommel et al. (watercraft-induced wounds)
2007 Pause et al. (polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers)
2007 Carney et al. (genetic sampling)
2007 Gannon et al. (Sarasota Bay, Florida; habitat selection)
2007 Buchholtz et al. (vertebral column)
2007 Chapla et al. (head & ear bones; CT scans)
2007 Edwards et al. (Florida; aerial surveys; detection probability)
2007 Kellogg et al. (chromosome painting supports Afrotheria & Paenungulata)
2007 Miksis-Olds et al. (noise levels & foraging)
2007 Morris et al. (boater outreach program)
2007 Sarko, Johnson et al. (somatosensory nuclei of brainstem & thalamus)
2007 Sarko, Reep et al. (follicle-sinus complexes)
2007 Walsh et al. (nitric oxide production by blood mononuclear cells)
2007 Jaffe et al. (detection by sonar)
2007 Kojeszewski & Fish (swimming kinematics)
2007 Harvey et al. (normal biochemistry)
2007a Runge et al. (core stochastic population projection model)
2007b Runge et al. (quantitative threats analysis)
2008b Clifton et al. (rib bone; quantitative fractography)
2008 Tringali et al. (sex identification)
x v 2008 Chiang, M. (Lake Okeechobee, Florida; anti-crush system on canal lock gates; pop. acc.; 8-10.)
2008 Schwarz, L.K. (determining perinatal status of carcasses)
2008 Wood, J.R. (Florida; children's book)
2008 Harr et al. (Kings Bay, Florida; toxin in algal mats)
2008 Stavros et al. (trace elements in blood & skin)
2008 Tringali et al. (polymorphic microsatellite markers)
2008a Clifton et al. (mechanical properties of rib bone)
2008 Halvorsen & Keith (immunosuppression cascade)
2009 Gonzalez-S. et al. (Florida; detection by side-scan sonar)
2009 Landsberg et al. (Florida; Karenia brevis red tides)
2009 Brown & Erdle (York River, Virginia)
2009 Joly et al. (necropsies; cause-specific mortality rates)
2009 Alves-Stanley & Worthy (carbon & nitrogen stable isotopes)
2009 Colbert et al. (sound localization)
2009 Lanyon et al. (visual & molecular sex recognition)
2009 Nico et al. (Blue Spring, Florida; interactions with armored catfish)
2009 Gur & Niezrecki (acoustic enhancement of vocalizations)
2009 Tripp et al. (plasma progesterone metabolites)
2010 Arnosky, J. (children's book)
* 2010 Pittman, C. (Florida; conservation; historical account)
2010 Hunter, Broderick et al. (microsatellite primers)
2010 Butti & Hof (insular cortex)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (Florida; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
2010 Gibbs et al. (Blue Spring, Florida; disturbance by invasive catfish)
2010 Sas & Baatz (Karenia brevis; brevetoxin-2)
2010 Nico, L.G. (Blue Spring, Florida; association with armored catfish)
* 2010 Alvarez-A. et al. (Cuba; use of power plant)
2010 Jett & Thapa (Florida; speed zone compliance by boaters)
2010 Siegal-Willott et al. (aquatic vegetation & lettuce; nutrient analyses)
2010 Wetzel et al. (fatty acid biomarkers for brevetoxin exposure)
* 2010 Sarko et al. (body size estimation)
x v 2011 Jackson & Thorpe (Memphis, Tennessee; children's book; 1-26.)
2011 Martin et al. (estimating abundance with a Bayesian approach)
2011 Nifong & Frick (Chelonibia testudinaria)
2011 Semeyn et al. (Lee County, Florida; aerial surveys)
2011 Martin et al. (Florida; sea level rise)
2011 Grossman et al. (modeling respiratory tract)
x v 2011 de Foy, K. (pop. acc.; 18.)
2011 Slone, D. (Florida; inverted haloclines as warm-water refugia)
2011 Álvarez A., A. (Cuba)
2011 Miksis-Olds & Wagner (Florida; behavioral response to noise)
2011 Wilson et al. (anti-Müllerian hormone; effects of stress)
2011 Stith et al. (southwest Florida; warm-water refugia; temperature-inverted haloclines)
2011 Harr et al. (boat strike; infection; Pasteurella multocida; polycystic kidneys)
2011 Spivey, H.D. (children's eBook)
2011 Donà et al. (Florida; seroepidemiology of papillomavirus)
v 2012 Slezak, R.E. (Florida; children's book)
2012 Gaspard et al. (audiogram & auditory critical ratios)
2012 Hoson et al. (fusion sequence of cranial sutures)
2012 Sadchatheeswaran et al. (southwest Florida; brevetoxin levels)
2012 Jett et al. (Florida; boater speed-zone compliance)
2012 Gerlach et al. (diaphragmatic hernia, heart enlargement, cold stress lesions)
2012 Stith et al. (Florida; passive thermal refugia)
2012 Oppenheimer & BenDor (management of biofouling)
2012 Bauer et al. (tactile discrimination of textures)
2012 Nieuwenhuys, R. (insular cortex)
2012 Hunter et al. (genetic distinction from TMM)
2012 Rappucci et al. (Port Everglades, Florida; tidal cycle effects)
2012 Lanyon et al. (blood chemistry comp. w/ DD; no evidence of capture myopathy)
x 2012 Dewar, H. (Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida; gen. acc.; 4.)
2012 Mass et al. (retina)
2012 Tucker et al. (Florida; low genetic diversity; population structure; conservation)
2012 Wong et al. (oral temperature, heart & respiration rate, blood chemistry)
2013 Capper et al. (Florida; algal bloom toxins)
2013 Edwards, H. H. (potential impacts of climate change)
2013 Flamm et al. (southwestern Florida; managing warm-water habitat)
2013 Bills et al. (anal glands; chemosensation)
2013 Bonde et al. (Crystal River, Florida; health assessments)
2013 Laist et al. (Florida; warm-water refuges)
2013 Bauduin et al. (Florida; interaction with watercraft)
2013 Rhoades, R.L. (Crystal River & Lowry Park Zoo, Florida; pop. acc.)
x v 2013 White, M. (Crystal River, Florida; pop. acc.; 82-97.)
2014 Kleen & Breland (Citrus County & Kings Bay, Florida; seasonal use of warm-water refuge)
2014 Merson et al. (Crystal River, Florida; hindgut microbial communities)
2014 Merson et al. (Crystal River, Florida; hindgut microbial communities)
2014 Spivey, H.D. (children's eBook)
2015 Martin, Sabatier et al. (encounter rate theory & boat collisions)
x v 2015 Baker, J.R. (TML; pop. acc.; 44-51.)
2015 Reyes et al. (neuron types in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex)
2016 Edwards et al. (Florida; diving & risk of boat collisions)
* 2016 Edwards & Ackerman, eds. (Florida; aerial surveys of distribution, 1984-2004)
2016 Adimey et al. (Florida; post-release monitoring)
2016 Harshaw et al. (morphometric body condition indices)
2016 Reyes et al. (Golgi analysis of neuron morphology)
2017 Wyrosdick et al. (Toxoplasma gondii)
* 2017 Runge et al. (status & threats analysis)
2017 Breaux et al. (immunoglobulin)
* 2017 Reynolds, J.E., III (biology, behavior, & conservation)
2017 Lefebvre et al. (Florida; Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme)
2017 Slone et al. (Florida; warm-water refuge use; GPS telemetry)
2017 Haase et al. (Florida; movements & habitat use; satellite telemetry)
2017 Wyrosdick, Gerhold et al. (Florida; Toxoplasma gondii)
2017 Reinert et al. (marine debris)
2018 Frankovich et al. (diatoms (Tursiocola spp.))
2018 Hostetler et al. (Florida; statewide abundance estimate)
2018 Zahin et al. (papillomaviruses)
2018 Harvey et al. (serum proteins)
v 2018 Carr& Milstein (Florida; power plants as thermal refuges)
2018 Breaux et al.
2018 Ferrante et al.
2018 Hunter et al. (environmental DNA)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (internal parasites)
2018 Rycyk et al. (Florida; behavioral response to boats)
2018b Alvarez-Alemán et al. (traveling between Florida and Cuba)
2019 Hardy et al. (Florida; cold-related mortality)
2019 Littles et al. (Florida; movements in and out of winter refuge)
2019 Udell et al. (evaluating risk of collision with boats)
* 2019 Martony et al. (cold-stress syndrome)
2019 Martony, Isaza et al. (cold-stress syndrome; measurement of core body temperature)
2019 Lonati et al. (periotic bones; age determination)
2019 Woodworth et al. (Florida; Melanothamnus maniticola n.sp. (Rhodophyta).)
2019 Suzuki et al. (comp. w/ TMM, in capt., Okinawa; fecal microbiota.)
2019 Hill et al. (Florida, in capt.; diet)
2019 Harshaw et al. (apparent digestibility of fiber)
2019 Harvey et al. (serum iron analytes)
2019 Wetzel et al. (inhibin B levels)
* 2019 Vilaça & Santos (mitochondrial genome; comp. w/other Trichechus)
2020 Reeves & Gillett-Kaufman (Florida; bitten by mosquitoes [Aedes, Anopheles, & Culex])
2020 Barboza & Larkin (nasal cavity, turbinates, olfaction, & olfactory epithelium)
2020 Barboza & Larkin (taste buds)
2020 Fitt, W. (Florida; eating Chondrilla caribensis & other sponges)
2020 Haase et al. (Florida; traveling to thermal refuges & foraging constraints)
2020 Harvey et al. (serum iron analytes)
2021 Meshida et al. (oblique muscles of eyeball)
2021 Coward et al. (spermatozoa; morphology)
2021 Edwards et al. (aggregations; monitoring by unmanned aerial systems)
2021 Lazensky et al. (Florida; mortality increase; proteomic approach)
2021 Cowart et al. (spermatozoa)
2021 De María et al. (Florida; glyphosate pollution)
2021 Brady et al. (vocalizations related to behavior)
v 2021 Swanson, Jess (Florida; places to view them; pop. acc.)
2021 Gonzalez et al. (Florida; nematode Cutidiplogaster manati and others)
* 2021a Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (travel to Mexican Caribbean)
2022 Allen et al. (Indian River Lagoon, Florida; diet; stomach contents)
2022 Landsberg et al. (Florida; Indian River Lagoon mortality event; clostridial infection)
2022 Meshida et al. (rectus extraocular muscles; comp. w/ cetaceans.)
Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 ( 501 )
v 1526 Oviedo, G.F. de (hunting)
x v 1733 Perrault, C. (gen. acc.; 190-191, 193-194, 198-199.)
x * 1758 Linnaeus, C. (n.gen.n.sp.; 34.)
x 1769b Bancroft, E. ("Trichecus"; Guyana; gen. acc.; 112-113.)
x 1773 Müller, P.L.S. ("Trichecus"; gen. acc.; 174-176, pl. 29.)
x 1778 Zimmermann, E.A.W. (distr. [includes DD]; distinguished from HG; 253-254.)
x * 1780 Fabricius, O. (Greenland; 6.)
x 1780 Zimmermann, E.A.W. (diagnosis; 426-427.)
x 1791 Bartram, W. (Florida; 231-232.)
1795 Forster, J.R.
1798? Cuvier, G.
x 1801 Stewart, C. ("Trichecus"; gen. acc.; stranded in Scotland; 85.)
x 1804 Wiedemann, C.R.W. (skull; 67-76.)
x 1808 Tiedemann, F. (syn. of Manatus australis; m555.)
x 1809 Descourtilz, M.E. (San Domingo; 2: 274-276.)
x 1817 Stewart, C. ("Trichecus"; gen. acc.; stranded in Scotland; 125.)
x 1821 Gray, J.E. (in classification; 309.)
x 1824 Harlan, R. (m390.)
1833 Serres, M. de
x 1848 Schomburgk, R. (syn. of Manatus australis; 786.)
x 1850 Wyman, J. (syn. of Manatus Americanus; m45.)
x 1872 Maynard, C. J. (Florida; 142-143.)
x v 1877 De Pourtales, L.F. (Florida & West Indies; distr.; 144.)
x 1880 LeBaron, J.F. ("Tricecus"; Florida; distr., hunting; 1005-1006.)
x 1884a True, F.W. (in classification; 588.)
x * 1884b True, F.W. (gen. acc.; 114-128.)
x 1887 Rovirosa, J.N. (syn. of Manatus australis; m356.)
x v 1898 Hill, R.T. (Cuba, m56; Jamaica, m199; Bahamas, m298.)
x 1901 Elliott, D.G. (m6.)
x 1904 Allen, J.A. (Colombia; 423.)
x 1904a Lorenz, L.v. ("Trichecus"; m9.)
x 1910 Allen, J.A. (Nicaragua; m89, m94.)
x 1911 Thomas, O. (type locality fixed as West Indies; 131-132.)
x 1916 Sellards, E.H. (Pleist., Florida; 104.)
x 1918 Cuní y Valera, L.A. (syn. of Manatus americanus; 87-89.)
x 1918 Ménégaux, A. (Florida; attempted commercial use; 698-700.)
x 1918 Miller, G.S., Jr. (Virgin Islands; at archeological site; 509.)
1919 Beebe, W. (Guyana; 226.)
x 1919 Hay, O.P. (comp. w/ T. antiquus; 109-110.)
x 1919 Stiles, C.W. (North Carolina; in capt.; 658.)
x 1920 Goldman, E.A. (Panama; 68-71.)
1924 Miller, G.S., Jr.
x 1924 Thomas et al. (type species of Manatus; m347.)
x 1925 ICZN (m38.)
x 1929 ICZN (m19.)
x 1929 Miller, G.S., Jr. (Dominican Republic; archeological sites; 11-12.)
x 1931 Travassos & Vogelsang (trematode Cochleotrema cochleotrema; 145.)
x 1932 Sokoloff & Caballero (trematode Schizamphistoma manati; 167.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (synonymy, 534-537; comp. w/ other spp., 539-554, 560-561.)
x 1935 Murie, A. (Belize; 30.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (m63.)
1944 Jel, P. de
x 1944 Pereira, M.N. (considered the "correct" name for the Amazonian manatee; 37.)
x v * 1946 Baughman, J.L. (early accounts; 234-237.)
x 1946b Goodwin, G.G. (Costa Rica; 445.)
x 1947 Marden, L. (Guatemala; 546, 552, 558.)
x 1948 Mendes, A. (used as the "correct" name for the Amazonian manatee; 325.)
x 1951 Bourlière, F. (euryhaly; 194.)
x * 1952 Hemming, F. (placed on Official List of Names in Zoology; 159-160.)
x 1954 Aragão, A. de (m55.)
x 1954 Gunter, G. (distr. & habits; 543-545.)
x * 1955 Kellogg, W.N. (Florida; phonograph record of vocalizations.)
x 1958 Tomkins, I.R. (Georgia; 154.)
x 1959 Smith, F.G.W. (connections with mermaid legends; pop. acc.; 74-82.)
x 1960 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Guyana; weed control; 762.)
1960d Anon.
x 1960 Vúletin, A. (northern South America; gen. acc.; 124.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (synonymy; 310.)
1964 Wauchope, R. (Yucatan)
x 1965 Bard, J. ("Trichecus"; Guyana; weed control; 5, 8.)
x 1965 Jones, J.K., Jr. (Nicaragua; Indian name; 354.)
x 1966 Randall, J.E. (m259.)
1966 Pearsall, J. (Texas)
x 1967 MacLaren, J.P. (Panama; weed control; 388-393.)
x 1967b Paula Couto, C. de (comp. w/ Sirenotherium; m347.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr., 6; synonymy, m12.)
x 1968 Wing et al. (Antigua; 129.)
x 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal & ear region; 3, 14-15.)
x 1970 Erdman, D.S. (Puerto Rico; 638.)
1970 Mendez, E. (Panama)
1970 Radhakrishnan & Bradley (trematodes Chiorchis fabaceus, Plicatolabia hagenbecki)
x 1972 Boorer, M.K. (in capt.; clockwise swimming; m165.)
1972 Cousteau, J. (pop. acc.)
1972? Pilson & Goldstein
x 1973a Anon. (Guyana; weed control; 5, 17.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (distr. & status, 300, 316-321; econ. use, 321; captivity & weed control, 328-330.)
x 1973 Valentry, D. (supposed reluctance to breed in capt.; 290-291.)
x 1974 Bartmann, W. (in capt.; skin disease; 13-16.)
x 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (conservation; 7, 13, 19.)
x * 1974a Hartman, D.S. (USA; distr., status, conservation; 1-247.)
x * 1974 Mondolfi, E. (Venezuela; 6-22.)
x 1974a Spurgeon, D. (Guyana; weed control; 238-239.)
x 1974 Tabuchi et al. (skin fungus; 127-134.)
x 1974 Webb, S.D. (Pleist., Florida; 18.)
x 1975b Anon. (Florida; conception & birth in capt.; 6-7.)
x 1975d Anon. (near Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana; 20.)
x 1976a Anon. (Bahamas; 8.)
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (gen. acc.; 1, 3-6.)
x 1976 Collard et al. (Pensacola Bay, Florida; 48.)
x 1976 Odell, D.K. (southern Florida; aerial survey; 203-206, 212.)
x 1976 Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; behavior, popular misconceptions, & conservation; 209-214.)
x 1976 Wray, P. (pop. acc.; 13-15.)
x 1977 Browne & Lee (North Carolina; interview survey; 40.)
x 1977 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; feeding ecology; 249-251.)
x 1977 Campbell, H.W. (North Carolina; 396-397.)
1977 Ernst, C.H. (in key)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (Guyana & Cuba; 292.)
x * 1977 Whitehead, P.J.P. (Brazil; early accounts & former southern distr.; 165-179, 184-185.)
x 1977 Whitmore & Gard (comp. w/ HG; 11.)
1978 Belitsky & Belitsky (Dominican Republic)
x 1978 Campbell & Gicca (Mexico; status & distr.; 257-264.)
x 1978a Domning, D.P. (myology, comp. w/ TI; 5, 8-57, 68-71.)
x 1978b Domning, D.P. (comp. w/ N. Pacific sirs., 23, 116, 123, 125, 129, 131; possible Greenland record, 138-139.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (m578.)
x 1978 Irvine & Campbell (southeastern USA; aerial census; 613-617.)
x 1978 Odell et al. (Bahamas; 289-293.)
x * 1978 Powell, J.A., Jr. (eating fish; 442.)
x * 1978 Whitehead, P.J.P. (Brazil; early accounts & former southern distr.; 497-506.)
x 1979 Barrett, S.K. (Florida; mortality in flood-control dams; 26.)
x 1979 Bengtson & Magor (Belize; aerial survey; 230-232.)
1979 Graham, F., Jr.
x * 1979 Hartman, D.S. (Florida; ecology & behavior; i-viii, 1-153.)
1979 Janson, T.
x 1979 Klein, E.H. (Honduras; status & distr.; 21-28.)
x 1979 Leatherwood, S. (Indian & Banana Rs., Florida; aerial survey; 47-48, 52-56, 58.)
x 1979 Odell & Reynolds (southern Florida; mortality; 572-577.)
1979 Odell, D.K. (Everglades National Park, Florida)
x 1979a Reynolds, J.E., III (Florida; behavior; pop. acc.; 44-53.)
x 1979 Twiss, J.R., Jr. (Florida; conservation; pop. acc.; 10-17.)
1980 Barile, D.D. (Florida; conservation)
x 1980 Belitsky & Belitsky (Dominican Republic; 313-319.)
x 1980 Bullock et al. (sound production, comp. w/ TI; 130, 132.)
x 1980 Dekker, D. (birth & behavior in capt.; 21-26.)
x 1980 Inuzuka et al. (m640.)
x 1980 Irvine et al. (Florida; clinical parameters; 2-10.)
x 1980 Kurtén & Anderson (Pleist., North America; 341-342.)
x 1980 Miller et al. (tooth replacement; 128A.)
x 1980 Ohtomo et al. (clotting & clumping-factor reactions of plasma; 261-266.)
1980 Patton, G.W. (Tampa Bay, Florida)
x 1980a Sleeper, B. (Florida; pop. acc.; 42-47.)
x 1980 Telander, R. (Florida; pop. acc.; 28-35.)
x 1980 Domning & Myrick (bone histology; 205-206.)
x 1981a Anderson, P.K. (behavior, comp. w/ DD; 642-644.)
x 1981 Asper & Searles (Florida; captive husbandry; 121-127.)
x 1981 Beck et al. (Florida; mortality, 1978; 76-85.)
x 1981 Best, R.C. (diet & nutrition; 3-13, 15, 17-24.)
x 1981a Beusse et al. (Florida; mortality, 1974-77; 98-101.)
x 1981b Beusse et al. (Florida; treatment of injuries; 111-120.)
x 1981a Blair, D. (Florida; parasitic flukes; 13.)
x * 1981 Brownell & Ralls (Florida; workshop proceedings; 1-154.)
x * 1981 Brownell, Ralls & Reeves (Florida; review; 3-16.)
x 1981 Campbell & Irvine (Florida; winter mortality, 1976-77; 86-91.)
x 1981 Cardeilhac et al. (Florida; captive rearing of orphans; 141-146.)
x 1981a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; distr. & status; 85-97.)
x 1981 Gunter & Corcoran (Mississippi; 97-99.)
x 1981 Irvine, Odell, & Campbell (Florida; mortality, 1974-77; 67-75.)
x 1981 Jenkins, R.L. (Florida; captive husbandry; 128-130.)
x 1981 Odell et al. (organ weights & sexual maturity; 52-65.)
x 1981 Odell, D.K. (Florida; growth in capt.; 131-140.)
x 1981 Powell & Waldron (use of Blue Spring, Florida; 41-51.)
x 1981 Powell et al. (Puerto Rico; status & distr.; 642-646.)
x 1981 Powell, J.A., Jr. (use of Crystal R., Florida; 33-40.)
x * 1981a Reynolds, J.E., III (Blue Lagoon, Miami; behavior; 233-242.)
x * 1981b Reynolds, J.E., III (Blue Lagoon, Miami; social behavior; 431-451.)
x 1981c Reynolds, J.E., III (Miami; behavior & effects of human activities; 25-32.)
1981d Reynolds, J.E., III (digestive tract)
x 1981 Rose, P.M. (Florida; aerial survey at power plants, 1977-78; 22-24.)
x 1981 Schad et al. (Panama Canal; 1-4.)
1981 Shane, S.H. (Brevard Co., Florida; use of power-plant effluents)
x 1981 Sleeper, B. (Florida; pop. acc.; 16-20.)
x 1981a Smith, N.J.H. (Brazil; m184.)
x 1981 Sprent, J.F.A. (nematode Heterocheilus tunicatus; 310, 312.)
x 1981 Villa-R. & Colmenero-R. (southeastern Mexico; status; 703-707.)
x 1981 Zeiller, W. (Florida; captive husbandry; 103-110.)
1981 Cadieux, C.L. (pop.acc.; 59-65.)
x 1982 Beck et al. (Florida; analysis of propeller wounds; 531-535.)
x 1982 Bengtson, J.L. (St. Johns R., Florida; ecology & behavior; 4668.)
x 1982 Best & Teixeira (Amap , Brazil; distr., status, hunting, natural history; 41-47.)
x 1982 Bonde, R.K. (Florida; accidental mortality; pop. acc.; 3-5.)
x 1982 Bullock et al. (auditory evoked potentials; 547-554.)
x 1982 Cohen et al. (retinal photoreceptors; 197-202.)
x 1982a Domning, D.P. (Brazil; commercial exploitation; 122-124.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (evolution; 600, 603-616.)
x 1982 Domning, Morgan & Ray (Pleist., Waccasassa R., Florida, 18; rostral deflection & diet, 62.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (distr. & status; 305-306.)
x 1982 Eberhardt, L.L. (Florida; censusing methods; 1-18.)
x 1982 Fairbairn & Haynes (Jamaica; aerial surveys; 289-293.)
x 1982 Fletemeyer, J. (Florida; sonar monitoring; 296-299.)
x 1982 Irvine et al. (western Florida; aerial surveys; 621-630.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (body proportions, 375; pelvis, 390-391.)
x 1982 Medway, Black & Rathbun (hematology; 11-15.)
x 1982 Michelson, R.C. (Florida; automated radiotracking; 79-85.)
x 1982 Montgomery et al. (Panama Canal; possible entry into Pacific Ocean; 257-258.)
1982 Odell, D.K.
x 1982 Olsen, S.J. (identification of bones from archeological sites; 8, 41-42, 54, 56-57, 62, 66, 70, 75, 90.)
x * 1982 Rathbun et al. (distr. north of Florida; 152-165.)
x 1982 Rattner, D. (Florida; pop. acc.; 29-31.)
x 1982 Reynolds & Krause (duodenum; 33-40.)
x 1982 Scott & Powell (Florida; commensal feeding by herons; 215-216.)
x 1982 Steel & Morris (vocalizations; 925.)
x * 1982 Werzinger, J. (birth in capt., Nuremberg; 34-37.)
x 1982 Wing & Reitz (Caribbean; at archeological sites; 16, 24.)
x * 1983 Bengtson, J.L. (Florida; food consumption in wild; 1186-1192.)
x * 1983 Bonde et al. (salvage & necropsy manual; i-v, 1-175.)
x * 1983 Bradley et al. (hypothetical use by Olmecs; 1-82.)
1983 Brooks, J.D.
x 1983 Buergelt & Bonde (Florida; toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis; 1294-1296.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (tooth replacement; pop. acc.; 8, 10-11.)
x 1983 Gunter & Perry (Mississippi; 513.)
x * 1983 Irvine, A.B. (metabolism & distr. in Florida; 315-334.)
x 1983 Kinnaird & Valade (Jacksonville, Florida; use of power-plant refugia; 1-63.)
x * 1983a Kinnaird, M.F. (northeastern Florida; aerial census; 1-56.)
x 1983b Kinnaird, M.F. (Florida; strategies to reduce boat-related mortality; 1-19.)
x 1983c Kinnaird, M.F. (Florida; causes of boat-related mortality; 1-41.)
x * 1983 Kochman et al. (Crystal R., Florida; temporal & spatial distr.; 69-124.)
x 1983 O'Shea, T.J. (Crystal R., Florida; potential herbicide hazards; 159-173.)
x * 1983 Packard & Mulholland (Florida; aerial surveys, 1977-82; 1-119.)
x 1983 Packard & Nichols (Florida; sample sizes required for mark-recovery studies; 1-14.)
x 1983 Packard et al. (St. Johns R., Florida; aerial survey; 1-10.)
1983a Packard, J.M. (Crystal R., Florida)
* 1983b Packard, J.M. (Crystal R., Florida)
x 1983 Puckett, C. (Citrus Co., Florida; public attitudes; 321-346.)
x 1983 Rathbun et al. (Honduras; status; 301-308.)
x 1983a Shane, S.H. (Florida; use of warm-water sources; pop. acc.; 40-44.)
x 1983b Shane, S.H. (Brevard Co., Florida; abundance, distr., & movements; 1-9.)
x 1983 Sprent, J.F.A. (nematode Heterocheilus tunicatus; 69, 73-74.)
x 1983 Steel, C. (vocalizations; gen. acc.; 3160-3161.)
x 1983 Tiedemann, J.A. (Turkey Creek, Florida; behavior & use of creek; 1-8.)
x 1983 Wall, W.P. (bone density & aquatic adaptations; 197, 201-204.)
x 1983 Wilkins, K.T. (Pleist., Florida; 70, 76-77, 79.)
x 1984 Bazzini et al. (hemopoiesis in vertebral bodies; 19.)
x 1984 Buergelt et al. (Florida; pathology; 1331-1334.)
x 1984 Buergelt, C.D. (Florida; mortality, 1980-83; 28-29.)
1984 Colmenero-R., L.C. (Mexico)
x 1984 Cornide, R.I. (Cuba; blood antibodies; 1.)
x 1984 DiPerna, P. (Florida; captive breeding; pop. acc.; 16-17.)
x 1984 Domning & Hayek (Florida; tooth wear & replacement; 121, 125.)
x 1984b Domning, D.P. (Maryland & Virginia; pop. acc.; 5-6.)
x 1984 Hall, A.J. (Florida; photos; 400-413.)
x 1984 Irvine & Scott (Florida; development of marking techniques; 12-26.)
x 1984 Lewis et al. (Florida; feeding on algae; 189-191.)
x 1984 Lomolino & Ewel (digestive efficiencies; 176-179.)
1984 Manzij & Piliptshuk
x 1984 Marsh, Heinsohn & Marsh (reproduction, comp. w/ DD; 771, 781, 784.)
x 1984 O'Shea et al. (Florida; contaminant concentrations; 741-748.)
x 1984 Packard, Frohlich et al. (Ft. Myers, Florida; abundance, 1983-84; 1-63.)
x 1984a Packard, J.M. (Florida; impact on seagrass beds; 21-22.)
x 1984b Packard, J.M. (review of marking techniques; 1-29.)
x * 1984 Powell & Rathbun (northern Gulf of Mexico; 1-28.)
x 1984 Rainey et al. (molecular systematics; 586-587.)
x 1984 Reynolds & Ferguson (Dry Tortugas; implications for salinity tolerance; 187-189.)
x 1984 Riemer, D.N. (weed control; 138-141.)
x 1984 Schmitz & Lavigne (intrinsic rate of increase vs. body size & metabolic rate; 307-308.)
x 1984 Shane, S.H. (Brevard Co., Florida; use of power-plant effluents; 180-187.)
1984 Sleeper, B.
x 1984 Snipes, R.L. (cecum; 67-78.)
x 1984 Watters et al. (Barbuda; archeological site; 404, 406-407, 409.)
x 1984 White, Francis-Floyd & Waterstrat (in capt., Miami; growth rates; 30-34.)
x 1984a White, J.R. (births & breeding in capt.; pop. acc.; 414-418.)
x 1984b White, J.R. (Florida; birth & breeding in capt., & release; 369-375.)
x 1985 Bengtson & Fitzgerald (Florida; vocalizations & behavior; 816-819.)
x 1985 Etheridge et al. (Florida; aquatic plant consumption; 21-25.)
x 1985 Kochman et al. (Crystal R., Florida; temporal & spatial distr.; 921-924.)
x 1985 Mackay-Sim et al. (vomeronasal organ absent; 186-194.)
x 1985 Muizon & Domning (comp. w/ indeterminate Peruvian sir.; passage through Panama Canal; 209.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Beck et al. (Florida; mortality, 1976-81; 1-11.)
x 1985 O'Shea, Rathbun et al. (Florida; no evidence for capture myopathy; 335-349.)
x 1985 Packard, Frohlich et al. (Ft. Myers, Florida; use of power plant, 1984-85; 1-20.)
x 1985a Packard, J.M. (aerial survey techniques; i-vi, 1-68.)
x 1985b Packard, J.M. (population model; 1-19.)
x 1985 Packard, Summers & Barnes (St. Johns R., Florida; aerial survey; 347-351.)
x 1985 Qiu, Y.-X. (in capt., Beijing; 35-36.)
x 1985 Ralph et al. (pineal body absent; 55-60.)
x 1985 Rathbun, Woods & Ottenwalder (Haiti; status & distr.; 234-236.)
x 1985 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1982-83; 413-422.)
x 1985 Rowlatt & Marsh (heart & great vessels; 95-106.)
x 1986 Bazzini et al. (hemopoiesis in vertebral bodies; 150-152.)
x 1986 Burn, D.M. (digestion & digestive efficiency; 139-142.)
x * 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexico; distr., status, ecology, conservation; 955-1020.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (morphological variation; 87-144.)
x 1986 Kinnaird, M.F. (South Carolina; pop. acc.; 6-10.)
1986 Ness, P.S.
x 1986 O'Shea, T.J. (Florida; feeding on acorns; 183-185.)
x * 1986 Packard & Wetterqvist (northwestern Florida; habitat; 279-310.)
x 1986 Packard et al. (Ft. Myers, Florida; aerial survey; 265-275.)
1986 Patton, G.W. (Florida)
x 1986 Reynolds & Wilcox (TML; Florida; use of power-plant refugia, 1984-85; 103-113.)
x 1986 Shoshani et al. (immunologically related to proboscideans; 431-436.)
x 1986 Sleeper, B. (Florida; pop. acc.; 86-99.)
* 1986 Sokolov, V.E. (Cuba; morphology)
x 1986 Steininger, F.F. ("Trichechinus"; St. Lucia; archeological site; 42, 74, pl. 7.)
x 1986 Watson & Bonde (malformations of flippers; 294-301.)
x * 1987 Bergey & Baier (lung mechanical properties; 63-75.)
x 1987c Domning, D.P. (Florida; fossil record; pop. acc.; 1-2.)
x 1987 Elias et al. (lipids in epidermis; 161-177.)
x 1987 Estrada & Ferrer (western Cuba; distr. & status; 1-12.)
x 1987 Mossman, H.W. (fetal membranes; 267-269.)
1987 Patton et al. (Florida)
x 1987 Reynolds & Wilcox (Florida; use of power-plant refugia; pop. acc.; 263-269.)
x 1987 Sleeper, B. (Florida; pop. acc.; 18-22.)
x 1987 Walsh et al. (Florida; omphalitis & peritonitis; 702-704.)
x 1987 Wootton, J.T. (body mass & age at first reproduction; m748.)
1988b Anon. (Georgia; pop. acc.)
1988c Anon. (pop. acc.)
x 1988 Assis et al. (chromosomes, comp. w/ TI; 48-49.)
* 1988 Beeler & O'Shea (southeastern USA; distr. & mortality)
x 1988 Bulman, P. (Florida; boat kills & law enforcement; 23.)
x 1988 Carowan, G. (Florida; rehabilitation & release; in capt., Epcot Center, Orlando; 5.)
x 1988 Dailey et al. (Florida; boat kill, parasites; 159.)
x 1988 Fischer, M.S. (ear anatomy; 365-379.)
1988 Nabor & Patton (Florida)
x 1988 O'Shea et al. (Venezuela; distr., status, traditional significance; 281-301.)
x 1988 Provancha & Provancha (Banana R., Florida; abundance & distr.; 323-338.)
x 1988 Rathbun, G.B. (Florida; aerial survey methods; 71-75.)
1988 Reynolds & Gluckman (Florida; conservation)
1988a Reynolds & Wilcox (Florida; aerial surveys)
1988 Silverberg & Morris (Florida; winter diet)
1988 Wilhelm et al. (Florida; scar patterns)
1989b Colmenero-R., L.C. (Quintana Roo, Mexico)
x 1989 Buffrénil & Schoevaert (pachyostosis, comp. w/ DD; 2107, 2113, 2116, 2118.)
1989 Coy Otero, A. (Cuba; trematode Chiorchis groschafti)
x 1989 Hill & Reynolds (kidney; 53-56.)
x 1989 Hulbert & Morgan (Early Pleist., Florida; 11.)
x 1989 Lazcano-B. & Packard (Tamaulipas, Mexico; 202-205.)
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (distr., status, & biogeography; 567-609.)
x 1989 Maluf, N.S.R. (kidney; 269-286.)
x 1989 Palmer, D. (Georgia; construction of artificial warm-water refugium; 7.)
x 1989 Perrin & Kashiwada (specimen at La Jolla, Calif.; 17.)
x 1989b Preen, A. (sexual behavior, comp. w/ DD; 382, 386.)
1990 Buckingham, C.A. (Florida; response to disturbance)
x 1990 Fernandez & Jones (Texas; 103.)
1990 Morgan & Patton (Florida)
1990 Mou Sue et al. (Panama; distr. & status)
x * 1990 O'Shea & Reep (encephalization quotients & life history; 534-543.)
x * 1990 Rathbun et al. (Florida; distr. & movements; 1-33.)
1990 Reep & O'Shea (brain)
x 1990a Turner, R.O. (Florida; new sanctuary established; 10.)
x 1990b Turner, R.O. (Florida; legislation; 7.)
1990 Fischer, M.S. (ear region; affinities with elephants)
1991 Pinto de Lima & Borobia (TMM; South America)
x 1991 Chow, B.A. (digestion; pop. acc.; 36.)
1991 Colmenero-R., L.C. (Mexico; recovery plan)
x 1991 Frey, R. ("Triechus"; skeleton & locomotor muscles; 279-282.)
x 1991 Haigh, M.D. (Guyana; weed control; 339-349.)
x 1991 Joeckel, R.M. (mandibular proportions; 463.)
1991 Kadel, Dukeman & Patton (western Florida; aerial surveys, 1988)
1991 Kadel, Morgan & Patton (western Florida; aerial surveys, 1990)
x 1991 Lefebvre & Kochman (Florida; aerial survey methodology; 298-309.)
x 1991 O'Shea & Salisbury (Belize; status & distr.; 156-164.)
x 1991 Provancha & Hall (Florida; impact on seagrass beds; 87-98.)
x 1991 Reid et al. (TML; Florida; distr. & movements; 180-190.)
x 1991 Schweigert et al. (vitamin A, à-tocopherol, & lipid levels in plasma; 37.)
x 1992 Borobia & Lodi (northeastern Brazil; distr. & conservation; 37-43.)
1992 Grubel da Silva, Paludo et al. (Paraíba, Brazil)
1992 Grubel da Silva, Soavinski et al. (Brazil; in capt.)
x 1992 Hulbert, R.C., Jr. (Pleist., Florida; in checklist; 29.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (reproductive biology; 295-312.)
1992 Morales & Olivera (Mexico; gen. acc.)
x 1992 Ortiz et al. (Cuba; copepod Harpactichechus manatorum & peritrichid protozoan; 117-119.)
1992a Pinto de Lima et al. (Brazil; distr. & status)
1992b Pinto de Lima et al. (Brazil)
x 1992 Shackley, M. (Florida; effects of tourism; 257-265.)
x 1993 Healy, P. (Honduras; supposed manatee effigies on prehistoric pottery; 202-203.)
x 1993 Cave, A.J.E. (absence of pituitary fossa & dorsum sellae; 256-258.)
x 1993 Fischer & Tassy (tail muscles, 223; ear, perilymphatic foramen; 225-227.)
x 1993 Shoshani, J. (gular muscles; 246.)
x 1993 Sutty, L. (Caribbean; pop. acc.; 20-21.)
x 1993 Turner & Buckingham (Kings Bay, Georgia; accidental mortality & manatee protection plan; 1, 10-11.)
x 1994 Agudo, A.I. (Venezuela; specimens in museums; 1-8.)
x 1994 Bruenderman & Terwilliger (Virginia; pop. acc.; 18-19.)
x 1994 Gerstein, E.R. (in capt., Florida; behavior & sense perception experiments; 10-21.)
x 1994 Johnson et al. (brain traits; 322-325, 328-329, 333-339.)
x * 1994 Tschada, P. (in capt., Nuremberg; behavior; 33-50.)
1995 Martínez, A. (in capt.)
1995 Mondolfi, E. (Venezuela; conservation action plan)
x 1995 Anderson & Barclay (hearing & vocalizations, comp. w/ DD; 1234-1235.)
x 1995 Lanyon & Marsh (digesta passage times, comp. w/DD; 120, 122-125.)
x v 1995 Schiro & Fertl (Texas; 4-5.)
x 1995 Schwartz, F.J. (North Carolina, 1919-1994; 53-60.)
1995 U.N.E.P. (regional management plan)
x 1996 Boice, L.P. (Georgia & Puerto Rico; protective efforts by U.S. Navy; 3-4.)
x 1996 Giffin & Gillett (TM; homologies of cervical nerves & vertebrae; 214-218.)
x 1996 Griebel & Schmid (in capt., Nuremberg; color vision; 2747-2757.)
x 1996 Lavergne et al. (mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence; 245-258.)
x 1996 Pain, S. (Florida; protective devices on flood-control gates; 22.)
x 1996 Reid, J.P. (Florida; individual radio-tracked to Rhode Island; 13.)
x 1996 Russel, M. (Houston, Texas; rescue; 18-19.)
x 1996 Schiro et al. (northwestern Gulf of Mexico; 28-29.)
x 1996 Tikel et al. (Florida; mtDNA sequence, comp. w/ DD; 457.)
x 1996 Turner, R.O. (southwest Florida; 1996 die-off; 27.)
1997 Griebel & Schmid (in capt., Nuremberg; brightness discrimination; 1587-1592.)
x 1997 Jefferson & Baumgardner (Texas; specimens in Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection; 106.)
x 1997 Mignucci G. et al. (specimens in museum, Univ. of Puerto Rico; 288-292.)
1997 Morales & Olivera (Quintana Roo, Mexico; distr.)
x 1997 Ozawa et al. (mtDNA sequence & tethythere phylogeny; 406-413.)
x 1997 Reid, J.P. (Puerto Rico; radiotracking; 22-23.)
1998 Jiménez-M. et al. (TML, TMM; immunoglobulin G)
* 1998 Garcia-R. et al. (phylogeography)
x 1998 Bisbal E., F.J. (Venezuela; 179.)
x 1998 Deutsch et al. (Florida, Georgia, Puerto Rico; radio-tracking; 18-29.)
x 1998 Goodwin et al. (caudal vertebrae comp. w/ ?prorastomid; m814.)
x 1998 Kondrashov, P.E. (cranial & mandibular characters & phylogeny; 420-424.)
x 1998 Mignucci G. & Beck (Puerto Rico; diet; 394-397.)
x 1998 Rathbun, G.B. (Florida; gen. acc.; 146-151.)
1999 Walsh et al. (pneumotosis intestinalis)
x v 1999 Maynard, T. (Florida, Belize; pop. acc.; 34-37.)
x 1999 Miller et al. (Florida; strip-transect aerial survey methods; 561-570.)
x 1999 Ortiz et al. (in capt., Florida & Brazil; water-turnover experiments; 33-38.)
x 1999 Smethurst & Nietschmann (Costa Rica; distr. & status; 267-274.)
x 1999 Stewart, D. (Florida; pop. acc.; 40-47.)
x 1999 Uchida et al. (in capt., Okinawa; recommendations on care & transport; 131-133.)
x 1999 Walker & Macko (carbon & nitrogen isotopes in teeth; 316-317, 319, 322-329, 331.)
x 2000 Lefebvre et al. (Florida & Puerto Rico; seagrass use; 289-298.)
x 2000 Cowan, D.F. (Texas; death from starvation & cold; 5.)
x 2001 Baumgardner & Brooks (Texas; 292-294.)
2001 Jiménez P., I. (Costa Rica; status; 18-30.)
x 2002 Romero et al. (Grenada; 486, 493.)
x 2002 Verdon, M. (Florida; conflicts with boaters; 89-94.)
2003 Hatfield et al. (iridocorneal angle of eye)
2003 Thoisy et al. (French Guiana)
* 2003 Deutsch et al. (Atlantic coast of USA; migration & site fidelity)
x 2003 Falcón et al. (Puerto Rico; shark attack; 6-11.)
x 2003 Mignucci et al. (Jamaica; in capt.; 7-12.)
x 2003 Zalmout et al. (comp. w/Protosiren eothene; 82.)
x 2004 Ortiz & Worthy (body fat & cold susceptibility of calves; 176-183.)
x * 2004 Williams & Domning (?Pleist., Arkansas, Ohio; 167-176.)
x 2004 Uhen, M.D. (vertebrae, comp. w/ Dorudon; 149-152.)
x 2005 Brant, Joel G.; Jones, Clyde (?TMM; Texas; 3.)
2005 Fertl et al. (northern Gulf of Mexico)
x 2005 Siciliano & Franco (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; 36.)
2005 Jiménez P., I. (TMM; Costa Rica & Nicaragua; habitat use)
2005 Olivera-G. & Mellink (Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico)
2005 Natiello et al. (ciliary body)
2005 Natiello & Samuelson (ciliary body)
2006 Teixeira & Papavero (TMM; Bahia, Brazil; Cabral expedition, 1500-1501)
2006 Newman & Robinson (visual pigments)
2006 Debrot et al. (TMM; Dutch Antilles)
2007 Siciliano et al. (Ilja de Marajó, northern Brazilian coast)
2007b Borges et al. (in capt., Brazil; Cryptosporidium)
2007 Fertl & Fulling (interactions with turtles)
2007 Serrano et al. (Veracruz, Mexico)
2007c Borges et al. (TMM; Brazil; threats and injuries from motorboats)
2007 Quintana-R. & Reynolds (regional management plan)
2008 Borges et al. (northeastern Brazil; food items consumed)
2008 McHale et al. (PCR assay for sex assignment)
2008 Ojasti & Lacabana (Venezuela; 72.)
2008 Tripp et al. (serum immunoassay)
2009 Schwarz & Runge (age estimation; body length; Bayesian analysis)
2009 Kasamatsu et al. (in capt.; serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol & lipoproteins)
2009 Roudebush et al. (anti-Mullerian hormone ELISA)
x 2009 Dulvy et al. (anthropogenic depletion; m137.)
2009 Harvey et al. (TML; hematology)
2009 Pabody et al. (Alabama)
2009 Muschett et al. (Panama; fecal sampling for DNA analysis)
2009 Miksis-Olds & Tyack (noise levels & vocalizations)
x 2010 Mignucci-G., A.A. (Puerto Rico; children's book; iv + 56.)
x 2010 Winger, J. (Florida; pop. acc.; 24-29.)
2010 Swain & Decker (simulating coastal wetland temperature)
2011 Emin-Lima et al. (Brazil; 46, 52-53.)
x 2011 Gomes R. et al. (horizontal tooth replacement; 1-5.)
2011 Melillo-Sweeting et al. (Bimini, Bahamas)
2011 Lange et al. (papillomaviruses)
2011 Campagna et al. (Gulf of Mexico; oil spill)
2011 Ferreira et al. (forensic genetics)
2011 Lieven et al. (in capt., Okinawa; nematode Cutidiplogaster manati)
2012 Bonde et al. (genetics; conservation)
2012 Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni (Caribbean Sea; distribution, status, & conservation)
2012 Buchholtz et al. (differentiation of cervical vertebrae & muscularization of diaphragm)
2012 Gonzalez & Olivera (use of side-scan sonar)
2012 Rivas Rodriguez et al. (Orinoco R., Venezuela; distribution, habitat use, & population status)
x 2013 Friedman-Rudovsky, J. (Cuba-Florida collaborative research; 447.)
2013 O'Leary et al. (Sirenia placed in context of other placental orders; 663-664 + supplemental material.)
2013 Benoit et al. (endocranial morphology)
x 2013 Senter & Snow (comp. w/ forelimb skeleton of Bartholin's (1654) "merman"; Brazil; 257-262.)
2014 Navarro-M. et al. (Cuba; diet)
2014 Mojica-F. et al. (Santander, Colombia; water quality of preferred sites)
x 2014 Fuller, J. (pop. acc.; 51.)
D 2014 Cooper et al.
2015 Castelblanco et al. (Colombia; conservation)
2015 Houssaye et al. (osteosclerosis)
2016 Takeuchi et al. (Florida, Belize; trace metals)
2016 Cosentino & Fisher (South America; as bushmeat)
2017 Ferrer et al. (Venezuela; plan of action for 2017-2027: 36-41.)
2017 Serrano et al. (Veracruz, Mexico)
* 2017 Gaudry et al. (UCP1-mediated thermogenesis)
2017 Hieb et al. (Alabama, Mississippi)
2018 Domning, D.P. (radius-ulna; Pleist.; Maryland, Calvert Cliffs; 242.)
2019 Palmer et al. (Florida, Puerto Rico; PFAS in plasma)
* 2019 Lima et al. (TI x TM hybrid zone near Amazon River mouth)
2019 Vilaça et al. (TI x TM hybridization; French Guiana)
2019 Carvalho et al. (Brazil; cerebral & cardiac congenital malformations in neonates)
2020 Cowart et al. (semen)
2020 Bonvicino et al. (South America; distribution)
2020 Cowart et al. (semen characterization)
* 2020 Perini et al. (comp. w/Trichechus hesperamazonicus)
* 2020 Bell et al. (Pleist., Texas)
2021 Cloyed et al. (Gulf of Mexico; migration)
2021 Lima et al. (conservation; discordant taxonomic and evolutionary units)
2021 Souza et al. (mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
2021 Hieb et al. (threats from bridge construction)
???? Contreras Fleury et al. (Mexico; conservation status)
Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758, Hatt, 1934 ( 258 )
v * 1507 Anon. (?earliest published description of a manatee)
v 1550 Las Casas, B. de
1560 SEE Anchieta, J. de, 1799.
1566 SEE Landa, D. de, 1941.
1624 SEE C. de Lisboa in Walter, J., 1967.
1627 SEE Salvador, V. do, 1931?.
x v 1665 Rochefort, C. de (Antilles; 194-195, 199.)
x v 1666 La Barre, A. (Guianas; meat obtained by French, English, & Dutch, 14; m31.)
x v 1667 Rochefort, C. de (Antilles; 391-394, 402.)
x v 1743 Barrere, P. (French Guiana; 159-162, 1 pl.)
x v 1763 Bellin, S. (Guianas; gen. acc.; 65-66, pl. 5.)
x v 1769a Bancroft, E. (Guyana; gen. acc.; 186-187.)
x v 1785 Bondaroy, A.D.F. de ("grand lamentin des Antilles"; hide; 30-32.)
x v 1796 Stedman, J.G. (Suriname; "manatee", 1: 221, 2: 175-176; "mermaid", 2: 176-178.)
x v 1801 Edwards, B. (West Indies; 1: 127.)
x v 1805 Pitou, L.-A. (TMM; French Guiana; gen. acc.; 2: 259-260.)
x v 1807 Bolingbroke, H. (Guyana; gen. acc.; 234.)
x v 1821b Home, E. (Jamaica; comp. w/ DD; 390-391, pls. 26-29.)
v 1826 Humboldt, A.v. (Bahia de Jagua, Cuba; use of freshwater springs at sea)
x v 1871 Myers & Myers (Orinoco R.; 102-103.)
x v 1874 Estacio da Silveira, S. (Maranhão, Brazil; econ. use; 26-27.)
x v 1875 Anon. (from Guyana; in capt., London; 295.)
v 1888 Armas, J.I. de
x v 1898 Kirke, H. (from Guyana; in capt., London; 134-135.)
x v 1904 Wilcox, W.A. (Puerto Rico; netting; 387.)
x v 1911 Gann, T.W.F. (Belize; archeological sites; 78, 82.)
x v 1917 Rodway, J. (Guyana; "water mamma"; 491, 499.)
x v 1920 Beebe, W. (Georgetown Botanical Gardens, Guyana; 730-732.)
x v 1928 Cundall, F. (Jamaica; m139, 143.)
x v * 1929 Castro, E. de (?manatees; Pernambuco, Brazil, ca. 1526; 160.)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (new subspecies; distr., 538; skeleton, 539-554, 560-561.)
x * 1935 Barrett, O.W. (Central America & West Indies; gen. acc.; 216-219.)
x v 1937 Turner, J.P. (Guyana; photo; 498.)
x v 1939 Wavrin, M. de (northern South America; hunting; 194-196.)
x v 1940 Crouse, N.M. (West Indies; in 17th century commerce; 110.)
x 1941a Gunter, G. (m60.)
x v * 1941 Landa, D. de ("TML"; Yucatan; hunting, 16th century; 190-191.)
x v 1942 Morison, S.E. (Haiti, sighted by Columbus in 1493, 309-310; Cuba, caught with remoras in 1494, 457; Cuba, using freshwater springs, 459; Dominican Republic, caught in 1502, 592.)
x v 1949 Sanderson, I.T. ("Manatus sp."; Suriname; 781.)
x 1949 Vieira, C.O.C. (m268.)
x 1951a Moore, J.C. (probable occurrence in Texas; distinguishing characters; 16-18.)
x 1954 Lawrence, J.E. (m402.)
x 1955 Miller & Kellogg (synonymy; 790.)
x v 1956b Anon. (Puerto Rico; sound production; 39.)
x v 1957 Pollock & Ray (Mayapan, Mexico; carved rib; 644, 653.)
x 1959 Hershkovitz, P. (synonymy; 342.)
x v 1960a Anon. (Guyana; weed control; 58.)
x 1960 Ray, C.E. (Lesser Antilles; 412-413.)
x 1961 Cabrera, A. (South America; synonymy & distr.; 310-311.)
x 1962 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; conservation & weed control; 1329.)
x 1963 Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; status & econ. use; 90-93.)
* 1963 Bertram, G.C.L. (Guyana; gen. acc.)
x v 1963 Hofmeister, M. (from Guyana; in capt., Toledo, Ohio; 12.)
x * 1964a Bertram & Bertram (Guyana; 115-120.)
x * 1965 Lluch B., D. (Mexico; natural history, methods of capture; 405-419.)
x v 1965 Ruschi, A. ("T. inunguis"; Espirito Santo, Brazil; 30.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
x 1967 Feriz, H. (comp. w/ clay sculpture of TI; 373-374.)
x 1968 Charnock-Wilson, J. (Belize; 293-294, pls. 13-14.)
x 1968 Gewalt, W. (in capt., Duisburg, Germany; 123-125.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr.; 6.)
x 1970 Charnock-Wilson, J. (Belize; 236.)
x 1971a Banks da Rocha, N. (Brazil; 101-103.)
x 1971b Banks da Rocha, N. (Brazil; 133.)
x 1971 Jones, M.L. (in capt.; 85.)
x 1972 Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (possible occurrence in Brazil; 83-84.)
x 1973 Sonoda & Takemura (vocalizations; 19-24.)
x 1974a Dekker, D. (Suriname; 4 captured; 68.)
x 1974b Dekker, D. (Suriname; gen. acc.; 1-3.)
1974 Jhingran & Gopalakrishnan
x v 1974 Sanger, C. (Guyana; weed control; captive breeding; 23.)
x v 1974b Spurgeon, D. (Guyana; weed control; 10-11.)
x 1975 Kirkpatrick & Cartwright (Belize; m139.)
x 1975 Pinto da Silveira, E.K. (in capt., Brazil; 223-226.)
x 1976 Loveland, F.O. (Nicaragua; hunting, ritual, & symbolic significance; 70-82.)
x 1977a Domning, D.P. (myology, comp. w/ DD; 2-26.)
x * 1978 Husson, A.M. (Suriname; distr., natural history; 334-339, pls. 90-91.)
x 1980 Banks da Rocha, N. (in key; 147-148.)
1980 Varona, L.S. (gen. acc.)
x 1981 Gunter & Corcoran (subspecific distinctness unlikely; 97-98.)
x 1982a Anon. (Paraíba, Brazil; 3.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (m372, 380-381.)
x 1982 Sylvestre & Barloy (gen. acc.; 62-63.)
x * 1984 Colmenero-R., L.C. (Mexico; distr. & status; 243-254.)
x 1984 Galantsev & Mukhametov (cardiac rates & respiration; locations of venous sinuses; 201-205.)
x * 1985 McKillop, H.I. (Caribbean & Maya areas; prehistoric exploitation; 337-353.)
x 1985 Mühling, P. (in capt., Nuremberg; 3 births; 8-16.)
x 1986 Colmenero-R. & Hoz-Z. (Mexican manatees ?intermediate between TMM & TML; 968.)
x * 1986 Colmenero-R., L. (Mexico; diet, seasonal movements, seasonal breeding; 589-602.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (morphological variation; taxon considered valid; 89, 112-126, 129-130.)
x 1987 Kraus, M. (in capt., Nuremberg; birth of twins; m33.)
x 1987 Mühling, P. (in capt., Nuremberg; birth of twins; 18-19.)
x v 1989 García M rquez, G. (Colombia; hunting & in capt.; fictional account; 142, 324, 331-332, 336-337, 344.)
x * 1989 Lefebvre et al. (distr., status, biogeography; 567-609.)
1990 Oliveira et al. (northeastern Brazil; mortality)
1990 Colmenero-R. & Zárate (Quintana Roo, Mexico)
1990 Freeman & Quintero (Puerto Rico; distr.)
x v 1991b Anon. (Brazil; conservation; 221.)
1992 Correa-Viana & O'Shea (Venezuela)
1994 Converse et al. (blood chemistry, morphometry)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (status & conservation; 155, 157-158.)
1994 Morales-V. & Olivera-G. (Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico)
x 1995 Reynolds et al. (Costa Rica; status & conservation; 193-196.)
x v 1995 Wille, C. (Belize & Caribbean; pop. acc.; 16-23.)
x 1995 Jagan, J. (Guyana; children's story; 59-62.)
x 1996 Blaszkiewitz, B. (in capt., Germany; history, 1884-1995; 22-23.)
x * 1996 Marmontel et al. (Puerto Rico, Belize; age determination by growth layers in bone; 56, 79-80, 82.)
1996 Reinhard, R. (in capt., Singapore; 22-23.)
x 1997 Romeu, E. (Mexico; gen. acc.; 2-6.)
1998 Mignucci-G., A.A. (in capt.; northeastern Caribbean region)
1998 Auil, N.E. (Belize manatee recovery plan)
1998 Paludo, D. (northeast Brazil; ecology & conservation)
x 1998 Axis-A. et al. (Mexico; habitat use; 791-803.)
x 1998 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (in capt.; sensitivity of vibrissae; 44.)
x 1998 Blaszkiewitz, B. (in capt., Berlin; stillbirth; 134.)
x 1998 Marsh et al. (Puerto Rico; fragment size of stomach contents, comp. w/ DD & TML; 250-255.)
x 1998 Ortiz et al. (osmoregulation; 449-457.)
1998 Portillo F., J.A. (Isla de Toas, Venezuela)
x 1999 Bachteler & Dehnhardt (in capt.; sensitivity of vibrissae; 61-69.)
2000 Vergara et al. (Brazil; milk composition)
x 2000 Beveridge, J. (Belize; photos; 45.)
2000 Blaszkiewitz, B. (in capt., Berlin; premature birth)
2000 Jiménez P., I. (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)
2001 Morales-V. & Padilla-S. (Quintana Roo, Mexico)
* 2001 Lefebvre et al. (status & biogeography)
x 2001 Blaszkiewitz, B. (in capt., Berlin; birth of twins; 427-429.)
x 2001 Reep et al. (vibrissae; m3.)
2001 IBAMA (Brazil; conservation action plan)
2001b Anon. (Mexico; conservation)
2001 Montoya et al. (Colombia)
2002 Paludo & Langguth (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil)
2002 Creswell, J. (Barbados)
2002 Jiménez P., I. (Nicaragua; poaching)
2002 Olivera-G. & Mellink (Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico)
2002 Nowacek et al. (Belize; behavioral responses to vessel approaches)
2003 Marshall et al. (orofacial morphology & feeding)
2003 Jiménez P., I. (Nicaragua & Costa Rica)
x 2003 Caldas, S.T. (Brazil; pop. acc.; 56-58.)
x v 2004 Carvajal, J. (ed.) (Puerto Rico; recipe; 100-101.)
2004 Linares & Rivas (Venezuela)
2004 Parente et al. (Brazil; strandings)
2004 Self-Sullivan et al. (seasonal occurrence of males on Belize Barrier Reef)
2005 Castelblanco-M., Holguín, & Zapata (Colombia; conservation)
2005 Castelblanco-M. et al. (Colombia)
2005 Lima et al. (training in management behaviors)
2005 Spiegelberger & Ganslosser (French Guiana; bank feeding)
2006 Reid, J.P. (Puerto Rico; research programs; gen. acc.)
2006 Mann et al. (nonlinear dynamics in vocalizations)
2006 Siegal-Willott et al. (electrocardiography)
2006 D'Affonseca Neto & Vergara-P. (veterinary medicine)
2007 Lowry et al. (Puerto Rico; conservation status & history of U.S. listing)
2007 Silva et al. (in capt.; serum chemistry values)
2008 Luna, Araújo et al. (northern coast of Brazil)
2008 Moore et al. (Puerto Rico; cardiac failure)
2008 Morales-V. et al. (crustacean epibiont Hexapleomera robusta)
2008 Rodas-Trejo et al. (Chiapas, Mexico)
2008 Luna et al. (Brazil; conservation status)
2008 Mercadillo-Elguero et al. (Quintana Roo, Mexico; in semi-captivity; ethogram, rehabilitation)
2008 Di Carlo & Kenworthy (Puerto Rico; recovery of Thalassia from grazing)
2008 LaCommare et al. (Belize; habitat use)
2008 Sousa-Lima et al. (in capt., Brazil; vocalizations)
2009 Gonzalez-S. et al. (Mexico; detection by side-scan sonar)
2009 Borges et al. (Cryptosporidium infection)
2009 Carvalho et al. (Brazil; Pulmonicola cochleotrema)
2009 Silva et al. (hematology; age variations)
2009a Castelblanco-M. et al. (Orinoco R., Colombia)
2009 Choi et al. (Brazil; design of refuge area)
2009b Castelblanco-M. et al. (Chetumal Bay, Mexico; diet)
2009 Colon-Llavina et al. (Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands; parasites)
2010 Alves-Stanley et al. (Belize, Puerto Rico; feeding preferences; stable isotopes)
2010 Hénaut et al. (in capt., Mexico; activities & social interactions)
* 2010 Hunter, Auil et al. (Belize; genetic diversity)
x 2010 Suárez-M. et al. (Mexico; copepod Balaenophilus manatorum; 847-859.)
2010 Luna et al. (Brazil; distribution on northern coast)
2011 Kikuchi et al. (in capt.; avoidance of nets)
2011 Alsina-Guerrero, M. (blood values)
2011 Auil Gomez, N. E. (Belize; anthropogenic threats)
2011 LaCommare, K. S. (Belize; conservation & habitat ecology)
2011 Álvarez A., A. (Cuba)
2011 Nourisson et al. (Mexico; genetic diversity)
2011 Borges et al. (Brazil; Cryptosporidium)
2011 Donà et al. (Belize; seroepidemiology of papillomavirus)
2012 Luna et al. (northeast Brazil; phylogeography; release)
2012 Hoson et al. (fusion sequence of cranial sutures)
2012 Daniel-Rentería et al. (Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Mexico)
2012 Satizabal et al. (TI, TMM; South America; phylogeography)
2012 LaCommare et al. (Belize; population monitoring)
2012 Alvarado-Esquivel et al. (in capt., Mexico; Toxoplasma gondii)
2012 Morales-Serna et al. (Mexico; parasitic copepods)
2012 Bauer et al. (tactile discrimination of textures)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Padilla-S., et al. (Chetumal Bay, Mexico & Belize; movement patterns, habitat use)
2012 Hunter et al. (genetic distinction from TML)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Nourisson, et al. (population viability)
2012 Sulzner et al. (Belize; hematology, immunology)
2012 Bossart et al. (Puerto Rico; Toxoplasma gondii; gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, myocarditis)
2012 Wong et al. (Belize, Puerto Rico; oral temperature, heart & respiration rate, blood chemistry)
2012 Castelblanco-M. et al. (Chetumal Bay, Mexico; feeding ecology)
2012 Ciotti & Secchi (Brazil; diet)
2012 Castelblanco-M., Morales-V., & Padilla-S. (Mexico; craniometrical predictors of body size)
2013 Sousa et al. (TI, TMM; Marajó Island, Brazil; ecological knowledge of fishermen)
2013 Alves et al. (northeastern Brazil; aerial survey)
2014 González-Socoloske et al. (Honduras; aerial surveys; entanglement in fishnets; poaching)
2014 Ciotti et al. (Brazil; C & N isotopes)
2014 Montserrat Landero et al. (Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico)
2014 Jimenez-D. & Olivera-G. (TMM; Usumacinta River, Mexico/Guatemala; habitat characteristics)
2015 Rivera-C. et al. (Panama; hearing & vocalizations)
2015 Niño-Torres et al. (Mexican Caribbean region)
2016 Romero-Calderon et al. (Mexico; metals in bone tissue)
2016 Alvarez-Alemán et al. (Isla de la Juventud, Cuba)
2016 Violante & Suárez (copepod Metis holothuriae)
2016 Puc-Carrasco et al. (Tabasco, Mexico)
2016 Alves et al. (Brazil; abundance estimate by aerial survey)
2017 Wyrosdick et al. (Puerto Rico; Toxoplasma gondii)
2017 Harms-Tuohy & Tuohy (Puerto Rico; aggression toward divers by mating herd)
2017 Umeed et al. (vocalizations)
2017 Diaz-Ferguson et al. (Panama; genetics)
2017 Wyrosdick, Gerhold et al. (Puerto Rico; Toxoplasma gondii)
* 2017 Allen et al. (Belize; diet)
2017 Balensiefer et al. (Brazil; strandings)
2018 Gomez et al. (Mexico; genetics)
2018 Ramos et al. (Belize; response to drones)
2018 Mignucci, Iglesias et al. (Puerto Rico; helicopter surveys)
2018 Hunter et al. (environmental DNA)
2018 Wyrosdick et al. (internal parasites)
* 2018a Alvarez-Alemán et al. (Cuba; conservation)
2019 Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (Caribbean region; monitoring methods)
2019 McLarty et al. (Cuba; habitat characterization using side-scan sonar)
2019 Gonzalez-Socoloske & Olivera-Gómez (Tabasco, Mexico; food choice)
2019 Suzuki et al. (in capt., Okinawa; fecal microbiota; comp. w/ TML.)
2019 Collazo et al. (Puerto Rico; aerial surveys & population estimates)
2019 Debrot et al. (Dutch Leeward Islands, Venezuela)
2019 Guevara et al. (Mexico)
2019 Machuca-C. & Corona-F. (Guatemala; conservation)
2019 Mendonça et al. (immunoglobulins)
2019 Vélez et al. (Colombia; parasites)
2019 Guevara Porras et al. (Campeche, Mexico; conservation)
2019 Garcés-Cuartas et al. (in capt.; vibrissae growth rate)
2019 Domínguez-Tejo (Hispaniola; history & conservation status)
2020 Landeo-Yauri et al. (Belize; photo-identification by drones)
2020 Ramos et al. (Belize; ultrasonic vocalizations)
2020 Hénaut et al. (in capt., Mexico; feeding behavior; learning capacities & welfare)
2020 Corona-Figueroa et al. (Hondo River, Belize & Mexico; habitat use)
2020 Robles-Herrejón et al. (Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; management effectiveness)
2020 Conceição et al. (Panaquatira, Maranhão, Brazil; stranding)
2020 Attademo, Nascimento et al. (Pernambuco, Brazil)
2020 Caicedo-Herrera et al. (Colombia; opportunistic fish consumption)
2020 Ortega-Argueta & Castelblanco-Martínez (Mexico; captive breeding & conservation)
2020a Luna & Attademo (in capt., Brazil; children's book)
2020b Oliveira Luna, Fábia de; Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Fernanda (Brazil; children's book)
2021 Alvarez-Aleman, A. (Cuba; causes of mortality)
2021 Attademo, Luna et al. (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; conservation)
* 2021 Luna et al. (Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela; genetics, population biology)
2021 Lucchini et al. (in capt.; role of touch)
* 2021b Castelblanco-Martínez et al. (marine & riverine ecotypes)
2022 Meirelles et al. (Brazil; conservation status)
2022 Cabrias-C. et al. (Puerto Rico; perinatal bilateral exophthalmia & secondary corneal ulcers)
2022 Mignucci-G. et al. (Puerto Rico; new papillovirus; genital papillomatosis)
* 2022 Guzman & Real (Panama; entry into Pacific Ocean)
Trichechus manatus senegalensis (Link, 1795) Vieira, 1949 ( 1 )
x * 1949 Vieira, C.O.C. (new rank; m268.)
Trichechus manatus siren Kerr, 1792 ( 3 )
(Steller's "sea-ape"; nomen nudum)
* 1792 Kerr, R. (new subspecies)
1806 Turton, W.
1894b Rhoads, S.N. ("Trichechus siren")
Trichechus pilosus, Shaw, 1800 ( 2 )
(not a binominal name; = Trichechus senegalensis)
* 1800 Shaw, G.
x 1809a Cuvier, G. ("trichecus"; name considered inappropriate; 294-295.)
Trichechus pygmaeus Van Roosmalen and Van der Vlist in Van Roosmalen, 2015 ( 1 )
(= Trichechus inunguis)
* 2015 Van Roosmalen, M.G.M. (n.sp.; Rio Aripuanã Basin, Amazonas, Brazil)
Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795 ( 141 )
v 1682 SEE Merolla da Sorrento, J., 1814.
x v 1719 N. (brief gen. acc.; 70.)
v * 1757 Adanson, M. (Senegal)
* 1794-95 Link, H.F. (n.sp.)
x v 1809a Cuvier, G. (comp. w/ other species; 294-296, pl. 19.)
x v 1836b Robert, C. (skeleton; 363.)
v 1845 Adanson, M. (Senegal)
x v 1881 Flower, W.H. (locomotion on land; hunting; 455-456.)
x 1906b Dexler & Freund (excreta, 57-58; locomotion, 68.)
x v 1913 Frobenius, L. (Yoruba; hunting & myths; 1: 199.)
x 1917 Fairchild, D. (m339.)
x 1918 Ménégaux, A. (potential commercial use; 701-704.)
x v 1923 Anon. (Niger R.; capture; 75.)
x 1924-25 Vosseler, J. (in capt.; historical records; 60-62.)
x 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (in capt., Antwerp, 23-25; distr., hunting, conservation, 28-31; 2 subspecies recognized, 28-29.)
x 1929 Stunkard, H.W. (Belgian Congo; trematode Chiorchis fabaceus; 255.)
x v 1931 Meek, C.K. (Nigeria; myths, taboos, charms; 76-78, 304.)
1933a Dollman, G. (Nigeria; distr., hunting)
x * 1934 Hatt, R.T. (distr., 533-534, 554-560, 566; synonymy, 535-538; skeleton, 539-554, 560-561; pl. 27.)
1936 Maclatchy, A.
x v 1937 Woods, F.J. (Nigeria; hunting, measurements, rituals; 23-28.)
x * 1941b Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 2-8, 10.)
x 1942 Heuvelmans, B. (comp. w/ Prorastoma veronense; 4-5.)
x 1943 Heuvelmans, B. (dentition; 8-10.)
1945 Budker, P.
x * 1948 Bessac & Villiers (gen. acc.; 188-189.)
x v 1949a Anon. (Belgian Congo; m36.)
x v 1949 Colmant, F. (Belgian Congo; 11.)
x 1951 Reinhart, R.H. (m204, 207.)
1952 Bouveignes, O. de
x * 1952 Dekeyser, P.L. (body temperature in air; 243-246.)
x v 1953 Gijzen, A. (in capt., Antwerp; 89.)
x v 1954 Anon. (in capt., Antwerp; 78.)
x 1955 Dekeyser, P.L. (teeth; 921-925.)
1956 Dekeyser, P.L.
x 1957 Cadenat, J. (Senegal; capture in shark nets; 1368-1369.)
x 1958 Gijzen, A. (in capt., Antwerp; 26.)
x 1960 Blancou, L. (conservation; 244.)
1963 Bertram, G.C.L.
1963 Gijzen, A.
x v 1964 Cansdale, G. (Volta R. system, Ghana; status; 170-171.)
x 1965 Bard, J. ("Trichecus"; photo, 4; weed control, 5, 8.)
x 1965 Kuhn, H.-J. (Liberia; 333.)
x 1965 Robineau, D. (ear ossicles; 420.)
x 1965 Stubbings, H.G. (Senegal; 4 spp. of barnacles; 876, 891, 893-902.)
x 1966 Kellogg, R. (comp. w/ Metaxytherium calvertense; 81.)
x * 1966 Kinzer, J. (in capt., Abidjan, Ivory Coast; behavior, etc.; 47-52.)
x 1967 Browder, J. (m5.)
* 1968 Howell, J.H.
x * 1968 Lemire, M. (stomach & digestion; 475-520, pls. 25-28.)
x 1968 Rice & Scheffer (distr.; 6.)
x 1968 Van den Bergh, H. (in capt., Antwerp; longest dive 7 min.; 449.)
x 1969 Allsopp, W.H.L. (Sierra Leone; in capt., Abidjan, Ivory Coast; 351.)
1969 Arbocco, G.
x 1969 Curry-Lindahl, K. (protected under African Conservation Convention; 122.)
x * 1969 Robineau, D. (temporal & ear region; 3, 14-15, 17-19.)
x 1970 Lowes, R.H.G. (Sierra Leone; 310.)
x 1971 Jones, M.L. (in capt.; 85.)
1971 Robinson, P.T.
1972 Dupuy, A.R. (Senegal; in national park during flood season; 780.)
x 1973a Anon. (weed control; 5.)
x 1973 Bertram & Bertram (distr. & status; 317.)
1973 Dupuy, A.R.
x 1973 Poche, R. (?extinct in Niger; 218.)
x 1974 Bertram, G.C.L. (conservation; 7, 14, 19.)
x 1974 Itoh & Tsuyuki (fatty acid components of fats; 307-311.)
x * 1974 Sikes, S. (Nigeria; hunting, conservation; 465-470.)
x 1976 Campbell, H.W. (gen. acc.; 1, 3.)
x 1976 Cole & Okera (Sierra Leone; 42-43.)
1976 Dupuy & Maigret
x 1977a Domning, D.P. (skin thickness & myology, comp. w/ DD; 3, 20-24, 32.)
x 1977 Marsh et al. (stomach histology, comp. w/ DD; 290.)
x 1977 Van Bree & Duguy (specimens in Bordeaux Museum; 292.)
x 1978a Domning, D.P. (myology, comp. w/ TI; 5, 8-14, 38-46, 52-54, 68-71.)
x 1978c Domning, D.P. (origin in New World; 578.)
1978 Dupuy & Maigret
1978a Finnley, D.
x 1979a Farmer et al. (rectal temperature, comp. w/ TI; 235.)
1979a Finnley, D.
x 1981 Best, R.C. (diet & nutrition; 3-7, 10, 15, 21.)
1981 Teleki & Baldwin (Sierra Leone)
x 1981 Yamasaki et al. (tongue, comp. w/ DD; 182-187.)
x * 1982b Domning, D.P. (evolution; 600, 602, 604-613, 615-616.)
x 1982 Domning, Rice et al. (distr. & status; 306.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (tail shape; 408.)
x * 1982 Nishiwaki et al. (distr.; 137-147.)
x v 1982 Trotignon, J. (Senegal; pop. acc.; 61-64.)
x 1983a Domning, D.P. (dental evolution; pop. acc.; 8, 10-11.)
x 1983 Gallivan et al. (body temperatures, comp. w/ TI; 255, 259.)
x 1983 Sprent, J.F.A. (nematode Heterocheilus domningi; 69, 73.)
1984a Nishiwaki, M.
x 1984 Rainey et al. (molecular systematics; 586-587.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (morphological variation, 87-144; diet & functional anatomy, 130-131.)
x 1986 McLaren et al. (Cameroun; specimen in Carnegie Museum; 296.)
1986 Roth & Waitkuwait
1987a Anon. (Ivory Coast)
x 1988 Boekschoten & Best (origin by transatlantic dispersal; 110-111.)
1988 Fitzgerald, C. (Ivory Coast)
x * 1988 Reeves et al. (Sierra Leone; distr. & hunting; 75-84.)
x 1992 Depierre & Vivien (Cameroon; 116-117.)
x 1992 Marmontel et al. (reproductive biology; 295-296, 302.)
1994 Akoi, K. (Reserve de la Conkouati, Congo)
x 1994 Marsh & Lefebvre (status & conservation; 160.)
x 1995 Schuhmann, H.-J. (Guinea-Bissau; 402-409.)
* 1996 Powell, J. A. (Distribution & biology; West Africa)
x 1996 Grigione, M.M. (Cameroon; 189-195.)
x 1996 Reynolds & Rommel (gastrointestinal tract, comp. w/ TML; 553, 555-556.)
x 1997 Barnett & Prangley (Guinea; 129-130.)
x 1998 Grubb et al. (Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia; 138-139.)
1999b Dodman, T. (status)
1999a Dodman, T. (conservation)
1999 Reiner & Simões (Guinea-Bissau; 119-120, 317, 416.)
x 2000 Happold, D.C.D. (Nigeria; m195, m201.)
2001? Di Natale, A. (Mali; gen. acc.)
2002 Jousse & Chenal-Velarde (Mali)
2003 Marshall et al. (orofacial morphology & feeding)
2007 Dodman et al. (conservation strategy)
2008 Voisin, M.E. (children's booklet)
2009 UNEP/CMS (conservation action plan)
* 2010 Sikes, S.K. (Nigeria)
x 2011 Gomes R. et al. (horizontal tooth replacement; 1-5.)
2011 Ferreira et al. (forensic genetics)
2012 Hoson et al. (fusion sequence of cranial sutures)
2012 Beatty et al. (osteology and tooth development)
2012 Kouadio, A. (West Africa; distribution, status, & conservation.)
2012 Keith Diagne, L. (Gabon; orphaned calf)
2012 Luiselli et al. (Nigeria; habitat overlap with crocodiles)
2012 UNEP/CMS (West Africa; conservation)
2013 Ogogo et al. (South Nigeria; ecology & status)
2013 Dumont et al. (vertebral centra architecture)
2013 Mayaka et al. (Cameroon; conservation & ethnobiology)
2014 Esenowo et al. (Nigeria; measurements, behavior, food preferences)
2016 Cosentino & Fisher (as bushmeat)
2018 Hunter et al. (environmental DNA)
2019 Odewumi et al. (Nigeria; water parameters & flora of habitat)
2019 Mayaka et al. (Cameroon; conflicts with humans)
* 2020 Perini et al. (comp. w/Trichechus hesperamazonicus)
2021 Keith-Diagne et al. (Senegal River; movement patterns; satellite tracking)
* 2021 Rycyk et al. (vocalizations & passive acoustic monitoring)
2021 Takoukam et al. (Cameroon; habitat suitability)
2021 Souza et al. (mitogenomes; evolutionary history)
Trichechus senegalensis senegalensis Link, 1795, Derscheid, 1926 ( 3 )
x * 1926 Derscheid, J.M. (new subspecies; distr.; 29.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (distr.; 372, 380, 382.)
x * 1986 Domning & Hayek (taxon considered invalid; 89, 126.)
Trichechus subpilosus, Shaw, 1800 ( 2 )
(not a binominal name; = Trichechus manatus)
* 1800 Shaw, G.
x 1809a Cuvier, G. ("trichecus"; name considered inappropriate; 294-295.)
Trichechus, Manatus, africanus Oken, 1816 ( 3 )
(= Trichechus senegalensis)
* 1816 Oken, L. (new subspecies)
x 1934 Hatt, R.T. (syn. of T. senegalensis; 536, 538.)
x 1982 Kleinschmidt, A. (syn. of T. senegalensis; 382.)
Trichecida Haeckel, 1866 ( 0 )
(family; = Trichechidae)

Daryl P. Domning, Research Associate, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, and Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
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